ISLANDING SCHEME FOR STATION DURING GRID BLACK-OUT

By

Girija Shankar Sharma,
M.Tech (Power System),
DGM (O&M-Opn), NTPC-Rihand,
E-mail: gssharma@ntpc.co.in

Presentation Points
•System Description and Grid Related Protection.

•Brief Description of Present Grid Outage.
•Short Coming of Existing House Load Scheme
•Suggested Islanding Scheme for Station and Its
Advantage

5/1 •GT CB Opening on Full Load: Turbine Speed and Stator Voltage increased by <10%. .5 % for Unit have only MDBFPs (42.5 MW for 500 MW) and • 8.5 % for unit having TDBFPs (32. • Sharing of APC on UT/ ST is 2.System Description and Grid Related Protection Approved APC by IEGC • 6. •Amount of Steam/ MW Generation in approximately 3 T/Hr/ MW •HP/ LP Bypass Capacity 60 % of MCR.5 MW for 500MW).e. i. 300 MW or 936 T/Hrs out of 1560 T/Hr.

considering outgoing feeder Distance Protection.4 Hz for > 2. 4.System Description and Grid Related Protection Generator Protection (Class-A and Class-C) 1.075 PU for > 5 Sec i. 2. Under frequency (Alarm Freq < 48. when Freq < 47. 46. 3. Inst > 145%) .51Hz on rated voltage.5 Hz for 2. Pole slipping (Twice with in 25 sec).e.5 sec and Open GT Breaker on Class-C protection. LBB Protection and Over Current and Negative Phase Sequence Prot.) Back-up Impedance Protection ( Open GT Breaker when Impedance is less than setting for > 2 sec: Long Transmission Line): Suitable for Single Unit Station but low liable for Multiple Units Station. Over voltage protection (>105% for > 3sec. 5.0 sec) Over fluxing (V/f > 1.

.Brief Description of Present Grid Outage Grid Failure on July 30. 2012 at 12:30 Hrs Both Days : NR got separated from WR due to false tripping of 400 KV Bina-Gwalior Line sensing 3rd zone distance protection. due to “Load Encroachment” i.e. high load and low voltage. 2012 at 02:33 Hrs and repeated on July 31.

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4 Hz at 02:33:25 hrs i.e. GT voltage shoot-up from 21 to 23 KV. Turbine load reduced to 30 MW from 592 MW Time of Field Breaker Opening: GT Terminal voltage was 11.Parameters Variation During Generator Breaker Opening Grid Disturbance (Parame te r Variation). dated 30/07/2012 Time Freq Freq Grid Disturbance (Parameter Variation). Dated 30/07/2012 200 100 0 UT Bus ST Bus MW Time Grid Voltage 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 800 600 400 200 0 2: 33 :1 3 2: 33 :1 5 2: 33 :1 7 2: 33 :1 9 2: 33 :2 1 2: 33 :2 3 2: 33 :2 5 2: 33 :2 7 2: 33 :2 9 2: 33 :3 1 25 15 5 2: 33 :1 3 2: 33 :1 5 2: 33 :1 7 2: 33 :1 9 2: 33 :2 1 2: 33 :2 3 2: 33 :2 5 2: 33 :2 7 2: 33 :2 9 2: 33 :3 1 500 400 300 Gen Voltage Gen Voltage HP/LPBP Opening on dated 30/07/2012 55 45 35 Freq Time Freq HPBP LPBP Time MW Prior to Grid Disturbance Freq was 49. LT side voltage of UT was 5.8 KV and running CW pumps tripped led to LPT diaphragm ruptured on loss of circulating water. df/dt was 0. . GT CB opened TG Speed shoot-up app.18 Hz/Sec.0 KV against 21 KV and turbine speed was 1410 RPM.6 Hz (02:33:13 Hrs ) reach to 47. 300 RPM. date d 30/07/2012 Turbine Speed 60 50 40 30 20 10 810 610 410 210 10 2: 33 :1 3 2: 33 :1 5 2: 33 :1 7 2: 33 :1 9 2: 33 :2 1 2: 33 :2 3 2: 33 :2 5 2: 33 :2 7 2: 33 :2 9 2: 33 :3 1 51 50 49 48 47 46 45 44 43 42 2: 33 :1 3 2: 33 :1 5 2: 33 :1 7 2: 33 :1 9 2: 33 :2 1 2: 33 :2 3 2: 33 :2 5 2: 33 :2 7 2: 33 :2 9 2: 33 :3 1 3100 3050 3000 2950 2900 2850 2800 2750 2700 2650 Grid Disturbance (Parameter Variation).

70% of 65 MW= 45. time delay 2 sec) CLASS-C Protection Individual Unit Supply only UT i.e.Existing House-Load Scheme Under Frequency ( < 47.4 Hz.e. 70% of Unit APC i.5 MW= 142 T/Hrs BLI .

Load in individual UT is approx. 4.5% of MCR Generating Unit. tripping of TDBFPs on low water flow < 150 T/hrs. Less amount of IPT exhaust steam. Hot well Make-up pump. amount of steam. .e.e. cause Boiler Tripping on drum level low prot. Due to inadequate BLI and Less Opening of Governing Valve. i. resulting VOLTAGE DROP IN UNIT BOARD lead to tripping of Running CW pumps.e. Mill Feeders etc. Excessive Current on running equipments due to low terminal voltage. As per last experience Unit survived only for 90 sec.: Therefore chances of LPT diaphragm rupturing and Boiler tripping of loss of fuel. inadequate for TDBFPs. 70% of 6. PA fans. lead to unavailability of major equipment’s like MDBFPs and CW pump-C.5 % of MCR i. HFO and LDO etc. Turbine Speed Start reducing. led to total Blackoutage. is inadequate for safe continuous running of Unit for long period in view of HPT overheating.DISADVANTAGE OF EXISTING HOUSE LOAD SCHEME • • • • • • Total loss of STATION POWER. 45 MW or BLI 140 T/hr i.

n*65 MW.e. n=No.Suggested House-Load/ Islanding Scheme TURBINE TRIP Under Frequency & df/dt Relay Running Unit Supply total Station APC i. of Units in Station= n*202 T/Hrs BLI .

Suggested House-Load/ Islanding Scheme Existing: Under Frequency (2) (Class-C Protection) as Back-Up Suggested House-Load Once Unit Survived : Synchronize with Available Grid to Avoid Undesirable Power Swing. .

of Units in Station= n*202 T/Hrs BLI. – RESULTING BOILER IS REMAIN LIVE. therefore “Boiler” of all units survived (Already exist: Part of Class-B Trip. Running Unit Supply total Station APC i. Remaining Units Turbine Trip (Class-B). Switchyard is in remain live condition and supplying power to STATION TRANSFORMERS. Hot well Make-up pump.Advantage of Suggested House-Load/ Islanding Scheme • • • • Through One Selected Running Unit.e. initiated during Turbine tripping). Hence Major Equipments like MDBFPs and CW pump-C. – HPBP/LPBP fast opening signal issued. (For one 500 MW unit it will be approx. initiated during Turbine tripping). initiated during Turbine tripping). Existing Class-C protection could be used as back-up protection. (Already exist: Part of Class-B Trip. which on selected for house load. n*65 MW. therefore already exist commands from Class-B trip remain there and initiate – Initiate Fast Unit to ST changeover signal for all units except. 30 to 35 . n=No. HFO and LDO etc remain available. – Run-Back Signal issued for all units and cut numbers of running mills to four (Already exist: Part of Class-B Trip.

7 Hz OR 47.4 Hz / for >= 2 Sec.4 Hz OR 47.51 to 47. 1/50=0.7 Hz: Single Generating Station with Pre-identified load.9 Hz: More than one Generating Station with predetermined load.4 Hz with Time Delay < 2 Sec. 46. • 47.e.06 Sec. – Therefore Suggested Under Setting: • 47. Grid Enquiry Committee Islanding suggestion: (Clause 5/(d)). four cycle .02 sec and Average over 3 cycle= 3/50=0. . considering opening time of CB i. Stage#1: V/f > 1. Stage#1: Islanding with HVDC and Freq < 47.4 Hz/ Time Delay 1 Sec: Initiate Suggested Islanding Operation.e. – Relay measured freq on crossing a zero i.80 msec i.5 Sec.e. • 47.Relay Setting for Suggested House-Load/ Islanding Scheme • Under Frequency Relay: – – – – Class-C Protection: Freq < 47. • 47.075 PU for >= 5 Sec i.4 Hz/ Time Delay 2 Sec: Initiate Existing “Class-C” prot as back-up.4 to 47.e.51Hz on rated Voltage.7 Hz for >=0. (Ref ABB: df/dt Relay Setting Northern region: May 2007 ) – Relay may be set in between 46.

e.174Hz/s • Two out of Three Logic to be used for undesirable “Islanding operation” .4)/(2:33:13-2:33:25)=0.Relay Setting for Suggested House-Load/ Islanding Scheme • df/dt Relay (For ensuring unsustainable condition of grid: leading to Black-out) Setting: (df/dt Relay Setting Northern region: May 2007) – 0.5-47.1 Hz/Sec at 50 Hz for Northern Region: Averaged on interval of three cycle i. 0.06 Sec.175 Hz/Sec • 31/07/2012: (49.84-47. – Last Grid Outage: • 30/ 07/2012: (49.4)/(13:01:12-13:01:26)=0.

1 Hz/sec df/dt >0.Relay Setting for Suggested House-Load/ Islanding Scheme Time Delay 1 Sec Freq < 47.1 Hz/sec & & OR & & & OR & & Suggested Island .4 Hz & Time Delay 2 Sec OR Class-C Time Delay 1 Sec Freq < 47.4 Hz Time Delay 2 Sec df/dt >0.1 Hz/sec df/dt >0.4 Hz & Time Delay 2 Sec & Time Delay 1 Sec Freq < 47.

One Unit of particular station supplying to house load and remaining units Boiler remains on running condition. The suggested system save the Station from total outage. sufficient steam follows from turbine of running unit avoid HPT overheating.Conclusion • The suggested islanding system is additional protection for existing system and take care of all safe condition required running of unit/ units i. constituted . there are no tripping of Circulating water pumps. This scheme could be easy implemented in all station and it is also fulfilling recommendation of enquiry committee. Suggested Islanding system help to restoration of grids with in minimum duration and also provide start-up power to other station. hence eliminated rupturing of LPT diaphragm.e.

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