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l,dlrejdf.a iudc j.

lSu
20 jk ishjfia wdoYhla
l,dj ukqIH l%shdldrluls' l%shdldrlula hkq bf is jk l%shdjka fkdj ys;du;d lsish
wruqKla we;sj lrkq ,nk l%shdjkah' wfkl=;a ukqIH l%shdldrl yd ii|k g l,df
wkkH;dj jkafka tys uQ,sl wruqK wdiajdoh uhs' ksil= Wmka od isg h hk ;=re fhfok
l%shdldrl ish,a, tajdfha uq,sl wruqK wkqj j.SlrKh l< g l=,l lsysmhla lsh yelsh'
f wkqj ishu ukqIH l%shdldrl fufia j.SlrKh l< yelsh(
1' {dkk l%shdldrl
2' mj;k l%shdldrl
3' w>k l%shdldrl
4' ikaksfok l%shdldrl
5' wdiajdok l%shdldrl jYfhks'
fun j.SlrKhla lD;%suhhs lsisjl=g idOdrK f,i ;l l< yelsh' ulaksido h;a ish
ukqIH l%shdldrl wfkHdakH jYfhka tlsfkl yd inkaO l%shdj,shla f,i l%shd;aul jk
neks' fuh lD;%su jQ ixia;sjd fyda jHqyjd m%fYhla f,i o flfkl=g fmkS hd yelsh'
tneka fuh ienE jYfhkau mj;sk fnulg jvd wjfndaOfha myiqj i|yd fhod .kq ,nk
l%u fohla f,i ye|skau jvd fhda.Hh'
l=vd orejl= ;udf.a weia lrljk fndakslald fyda lsysm jrla fmd<j u; ;,a fldg w; yeh
g bfu jk fi,a, fudfgda fha l%shdld;ajh wjfndaO fldg .ekSug we;s l=;+y,h ksid
tajd flfia fyda jD; fldg we;=f<a we;s ;;ajh mlaId lrhs ^fujeks l%Svd NdKav fkd;snqKq
wjfha jqj o l=vd orejka ;ud olsk foa je org;a wjfndaO lr .kakg ;e;a l, nj
fkdwkqudkh&' fufia wjfndaOh wruqKq fldg .;a l%shdldrl wd.u" oYkh" oHdj jeks
ixlSK {dkk l%shdldrl moaO;shla njg m;a we;'
tfiau l=vd orejl= ;udg wmyiql we;s lrk l=i.skak" msmdih" uq;%d myfuka we;s jk
f;; jeks ;;ajhka fjkia fldg .ekSug ;e;a lsfuka wrUk mj;k l%shdldrl
mqoa.,hka f,i;a iudchka f,i;a l%shdjg kxug ;e;a lsu ksid iqj myiq ksjdi yd
hdkjdyk ;ekSu muKla fkdj ;udg jvd fhda.Hhhs is;k iudc foaYmd,k ;;ajhka ys
fldg .ekSu i|yd ma,jhkao we;= mj;k l%shdldrlj, fhfoa'
Wmka od isgu ksid ;udg jvd fhd.H foa f;ddard .ekSf yd ;SrKh lsf we.hS
l%shdj,shl fhfoa' c,hg jvd ls we.hSug iu;a jk <orejd miqj ksil= fukau iudchla
f,i o ;ud wjg mirfha iEu ;;ajhka" mqoa.,hska" m%mxp we;= iEu fohla Ifhysu w>k
l%shdldrl moaO;shla l%shd;aul lrhs'
tfiau Wmkaod isgu ;u yeS fukau jqjukdjka o yeu" iskyj jeks udOH u.ska m%ldY
lrk ksid miqj NdIdj we;= fjk;a ix{d u.ska o uqs; yd oHq;a udOH u.ska o b;d
ixlSK yeS" Ndjhka fukau odYksl yd oHd;aul u;jdo m%ldY lrk ikaksfok
l%shdldrl moaO;shl kshqla; f'

;uka fhfok l%shdldrl u.ska ish wruqKq bgq lr .kakd w;r tajd id:l u ksidg
i;=gg fya;=jla jk w;r wid:l u fYdalhg fya;=jla f'
by; i|yka ukqIH l%shdldrl yd ii|k g ksid kshqla;j isk wdiajdoh uq,sl wruqK
jk wdiajdok l%shdldrlu l,dj k f'
kej;;a wjOdrKh l< hq;= lreK jkafka f ish l%shdldrl tlsfkl flfrys n,mE
lrka wkjr; inkaO;djhlska ne mj;sk njhs' tfiau wfkl=;a ish l%shdldrl yd
ii|k g l,djg thgu iqfYaI jQ wkkH;djhla o we;s njhs'
fuu rpkfha uQ,sl wruqK l,d lrejdf.a iudc j.lSu jqj o by; i|yka yekau wjYH
jQfha l,dj ms<sn|j m%p,s;j we;s iuyr u; r,Su i|yd th Wmld jk neks' f moku
u; isg n,k g l,dj hkq ukqIH iudch yd noaO jQ yd lsis f,ilskq;a thska fjka fkdjQ
iajdk m%mxphla f,i ie,lsh yels l%shdldrluls'
wfkla jeo.;a lreK jkafka wfkla ukqIH l%shdldrlj,g jvd Wiia fyda W;a;rudkqISh
ldhhla f,i l,dj ie,lsh hq;= fkdjk njhs' fYaIfhkau fmr. rgj, l,dj wka ish,q
ukqIH l%shdldrlj,g jvd W;alDIag jQ fukau iuyr g W;a;r udkqIS h lghq;a;la fia
ie,lSf m%jK;djla mej;S we;' kdgH l,dj fukau ix.S; l,dj o ksidg fokq ,en
we;af;a fohka iskahhs m%ldY jk jD;a;dka; fuu l,djkaf.a wdrNh ms<sn|
mqrdjD;a;hkaf.a i|ykaj we;s w;r tajd i;H ;;ajhka f,i Yajdi lrk msia wo jqj o yuq
f' tneka l,dj ms<sn| we;s fjeks :Hd u; bj; ,d l,dj hkq f,!lsl ixisoahla fia
ie,lSu fyj;a l,dj uy fmd<j u; msysgq u o wjYH jkafkah'
l,df uQ,sl wruqK ksidg wdiajdoh ,nd u jqj o ksidf.a wfkl=;a l%shdldrl flrys
l,df n,mEu ms<sn|j wE; w;S;fha mgkau l,dlrejkaf.a" pdrlhskaf.a fukau
odYkslhskaf.a o wjOdkh fhuq jQ ne fmfka' l%s'mQ 429-347 wjfha j;a jQ iqm%lg .%Sl
lhl= fukau odYkslfhl= o jQ maf,afgda l,djg iudch flfrys n,mEula lsug we;s
yelshdj ish ckrch .%ka:fha > jYfhka idlPd fldg we;' l,dfjka fYaIfhka
ldjHfhka yd kdgHfhka iudchg jk hym; o ms<s.kakd maf,afgda thska iudchg h yels
ydksh ksid ;u mrudoYS ckrcfhka ldjHh fkrmd yeh hq;=hhs o fhdackd fldg we;' 1
fuys jeo.;a jkafka j;udkfha o maf,afgdaf.a u;h ms< s.; yels o keoao hkakg jvd
l,djg rgl iudc-foaYmd,k l%shdldrl flfrys n, me l< yels m%udKh ms<sn| Tyqf.a
kslaIKhhs'
l%s'mQ' ;=kajk ishji yd l%s'j' ;=ka jk ish ji wjfha bkahdf iQ Nr; uqksjrhd iska
rpkd lrk ,hs ie,flk kdgH Ydia;% .%ka:fha kdgH l,df wdrNh ms<sn| mqj;ska o
fy<s jkafka kdgHh jeks l,djl wdiajdo ckkfha fukau iudch flfrys n,mEf yelshdj
ms<sn|j pdrlhka ;=< jQ Yajdihhs' tu jD;dka;h wkqj kdgH l,dfjka wfmalaId lrk
,oafoa ldufhys yd f,daNfhys jihg .sh f,dalh wYa,S, .;s mej;=fuka hq;=j" BIHd

n,kak( maf,afgdaf.a ckrch" mj;kh uydpdh mS t rlafld ^2005& ixialD;sl lghq;= ms<sn|
fomd;fka;=j, n;a;ruq,a,

fl%dOdfhka uq<dj l iem uqiqj mj;soa tajdhska f yelshdj ,nd fok Y%jH oDYH f.dapr
jQ fkdao l%Svdjla imdokh fldg uh'2
l,df we;s wdiajdo ckk yelshdj iy iudch flfrys n,mEf yelshdj hk hk
fomdYajhu flfrys l,dlrejkaf.aa yd l,d pdrlhskf.aa muKla fkdj odYkslhkaf.a
wd.l kdhlhskaf.a fukau foaYmd,k kdhlhskaf.ao wjOdkh b;sydih mqrd fhduq we;'
f ;;ajh ksid l,d lafIa;%fhys m%Odk m%jdyhka lsysmhla jkajr mek kef.kq lsh yelsh'
tla m%jK;djla jkafka l,d lrejd ;udg iudch flfrys n,mE lsug we;s yelshdj
ms<sn|jo oekqj;aj tfy;a wdiajdo ckk wruqK m%uqLia:dkfhys ;ndf.k ksudK ldhfhys
fhuhs' l,dfjys m%Odk wruqK wdiajdo ckkhhhs Yajdi l< iuyr ixialD; pdrlfhda ta
u.ska iudchg lsish Wmfoila f ye=lshdj o Wmfhda.S fldg .; yelshhs ms<s.;a nj
fmfka' tfldf<dia jk ishjfia j;a jQ ldIar pdrl uug wdpdhjrhd l,dfjka
^ldjHfhka& fok WmfoaYh ykajd we;af;a ldka;d iu; WmfoaYhla f,isks' 3 fuu
ixl,amh ms,sn|j lrk .%yh foi n,k g meyeos,s jkafka l,dfjka WmfoaYhla ,eu
lsish ;;ajhla ;ud b msg f.k yer lafjk g th w;a lSfuka lsisjl= iska ,nk
wjfndaOh ;=<ska yg .kakla njhs'
fuu ,smsfha fYaI wjOdkh fhduq jkafka idys;Hh" kdgHh fyd iskudj jeks ksia iudch
yd mqoa., p; Ih fldg f.k ksudKh jk l,djka yd tn\q ksudKhkays fhfok l,d
lrejka ms<sn|jh'
fun l,djkaf.ka tajd myrKh lrkakjqkayg ixlSK wdiajdohla ,nd f m%Odku
idOlh jkafka ;ud bfha uefjk isoaka yd p;hka foi tajd flfrys wdila; fkd
kslaIKh lsug yelshdj ,nd u ;=<skah hkq fuu f,aLlhdf.a ia:djrhhs' fuu ia:djrhg
tfrys ;j;a u;hla ;sf' ta wkqj lsish l,dlD;shl tk p; yd isoaka iu. mdGlhd fyda
fm%laIlhdg wkkH ug ie,eiau ;=<ska wdila; lsu wdiajdokfha m%Odk idOlh njhs'
f u; folu jir oyia .Kkla ;siafia fmrmr fo. l,d f,dalfha jOkh jQ tajdh'
fmA%laIlhd fyda mdGlhd l,d lD;sfha tk p; yd isoa ka iu. wkkH u ;=<ska Tyqg fyda
wehg wdiajdohla ,efnkafkah hk u;h merKs .%Sisfha yg f.k weiafgdg,a mjrhd isk a
;yjqre lrkq ,en ngysr l,d f,dalfha m%p,s; jQjls'
l,dlD;shl wka;.; isoaka yd p;hka tajd flfrys wdila; ulska f;drj kslaI Kh
lsu ;=<ska wdiajdo ckkh ms<sn| woyi fuu f,aLlhd okakd muKska m<uqjrg bm;a lrk
,oafoa kdgH Ydia;% lD;sfha l;=jrhd f,i ie,flk Nr; uqksjrhd isks' ta " lreK yd YDx.dr
ri ckkfha ksfoh kue;s wkqNdjfha wjYH;djh wjOdrKh lsu ;=<skah' miqld,Sk
ixialD; kHdhdpdhjrhska iska jOkh lrk ,o idOdrKSlrK ixl,amfha w:h jQfha o
l,d lD;shl bosm;a lrkq ,nk p;hka yd wkkH fkd uf.ah uf.a fkdfh wdoS jQ
fNaOhla we;s fldg fkd.kska l,d ksudKh wdiajdoh lsuh'

n,kak( Nr;uqksm%KS; kdgHYdia;%" m%:u Nd.h" mj;kh fjda,ag udrisxy ^2004& weia f.dvf.a ifydaorfhda"
fld<U 2-3 msgq
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n,kak( tr irpka" l,amkd f,dalh ^1995&" tia f.dvf.a ifydaorfhda" fld<U 47-62 msgq ^ldjHh"
ldka;djl fuka Wmfoia lshhs&

l,df we;s iudc ixisoaka ria: lssf Yla;sh wjOdrKh l< uq,au ngysr pdrlhd jQfha
16$17 ishjiaj, uyd %;dkHfha cSj;a jQ *%ekaisia flka kue;s odYkslhdh' Tyq l,df fuu
Yla;sh yekajQfha distancing power of art hkqfjks' 18 jk ishjfia bmso 19 jk ishjfia uq,a
oYlfha h .sh cuka cd;sl buEkqfj,a lka l,d wdiajdokh yd WfmalaIdj
(disinterestedness) w;r inkaO;djh kslaIKh l< ;j;a m%Odk ngysr pdrlfhls'
l,df fuu NjH;djh fhod .kska l,d ksudK ;=<ska wdiajdo ckkh yd wjfndaOh hk
wruqKq folu bgq lr .ekSf l%ufohla ksmo jQ odYksl l,dlrejd jQfha 20 jk ishjfia
cuksfha j;a jQ nfgda,a fn%Iah' l,d lD;shla ;=<ska iudc wNskhka fm%alaIlhd fyda
mdGlhd yuqf wd.ka;=llrKhlg Ndckh lsf yelshdj Tyq fmkajd kafkah'
wdishdkq rgj, l,df" fYaIfhkau kdgH l,df iycfhkau wd.ka;=llrK w:hla we;s
nj fn%Ia kslaIKh lf<ah' fnhsx Tfmrd rx.kj," cmka fkda yd lnqls kdgHfha fukau
ixialD; kdgHfha o Tyq f .=Kh kslaIKh lf<ah' tfia jqj o Tyq tu kslaIKh ;=< ska
nei .;a ks.ukh jQfha j;udk hq.fha wjYH;djhka wkqj fuu wd.ka;=llrK Wml%u fhdod
.kska kdgHfha fma%laIlhdg pdrd;aul kslaIlfhl= f yelshdj ,nd ug yels njh'
tfiau wd.ka;=llrKh u.ska Ndjhka m%;slafIam lsula is fkdjk nj;a ;ud m%;slafIam
lrkafka Ndjhka Woamkh l< yelafla wkkHlrKh ;=<skah hk .%duH fi!kaohoHdj nj;a
wjOdrKh lf<ah'
j;udk kdgH l,df wruqK Ifhys ish wjidk kHdhd;aul m%ldYkh jQ kdgH l,djg
l=vd fuj,ula f,aLkfha fn%Ia fufia i|yka lrhs( wfkla yeu l,djla fukau kdgH
l,dj o wdrNfha mgkau ksiqkg wdiajdoh ,nd u i|yd jQ jHdmdrhla h' kdgH l,djg
thg iqfYaI jQ .re;ajh ,nd fokafka fuu wruqKhs' kdgH l,djg fuu wdiajdo ckkh yer
fjk;a n,m;%hla wjYH ke;' tfy;a th k ;sh hq;=uh' th iodpdrh imhkakla njg m;a
lsug wmg lsis f,ilskq;a fkdyelsh' tn m%h;akhlska wm w;ska kdgH l,df moku |
f wjodkula k we;s h yelsh' tfia is jkafka fYaIfhkau ta u.ska ug ;e;a lrk
iodpdrd;aul mdvu wdiajdo ckl f,i bm;a fkdjk gh'4
ngysr f,dalfha fndfyda pdrlhska iska fn%Ia ykajkq ,en we;af;a foaYmd,k l,dlrejl=
f,ih' tfiau udlaiajdfhl= f,ih' tneka l,dj ms<sn|j tjekakl= fujeks m%ldYhla
lr;shs iuyr udlaiajdkg mjd ms<s .ekSu wmyiqh' tmuKla fkdj Tyq j;aj is wjfha
m%n,j mej;s iudcjd h:d:jdoh kka yekajqKq fidah ks, l,d m%jK;df
wkq.dlfhda wdlD;sjdfhlehs Tyqg mNj l<y' kdgH l,dj j;udk hq.hg .e,fmk l,d
udOHhla njg m;a lsu i|yd iajdNdljdoh m%;slafIam lrka wd.ka;=llrKh wruqKq fldg
.;a wdLHdk rx. l%uhla f.dv ke.Sug Tyq iska lrk ,o wdlD;suh w;ayod ne,S yd
ksudK fuhg m%Odk fya;+ka h'
tfia jqj o fn%Ia idm%odhsl iajdNdl rx. l%ufha ix{d moaO;sh fjkqjg ykajd ka kj
ix{d moaO;sh fukau ta u.ska kdgHfha ;snQ udhdrEmSn j bj;a u frda,dx nd;a jeks Tyqf.a
foaYmd,k ia:djrh ms<s fkd.;a mYapdoa kjHjd pdrlhskaf.a we.hSug ,la h'
fn%Ia iska ykajd fok ,o ud.h jQfha l,dj yq m%pdrd;aul whla fkdj wdiajdoh ;=<ska
wjfndaOhla o ,nd h yels ksudKd;aul ldhhla njh' j;udk l,dlrejdf.a iudc j.lSu
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n,kak( Brecht on Theatre, ixialrKh yd mj;kh fcdaka , ^1975&" Hill & Wang, New York, 428 msgqj

yq Wmfoia ulg iSud fkdjk l,d Ihl fufyhla nj ks.ukh lsuu fn%Ia f,dj mqrd
ms<s.ekSula ,enQ l,dlrejl= njg m;a ug o m%Odku fya;=j hhs lsj yelsh'
fuys fYaIfhka jeo.;a jkafka *eisia taldm;sjdohg yd Okjdohg tfrysj;a" iduhg yd
iudc idOdrKhg mlaIj;a meye,s ia:djrhla .;a nqoau;l= jQ fn%Ia jekakl= l,df uQ,sl
wruqK wdiajdo ckkhh hk ks.ukhg meKSu fukau l,d lrejdf.a m%Odk j.lSu ksiqkag
wdiajdoh ,nd uhhs ;SrKh lsuh'
uhsl,a m%%kdka
21$06$2015