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Word-formation

BASE ( as distinct from STEM- a part of the word remaining after every
affix has been removed)
e.g. friend stem
friendly= friend+ly ( stem = base + affix)
unfriendly = un + friendly (friendly is a base but not the stem)
Derivation:
friend
friend+ly
un+friend+ly
un+friend+li-ness

noun
noun >adjective
adjective > adjective
adjective > noun

Chief processes by which the BASE may be modified:


AFFIXATION
a)
Prefixation -adding a prefix to the base, with or without a change of
word-class
e.g. author co-author
b)
Suffixation- adding a suffix to the base, with or without a change of
word-class
e.g. drive driver
CONVERSION (zero affixation) assigning the base to a different word
class without changing its form ( e.g. drive v.- drive n.)
COMPOUNDING adding one base to another ( hang+man=hangman)

Prefixation
Generally does not alter the word-class of the base
Productive prefixes have a light stress on their first syllable eg.
/prefabricated/
Negative prefixes
meaning
example
UNthe opposite of, not
unfair
NONnot
non-smoker
IN-/IL-/IM-/IRnot
insane
DISnot
dislike
Alacking in
amoral

Prefixation
Reversative
meaning
or privative prefixes
UNto reverse action
to deprive of
DEto reverse action
DISto reverse /deprive

examples

Pejorative prefixes
MISMALPSEUDO-

examples
misinform
malfunction
pseudo-intellectual

meaning
wrongly
badly
false/imitation

untie
unhorse
deforestation
disconnect

Prefixation
Prefixes of degree/ size
ARCH SUPER OUT SUR SUB OVER UNDER HYPER ULTRA MINI-

meaning
highest, worst
above, more than better
to do sth. faster, longer
over and above
lower/less than
too much
too little
extremely
extremely, beyond
little

examples
archduke
supernatural
outlive
surtax
substandard
overconfident
underprivileged
hypercritical
ultra-modern
mini-van

Prefixation
Prefixes of attitude
COCOUNTERANTIPRO-

Locative prefixes
SUPERSUBINTERTRANS-

meaning
with, joint
in opposition to
against
on the side of

examples
cooperate
counteract
anti-clockwise
pro-Common Market

over
beneath, lesser in rank
between, among
across, from one place
to another

superstructure
subconscious
international
transplant

Prefixation

Prefixes of time/order
FOREPREPOSTEXRE-

Number prefixes
UNI-, MONO
BI-, DI-,
TRIMULTY-, POLY-

meaning
before
before
after
former
again, back

one
two
three
many

examples
forknowledge
pre-marital
post-war
ex-husband
re-evaluate

unilateral
bilingual
tripartite
multi-racial

Prefixation

Other prefixes
AUTOself
NEOnew, revived
PANall. world-wide
PROTOfirst, original
SEMIhalf
VICE
deputy
Conversion prefixes
BEN to Adj.
ENN to V
AV to predicative Adj.

autobiography
neo-Gothic
pan-American
prototype
semicircle
vice-president

bewigged, bespectacled
enslave
afloat