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Electromagnetic Induction

Electromagnetic induction is the production of an electromagnetic force, (e.m.f) in


a conductor by changing magnetic field.

Each time the straight wire cuts across the magnetic field or the permanent
magnet moves towards the solenoid, a current is induced in the coil and a
deflection is observed in the sensitive galvanometer.

An induced e.m.f is produced in a conductor if the conductor is in a changing


magnetic field.

1.

When a magnet is moved into and out of the solenoid, magnetic flux is being cut by
the coil.

2.

The cutting of magnetic flux by the wire coil induces an e.m.f in the wire.

3.

When the solenoid is connected to a closed circuit, the induced current will flow
through the circuit.

4.

The production of electric current by changing magnetic field is called


electromagnetic induction.

5.

Current/emf is induced only when there is relative motion between the magnetic field
and the conductor.

6.

The direction of the induced current and the magnitude of the induced e.m.f due to the
cutting of the magnetic flux can be determined from Lenz's Law and Faraday's Law.

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Faraday's Law
The magnitude of the induced e.m.f is determined from Faraday's Law.
Faraday's Law states that the magnitude of the induced e.m.f is directly proportional to the
rate of change of magnetic flux through a coil or alternatively the rate of the magnetic flux
being cut.

Lenz's Law
When a magnet is moved into and out of a coil, the induced current that flows through the
coil can be determined from Lenz's Law. Lenz's Law states that the induced current always
flows in the direction that opposes the change in magnetic flux.

When the S pole of a magnet moves towards end of a solenoid, the end will become a
magnetic S pole to oppose the motion of the magnet.

When the N pole is pulled away from end of the solenoid, the end will become a magnetic S
pole so as to oppose the motion of the magnet.

Lenzs law is based on the principle of conservation of energy. The work done in moving the
magnet is converted to electrical energy.

Lenz's Law obeys the principle of conservation of energy. Work is done to move the magnet
against the repulsive force. This work done is converted to electric energy which manifests as
an induced current.
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For a conductor in a closed circuit moving perpendicular to a magnetic field and hence
cutting its magnetic flux, the direction of the induced current is determined from Fleming's
Right-Hand Rule.

Fleming's Right-Hand Rule is used to determine the direction of the induced current that
flows from the wire when there is relative motion with respect to the magnetic field

Direct Current Generator

A simple d.c generator essentially the converse of a d.c. motor with its battery removed.

Initially the armature is vertical. No cutting of magnetic flux occurs and hence induced
current does not exist. When the armature rotates, the change in flux increases and the
induced current correspondingly increases in magnitude. After rotating by 90, the armature
is in the horizontal position. The change in magnetic flux is maximum and hence the
maximum induced e.m.f is produced. Maximum induced current flows through the
galvanometer.

When the armature continues to rotate, the change in flux decreases. At the 180 position,
there is no change in flux hence no induced current exists.The induced current is achieves its
maximum value again when the armature is at 270. After rotating 360, the armature returns
to its original position.

The direction of the induced current can be determined from Fleming's Right-Hand Rule.
Even though the magnitude of the induced current or e.m.f. is dependent on the orientation of
the coil, the current in the external circuit always flows in one direction. This uni-directional
current is known as direct current.

Alternating Current Generator

Generator can be modified to an a.c generator by replacing its commutators with two
(separate) slip rings. The two slip rings rotate in tandem with the armature. Carbon brushes
connect the armature to the external circuit. The armature is initially at the vertical position.
No magnetic flux is cut and hence no induced current exists.

When the armature rotates, the change in magnetic flux increases and the induced current
increases until its maximum value at the horizontal position. The direction of the induced
current can be determined from Fleming's Right Hand rule.

As the armature continues on its rotation, the change in magnetic flux decreases until at the
vertical position, no induced current exists.
Subsequently upon reaching the horizontal position again, the induced current is maximum,
but the direction of the induced current flowing through the external circuit is reversed.

The direction of the induced current (which flows through the external circuit) keeps
changing depending on the orientation of the armature. This induced current is also known as
alternating current. The current is positive (+) in one direction and negative in the other (-).
The smooth rings play a critical role in the generation of alternating current.

Direct Current
Direct current (d.c) is usually supplied by acid-based batteries or dry cells. A common
example of acid-based (electrolyte) batteries is the car battery. Direct current is uniform
current flowing in one fixed direction in a circuit.

Alternating Current
Alternating current (a.c) is generated from alternating current generators such as
hydroelectric power generators. The electricity supplied to households is alternating current.
Household electricity (alternating current) changes direction 50 times every second. Its
magnitude also changes with time.

Period And Frequency

The time taken for one complete cycle is known as the period, T. The frequency f is defined
as the number of complete cycles in 1 second. The relationship between the frequency and
the period is:
f = 1/T

The effective voltage for a sinusoidal alternating current

The maximum potential difference supplied by an a.c source is known as the peak voltage
VP. The effective potential difference for an a.c is equal to the potential difference of a
alternating current if both results in the same heating effect. The effective potential difference
for a.c is known as the root mean square voltage (r.m.s) of the a.c. and is given y the
following equation:
V_{rms} = \frac{{V_p }}{{\sqrt 2 }}

The root-mean-square (r.m.s) value of an alternating current is the value of the steady direct
current which produces the same power in a resistor as the mean power produced by the
alternating current. The r.m.s current is the effective value of the alternating current.

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