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DYNAMICS
Department of
Mechanical Engineering
UET, Lahore
anaeems@uet.edu.pk

FLOW IN CONDUITS
Shear-Stress Distribution Across a Pipe
Section

## The velocity distribution in a pipe is directly

To find the shear stress distribution apply
equation of equilibrium to a cylindrical element
of fluid that is oriented coaxially with the pipe, as
shown in figure.

## It is assumed that the flow is

(streamlines are straight and parallel).

uniform

FLOW IN A PIPE

FLOW IN CONDUITS
Fs 0
dp

pA p
s A W sin 2 r s 0
ds

dz
substituting
W = s A
and sin
ds
dp
dz

sA s A 2 r s 0
ds
ds

dp
dz
2 r

0
2
ds
ds
r
r d

p z
2 ds

d p z
2
0
or
ds
r

FLOW IN CONDUITS

d p z
ds

## is negative and constant across the section for

uniform flow, i.e. gradient is d p z
ds

## across the pipe section.

Thus will be zero at the center of the pipe
and will increase linearly to a maximum at the
pipe wall.

FLOW IN CONDUITS
Non-circular conduits can be analyzed using the
A
Rh
P
where A is the cross-sectional area of the conduit
and P is the wetted perimeter,
or diameter of circular pipes is replaced by 4Rh.
For circular conduit

r2 r
Rh
,
2 r 2

or

D2 / 4 D
Rh

D
4

FLOW IN CONDUITS
Laminar Flow in Pipes
dV
dV r d

p z

dy
dr 2 ds

dV
r d

p z

dr
2 ds

rdr
dV
2

ds p z

## Integrating across the section

r2 d

z
C

4 ds

FLOW IN CONDUITS
When r = r0, V = 0

r02 d

p z
C

4 ds

r
V

r2
4

2
0

d p z
ds

(1)

## Equation (1) indicates that the velocity distribution

for laminar flow in a pipe is parabolic across the
section with the maximum velocity at the center
of the pipe (r = 0) which is
Vmax

r02 d

4 ds

(2)

## DISTRIBUTION OF SHEAR STRESS AND

VELOCITY FOR LAMINAR FLOW IN A PIPE
Figure shows the variation of the shear stress
and velocity in the pipe.

FLOW IN CONDUITS
To find the rate of flow
Q VdA

r0
0

r2
4

2
0

d p z 2 r dr
ds

d
r 2
2

2 r dr

z
r

r
0 0

4 ds

d
r r

p z

4 ds
2

2 2

2
0

d
r r
p z

4 ds
2

2
0

r04 d

8 ds

r0

2 2
0

2
0

0
2

FLOW IN CONDUITS
r02 d
Q
Q

p z
V

A r0 8 ds

(3)

Vmax
V
2
D
Substituting r0
in equation (3)
2
d
32V
D2 d

p z 2
p z
V

ds
D
32 ds

FLOW IN CONDUITS
32V
s2 s1
p2 p1 z2 z1
2
D

## Here (s2 s1) is the length L of pipe between the

two sections. Therefore, rewriting above equation
32 L V
z1
z2

D2

p1

p2

(4)

But,
the
general
energy
equation
for
incompressible flow in conduits with uniform flow is
p1

1V12
2g

z1 hp

p2

2V22
2g

z2 ht hL

FLOW IN CONDUITS
In a constant-diameter pipe

V1 V2

ht = hp = 0

p1

z1

p2

z2 hL

(5)

## Comparison of equations (4) and (5) shows that

32 L V 32 L V

hL

h
f
D2
g D2

(6)

loss due to friction resistance of the pipe.

FLOW IN CONDUITS
However, Darcy-Weisbach equation is
LV 2
hf f
D 2g

(7)

## Here f is called the resistance coefficient or

friction factor for the pipe.

L V 2 32 L V
f

D 2g
g D2
64
64
f

V D Re

## CRITERION FOR LAMINAR OR

TURBULENT FLOW IN A PIPE
Reynolds number is a basic parameter relating to
laminar as well as turbulent flow.
Pipe flow will be laminar for Reynolds numbers
less than 2000 and turbulent for Reynolds
numbers greater than 3000.
When Reynolds number is between 2000 and
3000, the type of flow is very unpredictable and
often changes back and forth between laminar
and turbulent states.

## CRITERION FOR LAMINAR OR

TURBULENT FLOW IN A PIPE
Under carefully controlled conditions it is possible
to have laminar flow in pipes at Reynolds numbers
much higher than 2000.
However, the slightest disturbances (for example,
fluid in the upstream is not completely still or if the
pipe had some vibration in it) will trigger the on set
of turbulence at high values of Reynolds number.
When going from high-velocity turbulent flow to
low-velocity flow, the change from turbulent flow
occurs at a Reynolds number of about 2000.

## TURBULENT FLOW IN PIPES

Velocity Distribution and Resistance in
Smooth pipes:
Experiments have shown that, in the viscous
sublayer and in the turbulent zone near the wall,
the velocity distribution equations are of the same
form as those for the turbulent boundary layer.
That is, for a smooth pipe
u yu*

u*

yu *
u
5.75 log
5.56
u*

for

0<

for 20 <

yu *

<5

yu *

105

## TURBULENT FLOW IN PIPES

Figure (a) is a plot of above equations as well as
an indication of the range of experimental data
from various sources.
For flow near the center of the pipe, as for flow
near the outer limit of the boundary layer, the
velocity-defect law is applicable, as shown in
Fig. (b).
Figure (b) also include the range of experimental
velocity data obtained form flow in rough
conduits.

VELOCITY
DISTRIBUTION
FOR SMOOTH
PIPES
Fig. (a)

## VELOCITY-DEFECT LAW FOR TURBULENT

FLOW IN SMOOTH AND ROUGH PIPES

Fig. (b)

## TURBULENT FLOW IN PIPES

Again, a power-law formula like that for the
turbulent boundary layer is applicable every
where except close to the wall. This formula is

u
umax

y

r0

## here y is the distance from the wall and m is

an empirically determined quantity shown in
Table.

## TABLE: EXPONENTS FOR POWER-LAW

EQUATION AND RATIO OF MEAN
TO MAXIMUM VELOCITY
Re

4103

1
6 .0

1
6 .6

1
7 .0

1
8 .8

1
10.0

0.791

0.807

0.817

0.850

0.865

V
umax

## TURBULENT FLOW IN PIPES

To find head loss due to frictional resistance,
hf, Darcy-Weisbach equation may be used
LV2
hf f
D 2g

## For turbulent flow, analytical and empirical

result on smooth pipes yield the following
approximate relation for f:

1
2 log Re f 0.8
f

## TURBULENT FLOW IN PIPES

Velocity Distribution and ResistanceRough
pipes:

## Experiments on flow in rough pipes show that

the following relationship is valid over most of
the pipe section. u
y
u*

5.75 log

ks

8.5

## where y is the distance measured from the

geometric mean of the wall surface, and ks is
the size of the sand grains also called
equivalent sand roughness.

## TURBULENT FLOW IN PIPES

With low Reynolds numbers and with small-

## sized grains, the flow resistance is virtually the

same as that for a smooth pipe.
For high Reynolds numbers, the resistance
coefficient is solely a function of the relative
roughness

ks
D

## TURBULENT FLOW IN PIPES

The reason for the resistance to be same as
ks
that of a smooth pipe for low values of
and
D

## Reynolds number is that for these conditions

the roughness elements are completely within
the

viscous

sublayer

and

hence

have

pipe.

## TURBULENT FLOW IN PIPES

However, at high values of the Reynolds
number, the viscous sublayer is so thin that

## the roughness elements project into the main

stream of flow. For the flow having relatively
large values of

ks
D

to

V2; thus

conditions.

## TURBULENT FLOW IN PIPES

The effect of roughness can be summarized by

ks
Re 10
D

roughness unimportant,
pipe considered smooth

ks
Re 1000
D

fully rough,

## The region between these limits is the transitional

roughness regime.

## TURBULENT FLOW IN PIPES

Head loss due to frictional resistance hf may be
obtained by Darcy-Weisbach equation
LV2
hf f

D 2g

f

0.25

5.74
ks
log10 3.7D Re0.9

(8)

## Alternatively Moody diagram for commercial

pipes can be used.

## TURBULENT FLOW IN PIPES

Table gives the equivalent-sand roughness, ks for
various kinds of pipes.

## This table can be used to calculate the relative

ks
roughness
for a given pipe diameter which, in
D
turn, is used in Moody diagram to find the friction

factor f.
In the Moody diagram each blue curve is for a
ks
constant relative roughness
and the values of
D
ks
are given on the right at the end of each curve.
D

## TABLE: EQUIVALENT SAND-GRAIN

ROUGHNESS, ks , FOR VARIOUS
PIPE MATERIALS
Boundary Material

ks millimeters

Glass, plastic
Copper or brass tubing
Rubber pipe (straight)
Wrought iron, steel
Asphalted cast iron
Galvanized iron
Cast iron
Concrete

Smooth
0.0015
0.025
0.046
0.12
0.15
0.26
0.3 to 3.0

k

## For some problems when hf and s are known

D
but the velocity V is not known, then without V
the Reynolds number cannot be computed, so f
cannot be read from Moody diagram.
In that case the value of parameter Ref 1/ 2

is calculated as follows:
1/ 2

LV
hf f
D 2g

or
1/ 2

D 2ghf or
Re
1/ 2

f L
VD

3/2

1/ 2

2ghf D
V

L f
1/ 2
3/2
D 2ghf
1/ 2
Re f

This value of
determine

Ref

1/ 2

can be used to

## diagram, where each black curve is for

constant Ref 1/ 2 plotted slanting from the

## upper left to lower right and the values of

Ref 1/ 2 for each line are given at the top of

the chart.

## TURBULENT FLOW IN PIPES

There are basically three types of problems
involved with uniform flow in a single pipe.
These are
1.

## Determine the head loss, given the kind and

size of pipe and the flow rate.

2.

## Determine the flow rate, given the head loss,

kind, and size of pipe.

3.

## Determine the size of pipe needed to carry

the flow, given the kind of pipe, head loss,
and flow rate.

## TURBULENT FLOW IN PIPES

In the first type of problem, the Reynolds

number and

ks
D

## which the head loss is obtained by the use

of Darcy-Weisbach equation.

## TURBULENT FLOW IN PIPES

In the second type of problem, k s and the value of
D

3/2

1/ 2

2ghf

## Then, once f is read from the chart, the velocity

from Darcy-Weisbach equation is solved for the
discharge computed from Q = VA.

## TURBULENT FLOW IN PIPES

However, many problems for which the discharge
Q is desired cannot be solved directly.

## For example, a problem in which water flows from a

reservoir through a pipe and into the atmosphere
cannot be solved directly.
Here part of the available head is lost to friction in
the pipe, and part of the head remains as kinetic
energy in the jet as it leaves the pipe.
Therefore, it is not known how much head loss
occurs in the pipe itself.

## TURBULENT FLOW IN PIPES

In that case, the energy equation is written and
an initial value for f is guessed.

## Because f tends to a constant value at high

values of Reynolds number, an educated first
guess is to use this limiting value of f.
Next solve for the velocity V. With this value of V,
compute a Reynolds number that makes it
possible to determine a better value of f using
Moody diagram and so on.

## TURBULENT FLOW IN PIPES

This type of solution usually converges quite

Reynolds number.
Once

and

## iteration, calculate the discharge by using the

continuity equation.

## TURBULENT FLOW IN PIPES

In the third type of problem, it is usually best to
first assume a value of f and then solve for D,
after which a better value of f is computed
based on the first estimate of D.
This iterative procedure is continued until a valid
solution is obtained.
A

trial-and-error

because without

procedure
D, k s or
D

is

necessary

Reynolds number

## cannot be computed to enter Moody diagram.

Assignment
Examples: 9.1, 9.2 & 9.3
Examples: 10.1, 10.2, 10.3

THANK YOU