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COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING

CEMB 111 CIVIL ENGINEERING MATERIALS LABORATORY

EXPERIMENT 12

SECTION

: 01

GROUP NO. : 04

GROUP MEMBERS

1. SARNIYA A/P KESAVALOO

CE 091831

2. MUHAMMAD ZULHUSNI BIN CHE RAZALI

CE 097466

3. SALEH MOHMAD ALOWAIDAT

CE 097303

4. AHMAD AIMAN BIN AHMAD AZLAN

CE 098730

5. SURENDER A/L RAMANATHAN

CE 098629

6. FATIMA ABDULAZIZ ALSEAGHY

CE 097397

DATE OF EXPERIMENT

DATE OF REPORT SUBMISSION

INSTRUCTOR

:

:

: En.Nazirul Mubin Bin Zahari

Performance

10%

Cover

1%

Summary

8%

Table of content

1%

Introduction

Objective

10%

Apparatus

Material

Procedure

Results

20%

Discussion

40%

Conclusion

10%

TOTAL

100%

TABLE OF CONTENT

NO.

CONTENT

PAGES

Table of content

Introduction

Objective

Define case

47

Conduct test

10 12

Reference

13

INTRODUCTION

Making labs open-ended is the key to discovery learning in challenging and engaging

students in their laboratory experiments. Openness is defined as the degree to which students are

allowed to make decisions about the problem, the procedure and/or the answers. This discretion

permitted the students to make critical choice in determining the major parameters to be used and

the responsibility in the design of experiments. The students here have to devise their own

strategies and back them with explanations, theory and logical justification. This not only

encourages students to come up with their experiments, but requires them to defend themselves

and their experiment, if questioned.

In this project a problem will be given to a group of student to solve or complete by

conducting certain experimental work within a specified time. Student should actively participate

in discussion either in or out lab class.

Concrete has been widely used for construction since ancient times. Modern concrete

application include beams, bridges, swimming pools, homes, streets, patios, basements,

balustrades, plain cement tiles, mosaic tiles, pavement blocks, kerbs, lamp-posts, drain covers,

benches and many more. It is very important to identify the suitable concrete properties for

relevant application to optimize the cost and towards the sustainable development. Therefore, the

students must have this knowledge to apply in the real situation.

OBJECTIVES

Open-ended lab is made

1. To assess the ability of student to identify the suitable mix proportion for the given

problem.

2. To allow the students to come up with their own method in conducting or design of

the experiment and if required defend their experiments.

3. Provide the opportunity for the students to devise their own strategies in compilation

of the results, analysis and conclusion and if required defended their results and

analysis.

DEFINE CASE

10 storey building need to be construct near the coastal area at East West Malaysia with severe

exposure condition due to salt spray and ground water condition has high water table.

Pile cap and substructures is a suitable structure to construct a building structure near the

coastal area. A pile cap is a thick concrete mat that rests on concrete or timber piles that have

been driven into soft or unstable ground to provide a suitable stable foundation while

substructure. Sub-structure or foundation is the lower portion of the building, usually located

below the ground level, which transmits the loads of the super-structure to the supporting soil.

A foundation is therefore that part of the structure which is in direct contact with the ground

to which the loads are transmitted. Cement, water, fine aggregate, coarse aggregate which would

produce concrete processing specified properties such as workability, strength and durability

with maximum overall economy.

Before we proceed to our grading we need to understand what is the grading means. First for

example we take grade M20 M- refer to mix of aggregate, sand cement and 20 is the refer to

characteristic of its strength in N/mm2 of a 15 cm cube casted out of that concrete...

"characteristic" strength means that the strength should not deviate from 95 % e.g out of 100

cubes tested not more than 5 cubes should give strength less than 20 N/mm2.

10 story building need to be construct near the coastal area with severe exposure condition due to

salt spray and ground water condition has high water table.

Based on IS 456: 2000 and IS 10262: 2009, we assume that the grade of concrete as M40

as it has the highest strength to withstand those severe exposure.

1. Determine the mean target strength ft from the specified characteristic compressive strength at

28-day fck and the level of quality control.

ft = fck + 1.65 S

where S is the standard deviation obtained from the Table of approximate contents given after the

design mix.

2. Obtain the water cement ratio for the desired mean target using the emperical relationship

between compressive strength and water cement ratio so chosen is checked against the limiting

water cement ratio. The water cement ratio so chosen is checked against the limiting water

cement ratio for the requirements of durability given in table and adopts the lower of the two

values.

3. Estimate the amount of entrapped air for maximum nominal size of the aggregate from the

table.

4. Select the water content, for the required workability and maximum size of aggregates (for

aggregates in saturated surface dry condition) from table.

5. Determine the percentage of fine aggregate in total aggregate by absolute volume from table

for the concrete using crushed coarse aggregate.

6. Adjust the values of water content and percentage of sand as provided in the table for any

difference in workability, water cement ratio, grading of fine aggregate and for rounded

aggregate the values are given in table.

7. Calculate the cement content form the water-cement ratio and the final water content as

arrived after adjustment. Check the cement against the minimum cement content from the

requirements of the durability, and greater of the two values is adopted.

8. From the quantities of water and cement per unit volume of concrete and the percentage of

sand already determined in steps 6 and 7 above, calculate the content of coarse and fine

aggregates per unit volume of concrete from the following relations:

Sc = specific gravity of cement

W = Mass of water per cubic metre of concrete, kg

C = mass of cement per cubic metre of concrete, kg

p = ratio of fine aggregate to total aggregate by absolute volume

fa, Ca = total masses of fine and coarse aggregates, per cubic metre of concrete, respectively, kg,

and

Sfa, Sca = specific gravities of saturated surface dry fine and coarse aggregates, respectively

9. Determine the concrete mix proportions for the first trial mix.

10. Prepare the concrete using the calculated proportions and cast three cubes of 150 mm size

and test them wet after 28-days moist curing and check for the strength.

Graph and table for referring related to doe method.

Wc/ determination

The mix design M-40 grade for Pier provided here is for reference purpose only. Actual site

conditions vary and thus this should be adjusted as per the location and other factors.

Grade Designation = M-40

Type of cement = O.P.C-43 grade

Fine Aggregate = Zone-II

Sp. Gravity Cement = 3.15

Fine Aggregate = 2.61

Coarse Aggregate (20mm) = 2.65

Minimum Cement = 400 kg / m3

Maximum water cement ratio = 0.45

Ft = fc + ks

fc: Characteristics compressive strength (N/Sq.mm)

k: A statistic depending on accepted proportion of low result (1.65)

s: Standard deviation (N/Sq.mm)

Ft = 35 + 1.65(5)

Ft = 43.25 N/Sq.mm

Target Mean Strength = 40 + (5 X 1.65) = 48.25 Mpa

2. Refer to the graph W/C determination above we can know the water cement ratio.

We got 0.4

w

c = 0.4 ,

w

w

c

=c,

160.0 kg

=c

0.4

c = 400.00 kg [satisfies the criteria, 400.00 kg =400 kg (minimum cement content)] hence its ok

C= 400, w= 160 w/c=0.4

1=

c

w

+

Sc

1000

+ Va

c

w

Va = 1 ( Sc + 1000

Va = 1 (

400.00

160.0 0 kg

+

3150

1000

Va = 0.71302 m3

Va = Volume of coarse aggregate per unit volume of total aggregate (m3)

c = Mass of cement (kg)

w = mass of water (kg)

So,

Total aggregate content

0.71302 sp(aggregate) 1000

0.71302 2.65 1000 = 1889.49kg

Fine Aggregate = Zone-II we got 35%

35

1889.49 = 660

100

So to find the Course aggregate

1889.49-660=1229.49

CA=1229.49kg FA=660kg

6.

Cement: 400

Water: 160.00 kg

Fine aggregate: 660.0 kg

Coarse aggregate: 1229.49 kg

Hence, cement: fine aggregate: coarse aggregate = 1: 1.65: 3.07

CONDUCT TEST

To construct this type of structure, we need to conduct some test to find out the

compressive strength for the concrete grade, the proportion mix and the water/cement ratio that

is suitable to be used. The test that we can conduct is:

i.

Slump Test

Procedure:

a) The amount of cement, water, fine aggregate and coarse aggregate that are needed for

making the concrete mix is calculated.

b) The required amount of cement, water, fine aggregate and coarse aggregate is

collected in separate containers.

c) The fine aggregate and coarse aggregate is poured into the mixing pan. The aggregate

is mixed thoroughly with shovel or scoop (Figure 12.1). The water is poured into the

mixing pan and it is mixed thoroughly.

d) The mould is filled up in three (3) layers using the scoop or shovel while at the same

time making sure that the mould is firmly in place. After one layer is filled up, the

concrete mix inside the mould is uniformly tamped using the rounded end of the

tamping rod.

e) After filing and tamping is completed, the top surface of the concrete mix is struck off

by means of a sawing and rolling motion of the tamping rod.

10

f) The mould is removed from the concrete by vertically and slowly raising it from the

base plate (Figure 12.2). The mould is placed upside down beside the concrete mix.

g) After the concrete mix has stop subsiding, the slump is measured immediately. This

can be done by placing the trowel or ruler on top of the mould. Then, a tape or ruler is

used to measure downwards from the trowel or ruler to the top of the subsided

concrete mix.

ii.

Compression test

Procedure

Preparation of Specimens:

1. The concrete cylinder and cube moulds are cleaned.

2. The amount of cement, water, fine aggregate and coarse aggregate that are needed for making

the concrete mix are calculated.

3. The required amount of cement, water, fine aggregate and coarse aggregate are collected in

separate container.

4. The fine aggregate and coarse aggregate are poured into the mixer. The aggregate is mixed

thoroughly by rotating the mixer. The cement is poured into the mixer and mixed thoroughly

by rotating the mixer.

5. The concrete mix is placed into the cylinder and cube moulds:

a. The mould is filled with concrete in three (3) layers.

b. Each layer is compacted with a vibrating hammer or using a vibrating table or by not

fewer than 35 strokes of a 25mm (1 in.) square steel punner.

c. Compaction is until full compaction is achieved and without any segregation. (Or

compact until the degree of compaction of as placed concrete at site is achieved).

d. The top of the moulds is finished with a float. The top of cylinder specimens must be

carefully smooth finished since it will be in contact with the platen of the testing

machine.

11

and a relative humidity of not less than 90%.

7. The mould is stripped and the specimens are cured in water at 20 2C (68 4F).

Testing of Specimens:

1. The specimen is placed with the cast faces in contact with the platens of the compression

machine (Figure 12.3 and Figure 12.4):

a. The position of the cube when tested is at right angles to that as-cast.

b. The position of the cylinder is upright to that as-cast.

2. Loading the specimens:

a. The load on the specimen applied at a constant rate of stress equal to 0.2 to 0.4

MPa/second (30 to 60 psi/second)

The speed of the movement of the head of the testing machine has to be increased to increase the

rate of stain as failure is approached. (This is because of the non-linearity of the stress-strain

relation of concrete at high stresses).

12

REFERENCES

1. Open Ended for Civil Engineering Laboratory; page 65-66; Open Ended Lab Manual for

Civil Engineering Materials Laboratory and table of Doe methode

2. Concrete mix design

http://www.engineeringcivil.com/concrete-mix-design-as-per-indian-standard-code.html

http://civilengineering1978.hpage.co.in/mix-design_49438415.html

http://www.engineeringcivil.com/mix-design-m-50-grade.html

https://in.answers.yahoo.com/question/index?qid=20090419021719AAczkBY

13

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