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# Signals, Spectra and Signal Processing

## GETTING FAMILIAR WITH LABVIEW (PART I)

Activity No. 1
Lamparas Melric
EC41FB1

Activity 1.1

Placing a two numeric control and indicator on front panel and naming
them x, y, Sum, and Average respectively.

Pressing ctrl+E to toggle between front panel and block diagram. The
changes saved on front panel will also be saved in block diagram.

Placing an add and divide function in the block diagram. That can be
accessed in the Functions > Express > Arith & Comparison > Numeric.
Click and drop the add and divide node in the BD.

## Connecting x and y to the input terminals of add function and connect to

the sum. The sum can be connected to the x terminal of divide function.

## Editing the VI icon to easily

determine the subVI.

Run the VI, putting an inputs 2 and 2 and obtaining its sum and average.
Activity 1.3

Put a two knobs and naming them input 1 and input 2. Adjust the size of
input 1 by changing it to Byte I8.

Placing a gauge,
numerical indicator
and round LED.
Name then average,
sum and warning
respectively.

## Open the subVI act01-01 and

function greater or equal and
create a
constant 9.

in

## Enclose the entire program

a While loop structure in
the block diagram.

## Question: How does the VI work? Discuss the functionality as observed

from running the VI.

## The VI works as an program who requires two input and computes

two output. The first output is the sum of two inputs and the second output
is display in a gauge type indicator who display the average of two inputs.
While adjusting the knob 1 it has an interval of 1 per adjust because if
adjusting the data representation to 8I while in knob 2 you can adjust it with
a decimal place because of letting the data representation to Double
Precision. While adjusting the knob to maximum input if the average reach
to 9 the LED will turn on.
Question: What can be said about the set of values that the Input 1 takes?
What is the data type of Input 1? What, then, can be inferred with the set of
values that is represented by the data type like that of Input 1?
The input 1 adjust by increment of 1 and the data type of input 1 is I8.
It represents an interval of 1 per adjust.
Question: Differentiate I64, I32, I16 and I8 data types.
Integers represent whole numbers and can be positive or negative. Refer to
type bits, digits, and range. There are four types of integers.
Byte (I8)Byte integer numbers have 8 bits of storage.
Word (I16)Word integer numbers have 16 bits of storage.
Long (I32)Long integer numbers have 32 bits of storage. In most cases,
it is best to use a 32-bit integer.
Question: What is the data type of Input 2? Compare the observations that
have been made with the data types of Input 1 and Input 2.
DBL is the data type of input 2 or Double Precision. The input 1 can be
adjust with an increment of 1 while in the input 2 it can adjust with a
decimal point.

Question: Differentiate the data types EXT, DBL, SGL, and FXP.

## Floating-point numbers in LabVIEW conform to the ANSI/IEEE Standard

754-1985. Not all real numbers can be represented in the ANSI/IEEE
standard floating-point numbers. Because of this, comparisons using
floating-point numbers may yield results you do not expect because of
rounding errors. To avoid inaccurate results, you can round floating-point
numbers to integers. For example, if you want the result of a calculation to
contain two digits of precision, multiply the floating-point number by 100
and then round the product to an integer before you complete the
calculation. You also can check to see whether two floating-point numbers
are close to each other instead of equal to each other. For example, if the
absolute value of the difference of two floating-point numbers is smaller
than a defined tolerance, assume the numbers are equal.
data type bits, digits, and range. There are three types of floating-point
numbers.
Single-precision (SGL)Single-precision, floating-point numbers have
32-bit IEEE single-precision format. Use single-precision, floating-point
numbers when memory savings are important and you will not overflow
the range of the numbers.
Double-precision (DBL)Double-precision, floating-point numbers have
64-bit IEEE double-precision format. Double-precision is the default format
for numeric objects. For most situations, use double-precision, floatingpoint numbers.
Extended-precision (EXT)When you save extended-precision numbers
to disk, LabVIEW stores them in a platform-independent 128-bit format. In
memory, the size and precision vary depending on the platform. Use
extended-precision, floating-point numbers only when necessary. The
performance of extended-precision arithmetic varies among platforms.
Fixed-Point ConfigurationSets the configuration settings for fixed-point
data. Set Representation to Fixed-point (FXP) to enable these options.
These options are not available for enums, rings, knobs, slides, or
waveforms.
Stop the program from running by pressing the Stop button in the FP or by
clicking the Stop icon in
the BD or FP. Place a numeric indicator in the FP and in the BD then

connect the output of the Greater or Equal? node to the input of this
indicator.
Question: What happens? Why? What are the possible indicators that can
replace this numeric one?
The wire will become broken lines with X mark on it.It can only replace by
an LED
Question: Compare the wires connecting the indicators to the tunnels. Why
is this so?
The wires on the output with indexing is much bolder than the wires on the
output without indexing. It is because in indexing theres much data that
enters to the indicator than the without indexing.
Question: Describe the functionality of the program. Compare the output of
the Output with Indexing and Output without Indexing indicators.
The program generates and display a different random numbers. The
output of the output with indexing save the values from the past value to
the current value and it depend on how many indicators you want to have
while in output without indexing it only display the last value that save by
the output with indexing.
IV. CONCLUSIONS
Therefore, I conclude that LabVIEW have many applications in studies and
in real life it can help us to do some things that humans cant do. LabVIEW
can manipulate data and also LabVIEW can use as a program that is very
functional and also LabVIEW can use in some case study for student in
engineering. Therefore, I conclude that we can adjust the signals of every
signal generator by its properties and also we can adjust the frequency and
the amplitude of every signals so that we can have the signal that we want
to have.

V. MACHINE PROBLEM