You are on page 1of 43

ADVANCED FLUID

DYNAMICS
Prof. Dr. Asad Naeem Shah
Department of
Mechanical Engineering
UET, Lahore
anaeems@uet.edu.pk

FLOW IN CONDUITS
Shear-Stress Distribution Across a Pipe
Section

The velocity distribution in a pipe is directly


linked to the shear-stress distribution.
To find the shear stress distribution apply
equation of equilibrium to a cylindrical element
of fluid that is oriented coaxially with the pipe, as
shown in figure.

It is assumed that the flow is


(streamlines are straight and parallel).

uniform

FLOW IN A PIPE

FLOW IN CONDUITS
Fs 0
dp

pA p
s A W sin 2 r s 0
ds

dz
substituting
W = s A
and sin
ds
dp
dz

sA s A 2 r s 0
ds
ds

Dividing by s A and substituting A = r2

dp
dz
2 r

0
2
ds
ds
r
r d

p z
2 ds

d p z
2
0
or
ds
r

FLOW IN CONDUITS
Thus the gradient itself

d p z
ds

is negative and constant across the section for


uniform flow, i.e. gradient is d p z
ds

across the pipe section.


Thus will be zero at the center of the pipe
and will increase linearly to a maximum at the
pipe wall.

FLOW IN CONDUITS
Non-circular conduits can be analyzed using the
A
hydraulic radius
Rh
P
where A is the cross-sectional area of the conduit
and P is the wetted perimeter,
or diameter of circular pipes is replaced by 4Rh.
For circular conduit

r2 r
Rh
,
2 r 2

or

D2 / 4 D
Rh

D
4

FLOW IN CONDUITS
Laminar Flow in Pipes
dV
dV r d

p z



dy
dr 2 ds

dV
r d

p z

dr
2 ds

rdr
dV
2

ds p z

Integrating across the section


r2 d

z
C

4 ds

FLOW IN CONDUITS
When r = r0, V = 0

r02 d

p z
C

4 ds

Substituting the value of C yields

r
V

r2
4

2
0

d p z
ds

(1)

Equation (1) indicates that the velocity distribution


for laminar flow in a pipe is parabolic across the
section with the maximum velocity at the center
of the pipe (r = 0) which is
Vmax

r02 d

4 ds

(2)

DISTRIBUTION OF SHEAR STRESS AND


VELOCITY FOR LAMINAR FLOW IN A PIPE
Figure shows the variation of the shear stress
and velocity in the pipe.

FLOW IN CONDUITS
To find the rate of flow
Q VdA

r0
0

r2
4

2
0

d p z 2 r dr
ds

d
r 2
2

2 r dr

z
r

r
0 0

4 ds

d
r r

p z

4 ds
2

2 2

2
0

d
r r
p z

4 ds
2

2
0

r04 d

8 ds

r0

2 2
0

2
0

0
2

FLOW IN CONDUITS
r02 d
Q
Q

p z
V

A r0 8 ds

(3)

Comparing equations (2) and (3) reveals that


Vmax
V
2
D
Substituting r0
in equation (3)
2
d
32V
D2 d

p z 2
p z
V

ds
D
32 ds

Integrating along the pipe between sections 1 and 2

FLOW IN CONDUITS
32V
s2 s1
p2 p1 z2 z1
2
D

Here (s2 s1) is the length L of pipe between the


two sections. Therefore, rewriting above equation
32 L V
z1
z2

D2

p1

p2

(4)

But,
the
general
energy
equation
for
incompressible flow in conduits with uniform flow is
p1

1V12
2g

z1 hp

p2

2V22
2g

z2 ht hL

FLOW IN CONDUITS
In a constant-diameter pipe

V1 V2

also in this case

ht = hp = 0

p1

z1

p2

z2 hL

(5)

Comparison of equations (4) and (5) shows that


32 L V 32 L V

hL

h
f
D2
g D2

(6)

Here hf is used instead of hL to signify head


loss due to friction resistance of the pipe.

FLOW IN CONDUITS
However, Darcy-Weisbach equation is
LV 2
hf f
D 2g

(7)

Here f is called the resistance coefficient or


friction factor for the pipe.

Equating equations (6) and (7)


L V 2 32 L V
f

D 2g
g D2
64
64
f

V D Re

CRITERION FOR LAMINAR OR


TURBULENT FLOW IN A PIPE
Reynolds number is a basic parameter relating to
laminar as well as turbulent flow.
Pipe flow will be laminar for Reynolds numbers
less than 2000 and turbulent for Reynolds
numbers greater than 3000.
When Reynolds number is between 2000 and
3000, the type of flow is very unpredictable and
often changes back and forth between laminar
and turbulent states.

CRITERION FOR LAMINAR OR


TURBULENT FLOW IN A PIPE
Under carefully controlled conditions it is possible
to have laminar flow in pipes at Reynolds numbers
much higher than 2000.
However, the slightest disturbances (for example,
fluid in the upstream is not completely still or if the
pipe had some vibration in it) will trigger the on set
of turbulence at high values of Reynolds number.
When going from high-velocity turbulent flow to
low-velocity flow, the change from turbulent flow
occurs at a Reynolds number of about 2000.

TURBULENT FLOW IN PIPES


Velocity Distribution and Resistance in
Smooth pipes:
Experiments have shown that, in the viscous
sublayer and in the turbulent zone near the wall,
the velocity distribution equations are of the same
form as those for the turbulent boundary layer.
That is, for a smooth pipe
u yu*

u*

yu *
u
5.75 log
5.56
u*

for

0<

for 20 <

yu *

<5

yu *

105

TURBULENT FLOW IN PIPES


Figure (a) is a plot of above equations as well as
an indication of the range of experimental data
from various sources.
For flow near the center of the pipe, as for flow
near the outer limit of the boundary layer, the
velocity-defect law is applicable, as shown in
Fig. (b).
Figure (b) also include the range of experimental
velocity data obtained form flow in rough
conduits.

VELOCITY
DISTRIBUTION
FOR SMOOTH
PIPES
Fig. (a)

VELOCITY-DEFECT LAW FOR TURBULENT


FLOW IN SMOOTH AND ROUGH PIPES

Fig. (b)

TURBULENT FLOW IN PIPES


Again, a power-law formula like that for the
turbulent boundary layer is applicable every
where except close to the wall. This formula is

u
umax

y

r0

here y is the distance from the wall and m is


an empirically determined quantity shown in
Table.

TABLE: EXPONENTS FOR POWER-LAW


EQUATION AND RATIO OF MEAN
TO MAXIMUM VELOCITY
Re

4103

1
6 .0

1
6 .6

1
7 .0

1
8 .8

1
10.0

0.791

0.807

0.817

0.850

0.865

V
umax

2.3104 1.1105 1.1106 3.2106

TURBULENT FLOW IN PIPES


To find head loss due to frictional resistance,
hf, Darcy-Weisbach equation may be used
LV2
hf f
D 2g

For turbulent flow, analytical and empirical


result on smooth pipes yield the following
approximate relation for f:

1
2 log Re f 0.8
f

for Re > 3000

TURBULENT FLOW IN PIPES


Velocity Distribution and ResistanceRough
pipes:

Experiments on flow in rough pipes show that


the following relationship is valid over most of
the pipe section. u
y
u*

5.75 log

ks

8.5

where y is the distance measured from the


geometric mean of the wall surface, and ks is
the size of the sand grains also called
equivalent sand roughness.

TURBULENT FLOW IN PIPES


With low Reynolds numbers and with small-

sized grains, the flow resistance is virtually the


same as that for a smooth pipe.
For high Reynolds numbers, the resistance
coefficient is solely a function of the relative
roughness

ks
D

TURBULENT FLOW IN PIPES


The reason for the resistance to be same as
ks
that of a smooth pipe for low values of
and
D

Reynolds number is that for these conditions


the roughness elements are completely within
the

viscous

sublayer

and

hence

have

negligible influence on the main flow in the


pipe.

TURBULENT FLOW IN PIPES


However, at high values of the Reynolds
number, the viscous sublayer is so thin that

the roughness elements project into the main


stream of flow. For the flow having relatively
large values of

ks
D

and large Reynolds

numbers, the resistance to flow is proportional


to

V2; thus

conditions.

becomes constant for these

TURBULENT FLOW IN PIPES


The effect of roughness can be summarized by

ks
Re 10
D

roughness unimportant,
pipe considered smooth

ks
Re 1000
D

fully rough,

f independent of Reynolds number

The region between these limits is the transitional


roughness regime.

TURBULENT FLOW IN PIPES


Head loss due to frictional resistance hf may be
obtained by Darcy-Weisbach equation
LV2
hf f

D 2g

in which f can be obtained by equation


f

0.25

5.74
ks
log10 3.7D Re0.9

(8)

Alternatively Moody diagram for commercial


pipes can be used.

Resistance coefficient f versus Re. [Moody Diagram]

TURBULENT FLOW IN PIPES


Table gives the equivalent-sand roughness, ks for
various kinds of pipes.

This table can be used to calculate the relative


ks
roughness
for a given pipe diameter which, in
D
turn, is used in Moody diagram to find the friction

factor f.
In the Moody diagram each blue curve is for a
ks
constant relative roughness
and the values of
D
ks
are given on the right at the end of each curve.
D

TABLE: EQUIVALENT SAND-GRAIN


ROUGHNESS, ks , FOR VARIOUS
PIPE MATERIALS
Boundary Material

ks millimeters

Glass, plastic
Copper or brass tubing
Rubber pipe (straight)
Wrought iron, steel
Asphalted cast iron
Galvanized iron
Cast iron
Concrete

Smooth
0.0015
0.025
0.046
0.12
0.15
0.26
0.3 to 3.0

TURBULENT FLOW IN PIPES


k

For some problems when hf and s are known


D
but the velocity V is not known, then without V
the Reynolds number cannot be computed, so f
cannot be read from Moody diagram.
In that case the value of parameter Ref 1/ 2

is calculated as follows:
1/ 2

LV
hf f
D 2g

or
1/ 2

D 2ghf or
Re
1/ 2

f L
VD

3/2

1/ 2

2ghf D
V

L f
1/ 2
3/2
D 2ghf
1/ 2
Re f

TURBULENT FLOW IN PIPES


This value of
determine

Ref

1/ 2

can be used to

directly using Moody

diagram, where each black curve is for


constant Ref 1/ 2 plotted slanting from the

upper left to lower right and the values of


Ref 1/ 2 for each line are given at the top of

the chart.

TURBULENT FLOW IN PIPES


There are basically three types of problems
involved with uniform flow in a single pipe.
These are
1.

Determine the head loss, given the kind and


size of pipe and the flow rate.

2.

Determine the flow rate, given the head loss,


kind, and size of pipe.

3.

Determine the size of pipe needed to carry


the flow, given the kind of pipe, head loss,
and flow rate.

TURBULENT FLOW IN PIPES


In the first type of problem, the Reynolds

number and

ks
D

are first computed and

then f is read from Moody diagram, after

which the head loss is obtained by the use


of Darcy-Weisbach equation.

TURBULENT FLOW IN PIPES


In the second type of problem, k s and the value of
D

3/2

1/ 2

2ghf

are computed so that the top scale

can be used to enter the chart of Moody diagram.

Then, once f is read from the chart, the velocity


from Darcy-Weisbach equation is solved for the
discharge computed from Q = VA.

TURBULENT FLOW IN PIPES


However, many problems for which the discharge
Q is desired cannot be solved directly.

For example, a problem in which water flows from a


reservoir through a pipe and into the atmosphere
cannot be solved directly.
Here part of the available head is lost to friction in
the pipe, and part of the head remains as kinetic
energy in the jet as it leaves the pipe.
Therefore, it is not known how much head loss
occurs in the pipe itself.

TURBULENT FLOW IN PIPES


In that case, the energy equation is written and
an initial value for f is guessed.

Because f tends to a constant value at high


values of Reynolds number, an educated first
guess is to use this limiting value of f.
Next solve for the velocity V. With this value of V,
compute a Reynolds number that makes it
possible to determine a better value of f using
Moody diagram and so on.

TURBULENT FLOW IN PIPES


This type of solution usually converges quite

rapidly because f changes more slowly than


Reynolds number.
Once

and

have been determine by

iteration, calculate the discharge by using the


continuity equation.

TURBULENT FLOW IN PIPES


In the third type of problem, it is usually best to
first assume a value of f and then solve for D,
after which a better value of f is computed
based on the first estimate of D.
This iterative procedure is continued until a valid
solution is obtained.
A

trial-and-error

because without

procedure
D, k s or
D

is

necessary

Reynolds number

cannot be computed to enter Moody diagram.

Assignment
Examples: 9.1, 9.2 & 9.3
Examples: 10.1, 10.2, 10.3

THANK YOU