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This edition of the handbook has been updated throughout to reflect continuing changes in
design trends and improvements in design specifications. Criteria and examples are included
for both allowable-stress design (ASD) and load-and-resistance-factor design (LRFD) methods, but an increased emphasis has been placed on LRFD to reflect its growing use in
Numerous connection designs for building construction are presented in LRFD format in
conformance with specifications of the American Institute of Steel Construction (AISC). A
new article has been added on the design of hollow structural sections (HSS) by LRFD,
based on a new separate HSS specification by AISC. Also, because of their growing use in
light commercial and residential applications, a new section has been added on the design
of cold-formed steel structural members, based on the specification by the American Iron
and Steel Institute (AISI). It is applicable to both ASD and LRFD.
Design criteria are now presented in separate parts for highway and railway bridges to
better concentrate on those subjects. Information on highway bridges is based on specifications of the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO)
and information on railway bridges is based on specifications of the American Railway
Engineering and Maintenance-of-Way Association (AREMA). A very detailed example of
the LRFD design of a two-span composite I-girder highway bridge has been presented in
Section 11 to illustrate AASHTO criteria, and also the LRFD design of a single-span composite bridge in Section 12. An example of the LRFD design of a truss member is presented
in Section 13.
This edition of the handbook regrettably marks the passing of Fred Merritt, who worked
tirelessly on previous editions, and developed many other handbooks as well. His many
contributions to these works are gratefully acknowledged.
Finally, the reader is cautioned that independent professional judgment must be exercised
when information set forth in this handbook is applied. Anyone making use of this information assumes all liability arising from such use. Users are encouraged to use the latest
edition of the referenced specifications, because they provide more complete information and
are subject to frequent change.
Roger L. Brockenbrough


Nevertheless. The information presented applies to a wide range of structures. their mechanical properties. This blend of experiences contributes to a broad. worked out in detail. illustrate design procedures. and educators. architects. Aids are presented for estimating the relative weight and material cost of steels for various types of structural members to assist in selecting the most economical grade. Accordingly. A broad treatment of structural theory follows to aid engineers in determining the forces and moments that must be accounted for in design. Because of their impact on total cost. as well as the AISC ‘‘Steel Construction Manual. construction contractors. as well as the many facets of designing structural-steel systems and members for buildings and bridges. temperature effects. Design methods and equations from leading specifications are presented for ready reference. The book begins with an informative section on the types of steel.PREFACE TO THE SECOND EDITION This handbook has been developed to serve as a comprehensive reference source for designers of steel structures. the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO). The handbook should be useful to consulting engineers. Contributors to this book are leading experts in design. a knowledge of fabrication and erection methods is a fundamental requirement for designing economical structures. state. and welding. materials. It will also be a good reference for engineering technicians and detailers. and connections. fabrication. The thrust is to provide practical techniques for cost-effective design as well as explanations of underlying theory and criteria. is presented to give designers better knowledge of structural steels and alloys and how they are produced. users of this handbook would find it helpful to have the latest edition of these specifications on hand. and fatigue provide in-depth information. Topics such as coldwork. fracture. Available erection equipment is reviewed. and engineers with an extensive fabrication and erection background. construction. including the now widely used continuouscasting method. erection. traditional tools for xix . engineers employed by federal. university professors. This includes those of the American Institute of Steel Construction (AISC). and the basic behavior of steel under different conditions. Both the traditional allowable-stress design (ASD) approach and the load-and-resistance-factor design (LRFD) approach are presented. drilling.’’ ASD and LRFD. strain-rate effects. structural theory. Included is information on materials. Numerous examples. and structural theory. well-rounded presentation. They offer know-how and techniques gleaned from vast experience. The material has been presented in easy-to-understand form to make it useful to professionals and those with more limited experience. the book presents description of various shop fabrication procedures. They include well-known consulting engineers. fabricators and erectors. and the American Railway Engineering Association (AREA). punching. because they are changed annually. including cutting steel components to size. A review of fundamental steel-making practices. Basic mechanics. and local governments. as well as specific methods used to erect bridges and buildings.

cable systems. Alternative support systems for floors are reviewed. composite and noncomposite. taken from current practice. Both traditional and newer-type bracing systems. Roger L. A comprehensive section on design of structural connections presents approved methods for all of the major types. Also. composite and noncomposite. In addition. The reader is cautioned that independent professional judgment must be exercised when information set forth in this handbook is applied. numerous detailed calculations are presented for design of rolled-beam and plate-girder bridges. such as arches. including minimum design dead. Brockenbrough Frederick S. and other loads. A large part of the book is devoted to presentation of practical approaches to design of tension. and the various facets of member design. and flexural members. and continuous and simple-span systems. domes. Successive sections cover design of buildings. compression.xx PREFACE analysis of determinate and indeterminate structures. Discussions of design criteria cover loadings. matrix methods. framing systems for short and long-span roof systems are analyzed. In addition. Over one-third of the handbook is dedicated to design of bridges. wind. Information on materials for bolting and welding is included. straight and curved. such as the stub-girder and staggered-truss systems. Space considerations preclude listing all. Connections have received renewed attention in current structural steel design. Notable examples of truss and arch designs. but credit is given wherever feasible. especially in bibliographies throughout the book. Also. bolted and welded. Structural analysis tools are also presented for various special structures. Information is presented on use of weathering steel. Anyone making use of this information assumes all liability arising from such use. Merritt . The authors and editors are indebted to numerous sources for the information presented. tips are offered on how to obtain economical designs for all types of bridges. live. One section is devoted to selection of floor and roof systems for buildings. beginning with basic design criteria and other code requirements. design of suspension bridges and cablestayed bridges is covered in detail. fatigue. This information is particularly useful in making preliminary designs and verifying computer models. the book discusses the resistance of various types of structural steel to corrosion and describes corrosion-prevention methods. as well as available tools that allow engineers to design for fire protection and avoid costly tests. In addition. and improvements have been made in understanding their behavior in service and in design techniques. orthotropic plates. seismic. The concluding section describes the various types of cable-supported bridges and the cable systems and fittings available. This involves decisions that have major impact on the economics of building construction. and other topics are discussed. A state-of-the-art summary describes current fire-resistant construction. are analyzed. make these sections valuable references in selecting the appropriate spatial form for each site. Another section is devoted to design of framing systems for lateral forces. as well as executing the design. box girders. such as eccentric bracing. and orthotropic plates.