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ROLLER COMPACTED CONCRETE FOR DAMS

1.0

INTRODUCTION

Roller Compacted Concrete (RCC) is defined as a concrete of stiff consistency, compacted by


vibratory rollers in thin lifts most commonly not exceeding 300 to 600 mm. It is gaining
worldwide acceptance for use in construction of gravity dams.
RCC construction has considerable appeal in areas where the construction season is short, and in
general, has an economic advantage in the time factor or cost. With this background, RCC
gravity dams become the primary alternative for potential dam sites with suitable rock
foundations and adequate aggregate sources. Because of its low water and cement content, RCC
is less susceptible to shrinkage or cracking. Its use eliminates the need for construction joints and
the structure can be built in a continuous operation into a monolith which would not create
thermal problems associated with mass concrete.
A great diversity of practice and opinion exists on the adoption of this new technology due to
differences in methods of placement, consistency and mix proportions of RCC with respect to
conventional concrete, based on site specific conditions. Because of this diversity, RCC
technology has been split up into three distinct groupings depending on the type and design of
concrete used, namely:
Rollcrete

Concrete containing `as dug' gravel stabilized with low cement


content e.g. concrete used in the repairs to the stilling basin at
Tarbela Dam (Pakistan). The cement content in rollcrete is of the
order of 60-80 kg/m3.

Lean Concrete

Concrete containing aggregates of nearly normal quality and low


cement content e.g. concrete used in Ohkawa and Shimajigawa
Dams (Japan) and Willow Creek Dam (USA). The cementitious
material content in the case of lean RCC is generally less than 100
kg/m3, out of which flyash content is about 40%.

In Japan, the RCC is known by the name of RCD (Roller Compacted Dam); such a concrete
contains cementitious content between 120 and 130 kg/m3. The method involves placing
concrete in lifts upto 700 mm thick, green cutting of lift surfaces and cutting of contraction joints
using a vibratory joint cutter.
High Paste Content Concrete

2.0

MATERIALS

2.1

Cement

Concrete containing aggregates of nearly normal quality and


in which the paste content is 20 percent or more of the total
volume of concrete e.g. concrete used in Milton Brook Dam (UK)
and Upper Stillwater Dam (USA). The cementitious material
content in the case of high paste content concrete is in excess of
150 kg/m3, out of which fly ash content may be 70 to 80% by
volume.

Ordinary Portland Cement conforming to IS:269-1976 "Specification for Ordinary Portland

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Cement, 33 Grade (Fourth Revision)" or Portland Pozzolana Cement conforming to IS:14891976 "Specification for Portland Pozzolana Cement (Second Revision)" can normally be used.
The selection of cement type is based on structural requirement and not on the method of
placement or consolidation of concrete.
2.2

Flyash

Flyash should conform to Grade I of IS:3812-1981 "Specification for Flyash for Use as
Pozzolana and Admixture (First Revision)"; it should have percentage of water equal to or less
than 5%.
2.3

Aggregates

Coarse and fine aggregates conforming to IS:383-1970 "Specification for Coarse and Fine
Aggregates from Natural Sources for Concrete (Second Revision)" may be used depending on
environmental exposure and strength requirements. Aggregate variability affects cement and
water requirements of the mix which in turn affect strength and yield. The maximum size of
aggregate (MSA) in RCC mixes is generally limited to 80 mm to minimize segregation during
dumping and spreading and bonding problems. Optimum grading has to be determined by the
standard practice for selecting proportions. The gradation selected should provide maximum
density with minimum paste content in the compacted state with minimum compaction effort.
Also, the maximum size of aggregate is to be limited to 40 mm or less for concrete adjacent to
structures or abutments. Good quality RCC construction requires good quality aggregates free
of mica and alkali reactivity, not soft enough to be susceptible to damage by compaction
equipment. For treatment at lift joints in the case of lean RCC, the sand to be used in mortar for
application at lift joints should conform to IS:2116-1980 "Specification for Sand for Masonry
Mortar (First Revision)". The fine aggregate for the RCC shall have a maximum particle size of
4.75 mm. RCC mixes generally contain about 35% fine aggregate by volume of total aggregate.
Fines passing 75 micron IS sieve should be limited to less than 5% of total aggregate (coarse &
fine) by weight.
2.4

Water

Water to be used for mixing and curing should conform to clause 4.3 of IS:456-1978 "Code of
Practice for Plain and Reinforced Concrete (Third Revision)". Potable water is generally
considered satisfactory.
2.5

Admixtures

Admixtures normally used in RCC are for set retardation and/or reduction of water content,
which should conform to IS:9103-1979 "Indian Standard Specification for Admixtures for
Concrete".

3.0

MIX PROPORTIONING ASPECTS

Mix design methods have varied considerably for RCC structures throughout the world. These
methods can be grouped into the following three principle categories:
(i)

Mixes designed similar to conventional mass concrete through consistency tests.

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(ii)
(iii)
3.1

Lean RCC mixes.


Mixes designed by soil compaction methods.

Proportioning RCC by Evaluation of Consistency Tests

The modified Vebe compactibility test has served as the basis of determining workability and
optimising aggregate proportions. The Vebe apparatus consists of a vibrating table of fixed
frequency and amplitude with a 0.0094 m3 container attached to it. A loose RCC sample is
placed in the container under a surcharge of either 12.3 or 22.7 kg and the sample vibrated until
fully consolidated. The "Vebe time" is determined and compared with on-site compaction tests
with vibratory rollers. The optimum time is determined based on wet density tests by nuclear
gauge and evaluation of core samples. This optimum Vebe time will be influenced by mix
proportions, particularly water content, maximum size of aggregate, sand content, and minus 75
micron fines content. Mixes with clean sand and fixed aggregate proportions generally require a
Vebe time of 15 to 30 seconds to compact for samples with 50 mm MSA. Tests at Elk Creek
Dam in USA utilizing 75 mm MSA with higher minus 75 micron fines content required Vebe time
of approximately 10 seconds to compact.
Mix design methods utilizing consistency tests generally require that specific mix parameters such
as water content, cementitious materials content, or aggregate content be fixed, and then one
parameter be varied to reach a desired level of consistency. In this way all mix parameters can be
optimized to achieve desired fresh
and hardened concrete properties. Tests can also be performed to maximize the fresh density of
mortar or concrete and then add additional volume of extra paste or mortar to provide a buffer,
depending on bonding requirements or segregation.
The Japanese RCD proportioning methods incorporate two vibration tests similar to the Vebe test
for 38 mm MSA mixes and for 150 mm MSA mixes to evaluate workability; these measurements
are called the Vc compaction values. The higher the unit water content, the lower the Vc value;
but too low a Vc value will result in bleeding after vibration. The proper Vc value depends upon
the aggregate quantities, mix design of the concrete, performance of the vibratory roller, size of
the Project and temperature; however, it is generally thought to be around 60 seconds for the
large container and 20 seconds for the small container. If the water content is reduced too much,
there will be a point where the strength will no longer increase with a decrease in the ratio of
water content to the sum of the cement and pozzolana contents, the W/(C+f) ratio. This will
happen because aggregate voids will no longer be filled with paste, and entrapped air will be
present.
3.2

Lean RCC

Water-tightness or impermeability is an important parameter for water retention RCC dams.


There are several procedures to prevent/minimize seepage through the dam. Water-tightness will
be improved by better workability/compactibility of the RCC mix. This can be accomplished by
increasing the mortar in the mix to fill the voids and bind the larger size aggregates resulting in a
lift which is adequately dense throughout its full depth with least voids in the lower portion. This
is expected to aid in attaining an adequate bond at the lift joints which are potentially the most
likely path of any seepage. In addition, prior to placement of each succeeding lift of RCC, the
top of the previous lift is to have special preparation, followed by application of cement-sand
mortar to enhance impermeability at interface of each lift. To achieve water-tightness at the
upstream face, a zone of conventional concrete is normally placed in 0.3 metre lifts in a 0.91

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metre wide layer between the upstream face of the dam and the edge of the compacted RCC.
Placement of conventional concrete should precede closely that of the RCC so that the
conventional concrete can be blended into the edges of the unconsolidated RCC.
For the above type of construction, the cementitious material content of the RCC generally
ranges between 80 and 100 kg/m3 and of the bedding mix above the prepared foundation between
150 and 200 kg/m3. For the base layer of roller compacted concrete, the cementitious material
content varies between 120 to 140 kg/m3. The flyash content generally ranges between 40 to 60
kg/m3.
3.3

High Paste Content Concrete

The above RCC envisages a low cement content concrete with low workability, to reduce the
cost of concrete and the potential for heat generation in the structure. Total
cementitious content (defined as the content of cement-sized strength imparting particles i.e.
Portland cement + pozzolana) is in excess of about 150 kg/m3. In such mixes, in order achieve a
density near to the theoretical air-free density, a relatively high content of paste is required. For
this purpose, flyash as pozzolana has proved to be the best with ratio of pozzolana to Portland
cement as high as 4:1 by volume having been used. The high paste content has been found to
improve the bond between successive lifts and no treatment of the surface of the previous layer
before placement of next lift is necessary if the time interval between placement of lifts is 48 hours
or less. The RCC is designed to have a minimum of air voids and in-situ density should therefore
be as high a percentage of the air-free density as possible.
For air voids to be minimum, a minimum volume of paste is required within the RCC. The paste
fraction is the absolute volume of cement, flyash and free water. The mortar fraction is the
absolute volume of the paste and fine aggregate passing 4.75 mm sieve. Below a paste/mortar
ratio of 0.35, the voids in the fine aggregate will not be filled by paste and a high relative density
cannot be achieved and to have a high density, it should be 0.38 or above and for good bond, the
ratio should not be less than 0.41.
3.4

Other Proportioning Methods

Other proportioning methods have evaluated RCC using soil compaction procedures. These mix
design methods have not been used for concrete gravity dam sections; however, they have been
used on a number of placements, including emergency repairs. These methods concentrate on
varying the moisture content for a mix with a fixed aggregate grading and cementitious materials
content to produce the maximum dry density of the RCC. Specimens are compacted using
modified soil compaction equipment to facilitate use of a larger MSA. The calculated moisture
content and associated dry density are plotted to determine the optimum moisture to compact the
mix in the specimen. Because of cement hydration, oven-dry moisture content determinations
provide erratic results; therefore, the design moisture content (by dry batch mass) is used. In
order to provide a distinct peak to the compaction curve, the cementitious materials content and
grading and moisture content of the aggregates should remain constant during the testing.
Compaction tests are normally performed on the concrete over a range of cementitious materials
content to determine the minimum cementitious materials content that will meet compressive
strength requirements. Once the laboratory maximum dry density and optimum moisture content
have been determined for each cementitious materials content, compressive strength test
specimens are prepared in the same manner as the compaction test specimens.
The optimum moisture content determined by soil compaction methods is dependent on the

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aggregates, fines content, cementitious material content and compactive effort applied. Moisture
content is expressed as percent moisture by dry mass of solids. Loss of strength will occur when
the moisture content is (i) dry of optimum due to the presence of entrapped air or (ii) wet of
optimum due to higher W/(C+f) ratio.
Tests performed at a high compactive effort will result in a lower "Optimum" moisture content
than those performed at a low compactive effort. Too high a compactive effort results in
aggregate fracture and non- representative specimens. In selecting a compactive effort to
determine the optimum moisture content, consideration should be given to providing enough
moisture to allow complete hydration of the cement and to allow enough paste to form to fill all
the voids. It is difficult to compare strength of mixes prepared at different moisture contents
because of the variation in yield quantities and W/(C+f) ratio.
4.0

TEST EMBANKMENT

Irrespective of the type of construction adopted, a test embankment of suitable dimensions should
be constructed prior to start of the work using the same techniques, materials, mix proportions
and machinery proposed to be employed for the work, to finalize various parameters of the RCC,
to demonstrate the general constructability of the structure using roller compacted concrete and
to determine the minimum number of passes for full compaction with the design mix and planned
layer thickness.
5.0

SEEPAGE CONTROL MEASURES

An important consideration not only in case of RCC dams but also for any water retaining
structure is to minimize and control seepage of water through the structure. For RCC dams, this
is achieved in the following ways:
a)

By providing a bedding layer of cement-sand mortar at the lift joints.

b)

Avoiding contamination at lift joints. The contamination may be in the form of loose
material, pooled water etc.

c)

Limiting exposure time of newly compacted lift surface since it is established that a
reduced exposure time results in better bond between layers and hence water-tight joints
are achieved.

d)

By providing richer zone of RCC adjacent to upstream surface since rich cementitious
material provides more impervious concrete.

e)

By providing conventional concrete zone at upstream surface.

f)

By using chemical grout impregnated strips which are activated in the presence of
moisture and fill the joint with grout thereby providing a water barrier.

g)

By providing water-proof membrane at the upstream surface after proper treatment of the
exposed surface.

6.0

U/S & D/S FACES

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Following methods have been adopted for forming faces of RCC dams:
(i)
(ii)
(iii)
(iv)
(v)
(vi)
(vii)
(viii)
(ix)
(x)
(xi)
(xii)
(xiii)
(xiv)
(xv)
(xvi)
7.0

Conventional concrete against formwork


RCC supported by fill shoulders
RCC against precast concrete panels
Unformed face of RCC
RCC against formwork
Conventional concrete against precast concrete panels with membrane
Precast concrete panels backed by asphaltic mortar (placed hot)
Precast concrete blocks
Slip formed/extruded facing elements
Mechanically compacted unformed face of RCC
Conventional concrete against precast concrete panels
Reinforced conventional concrete cast after RCC against formwork
Conventional concrete against formwork with HDPE liner
Reinforced conventional concrete cast in advance of the RCC
PVC membrane between RCC & conventional concrete cast against formwork
Reinforced concrete facing on precast concrete units
QUALITY CONTROL

It is considered important that quality control programme for RCC structures should be planned
prior to construction, strictly implemented and monitored during construction and confirmed
after construction. Due to greater variation in quality of RCC mixes in comparison to
conventional concrete mixes, sufficient over-design factors for strength requirements are called
for.
Quality control of materials, their testing and monitoring of properties form a vital part of RCC
construction. Routine testing should be performed on all representative materials throughout
construction and extra testing undertaken whenever job conditions warrant, followed by tests of
fresh and hardened concrete. Fresh concrete testing should include workability and consistency,
moisture content of the mix, temperature, segregation and compacted density with nuclear
density gauge immediately after rolling. Hardened concrete testing should include compressive
strength and density at least upto the age required for design strength as also permeability and
durability of RCC. In addition, property of bond between lift joints should be assessed by
carrying out bond strength tests in direct tension and direct shear.
Special attention should be given to changes in moisture content and gradation of aggregates
which can significantly change the workability of the mix. Data of the actual mix proportions
used should be maintained. For effective evaluation of compaction, the maximum air-free density
of the RCC should be computed and compared with nuclear gauge density test results. The inplace density should approach 98 to 99 percent of the calculated value. Density tests should be
performed at random locations adequately covering the entire lift at the rate of at least one test
per 250 m3 of RCC placed.
The moisture content of RCC mixes is critical to achieving compaction. This should be
controlled at the batch plant by recording the weights of the materials as they enter the mixer and
knowing the moisture content and absorption of the aggregates.
Consistency testing should be performed on a regular basis as a means of evaluating the
workability and relative compactibility of the RCC. The RCC should be sampled for testing at

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the batch plant. The Vebe time to compact the sample should be correlated to the compactibility
of the mix with a vibratory roller through nuclear gauge density tests and confirmed with drill
cores.
Layerwise monitoring of placement temperature of RCC should be done regularly.
8.0

CONSTRUCTION TECHNIQUE

8.1

General

A 4.5 m wide vibratory roller of appropriate design making four passes and travelling at a speed
of 31/4 km/hr can compact more than 260 cu.m per hr of no slump concrete in 25 cm layers. A
conventional batch plant would require approximately four 3 cu.m mixers or one large 9 cu.m
mixer to match the compaction capabilities of one large roller on a continuous placement
operation.
8.2

Mixing

Mixing requirements for RCC may be as varied as the application possibilities. If the structure is
designed as a typical concrete structure requiring quality concrete, the mixing equipment should
meet the standards for conventional concrete.
a)

Batch Mixers -

b)

Continuous Mixers -

c)

Truck Mixers -

8.3

Transportation
Equipment -

Conventional batch mixers have been used in all the


placements.
These are particularly to have high volume output.
Principal advantages of continuous mixers are the
elimination of batching time from the production time
cycle and the significantly lower cost of plant in relation to
the output capacity.
Mixers of the tilting-drum type, appear to be suitable for
RCC using upto 40 mm maximum size aggregates.
Conventional non-tilting, drum type truck mixers are not
recommended for RCC either for mixing or transportation
because of serious segregation problems anticipated
during the discharge cycle.

The volume of material to be placed and


access to the placement area will generally be the
controlling factors in the selection of equipment to be used
for transporting RCC from the mixing location to the
placing area. There are two methods for transportation of
RCC i.e. batch and continuous.

RCC can be compacted at rates of 760 cu.m or more per hr with several presently available selfpropelled vibratory rollers. This rate is significantly greater than that achievable in the past with
conventional mass concrete; therefore, it appears necessary to develop new approaches in the
selection of transportation equipment.

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The type of transportation equipment used to move RCC from the mixing plant to the placement
area will be influenced by the largest aggregate size specified in the mix. 38 mm MSA concrete
can be transported and placed in non-agitating haul units designed for aggregate hauling and
earth-moving without objectionable segregation. 75 mm & larger MSA concrete has a distinct
tendency to segregate when it is dumped from this type of equipment on to hard surfaces.
Batch transportation -

Non-agitating equipment -

Batch transportation equipment is almost always some


form of container mounted on a rubber tired haul unit or trailer.
The most common units are conventional end or bottom dump
trucks.
Non-agitating equipment may be most suitable for batch
transportation of RCC.

Agitating equipment -

Conventional nontilting drum batch hauling equipment


designed to agitate or mix the material during the transportation
generally should not be used for RCC.

Continuous transportation -

Continuous transportation of RCC seems most applicable to use


of belt conveyors.

8.4

Placing

RCC must be placed in layers or lifts thin enough to allow complete compaction by the vibratory
roller or plate compactor. Optimum placement layers range from 20 cm to 30 cm in thickness.
Batch placing -

Equipment which deposits batches in piles of


concrete must be supplemented with equipment which will knockdown and spread the piles in thin layers 20 to 30 cm thick at the
same rate at which concrete can be transported and compacted.
Dozer type spreaders and road graders may be most suitable.
Rubber tired hauling equipment can operate on the freshly
compacted surface with no adverse effects on the concrete.

Continuous placing -

When placing concrete with belt conveyors in a


continuous operation, the best rule is to have as little equipment as
possible actually in the placing area and to minimize as much as
possible the actual movement of equipment while concrete is
being placed. To accomplish this, the layout of the conveyor
system must be well planned in advance so there is a place for all
conveyors to go without stopping the rolling operation.

8.5

Consolidation

Generally any vibratory roller which has been used successfully to compact rockfill will compact
RCC. Self-propelled rollers, with power-driven vibrating drums, have proven to be more suitable
for RCC than rollers which only vibrate and require other vehicles or means for propulsion.
Rollers larger than 4 or 5 tonnes usually cannot operate closer than 15 to 23 cm to form work or
obstacles, so that rollers smaller than 1 to 2 tonnes are usually needed to consolidate the concrete
in these areas.

230

The minimum number of passes for a given vibrating roller to achieve full consolidation
(maximum attainable density) depends primarily on the concrete mix and layer thickness. Layer
thickness will be governed more by spreading efficiency than by compaction requirements. Tests
should be performed in "test fills" prior to or during the early stages of construction to determine
the minimum number of passes for full consolidation, using the correct mix and the planned layer
thickness. The consolidated mass of a mix with adequate paste volume will respond to working
of the surface like stiff moulding clay or jelly.
The only sure way to determine full compaction in the field is by measurement of the compacted
density and comparison with the same mix fully compacted in the laboratory by extended
vibration. The nuclear measuring devices now used in soil density measurements are applicable
for density measurements of compacted layers.
Horizontal construction joints - Horizontal construction joints may either be of the planned or
unplanned variety. Any time a placement layer is not covered by the time it reaches initial set, it
will no longer be workable and becomes a cold joint, or unplanned construction joint. This time
element is very sensitive to temperature, the amount of portland cement in the mix, and the type
and set retarding characteristics of the admixtures, if any. On the basis of time element, there
appears to be a definite advantage in utilizing set-retarding admixtures, thereby extending the
setting and working time, providing flexibility against unscheduled delays, and allowing
enlargement of the working surface of the lift.
If the construction joint has been kept clean and moist throughout its exposure, no joint treatment
is required. If the surface has been contaminated by dirt, mud etc., the prescribed treatment is
that which is necessary to remove the foreign matter. If the surface has been allowed to dry out
completely, then it should be thoroughly cleaned by wet sand blasting or other acceptable means
of cleaning and preparation of hardened construction joints.
Satisfactory bond at horizontal construction joints can be assured by utilization of a bedding mix
with 38 mm, or smaller maximum size aggregate provided the mix has a paste volume at least
20% greater than the maximum volume of paste which produces maximum density. The most
essential requirements of the bedding mix appear to be excess paste, excess wetness, and excess
strength over that of the mass mix. When the mass mix consists of 38 mm MSA, it may be
possible to achieve full bond, without a special bedding mix, by providing the excess paste
volume requirements in the covering layer of the mass mix.
9.0

CURING AND PROTECTION

RCC should be kept continuously moist for 7 days or until covered by an additional layer of
concrete. All permanently exposed surfaces and nonbonded surfaces can be cured by application
of water, liquid membrane curing compounds, liquid asphalt, or soil cover.
During hot weather or climatic conditions in which surface drying is accelerated, protection of
RCC surfaces may become necessary. When this conditions is observed, water should be added
to the surface to replace and supplement evaporating moisture.
Cold weather -

Sufficient protection of exposed RCC surfaces


should be provided for 7 days after placement, when air
temperatures are expected at or below freezing. This protection
can be achieved by covering the surface with insulation mats,

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layers of straw, 15 cm of soil, or some other form of insulative


material.
The surface of compacted layers should be protected against damage caused by construction
machinery and equipment.
In order to ensure immediate drainage in case of a sudden downpour, the top surface of RCC
should have an incline of 2% directed upstream. RCC placement should be suspended when
heavy rain starts, and all placed RCC should be compacted as quickly as possible. RCC, which
cannot be fully compacted quickly enough to prevent contamination from rain water, shall be
removed.
10.0

RCC IN PRACTICE

In practice, Roller Compacted Concrete has been used/proposed for use in atleast 100 dams
worldwide either in original construction or for repairs/rehabilitation works. Major
applications are reported from the USA and Japan (Tables 1 and 2). Of late, the technique has
been widely accepted for upgrading embankment dams in the USA (Table 3) in terms of
increasing the spillway capacity. Figure 1 illustrates a typical rehabilitated section.
Table 1: The Worlds RCC Dams Constructed, Under Construction or Planned
Name of Dam
Shimajigawa
Holbeam Wood
Wilow Creek
Copperfield River
Middle Fork
Winchester(now
Caroll.E.Ecton)
Galesville
Castilblanco de los Arrayas
Kengkou
Craigbourne
Grindstone Canyon
De Mist Kraal
Monksville
Saco de Nova Olinda
Arabie (now Mokgoma
Matlala)
Bucca Weir
Zaaihoek
Lower Chase Creek
Upper Stillwater
Los Morales
Les Olvettes
Tamagawa
Pirika
Elk Creek

Country

Volume
RCC
Total
3
3
(m x 10 )
(m3 x 103)
165
317
4
5
331
331
140
157
42
46
24
27

Height (m)

Length (m)

Japan
UK
USA
Australia
USA
USA

89
12
52
40
38
21

240
80
543
340
125
35

USA
Spain
China
Australia
USA
S. Africa
USA
Brazil
S. Africa

51
25
57
25
42
30
48
56
36

291
123
123
247
396
300
671
230
455

161
14
43
22
88
35
219
132
101

178
20
60
22
96
65
232
143
142

Australia
S. Africa
USA
USA
Spain
France
Japan
Japan
USA

12
47
20
90
28
36
100
40
51

128
527
122
825
200
255
432
910
365

24
97
14
1125
22
80
750
120
240

30
134
22
1281
N/A
85
1154
360
N/A

232

Ain al Koreima
Santa Eugenia
Mano
Tashkumir
Stagecoach
Longmentan
Knellpoort
Urugua
Tianshenquiao No. 2
Xitou
Asahiogawa
Cuesta Blanca
Wolwedans
Shangban
Wriggleswade
La Puebla de Cazalla
Taguangba
DAoulouz
Kennedys Vale
Los Canchales
Shiromizugawa
Platanovryssi
Petit Saut
Milton Brook
Ohkawa
Shin-Nakano
Pamo
Erizama
Varzea-Grande
Trigmil
Mohale
(Arch
curvature)
Mashal
(Arch
curvature)
Sakaigawa
Gassan
Miyagase
Ashasi
Nunome
Dohdairagawa
Asari
Kamuro
Riou
R Wedat
Sureya
Acaua

Morocco
Spain
Japan
USSR
USA
China
S. Africa
Argentina
China
China
Japan
Argentina
S. Africa
China
S. Africa
Spain
China
Morocco
S. Africa
Spain
Japan
Greece
French Guyana
UK
Japan
Japan
USA
Spain
Brazil
Mexico
double S. Africa

26
83
69
75
46
58
50
76
59
47
84
83
70
50
34
70
55
79
50
18
55
95
36
27
78
75
80
45
31
100
162

124
310
239
320
115
157
200
687
499
119
260
793
268
122
780
N/A
N/A
N/A
250
200
367
270
740
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A

27
225
101
85
34
73
45
590
160
28
174
730
150
N/A
118
114
N/A
N/A
150
25
N/A
N/A
230
17
1000
371
12
30
352
-

30
249
212
N/A
39
101
59
626
321
32
350
830
169
N/A
148
191
912
980
170
N/A
315
400
410
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A

double S. Africa

180

N/A

N/A

Japan
Japan
Japan
Japan
Japan
Japan
Japan
Japan
France
Morocco
USSR
Brazil

120
155
23
27
100
79

N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A

2000
5.5
623

N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A

N.A.: Not available

233

Table 2: Application of RCC for Repair Works


Name of Project
Tarbela, Pakistan

RCC Volume (m3)

Schedule

2,525,000

1974-1980

26,000

1978

130,000

1978

12,800

1979

Debris
Retaining Spillway
Structure,
Spillway,
Washington, USA

13,800

1981

New Cumberland Lock Lock chamber floor


and Dam, West Virginia,
USA

1,640

1982

7,600
15,600

1979
1981

12,200

1982

20,000

1984

10,800

1984

16,100

1985

Power Plant Reclaim Bottom for pond


Pond, Sibley, Missouri,
USA

2,000

1985

Lake Bbrazos Dam, Support of concrete


Rehab, Texas, USA
spillway and stilling
basin

13,000

1985

Itaipu, Brazil
Bonneville II, USA

Moose Creek
Alaska, USA

Structure
Repair of tunnels,
spillway etc.
Backfill
Cover
for
rock
excavation to prevent
air slaking

Dam, Erosion
protection
downstream of a
floodway sill

Revelstoke, Canada
Guri, Venezuela
Tucurui, Brazil

Cap on a cofferdam
Solid cofferdam
Interior of walls of
navigation
lock
structure

Dolet Hills, Loouisiana, Zoned mass spillway


USA
Highway
Diversion Flood control channel
Channel, El Paso, Texas,
USA
Kerrville Ponding Dam, Gravity
Rehab, Texas, USA
section

overflow

Table 3: Roller Compacted Concrete for Embankment Dam Rehabilitation in the USA
Project (Year
Constructed)

City/State

Max. Height (ft.)

234

RCC Volume (cu.yd.)

North

Fork
Tostle
River(1980)
Replacement
Spillway
Brownwood
Country
Club (1984)
Spring Creek (1986)
Harris Park No. 1
(1986)
Comanche Trail (1988)
Addicks
&
Barker
(1988)
Bishop Creek No. 2
(1989) New Emergency
Spillway
Tellico Saddle (1989)
New
Emergency
Spillway
Goose Lake (1989)
Boney Falls (1989)
Comanche (1990)
Kemmerer City (1990)
Nickajack (1990) New
Gravity Spillway
Thompson Park No. 3
(1990)
White Cloud (1990)
Ringtown No. 5 (1991)
Combined Principal &
Emergency Spillway
Saltlick (1991) Two
Emergency Spillway
Ashton (1991)
Lake Lenape (1991)

Castle Dale, Washington


38

18,000

19

1,400

Gunnison, Colorado
Bailey, Colorado

53

4,840

18

2,300

Big Spring Texas


Houston, Texas

25

6,500

48.5 & 36.5

56,700

41

4,000

11

19,500

35
25
46
31

4,200
4,850
3,500
4,100

65

105,000

30

2,730

15

1,000

60

6,300

110

11,100

60

7,700

17

3,050

65

4,230

31

2,800

20

1,000

Brownwood, Texas

Bishop, California
Lenoir City, Tennessee
Nederland, Colorado
Escanaba, Michigan
Estes Park, Colorado
Kemmerer, Wyoming
So. Pittsburg, Tennessee
Amarillo, Texas
White Cloud, Michigan
Ringtown, Pennsylvania
Jonstown, Pennsylvania

Ashton, Idaho
Mays Landing, New
Jersey
Goose Pasture (1991)
Breckenridge, Colorado
Holmes Lake Dam Marshall, Texas
(1991)
White Meadow Lake Rockaway, New Jersey
(1991)

235

Figure 1: Typical Rehabilitation For Spillway Section


11.0

STATUS OF RCC IN INDIA

There are 82 thermal power stations in the country, which are producing more than 100 million
tonnes of fly ash annually. The effective use of fly ash as a pozzolana in the manufacture of and for
part replacement of cement in cement mortar and concrete, lime-pozzolana mixture and products
such as fly ash-lime bricks, autoclaved aerated concrete blocks etc. has been established in the
country since long. Fly ash has also been used in water resources sector for part replacement of
cement in mass concrete for dams. However, in the year 1994, a meagre 3% utilization out of 40
million tonnes of fly ash produced in the country could be achieved. The Government of India
recognizing the importance/potential of fly ash, established Fly Ash Mission in the year 1994 to
undertake concerted efforts in select thrust areas for fly ash utilization. The initiatives undertaken
along with major stake holder agencies have turned around the perception of fly ash from a waste
material to that of a resource material. The thrust imparted by the Fly Ash Mission has been
continued by the Fly Ash Utilisation Programme (FAUP), under Technology Information,
Forecasting and Assessment Council (TIFAC), Department of Science and Technology (DST),
Government of India. The efforts undertaken over the last decade have made significant impact.
During 2004-05, fly ash utilization rose to 38% of 112 million tonnes of fly ash generated in the
country.
The country in its new policy has placed greater emphasis on infrastructure development of which
power generation is an important part. It is planned to double the power generation capacity by
the year 2012. Towards end of 2003, the installed capacity of power generation from coal/lignite
based power plants in India was about 72,000 MW, which was approximately 70% of total power
generation capacity. It is estimated that India would be generating about 125 million tonnes of fly
ash by end of 2005 and about 170 million tonnes by end of 2012. If sincere efforts are not made
towards increased fly ash utilization, we may face a situation wherein the fly ash generated by the
thermal power stations would be enormous, which may cause both environmental and land
availability challenges.
On the other hand, fly ash, per se, is a versatile material for gainful use for many value added
utilizations. Technologies have been developed and successfully demonstrated for many uses of fly
ash utilization such as manufacture of bricks, blocks, aggregates, tiles, manufacture of cement,
part-substitution of cement in concrete, use in construction of road embankments, dams, ash pond

236

dykes, substitution of sand in mine stowing, as a soil amendment agent in agricultural applications
etc. Its gainful utilization in hydro power/water resources sector has, however, yet to pick up.
Hydro power/water resources sector has immense potential for use of fly ash and its products.
In concrete dams, fly ash can gainfully be utilized for substitution of cement upto 35% in
conventional concretes and up to about 75% in the Roller Compacted Concrete (RCC). It
provides not only saving of precious cement but enables faster construction, requires lower
capacity chilling plants (due to lower levels of heat of hydration in RCC) and makes structures
more durable.
Based upon this concept, Water Resources Department of Govt. of Maharashtra had
envisaged the use of flyash to the tune of 1 lakh MT as a partial replacement of cement in the
construction of three RCC dams of Ghatghar Pumped Storage Scheme near Nasik. Cement
has been replaced upto 65% by flyash. Two dams, namely Saddle Dam No. 1 & Upper Dam
are already completed. The third dam viz. Lower Dam is expected to be completed by
December, 2006. The salient features of these three dams are listed in Table 4. These three
dams are the pioneers of RCC construction technology in India & the success of these three
dams will serve as search light for upcoming hydraulic projects in India.
The RCC Technology thus developed will be useful for many flyash rich states like Madhya
Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Uttar Pradesh etc.

Table 4: Summary of Fly ash use in Roller Compacted Concrete-India


S.No.
1

Project Features
Construction of-12 Meter high Saddle
dam

237

Period
December 2002-May
2003 (No. of actual
working days-38)

Remarks
Successfully constructed
the dam using 14.211 m3
RCC with 65%
substitution of cement
by fly ash. Total of 1915
tonne fly ash and 1277
tonne cement was used.

Construction of-15 Mater high and 500 m


long Upper Dam

May 2003-January 2004


(No of actual working
days-54)

Construction of-85 Meters high and 447


m long lower Dam

December 2006
(Expected)

238

Successfully constructed
the dam using 35.578 m3
RCC with 65%
substitution of cement
by fly ash. Total of 4816
tonne of fly ash and
3210 tonne cement was
used.
Expected use of around
6,50,000 m3 RCC with
65% substitution of
cement by fly ash. A
total of about 88,000
tonnes of fly ash and
58,666 tonne of cement
is expected to be used.