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# Pulse-Width-Modulated Inverters

Pulse-Width-Modulated Inverters
V1

Pulse-Width-Modulation or PWM
Changing
g g the output
p voltage
g using
g high
g switching
g frequency
q
y

S1, S2

S3, S4

## Several pulses per half cycle.

S it h operate
Switches
t att high
hi h ffrequency.
Voltage harmonics pushed towards higher frequencies
Fundamental component of the output voltage can be varied
varied, even
with two switches.
Higher switching losses

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## Average value of a pulsed waveform

(t)

v0
i

i
S

V0 =

1 1
t
v 0 dt = 1 Vs = t1fVs = kVs

T0
T

t
k = on
T

0 < k <1

Vs

+
V0
-

t on t off T t

v (t)
0

Vs

V0
t off T t

t on

V0 = kV

t
k= 1
T

v
R

k=0,9

ton

t1 T

(t)

k=0,75

toff

ton
t1

v (t)

ton

v (t)
0

t1

k=0,5

toff
T

Vs

V0
t on

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V0

0 < V0 < Vs

t on t offT t

v (t)

v (t)

toff

+
V0

Vs

v0(t)

Vs
s

V0

t off

T t

V ton
0
t1
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k=0,25

toff
T

Pulse-Width-Modulated Inverters

Pulse-Width-Modulated Inverters
Consider k varying periodically
(50H ) b
(50Hz)
between
t
complementary
l
t
values of k (0.2 and 0.8).

is
S1

D1

D3

S3

L R
S2

D2

D4
S4

## For 0<k<1 -V<V

V<VAB<Vs
For k=0.8 VAB=0.6Vs
For k=0.2 VAB=-0.6Vs
High frequency operation, small passive
components.
For k=0.5 VAB =0 this means the positive
pulses will be equal to the negative ones.

If kk=0
0.2
2 VAB=-0
0,6V
6Vs
If
If k=0.8 VAB=0,6Vs
With
With k varying with a frequency far
lower then the switching frequency
(carrying wave), the output voltage will
varying periodically between -0,6V
0 6Vs
and 0,6Vs.
g the output
p voltage,
g it will
Filtering
result in a rectangular and periodic
wave with the frequency of k.

VAB = Vs (2k 1)

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Pulse-Width-Modulated Inverters

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Pulse-Width-Modulated Inverters
p uma sucesso de ondas retangulares
por
g
de amplitude
p
igual tenso de alimentao CC e durao varivel.
A relao
l entre
t
a onda
d l d
Vm e onda
d
portadora Vp, definida como ndice de Modulao, permite
regular a amplitude da fundamental da tenso de sada do
inversor.

## Frequency and magnitude of the output voltage can be controlled.

The magnitude is modified through changes in the value of k, according to the relation
(k+ + k-=1).
k must change in each half period of the frequency from k+ to k-.
The output voltage with low presence of harmonics, as consequence the filtering
requirement is less.

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## Na prtica o nmero de pulsos limitado pela mxima

freqncia de comutao das chaves.

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## Generation of a Sine Wave

Pulse-Width-Modulated Inverters

f i
freqncias,
conseqentemente
t
t o filtro
filt bastante
b t t simples.
i l

k = 0,51 + AB
Vs

is

S1

D1
A

## Possibilita controlar a freqncia

q
e o mdulo da tenso
9

V
= VAB max sin((360 fft + )
AB

D3
S3

B
L R

S2

D2

k = 0,5
0 51 + AB sin(360ft + )
Vs

D4
S4

VAB = Vs ( 2k 1)

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k = 0,5
0 5[1 + m * sin(
i (360ft
f + )]

## m is called amplitude modulation

modulation.
f = System frequency (50Hz / 60Hz)
Carrier frequency 10 x output frequency

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## Generation of a Sine Wave - Example

k = 0,5[1 + m * sin(360ft + )]

is
S1

D1

D3

S3

L R
S2

D2

is
S1

modulao
modulao.

D4
S4

VAB = Vs (2k 1)

D1

D3

S3

L R
S2

D2

D4
S4

VABmax = 100V
O
Output
voltage
l
ffrequency = 83.33Hz
83 33H
Carrier frequency = 1000Hz
Vs = 200V
S1 e S4 operate simultaneously
Number of carrier per cycle:
1000/83,33=12
1000/83 33 12
12 carriers per cycle

A freqncia da portadora 10 x f .
S1 e S4 operam simultaneamente
S2 e S3 operam simultaneamente

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k = 0,5
0 51 + AB sin(360ft + )
Vs

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## Generation of a Sine Wave - Example

k0 VAB0=100sin0=0
0

k = 0,51 +
= 0,5
200

k30VAB30=100sin30=50
50

k = 0,51 +
= 0,625
200

k60 VAB60=100sin60=86,6
86,6
k = 0,51 +
= 0,716
200

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## Knowing k for each interval, the

time, that S1 and S4 are on, is
determined that S1 and S4 are on.
S1 e S4 VAB >0
S3 e S3 VAB <0
The summation of the areas of the
modulated sine wave is equal to
the area of the analogue sine

wave

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## The width of the pulse, is a

sinusoidal function of its angular
position.
The sine wave equivalent pulse
t i can b
train
be generated
t db
by
comparison of an analogue sine
wave at the system frequency with a
triangular wave at the carrier
frequency (higher frequency)

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Caractersticas
9

## A Tenso instantnea de sada pode atingir dois nveis, +E ou E.

p
tanto nas estruturas em Ponte Completa
p
como nas
estruturas em Meia Ponte.
9

Verifica-se
Verifica
se que,
que nas estruturas em Ponte Completa,
Completa necessrio
apenas um nico pulso de comando para cada par de chaves.
9

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Meia Ponte

## Modulao PWM senoidal a trs nveis

C
Caractersticas
t ti
Se Vm > Vp, tem-se Vo = + E
Se Vm < Vp,
Vp tem
tem-se
se Vo = -- E
E/2

S1

CARGA
-

E/2

Vo

D1

Vm

Vp

Io

## Na tenso de sada aparece o dobro de pulsos se comparado ao de

dois nveis, mantendo-se a mesma freqncia de comutao das
chaves.
chaves
9

9
S2

## Os primeiros harmnicos esto em uma ordem de freqncia duas

vezes superior em relao modulao a dois nveis.
9

D2

+E / 2

0V

-E/2
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Vo

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## Modulao PWM senoidal a trs nveis

D1

S1

E/2

L i d
Lgica
de controle:
t l
Se Vm1>Vp, S1 em conduo => VAN = E/2.
Se Vm1<Vp, S3 em conduo => VAN = -E/2.

D2

S2

+E
E/2

+ Vo -

Vm1
D3

S3

E/2

V 2
Vm2

Vm1

## Se Vm2>Vp, S2 em conduo => VBN = E/2.

Se Vm2<Vp, S4 em conduo => VBN = -E/2.

Io CARGA
N

## Modulao PWM senoidal a trs nveis

S4

D4

Vp

S3

S1
Vp

Vm1

Vm2

Vp
p

+E

S4
Vm2

-E / 2

S2
Vp

VAN

VAB

-E
E

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## Inversor Trifsico - PWM senoidal a trs nveis

D1

S1

E/2

D3

S3

D5

S5

Estratgia
E
t t i de
d controle
t l
Se Vma > Vp -> S1 em conduo
Se Vma < Vpp -> S6 em conduo

## Se Vmb > Vp -> S3 em conduo

Se Vmb < Vp -> S4 em conduo
S V
Se
Vmc > V
Vp ->
> S5 em conduo
d
Se Vmc < Vp -> S2 em conduo
Vma

E/2

S6

D6

S4

D4

S2

Vmb

Vmc

## Inversor Trifsico - PWM senoidal a trs nveis

Vma

Vmb

+E / 2

VAN

-E / 2
+E

D2

VAC

-E
E

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Vmc

## Generation of a three-phase Sine Wave

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