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Unbalanced Load Flow

ETAP Workshop Notes 1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc.

Real Unbalanced Power


Systems
Distribution System
3-phase, 2-phase, and single-phase network
components

Unbalanced loads

Transmission System
Untransposed long transmission line
Abnormal operation with one phase out of service
Unbalanced loads (e.g., electrical railway traction
motors)
1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Unbalanced Load Flow Analysis

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Harmful Effects of System


Unbalance
Overheating of generators
Nuisance tripping of protective relays
Increased real power losses

Transformer failure
Radio communication interference

1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Unbalanced Load Flow Analysis

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Unbalance Factors/Indexes
System unbalance is considered by power
quality standards as a disturbance
Voltage/Current unbalance factors

Ratio of zero/negative sequence to positive


sequence
Voltage/Current unbalance indexes
Ratio of average values to maximum
deviation of average values
1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Unbalanced Load Flow Analysis

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Unbalanced Load Flow


Analysis
Current Injection (CI) method
The most robust algorithm ever developed

Converge in less iterations than other


methods, especially for heavily loaded
systems
Sparse matrix technique

Unique modeling concepts


1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Unbalanced Load Flow Analysis

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Sequence Models of
3-Phase Machines

1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Unbalanced Load Flow Analysis

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Unique Concepts of
3-Phase Machines
Swing Machine
The specified magnitude and the phase angle of the
positive sequence voltage only at the swing machine
terminal

PV Machine
The specified total output of 3-phase real powers and
the magnitude of the positive sequence voltage

PQ Machine
The specified total outputs of 3-phase real and reactive
powers
1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Unbalanced Load Flow Analysis

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Concepts of Load
Connections
Single-Phase Loads
Connected in the phase connection types of
AB, BC, CA, AN, BN or CN
Three-Phase Loads

Connected in Delta, Wye or Wye-G


The constant individual powers in Wye are
not allowed due to multiple solutions
1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Unbalanced Load Flow Analysis

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Modeling Capabilities
A mixture of 3-phase, 2-phase and singlephase network components
3-phase machines with internal impedance
being considered
Built-in calculator for overhead line
impedances
Mutual coupling among overhead lines
Transformers combined with load tap
changers (LTC) and phase shifters
1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Unbalanced Load Flow Analysis

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Modeling Capabilities
2-winding and 3-winding transformers of
various winding connections
Lumped loads consisting of constant power,
constant impedance and constant current
components
Generator exciters with AVR or Mvar / PF
controllers
Robust library of of commonly used
overhead transmission lines and cables
1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Unbalanced Load Flow Analysis

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Study Case
Same pretense as Balanced Load Flow with
more detailed modeling, calculations, and
results

1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Unbalanced Load Flow Analysis

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Output Results
State-of-the-art graphic display of
results
Graphical display of marginal and
critical under/over voltages

Alert View displays


limit violations

1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Unbalanced Load Flow Analysis

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Reporting
Customized output reports using Crystal Reports
Individual phase and sequence voltage, current,
and power

Voltage drops, losses,


power flows, power
factor, voltage/current
unbalance factors, etc.

1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Unbalanced Load Flow Analysis

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Example 1

1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Unbalanced Load Flow Analysis

Example 2
IEEE Four Node Test Feeder
Characteristics of the Feeder
1. Two line segments with a 3-phase
transformer bank connected between the two
segments
2. Data is specified for balanced and
unbalanced loading at the most remote node
3. Transformer is specified for different
connection testing
1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Unbalanced Load Flow Analysis

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1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Unbalanced Load Flow Analysis

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Example 3
IEEE 13 Node Test Feeder
Characteristics of the Feeder
1. Short and relatively highly loaded for a 4.16
kV feeder
2. Overhead lines with variety of phasing
3. Shunt capacitor banks
4. In-line transformer
5. Unbalanced loading

1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Unbalanced Load Flow Analysis

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1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Unbalanced Load Flow Analysis

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