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You are on page 1of 43

DYNAMICS

Prof. Dr. Asad Naeem Shah

Department of

Mechanical Engineering

UET, Lahore

anaeems@uet.edu.pk

FLOW IN CONDUITS

Shear-Stress Distribution Across a Pipe

Section

linked to the shear-stress distribution.

To find the shear stress distribution apply

equation of equilibrium to a cylindrical element

of fluid that is oriented coaxially with the pipe, as

shown in figure.

(streamlines are straight and parallel).

uniform

FLOW IN A PIPE

FLOW IN CONDUITS

Fs 0

dp

pA p

s A W sin 2 r s 0

ds

dz

substituting

W = s A

and sin

ds

dp

dz

sA s A 2 r s 0

ds

ds

dp

dz

2 r

0

2

ds

ds

r

r d

p z

2 ds

d p z

2

0

or

ds

r

FLOW IN CONDUITS

Thus the gradient itself

d p z

ds

uniform flow, i.e. gradient is d p z

ds

Thus will be zero at the center of the pipe

and will increase linearly to a maximum at the

pipe wall.

FLOW IN CONDUITS

Non-circular conduits can be analyzed using the

A

hydraulic radius

Rh

P

where A is the cross-sectional area of the conduit

and P is the wetted perimeter,

or diameter of circular pipes is replaced by 4Rh.

For circular conduit

r2 r

Rh

,

2 r 2

or

D2 / 4 D

Rh

D

4

FLOW IN CONDUITS

Laminar Flow in Pipes

dV

dV r d

p z

dy

dr 2 ds

dV

r d

p z

dr

2 ds

rdr

dV

2

ds p z

r2 d

z

C

4 ds

FLOW IN CONDUITS

When r = r0, V = 0

r02 d

p z

C

4 ds

r

V

r2

4

2

0

d p z

ds

(1)

for laminar flow in a pipe is parabolic across the

section with the maximum velocity at the center

of the pipe (r = 0) which is

Vmax

r02 d

4 ds

(2)

VELOCITY FOR LAMINAR FLOW IN A PIPE

Figure shows the variation of the shear stress

and velocity in the pipe.

FLOW IN CONDUITS

To find the rate of flow

Q VdA

r0

0

r2

4

2

0

d p z 2 r dr

ds

d

r 2

2

2 r dr

z

r

r

0 0

4 ds

d

r r

p z

4 ds

2

2 2

2

0

d

r r

p z

4 ds

2

2

0

r04 d

8 ds

r0

2 2

0

2

0

0

2

FLOW IN CONDUITS

r02 d

Q

Q

p z

V

A r0 8 ds

(3)

Vmax

V

2

D

Substituting r0

in equation (3)

2

d

32V

D2 d

p z 2

p z

V

ds

D

32 ds

FLOW IN CONDUITS

32V

s2 s1

p2 p1 z2 z1

2

D

two sections. Therefore, rewriting above equation

32 L V

z1

z2

D2

p1

p2

(4)

But,

the

general

energy

equation

for

incompressible flow in conduits with uniform flow is

p1

1V12

2g

z1 hp

p2

2V22

2g

z2 ht hL

FLOW IN CONDUITS

In a constant-diameter pipe

V1 V2

ht = hp = 0

p1

z1

p2

z2 hL

(5)

32 L V 32 L V

hL

h

f

D2

g D2

(6)

loss due to friction resistance of the pipe.

FLOW IN CONDUITS

However, Darcy-Weisbach equation is

LV 2

hf f

D 2g

(7)

friction factor for the pipe.

L V 2 32 L V

f

D 2g

g D2

64

64

f

V D Re

TURBULENT FLOW IN A PIPE

Reynolds number is a basic parameter relating to

laminar as well as turbulent flow.

Pipe flow will be laminar for Reynolds numbers

less than 2000 and turbulent for Reynolds

numbers greater than 3000.

When Reynolds number is between 2000 and

3000, the type of flow is very unpredictable and

often changes back and forth between laminar

and turbulent states.

TURBULENT FLOW IN A PIPE

Under carefully controlled conditions it is possible

to have laminar flow in pipes at Reynolds numbers

much higher than 2000.

However, the slightest disturbances (for example,

fluid in the upstream is not completely still or if the

pipe had some vibration in it) will trigger the on set

of turbulence at high values of Reynolds number.

When going from high-velocity turbulent flow to

low-velocity flow, the change from turbulent flow

occurs at a Reynolds number of about 2000.

Velocity Distribution and Resistance in

Smooth pipes:

Experiments have shown that, in the viscous

sublayer and in the turbulent zone near the wall,

the velocity distribution equations are of the same

form as those for the turbulent boundary layer.

That is, for a smooth pipe

u yu*

u*

yu *

u

5.75 log

5.56

u*

for

0<

for 20 <

yu *

<5

yu *

105

Figure (a) is a plot of above equations as well as

an indication of the range of experimental data

from various sources.

For flow near the center of the pipe, as for flow

near the outer limit of the boundary layer, the

velocity-defect law is applicable, as shown in

Fig. (b).

Figure (b) also include the range of experimental

velocity data obtained form flow in rough

conduits.

VELOCITY

DISTRIBUTION

FOR SMOOTH

PIPES

Fig. (a)

FLOW IN SMOOTH AND ROUGH PIPES

Fig. (b)

Again, a power-law formula like that for the

turbulent boundary layer is applicable every

where except close to the wall. This formula is

u

umax

y

r0

an empirically determined quantity shown in

Table.

EQUATION AND RATIO OF MEAN

TO MAXIMUM VELOCITY

Re

4103

1

6 .0

1

6 .6

1

7 .0

1

8 .8

1

10.0

0.791

0.807

0.817

0.850

0.865

V

umax

To find head loss due to frictional resistance,

hf, Darcy-Weisbach equation may be used

LV2

hf f

D 2g

result on smooth pipes yield the following

approximate relation for f:

1

2 log Re f 0.8

f

Velocity Distribution and ResistanceRough

pipes:

the following relationship is valid over most of

the pipe section. u

y

u*

5.75 log

ks

8.5

geometric mean of the wall surface, and ks is

the size of the sand grains also called

equivalent sand roughness.

With low Reynolds numbers and with small-

same as that for a smooth pipe.

For high Reynolds numbers, the resistance

coefficient is solely a function of the relative

roughness

ks

D

The reason for the resistance to be same as

ks

that of a smooth pipe for low values of

and

D

the roughness elements are completely within

the

viscous

sublayer

and

hence

have

pipe.

However, at high values of the Reynolds

number, the viscous sublayer is so thin that

stream of flow. For the flow having relatively

large values of

ks

D

to

V2; thus

conditions.

The effect of roughness can be summarized by

ks

Re 10

D

roughness unimportant,

pipe considered smooth

ks

Re 1000

D

fully rough,

roughness regime.

Head loss due to frictional resistance hf may be

obtained by Darcy-Weisbach equation

LV2

hf f

D 2g

f

0.25

5.74

ks

log10 3.7D Re0.9

(8)

pipes can be used.

Table gives the equivalent-sand roughness, ks for

various kinds of pipes.

ks

roughness

for a given pipe diameter which, in

D

turn, is used in Moody diagram to find the friction

factor f.

In the Moody diagram each blue curve is for a

ks

constant relative roughness

and the values of

D

ks

are given on the right at the end of each curve.

D

ROUGHNESS, ks , FOR VARIOUS

PIPE MATERIALS

Boundary Material

ks millimeters

Glass, plastic

Copper or brass tubing

Rubber pipe (straight)

Wrought iron, steel

Asphalted cast iron

Galvanized iron

Cast iron

Concrete

Smooth

0.0015

0.025

0.046

0.12

0.15

0.26

0.3 to 3.0

k

D

but the velocity V is not known, then without V

the Reynolds number cannot be computed, so f

cannot be read from Moody diagram.

In that case the value of parameter Ref 1/ 2

is calculated as follows:

1/ 2

LV

hf f

D 2g

or

1/ 2

D 2ghf or

Re

1/ 2

f L

VD

3/2

1/ 2

2ghf D

V

L f

1/ 2

3/2

D 2ghf

1/ 2

Re f

This value of

determine

Ref

1/ 2

can be used to

constant Ref 1/ 2 plotted slanting from the

Ref 1/ 2 for each line are given at the top of

the chart.

There are basically three types of problems

involved with uniform flow in a single pipe.

These are

1.

size of pipe and the flow rate.

2.

kind, and size of pipe.

3.

the flow, given the kind of pipe, head loss,

and flow rate.

In the first type of problem, the Reynolds

number and

ks

D

of Darcy-Weisbach equation.

In the second type of problem, k s and the value of

D

3/2

1/ 2

2ghf

from Darcy-Weisbach equation is solved for the

discharge computed from Q = VA.

However, many problems for which the discharge

Q is desired cannot be solved directly.

reservoir through a pipe and into the atmosphere

cannot be solved directly.

Here part of the available head is lost to friction in

the pipe, and part of the head remains as kinetic

energy in the jet as it leaves the pipe.

Therefore, it is not known how much head loss

occurs in the pipe itself.

In that case, the energy equation is written and

an initial value for f is guessed.

values of Reynolds number, an educated first

guess is to use this limiting value of f.

Next solve for the velocity V. With this value of V,

compute a Reynolds number that makes it

possible to determine a better value of f using

Moody diagram and so on.

This type of solution usually converges quite

Reynolds number.

Once

and

continuity equation.

In the third type of problem, it is usually best to

first assume a value of f and then solve for D,

after which a better value of f is computed

based on the first estimate of D.

This iterative procedure is continued until a valid

solution is obtained.

A

trial-and-error

because without

procedure

D, k s or

D

is

necessary

Reynolds number

Assignment

Examples: 9.1, 9.2 & 9.3

Examples: 10.1, 10.2, 10.3

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