You are on page 1of 7

Pulse-Width-Modulated Inverters

Pulse-Width-Modulated Inverters
V1

Pulse-Width-Modulation or PWM
Changing
g g the output
p voltage
g using
g high
g switching
g frequency
q
y

S1, S2

S3, S4

Several pulses per half cycle.


S it h operate
Switches
t att high
hi h ffrequency.
Voltage harmonics pushed towards higher frequencies
Fundamental component of the output voltage can be varied
varied, even
with two switches.
Higher switching losses

fantunes@dee.ufc.br

fantunes@dee.ufc.br

Average value of a pulsed waveform

Average value of a pulsed waveform

(t)

v0
i

i
S

V0 =

1 1
t
v 0 dt = 1 Vs = t1fVs = kVs

T0
T

t
k = on
T

0 < k <1

Vs

+
V0
-

t on t off T t

v (t)
0

Vs

V0
t off T t

t on

V0 = kV

t
k= 1
T

v
R

k=0,9

ton

t1 T

(t)

k=0,75

toff

ton
t1

v (t)

ton

v (t)
0

t1

k=0,5

toff
T

Vs

V0
t on

fantunes@dee.ufc.br

V0

0 < V0 < Vs

t on t offT t

v (t)

v (t)

toff

+
V0

Vs

v0(t)

Vs
s

V0

t off

T t

V ton
0
t1
fantunes@dee.ufc.br

k=0,25

toff
T

Pulse-Width-Modulated Inverters

Pulse-Width-Modulated Inverters
Consider k varying periodically
(50H ) b
(50Hz)
between
t
complementary
l
t
values of k (0.2 and 0.8).

is
S1

D1

D3

S3

L R
S2

D2

D4
S4

For 0<k<1 -V<V


V<VAB<Vs
For k=0.8 VAB=0.6Vs
For k=0.2 VAB=-0.6Vs
High frequency operation, small passive
components.
For k=0.5 VAB =0 this means the positive
pulses will be equal to the negative ones.

If kk=0
0.2
2 VAB=-0
0,6V
6Vs
If
If k=0.8 VAB=0,6Vs
With
With k varying with a frequency far
lower then the switching frequency
(carrying wave), the output voltage will
varying periodically between -0,6V
0 6Vs
and 0,6Vs.
g the output
p voltage,
g it will
Filtering
result in a rectangular and periodic
wave with the frequency of k.

VAB = Vs (2k 1)

fantunes@dee.ufc.br

Pulse-Width-Modulated Inverters

fantunes@dee.ufc.br

Pulse-Width-Modulated Inverters
A tenso de sada, que aplicada carga, formada
p uma sucesso de ondas retangulares
por
g
de amplitude
p
igual tenso de alimentao CC e durao varivel.
A relao
l entre
t
a onda
d moduladora
d l d
Vm e onda
d
portadora Vp, definida como ndice de Modulao, permite
regular a amplitude da fundamental da tenso de sada do
inversor.

Frequency and magnitude of the output voltage can be controlled.


The magnitude is modified through changes in the value of k, according to the relation
(k+ + k-=1).
k must change in each half period of the frequency from k+ to k-.
The output voltage with low presence of harmonics, as consequence the filtering
requirement is less.

fantunes@dee.ufc.br

Na prtica o nmero de pulsos limitado pela mxima


freqncia de comutao das chaves.

fantunes@dee.ufc.br

Generation of a Sine Wave

Pulse-Width-Modulated Inverters

Impulsiona os harmnicos da tenso de sada para altas


f i
freqncias,
conseqentemente
t
t o filtro
filt bastante
b t t simples.
i l

k = 0,51 + AB
Vs

is

S1

D1
A

Possibilita controlar a freqncia


q
e o mdulo da tenso
de sada.
9

V
= VAB max sin((360 fft + )
AB

D3
S3

B
L R

S2

D2

k = 0,5
0 51 + AB sin(360ft + )
Vs

D4
S4

VAB = Vs ( 2k 1)

fantunes@dee.ufc.br

k = 0,5
0 5[1 + m * sin(
i (360ft
f + )]

m is called amplitude modulation


modulation.
f = System frequency (50Hz / 60Hz)
Carrier frequency 10 x output frequency

fantunes@dee.ufc.br

Generation of a Sine Wave - Example

k = 0,5[1 + m * sin(360ft + )]

is
S1

D1

D3

S3

L R
S2

D2

is
S1

m chamada de amplitude de
modulao
modulao.

D4
S4

VAB = Vs (2k 1)

D1

D3

S3

L R
S2

D2

D4
S4

VABmax = 100V
O
Output
voltage
l
ffrequency = 83.33Hz
83 33H
Carrier frequency = 1000Hz
Vs = 200V
S1 e S4 operate simultaneously
Number of carrier per cycle:
1000/83,33=12
1000/83 33 12
12 carriers per cycle

A freqncia da portadora 10 x f .
S1 e S4 operam simultaneamente
S2 e S3 operam simultaneamente

fantunes@dee.ufc.br

k = 0,5
0 51 + AB sin(360ft + )
Vs

fantunes@dee.ufc.br

Generation of a Sine Wave - Example

Generation of a Sine Wave - Example

k0 VAB0=100sin0=0
0

k = 0,51 +
= 0,5
200

k30VAB30=100sin30=50
50

k = 0,51 +
= 0,625
200

k60 VAB60=100sin60=86,6
86,6
k = 0,51 +
= 0,716
200

fantunes@dee.ufc.br

fantunes@dee.ufc.br

Generation of a Sine Wave - Example

Knowing k for each interval, the


time, that S1 and S4 are on, is
determined that S1 and S4 are on.
S1 e S4 VAB >0
S3 e S3 VAB <0
The summation of the areas of the
modulated sine wave is equal to
the area of the analogue sine

wave

fantunes@dee.ufc.br

Generation of a Sine Wave - Example

The width of the pulse, is a


sinusoidal function of its angular
position.
The sine wave equivalent pulse
t i can b
train
be generated
t db
by
comparison of an analogue sine
wave at the system frequency with a
triangular wave at the carrier
frequency (higher frequency)

fantunes@dee.ufc.br

Modulao PWM Senoidal a Dois Nveis

Triangular carrier wave

Caractersticas
9

A Tenso instantnea de sada pode atingir dois nveis, +E ou E.

Pode ser aplicada


p
tanto nas estruturas em Ponte Completa
p
como nas
estruturas em Meia Ponte.
9

Verifica-se
Verifica
se que,
que nas estruturas em Ponte Completa,
Completa necessrio
apenas um nico pulso de comando para cada par de chaves.
9

fantunes@dee.ufc.br

fantunes@dee.ufc.br

Exemplo de Aplicao - Inversor Monofsico


Meia Ponte

Modulao PWM senoidal a trs nveis

C
Caractersticas
t ti
Se Vm > Vp, tem-se Vo = + E
Se Vm < Vp,
Vp tem
tem-se
se Vo = -- E
E/2

S1

CARGA
-

E/2

Vo

D1

Vm

Vp

Io

Na tenso de sada aparece o dobro de pulsos se comparado ao de


dois nveis, mantendo-se a mesma freqncia de comutao das
chaves.
chaves
9

9
S2

A tenso de sada pode assumir trs nveis, +E, 0 e -E.

Apresenta menor contedo harmnico que a modulao a dois nveis.

Os primeiros harmnicos esto em uma ordem de freqncia duas


vezes superior em relao modulao a dois nveis.
9

D2

+E / 2

0V

-E/2
fantunes@dee.ufc.br

Vo

fantunes@dee.ufc.br

Modulao PWM senoidal a trs nveis

D1

S1

E/2

L i d
Lgica
de controle:
t l
Se Vm1>Vp, S1 em conduo => VAN = E/2.
Se Vm1<Vp, S3 em conduo => VAN = -E/2.

D2

S2

+E
E/2

+ Vo -

Vm1
D3

S3

E/2

V 2
Vm2

Vm1

Se Vm2>Vp, S2 em conduo => VBN = E/2.


Se Vm2<Vp, S4 em conduo => VBN = -E/2.

Io CARGA
N

Modulao PWM senoidal a trs nveis

S4

D4

Vp

S3

S1
Vp

Vm1

Vm2

Vp
p

+E

S4
Vm2

-E / 2

S2
Vp

VAN

VAB

-E
E

fantunes@dee.ufc.br

fantunes@dee.ufc.br

Inversor Trifsico - PWM senoidal a trs nveis

D1

S1

E/2

D3

S3

D5

S5

Estratgia
E
t t i de
d controle
t l
Se Vma > Vp -> S1 em conduo
Se Vma < Vpp -> S6 em conduo

Se Vmb > Vp -> S3 em conduo


Se Vmb < Vp -> S4 em conduo
S V
Se
Vmc > V
Vp ->
> S5 em conduo
d
Se Vmc < Vp -> S2 em conduo
Vma

E/2

S6

D6

S4

D4

S2

Vmb

Vmc

Inversor Trifsico - PWM senoidal a trs nveis

Vma

Vmb

+E / 2

VAN

-E / 2
+E

D2

VAC

-E
E

fantunes@dee.ufc.br

fantunes@dee.ufc.br

Vmc

Generation of a three-phase Sine Wave

fantunes@dee.ufc.br