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DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING

COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING
CEMB 111 CIVIL ENGINEERING MATERIALS LABORATORY
EXPERIMENT 12

OPEN ENDED FOR CIVIL ENGINEERING LAB


SECTION
: 01
GROUP NO. : 04
GROUP MEMBERS
1. SARNIYA A/P KESAVALOO
CE 091831
2. MUHAMMAD ZULHUSNI BIN CHE RAZALI
CE 097466
3. SALEH MOHMAD ALOWAIDAT
CE 097303
4. AHMAD AIMAN BIN AHMAD AZLAN
CE 098730
5. SURENDER A/L RAMANATHAN
CE 098629
6. FATIMA ABDULAZIZ ALSEAGHY
CE 097397
DATE OF EXPERIMENT
DATE OF REPORT SUBMISSION
INSTRUCTOR

:
:
: En.Nazirul Mubin Bin Zahari

LAB REPORT MARKING


Performance
10%
Cover
1%
Summary
8%
Table of content
1%
Introduction
Objective
10%
Apparatus
Material
Procedure
Results
20%
Discussion
40%
Conclusion
10%
TOTAL
100%

TABLE OF CONTENT

NO.

CONTENT

PAGES

Table of content

Introduction

Objective

Define case

Define concrete grade M40

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Conduct test

10 12

Reference

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INTRODUCTION

Making labs open-ended is the key to discovery learning in challenging and engaging
students in their laboratory experiments. Openness is defined as the degree to which students are
allowed to make decisions about the problem, the procedure and/or the answers. This discretion
permitted the students to make critical choice in determining the major parameters to be used and
the responsibility in the design of experiments. The students here have to devise their own
strategies and back them with explanations, theory and logical justification. This not only
encourages students to come up with their experiments, but requires them to defend themselves
and their experiment, if questioned.
In this project a problem will be given to a group of student to solve or complete by
conducting certain experimental work within a specified time. Student should actively participate
in discussion either in or out lab class.
Concrete has been widely used for construction since ancient times. Modern concrete
application include beams, bridges, swimming pools, homes, streets, patios, basements,
balustrades, plain cement tiles, mosaic tiles, pavement blocks, kerbs, lamp-posts, drain covers,
benches and many more. It is very important to identify the suitable concrete properties for
relevant application to optimize the cost and towards the sustainable development. Therefore, the
students must have this knowledge to apply in the real situation.

OBJECTIVES
Open-ended lab is made
1. To assess the ability of student to identify the suitable mix proportion for the given
problem.
2. To allow the students to come up with their own method in conducting or design of
the experiment and if required defend their experiments.
3. Provide the opportunity for the students to devise their own strategies in compilation
of the results, analysis and conclusion and if required defended their results and
analysis.

DEFINE CASE

10 storey building need to be construct near the coastal area at East West Malaysia with severe
exposure condition due to salt spray and ground water condition has high water table.
Pile cap and substructures is a suitable structure to construct a building structure near the
coastal area. A pile cap is a thick concrete mat that rests on concrete or timber piles that have
been driven into soft or unstable ground to provide a suitable stable foundation while
substructure. Sub-structure or foundation is the lower portion of the building, usually located
below the ground level, which transmits the loads of the super-structure to the supporting soil.
A foundation is therefore that part of the structure which is in direct contact with the ground
to which the loads are transmitted. Cement, water, fine aggregate, coarse aggregate which would
produce concrete processing specified properties such as workability, strength and durability
with maximum overall economy.

DEFINE CONCRETE GRADE


Before we proceed to our grading we need to understand what is the grading means. First for
example we take grade M20 M- refer to mix of aggregate, sand cement and 20 is the refer to
characteristic of its strength in N/mm2 of a 15 cm cube casted out of that concrete...
"characteristic" strength means that the strength should not deviate from 95 % e.g out of 100
cubes tested not more than 5 cubes should give strength less than 20 N/mm2.
10 story building need to be construct near the coastal area with severe exposure condition due to
salt spray and ground water condition has high water table.
Based on IS 456: 2000 and IS 10262: 2009, we assume that the grade of concrete as M40
as it has the highest strength to withstand those severe exposure.

PROCEDURE FOR DOE METHODE

1. Determine the mean target strength ft from the specified characteristic compressive strength at
28-day fck and the level of quality control.
ft = fck + 1.65 S
where S is the standard deviation obtained from the Table of approximate contents given after the
design mix.
2. Obtain the water cement ratio for the desired mean target using the emperical relationship
between compressive strength and water cement ratio so chosen is checked against the limiting
water cement ratio. The water cement ratio so chosen is checked against the limiting water
cement ratio for the requirements of durability given in table and adopts the lower of the two
values.
3. Estimate the amount of entrapped air for maximum nominal size of the aggregate from the
table.
4. Select the water content, for the required workability and maximum size of aggregates (for
aggregates in saturated surface dry condition) from table.
5. Determine the percentage of fine aggregate in total aggregate by absolute volume from table
for the concrete using crushed coarse aggregate.
6. Adjust the values of water content and percentage of sand as provided in the table for any
difference in workability, water cement ratio, grading of fine aggregate and for rounded
aggregate the values are given in table.
7. Calculate the cement content form the water-cement ratio and the final water content as
arrived after adjustment. Check the cement against the minimum cement content from the
requirements of the durability, and greater of the two values is adopted.
8. From the quantities of water and cement per unit volume of concrete and the percentage of
sand already determined in steps 6 and 7 above, calculate the content of coarse and fine
aggregates per unit volume of concrete from the following relations:
Sc = specific gravity of cement
W = Mass of water per cubic metre of concrete, kg
C = mass of cement per cubic metre of concrete, kg
p = ratio of fine aggregate to total aggregate by absolute volume
fa, Ca = total masses of fine and coarse aggregates, per cubic metre of concrete, respectively, kg,
and
Sfa, Sca = specific gravities of saturated surface dry fine and coarse aggregates, respectively

9. Determine the concrete mix proportions for the first trial mix.

10. Prepare the concrete using the calculated proportions and cast three cubes of 150 mm size
and test them wet after 28-days moist curing and check for the strength.
Graph and table for referring related to doe method.
Wc/ determination

Graph1 to find the percentage of FA

graph wet density of concrate

Graph2 to find the percentage of FA

Graph3 to find the percentage of FA

Mix Design M-40 Grade


The mix design M-40 grade for Pier provided here is for reference purpose only. Actual site
conditions vary and thus this should be adjusted as per the location and other factors.

Parameters for mix design M40


Grade Designation = M-40
Type of cement = O.P.C-43 grade
Fine Aggregate = Zone-II
Sp. Gravity Cement = 3.15
Fine Aggregate = 2.61
Coarse Aggregate (20mm) = 2.65
Minimum Cement = 400 kg / m3
Maximum water cement ratio = 0.45

Mix Calculation: 1. Determination of target mean strength of concrete


Ft = fc + ks

Ft: Target mean compressive strength (N/Sq.mm)


fc: Characteristics compressive strength (N/Sq.mm)
k: A statistic depending on accepted proportion of low result (1.65)
s: Standard deviation (N/Sq.mm)

Ft = 35 + 1.65(5)
Ft = 43.25 N/Sq.mm
Target Mean Strength = 40 + (5 X 1.65) = 48.25 Mpa
2. Refer to the graph W/C determination above we can know the water cement ratio.
We got 0.4

3. Determination of cement content

w
c = 0.4 ,

w
w
c

=c,

c: cement, w: water, w/c: water/cement ratio

160.0 kg
=c
0.4
c = 400.00 kg [satisfies the criteria, 400.00 kg =400 kg (minimum cement content)] hence its ok

4. Determination of the aggregate content


C= 400, w= 160 w/c=0.4

Volume of coarse aggregate per unit volume of total aggregate,

1=

c
w
+
Sc
1000

+ Va

c
w
Va = 1 ( Sc + 1000

Va = 1 (

400.00
160.0 0 kg
+
3150
1000

Va = 0.71302 m3
Va = Volume of coarse aggregate per unit volume of total aggregate (m3)
c = Mass of cement (kg)
w = mass of water (kg)
So,
Total aggregate content
0.71302 sp(aggregate) 1000
0.71302 2.65 1000 = 1889.49kg

5. Determination of Fine Aggregate using the graph 3


Fine Aggregate = Zone-II we got 35%
35
1889.49 = 660
100
So to find the Course aggregate
1889.49-660=1229.49
CA=1229.49kg FA=660kg

6.

Determination of the mix proportions by mass

Cement: 400
Water: 160.00 kg
Fine aggregate: 660.0 kg
Coarse aggregate: 1229.49 kg
Hence, cement: fine aggregate: coarse aggregate = 1: 1.65: 3.07

CONDUCT TEST
To construct this type of structure, we need to conduct some test to find out the
compressive strength for the concrete grade, the proportion mix and the water/cement ratio that
is suitable to be used. The test that we can conduct is:
i.

Slump Test
Procedure:
a) The amount of cement, water, fine aggregate and coarse aggregate that are needed for
making the concrete mix is calculated.
b) The required amount of cement, water, fine aggregate and coarse aggregate is
collected in separate containers.
c) The fine aggregate and coarse aggregate is poured into the mixing pan. The aggregate
is mixed thoroughly with shovel or scoop (Figure 12.1). The water is poured into the
mixing pan and it is mixed thoroughly.

Figure 12.1: The aggregate is mixed carefully.


d) The mould is filled up in three (3) layers using the scoop or shovel while at the same
time making sure that the mould is firmly in place. After one layer is filled up, the
concrete mix inside the mould is uniformly tamped using the rounded end of the
tamping rod.
e) After filing and tamping is completed, the top surface of the concrete mix is struck off
by means of a sawing and rolling motion of the tamping rod.

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Figure 12.2: The mould is removed from the concrete.


f) The mould is removed from the concrete by vertically and slowly raising it from the
base plate (Figure 12.2). The mould is placed upside down beside the concrete mix.
g) After the concrete mix has stop subsiding, the slump is measured immediately. This
can be done by placing the trowel or ruler on top of the mould. Then, a tape or ruler is
used to measure downwards from the trowel or ruler to the top of the subsided
concrete mix.
ii.

Compression test
Procedure

Preparation of Specimens:
1. The concrete cylinder and cube moulds are cleaned.
2. The amount of cement, water, fine aggregate and coarse aggregate that are needed for making
the concrete mix are calculated.
3. The required amount of cement, water, fine aggregate and coarse aggregate are collected in
separate container.
4. The fine aggregate and coarse aggregate are poured into the mixer. The aggregate is mixed
thoroughly by rotating the mixer. The cement is poured into the mixer and mixed thoroughly
by rotating the mixer.
5. The concrete mix is placed into the cylinder and cube moulds:
a. The mould is filled with concrete in three (3) layers.
b. Each layer is compacted with a vibrating hammer or using a vibrating table or by not
fewer than 35 strokes of a 25mm (1 in.) square steel punner.
c. Compaction is until full compaction is achieved and without any segregation. (Or
compact until the degree of compaction of as placed concrete at site is achieved).
d. The top of the moulds is finished with a float. The top of cylinder specimens must be
carefully smooth finished since it will be in contact with the platen of the testing
machine.

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6. The moulds is stored undisturbed for 24 4 hours at a temperature of 20 5C (68 9F)


and a relative humidity of not less than 90%.
7. The mould is stripped and the specimens are cured in water at 20 2C (68 4F).
Testing of Specimens:
1. The specimen is placed with the cast faces in contact with the platens of the compression
machine (Figure 12.3 and Figure 12.4):
a. The position of the cube when tested is at right angles to that as-cast.
b. The position of the cylinder is upright to that as-cast.

Figure 12.3: Compression machine.

Figure 12.4: The specimen is placed under the compression machine.


2. Loading the specimens:
a. The load on the specimen applied at a constant rate of stress equal to 0.2 to 0.4
MPa/second (30 to 60 psi/second)
The speed of the movement of the head of the testing machine has to be increased to increase the
rate of stain as failure is approached. (This is because of the non-linearity of the stress-strain
relation of concrete at high stresses).

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REFERENCES

1. Open Ended for Civil Engineering Laboratory; page 65-66; Open Ended Lab Manual for
Civil Engineering Materials Laboratory and table of Doe methode
2. Concrete mix design
http://www.engineeringcivil.com/concrete-mix-design-as-per-indian-standard-code.html
http://civilengineering1978.hpage.co.in/mix-design_49438415.html

3. https://www.icjonline.com/views/2012.05_POV_Ramalingam and Santhanam.pdf


http://www.engineeringcivil.com/mix-design-m-50-grade.html
https://in.answers.yahoo.com/question/index?qid=20090419021719AAczkBY

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