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AGMA 925- A03

AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION

AGMA 925- A03

Effect of Lubrication on Gear Surface


Distress

AGMA INFORMATION SHEET


(This Information Sheet is NOT an AGMA Standard)

Effect of Lubrication on Gear Surface Distress


American
AGMA 925--A03
Gear
Manufacturers CAUTION NOTICE: AGMA technical publications are subject to constant improvement,
revision or withdrawal as dictated by experience. Any person who refers to any AGMA
Association
technical publication should be sure that the publication is the latest available from the Association on the subject matter.

[Tables or other self--supporting sections may be quoted or extracted. Credit lines should
read: Extracted from AGMA 925--A03, Effect of Lubrication on Gear Surface Distress, with
the permission of the publisher, the American Gear Manufacturers Association, 500 Montgomery Street, Suite 350, Alexandria, Virginia 22314.]
Approved March 13, 2003

ABSTRACT
AGMA 925--A03 is an enhancement of annex A of ANSI/AGMA 2101--C95. Various methods of gear surface
distress are included, such as scuffing and wear, and in addition, micro and macropitting. Lubricant viscometric
information has been added, as has Dudleys regimes of lubrication theory. A flow chart is included in annex A,
Gaussian theory in annex B, a summary of lubricant test rigs in annex C, and an example calculation in annex D.
Published by

American Gear Manufacturers Association


500 Montgomery Street, Suite 350, Alexandria, Virginia 22314
Copyright 2003 by American Gear Manufacturers Association
All rights reserved.
No part of this publication may be reproduced in any form, in an electronic
retrieval system or otherwise, without prior written permission of the publisher.

Printed in the United States of America


ISBN: 1--55589--815--7

ii

AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION

AGMA 925--A03

Contents
Page

Foreword . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iv
1
Scope . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
2
References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
3
Symbols and units . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
4
Gear information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
5
Lubrication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
6
Scuffing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
7
Surface fatigue (micro-- and macropitting) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
8
Wear . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
Bibliography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49

Annexes
A
B
C
D

Flow chart for evaluating scuffing risk and oil film thickness . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Normal or Gaussian probability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Test rig gear data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Example calculations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

31
39
41
43

Figures
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15

Distances along the line of action for external gears . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6


Transverse relative radius of curvature for external gears . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
Load sharing factor -- unmodified profiles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
Load sharing factor -- pinion driving . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
Load sharing factor -- gear driving . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
Load sharing factor -- smooth meshing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
Dynamic viscosity versus temperature for mineral oils . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
Dynamic viscosity versus temperature for PAO--based synthetic
non--VI--improved oils . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
Dynamic viscosity versus temperature for PAG--based synthetic oils . . . . . . 15
Dynamic viscosity versus temperature for MIL Spec. oils . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
Pressure--viscosity coefficient versus dynamic viscosity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
Example of thermal network . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
Contact temperature along the line of action . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
Plot of regimes of lubrication versus stress cycle factor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
Probability of wear related distress . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27

Tables
1
2
3
4
5
6
7

Symbols and units . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2


Data for determining viscosity and pressure--viscosity coefficient . . . . . . . . . 12
Mean scuffing temperatures for oils and steels typical of the aerospace
industry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
Welding factors, XW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
Scuffing risk . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
Stress cycle factor equations for regimes I, II and III . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
Calculation results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29

iii

AGMA 925--A03

AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION

Foreword
[The foreword, footnotes and annexes, if any, in this document are provided for
informational purposes only and are not to be construed as a part of AGMA Information
Sheet 925--A03, Effect of Lubrication on Gear Surface Distress.]
The purpose of this information sheet is to provide the user with information pertinent to the
lubrication of industrial metal gears for power transmission applications. It is intended that
this document serve as a general guideline and source of information about conventional
lubricants, their properties, and their general tribological behavior in gear contacts. This
information sheet was developed to supplement ANSI/AGMA Standards 2101--C95 and
2001--C95. It has been introduced as an aid to the gear manufacturing and user community.
Accumulation of feedback data will serve to enhance future developments and improved
methods to evaluate lubricant related wear risks.
It was clear from the work initiated on the revision of AGMA Standards 2001--C95 and
2101--C95 (metric version) that supporting information regarding lubricant properties and
general tribological knowledge of contacting surfaces would aid in the understanding of
these standards. The information would also provide the user with more tools to help make
a more informed decision about the performance of a geared system. This information
sheet provides sufficient information about the key lubricant parameters to enable the user
to generate reasonable estimates about scuffing and wear based on the collective
knowledge of theory available for these modes at this time.
In 1937 Harmon Blok published his theory about the relationship between contact
temperature and scuffing. This went largely unnoticed in the U.S. until the early 1950s
when Bruce Kelley showed that Bloks method and theories correlated well with
experimental data he had generated on scuffing of gear teeth. The Blok flash temperature
theory began to receive serious consideration as a predictor of scuffing in gears. The
methodology and theories continued to evolve through the 1950s with notable
contributions from Dudley, Kelley and Benedict in the areas of application rating factors,
surface roughness effects and coefficient of friction. The 1960s saw the evolution of gear
calculations and understanding continue with computer analysis and factors addressing
load sharing and tip relief issues. The AGMA Aerospace Committee began using all the
available information to produce high quality products and help meet its long--term goal of
manned space flight. R. Errichello introduced the SCORING+ computer program in 1985,
which included all of the advancements made by Blok, Kelley, Dudley and the Aerospace
Committee to that time. It became the basis for annex A of ANSI/AGMA 2101--C95 and
2001--C95 which helped predict the risk of scuffing and wear. In the 1990s, this annex
formed the basis for AGMAs contribution to ISO 13989--1.
Just as many others took the original Blok theories and expanded them, the Tribology
Subcommittee of the Helical Gear Rating Committee has attempted to expand the original
annex A of ANSI/AGMA 2001--C95 and 2101--C95. Specifically, the subcommittee
targeted the effect lubrication may have on gear surface distress. As discussions evolved, it
became clear that this should be a stand alone document which will hopefully serve many
other gear types. This should be considered a work in progress as more is learned about the
theories and understanding of the various parameters and how they affect the life of the
gear. Some of these principles are also mentioned in ISO/TR 13989--1.
AGMA 925--A03 was was approved by the AGMA Technical Division Executive Committee
on March 13, 2003.
Suggestions for improvement of this document will be welcome. They should be sent to the
American Gear Manufacturers Association, 500 Montgomery Street, Suite 350, Alexandria,
Virginia 22314.
iv

AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION

AGMA 925--A03

PERSONNEL of the AGMA Helical Rating Committee and Tribology SubCommittee


Chairman: D. McCarthy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Dorris Company
Vice Chairman: M. Antosiewicz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The Falk Corporation
SubCommittee Chairman: H. Hagan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The Cincinnati Gear Company

COMMITTEE ACTIVE MEMBERS


K.E. Acheson . . .
J.B. Amendola . .
T.A. Beveridge . .
M.J. Broglie . . . . .
A.B. Cardis . . . . .
M.F. Dalton . . . . .
G.A. DeLange . . .
D.W. Dudley . . . .
R.L. Errichello . . .
D.R. Gonnella . . .
M.R. Hoeprich . .
O.A. LaBath . . . .

The Gear Works--Seattle, Inc.


MAAG Gear AG
Caterpillar, Inc.
Dudley Technical Group, Inc.
Exxon Mobil Research
General Electric Company
Prager, Incorporated
Consultant
GEARTECH
Equilon Lubricants
The Timken Company
The Cincinnati Gear Co.

G. Lian . . . . . . . . .
J.V. Lisiecki . . . . .
L. Lloyd . . . . . . . .
J.J. Luz . . . . . . . .
D.R. McVittie . . . .
A.G. Milburn . . . .
G.W. Nagorny . . .
M.W. Neesley . . .
B. OConnor . . . .
W.P. Pizzichil . . .
D.F. Smith . . . . . .
K. Taliaferro . . . .

Amarillo Gear Company


The Falk Corporation
Lufkin Industries, Inc.
General Electric Company
Gear Engineers, Inc.
Milburn Engineering, Inc.
Nagorny & Associates
Philadelphia Gear Corp.
The Lubrizol Corporation
Philadelphia Gear Corp.
Solar Turbines, Inc.
Rockwell Automation/Dodge

I. Laskin . . . . . . . .
J. Maddock . . . . .
J. Escanaverino .
G.P. Mowers . . . .
R.A. Nay . . . . . . .
M. Octrue . . . . . .
T. Okamoto . . . . .
J.R. Partridge . . .
J.A. Pennell . . . . .
A.E. Phillips . . . . .
J.W. Polder . . . . .
E. Sandberg . . . .
C.D. Schultz . . . .
E.S. Scott . . . . . .
A. Seireg . . . . . . .
Y. Sharma . . . . . .
B.W. Shirley . . . .
L.J. Smith . . . . . .
L. Spiers . . . . . . .
A.A. Swiglo . . . . .
J.W. Tellman . . . .
F.A. Thoma . . . . .
D. Townsend . . . .
L. Tzioumis . . . . .
F.C. Uherek . . . . .
A. Von Graefe . . .
C.C. Wang . . . . .
B. Ward . . . . . . . .
R.F. Wasilewski .

Consultant
The Gear Works -- Seattle, Inc.
ISPJAE
Consultant
UTC Pratt & Whitney Aircraft
CETIM
Nippon Gear Company, Ltd.
Lufkin Industries, Inc.
Univ. of Newcastle--Upon--Tyne
Rockwell Automation/Dodge
Delft University of Technology
Det Nordske Veritas
Pittsburgh Gear Company
The Alliance Machine Company
University of Wisconsin
Philadelphia Gear Corporation
Emerson Power Transmission
Invincible Gear Company
Emerson Power Trans. Corp.
IIT Research Institute/INFAC
Dodge
F.A. Thoma, Inc.
NASA/Lewis Research Center
Dodge
Flender Corporation
MAAG Gear AG
3E Software & Eng. Consulting
Recovery Systems, LLC
Arrow Gear Company

COMMITTEE ASSOCIATE MEMBERS


M. Bartolomeo . .
A.C. Becker . . . .
E. Berndt . . . . . . .
E.J. Bodensieck .
D.L. Borden . . . .
M.R. Chaplin . . . .
R.J. Ciszak . . . . .
A.S. Cohen . . . . .
S. Copeland . . . .
R.L. Cragg . . . . .
T.J. Dansdill . . . .
F. Eberle . . . . . . .
L. Faure . . . . . . . .
C. Gay . . . . . . . . .
J. Gimper . . . . . .
T.C. Glasener . . .
G. Gonzalez Rey
M.A. Hartman . . .
J.M. Hawkins . . .
G. Henriot . . . . . .
G. Hinton . . . . . . .
M. Hirt . . . . . . . . .
R.W. Holzman . .
R.S. Hyde . . . . . .
V. Ivers . . . . . . . .
A. Jackson . . . . .
H.R. Johnson . . .
J.G. Kish . . . . . . .
R.H. Klundt . . . . .
J.S. Korossy . . . .

New Venture Gear, Inc.


Nuttall Gear LLC
Besco
Bodensieck Engineering Co.
D.L. Borden, Inc.
Contour Hardening, Inc.
Euclid--Hitachi Heavy Equip. Inc.
Engranes y Maquinaria Arco SA
Gear Products, Inc.
Consultant
General Electric Company
Rockwell Automation/Dodge
C.M.D.
Charles E. Gay & Company, Ltd.
Danieli United, Inc.
Xtek, Incorporated
ISPJAE
ITW
Rolls--Royce Corporation
Consultant
Xtek, Incorporated
Renk AG
Milwaukee Gear Company, Inc.
The Timken Company
Xtek, Incorporated
Exxon Mobil
The Horsburgh & Scott Co.
Sikorsky Aircraft Division
The Timken Company
The Horsburgh & Scott Co.

AGMA 925--A03

AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION

SUBCOMMITTEE ACTIVE MEMBERS


K.E. Acheson . . .
J.B. Amendola . .
T.A. Beveridge . .
M.J. Broglie . . . . .
A.B. Cardis . . . . .
R.L. Errichello . . .
D.R. Gonnella . . .
M.R. Hoeprich . .

vi

The Gear Works -- Seattle, Inc.


MAAG Gear AG
Caterpillar, Inc.
Dudley Technical Group, Inc.
Exxon Mobil Research
GEARTECH
Equilon Lubricants
The Timken Company

G. Lian . . . . . . . . .
D. McCarthy . . . .
D.R. McVittie . . . .
A.G. Milburn . . . .
G.W. Nagorny . . .
B. OConnor . . . .
D.F. Smith . . . . . .
K. Taliaferro . . . .

Amarillo Gear Company


Dorris Company
Gear Engineers, Inc.
Milburn Engineering, Inc.
Nagorny & Associates
The Lubrizol Corporation
Solar Turbines, Inc.
Rockwell Automation/Dodge

AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION

American Gear Manufacturers


Association --

Effect of Lubrication on
Gear Surface Distress

1 Scope
This information sheet is designed to provide
currently available tribological information pertaining
to oil lubrication of industrial gears for power
transmission applications. It is intended to serve as
a general guideline and source of information about
gear oils, their properties, and their general tribological behavior in gear contacts. Manufacturers and
end--users are encouraged, however, to work with
their lubricant suppliers to address specific concerns
or special issues that may not be covered here (such
as greases).
The equations provided herein allow the user to
calculate specific oil film thickness and instantaneous contact (flash) temperature for gears in
service. These two parameters are considered
critical in defining areas of operation that may lead to
unwanted surface distress. Surface distress may be
scuffing (adhesive wear), fatigue (micropitting and
macropitting), or excessive abrasive wear (scoring).
Each of these forms of surface distress may be
influenced by the lubricant; the calculations are
offered to help assess the potential risk involved with
a given lubricant choice. Flow charts are included as
aids to using the equations.
This information sheet is a supplement to ANSI/
AGMA 2101--C95 and ANSI/AGMA 2001--C95. It
has been introduced as an aid to the gear manufacturing and user community. Accumulation of feedback data will serve to enhance future developments
and improved methods to evaluate lubricant related
surface distress.

AGMA 925--A03

It was clear from the work on the revision of standard


ANSI/AGMA 2001--C95 (ANSI/AGMA 2101--C95,
metric version) that supporting information regarding lubricant properties and general tribological
understanding of contacting surfaces would aid in
understanding of the standard and provide the user
with more tools to make an informed decision about
the performance of a geared system. One of the key
parameters is the estimated film thickness. This is
not a trivial calculation, but one that has significant
impact on overall performance of the gear pair. It is
considered in performance issues such as scuffing,
wear, and surface fatigue. This information sheet
provides sufficient information about key lubricant
parameters to enable the user to generate reasonable estimates about surface distress based on the
collective knowledge available.
Blok [1] published his contact temperature equation
in 1937. It went relatively unnoticed in the U.S. until
Kelley [2] showed that Bloks method gave good
correlation with Kelleys experimental data. Bloks
equation requires an accurate coefficient of friction.
Kelley found it necessary to couple the coefficient of
friction to surface roughness of the gear teeth.
Kelley recognized the importance of load sharing by
multiple pairs of teeth and gear tooth tip relief, but he
did not offer equations to account for those variables.
Dudley [3] modified Kelleys equation by adding
derating factors for application, misalignment and
dynamics. He emphasized the need for research on
effects of tip relief, and recommended applying
Bloks method to helical gears.
In 1958, Kelley [4] changed his surface roughness
term slightly.
Benedict and Kelley [5] published their equation for
variable coefficient of friction derived from disc tests.
The AGMA Aerospace Committee began investigating scuffing in 1960, and Lemanski [6] published
results of a computer analysis that contains data for
90 spur and helical gearsets, and formed the terms
for AGMA 217.01 [7], which was published in 1965.
It used Dudleys modified Blok/Kelley equation and
included factors accounting for load sharing and tip
relief.

AGMA 925--A03

AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION

The SCORING+ computer program [8] was released


in 1985. It incorporated all advancements made by
Blok, Kelley, Dudley and AGMA 217.01. In addition,
it added several improvements including:
-- Helical gears were analyzed by resolving the
load in the normal plane and distributing the
normal load over the minimum length of the
contact lines. The semi--width of the Hertzian
contact band was calculated based on the normal
relative radius of curvature;
-- Derating factors for application, misalignment
and dynamics were explicit input data;
-- Options for coefficient of friction were part of
input data, including a constant 0.06 (as prescribed by Kelley and AGMA 217.01), a constant
under user control, and a variable coefficient
based on the Benedict and Kelley equation.
SCORING+ and AGMA 217.01 both use the same
value for the thermal contact coefficient of
BM = 16.5 N/[mms0.5K], and they calculate the
same contact temperature for spur gears if all
derating factors are set to unity.
Annex A of ANSI/AGMA 2101--C95 and ANSI/
AGMA 2001--C95 was based on SCORING+ and
included methods for predicting risk of scuffing
based on contact temperature and risk of wear
based on specific film thickness.
This information sheet expands the information in
annex A of ANSI/AGMA 2101--C95 and ANSI/AGMA
2001--C95 to include many aspects of gear tribology.

2 References
The following standards contain provisions which
are referenced in the text of this information sheet.
At the time of publication, the editions indicated were
valid. All standards are subject to revision, and
parties to agreements based on this document are
encouraged to investigate the possibility of applying
the most recent editions of the standards indicated.
ANSI/AGMA 2001--C95, Fundamental Rating Factors and Calculation Methods for Involute Spur and
Helical Gear Teeth
ANSI/AGMA 2101--C95, Fundamental Rating Factors and Calculation Methods for Involute Spur and
Helical Gear Teeth (Metric Edition)
ANSI/AGMA 1010--E95, Appearance of Gear Teeth
-- Terminology of Wear and Failure
ISO 10825:1995, Gears -- Wear and Damage to
Gear Teeth -- Terminology

3 Symbols and units


The symbols used in this document are shown in
table 1.
NOTE: The symbols and definitions used in this document may differ from other AGMA standards.

Table 1 -- Symbols and units


Symbol

Description

A
aw
B
BM
BM1, BM2
b
bH

Dimensionless constant
Operating center distance
Dimensionless constant
Thermal contact coefficient
Thermal contact coefficient (pinion, gear)
Face width
Semi--width of Hertzian contact band

CA ... CF
CR

Distances along line of action


Surface roughness constant

c
cM1, cM2
Di
d

Parameter for calculating o


Specific heat per unit mass (pinion, gear)
Internal gear inside diameter
Parameter for calculating o

avgx

Units
-- -mm
-- -N/[mm s0.5K]
N/[mm s0.5K]
mm
mm
mm
-- --- -J/[kg K]
mm
-- --

Where first
used
Eq 61
Eq 4
Eq 61
6.2.3
Eq 84
Eq 23
Eq 57
4.1.2
Eq 85
Eq 69
Eq 89, 90
4.1.2
Eq 69
(continued)

AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION

AGMA 925--A03

Table 1 (continued)
Symbol

Description

E1, E2
Er
Ft
(Ft)nom
Fwn
G
g
Hc

Modulus of elasticity (pinion, gear)


Reduced modulus of elasticity
Actual tangential load
Nominal tangential load
Normal operating load
Materials parameter
Parameter for calculating o
Dimensionless central film thickness

h
hc

Thickness of element measured perpendicular to flow


Central film thickness

hmin
K
KD
Km
Ko
Kv
k
ksump
Lx
Lmin
mn
n1
N
na
nr
P
P(x)
p
pbn
pbt
px
Q
Q(x)
R avgx

Ra1x, Ra2x
Rqx
Rqx avg
Rq1x, Rq2x
r1, r2
ra1, ra2
rb1, rb2
rw1
Sf
s

Minimum film thickness


Flash temperature constant
Combined derating factor
Load distribution factor
Overload factor
Dynamic factor
Parameter for calculating
Parameter for calculating M
Filter cutoff of wavelength x
Minimum contact length
Normal module
Pinion speed
Number of load cycles
Fractional (non--integer) part of
Fractional (non--integer) part of
Transmitted power
Probability of survival
Pressure
Normal base pitch
Transverse base pitch
Axial pitch
Tail area of the normal probability function
Probability of failure
Average of the average values of pinion and gear roughness
Average surface roughness (pinion, gear) at Lx
Root mean square roughness at Lx
Arithmetic average of Rq1x and Rq2x at Lx
Root mean square roughness at Lx (pinion, gear)
Standard pitch radius (pinion, gear)
Outside radius (pinion, gear)
Base radius (pinion, gear)
Operating pitch radius of pinion
Contact time
Parameter for calculating

Units
N/mm2
N/mm2
N
N
N
-- --- --- --

Where first
used
Eq 58
Eq 57
Eq 42
Eq 40
Eq 43
Eq 65
Eq 69
Eq 65

m
mm

Eq 59
Eq 75

mm
-- --- --- --- --- --- --- -mm
mm
mm
rpm
cycles
-- --- -kW
-- -N/mm2
mm
mm
mm
-- --- -mm

Eq 102
Eq 84
Eq 41
Eq 41
Eq 41
Eq 41
Eq 74
Eq 91
Eq 77
Eq 25
Eq 2
Eq 33
Fig 14
Eq 25
Eq 25
Eq 40
8.2.2
Eq 64
Eq 10
Eq 9
Eq 11
Eq B.2
8.2.2
Eq 87

Eq 78
Eq 79
Eq 99
Eq 99
Eq 2, 3
Eq 19, 16
Eq 6, 7
Eq 4
ms (sec 10--3) Eq 97
-- -Eq 74
mm
mm
mm
mm
mm
mm
mm
mm

(continued)

AGMA 925--A03

AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION

Table 1 (continued)
Symbol
T
U(i)
u
v
ve

Description
Absolute temperature
Speed parameter
Gear ratio (always 1.0)
Velocity
Entraining velocity

v r1 , v r2 Rolling (tangential) velocity (pinion, gear)


i
i
vs
Sliding velocity
i

Units
K
-- --- -m/s
m/s

Where first
used
Eq 61
Eq 65
Eq 1
Eq 59
Eq 39

m/s

Eq 36, 37

m/s

Eq 38

m/s
-- -N/mm
-- --- --

Eq 35
Eq 65
Eq 44
Eq 96
4.3

mm
-- --- --- --- -mm2/N
degrees
degrees
degrees
degrees
degrees
degrees
degrees
radians
radians
-- --- -mPas
mPas
mPas
mPas
mPas
mPas
C

Eq 21
7.5
Eq B.3
Eq 1
Eq 1
Eq 64
Eq 5
Eq 5
Eq 14
Eq 8
Eq 2
Eq 12
Eq 13
Eq 29
Eq 28
Eq 22
Eq 23
Eq 59
Eq 64
Eq 64
Eq 67
Eq 70
Eq 71
Eq 92

vt
W(i)
wn
XW
X

Operating pitch line velocity


Load parameter
Normal unit load
Welding factor
Load sharing factor

Z
ZN
ZQ
z1
z2

n
t
wn
wt

b
w
(i)
A ... E

atm
P
M
1, 2
40, 100
B

Active length of line of action


Stress cycle factor
Normal probability density function
Number teeth in pinion
Number teeth in gear (positive)
Pressure--viscosity coefficient
Normal generating pressure angle
Transverse generating pressure angle
Normal operating pressure angle
Transverse operating pressure angle
Helix angle
Base helix angle
Operating helix angle
Pinion roll angle at point i along the line of action
Pinion roll angle at points A ... E
Transverse contact ratio
Axial contact ratio
Dynamic viscosity
Viscosity at atmospheric pressure
Viscosity at pressure P
Dynamic viscosity at gear tooth temperature M
Dynamic viscosity at temperature 1, 2
Dynamic viscosity at 40C, 100C
Contact temperature

B max
fl

Maximum contact temperature


Flash temperature

C
C

Eq 93
Eq 84

fl max
fl max, test
M
M, test

Maximum flash temperature


Maximum flash temperature of test gears
Tooth temperature
Tooth temperature of test gears

C
C
C
C

Eq 91
Eq 96
Eq 69
Eq 96

(i)

(continued)
4

AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION

AGMA 925--A03

Table 1 (concluded)
Symbol
oil
S
S

Oil inlet or sump temperature


Mean scuffing temperature
Method of calculating scuffing temperature, S

C
C
-- --

Where first
used
Eq 91
Eq 94
Annex A

1, 2
min
2b

Temperature at which 1, 2 was measured


Specific film thickness
Specific film thickness at point i with a filter cutoff wavelength
of 2bH

C
-- --- --

Eq 70
Eq 104
Eq 76

M1, M2
W&H
my
mm

Heat conductivity (pinion, gear)


Wellauer and Holloway specific film thickness
Mean value of random variable y
Mean coefficient of friction

N/[s K]
-- --- --- --

Eq 89, 90
Eq 102
6.5.5
Eq 84

mmet
mm const
m min

1, 2
40, 100

M1, M2
1 , 2

Method for approximating mean coefficient of friction


Mean coefficient of friction, constant
Mean minimum specific film thickness
Kinematic viscosity
Poissons ratio (pinion, gear)
Kinematic viscosity at 40C, 100C
Density
Density (pinion, gear)
Transverse radius of curvature (pinion, gear)

-- --- -mm
mm2/s
-- -mm2/s
kg/m3
kg/m3
mm

Annex A
Eq 85
Eq 109
Eq 60
Eq 58
Eq 62
Eq 60
Eq 89, 90
4.1.5

Normal relative radius of curvature

mm

Eq 32

Transverse relative radius of curvature

mm

Eq 31

Composite surface roughness for filter cutoff wavelength, Lx


Standard deviation of the minimum specific film thickness
Composite surface roughness adjusted for a cutoff
wavelength equal to the Hertzian contact width
Shear stress
Angular velocity (pinion, gear)

mm
mm
mm

Eq 77
Eq 109
Eq 76

met

H
i

x
min
2b

H
i

1, 2

Description

4 Gear information

N/mm2
rad/s

Eq 59
Eq 33, 34

Standard pitch radii


z1 mn
2 cos
r2 = r 1 u

r1 =

4.1 Gear geometry


This clause gives equations for gear geometry used
to determine flash temperature and elastohydrodynamic (EHL) film thickness. The following equations
apply to both spur and helical gears; spur gearing is a
particular case with zero helix angle. Where double
signs are used (e.g., ), the upper sign applies to
external gears and the lower sign to internal gears.
4.1.1 Basic gear geometry

(2)
(3)

Operating pitch radius of pinion


r w1 =

aw
u1

(4)

Transverse generating pressure angle


t = arctan

tancos
n

(5)

Base radii

Gear ratio
z
u = z2
1

Units

(1)

r b1 = r 1 cos t
r b2 = r b1 u

(6)
(7)

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AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION

Transverse operating pressure angle

r
wt = arccos r b1
w1

(8)

Transverse base pitch


p bt =

2 r b1
z1

wt

(9)

ra2

rb2

Normal base pitch

aw

p bn = m n cos n

HPSTC

(10)

Axial pitch
px =

mn
sin

(11)

Base helix angle

p
b = arccos pbn
bt

A
CA

(12)

Operating helix angle

EAP

pbt

LPSTC

SAP

pbt

CB
CC

ra1
CD

rb1

tan
w = arctan cos b
wt

CE

CF

(13)

Normal operating pressure angle


wn = arcsincos b sin wt

(14)

4.1.2 Distances along the line of action


Figure 1 is the line of action shown in a transverse
plane. Distances Cj are measured from the interference point of the pinion along the line of action.
Distance CA locates the pinion start of active profile
(SAP) and distance CE locates the pinion end of
active profile (EAP). The lowest and highest point of
single--tooth--pair contact (LPSTC and HPSTC) are
located by distances CB and CD, respectively.
Distance CC locates the operating pitch point. CF is
the distance between base circles along the line of
action.
(15)

C F = a w sin wt

C A = C F r 2a2 r 2b2

(16)

4.1.3 Contact ratios


Transverse contact ratio
= pZ

bt

nr

Axial contact ratio


--

for helical gears

= pb

na
--

for spur gears

= 0.0

(24)

Minimum contact length

CF
CC =
u1
C D = C A + p bt

L min =

for helical gears, case 1, where 1 n r n a


b n a n r p x
cos b

(25)

for helical gears, case 2, where 1 n r < n a

(18)

--

(19)

L min =

C B = C E p bt

(20)

--

Z = CE CA

(21)

L min = b

0.5

(23)

is fractional (non--integer) part of .

-(17)

(22)

is fractional (non--integer) part of .

D
NOTE: For internal gears r a2 = i .
2

C E = r 2a1 r 2b1

0.5

Figure 1 -- Distances along the line of action for


external gears

b 1 n a1 n r p x
cos b

(26)

for spur gears


(27)

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AGMA 925--A03

Transverse relative radius of curvature

4.1.4 Roll angles

1 2
i i
r =

i
2 1

Pinion roll angles corresponding to the five specific


points along the line of action shown in figure 1 are
given by:
Cj
j = r

(31)
i

Normal relative radius of curvature

(28)

b1

r
n =

where

(32)

cos b

j = A, B, C, D, E

and n are the equivalent radii of cylinders


i
riding on a flat plate that represent the gear pair
curvatures in contact along the line of action.
r

4.1.5 Profile radii of curvature


Transverse radii of curvature
Figure 2 shows the transverse radii of curvature, 1

4.2 Gear tooth velocities and loads


i

and 2 , of the gear tooth profiles at a general


i

contact point defined by the roll angle, (i), where (i) is


any point on the line of action from A to E (see figure
1).

Rotational (angular) velocities


n 1
30
1
2 = u
Operating pitch line velocity
1 =

1 r w1
1000
Rolling (tangential) velocities
vt =

1 1
1 2
i i
r =
2 1
i
i

v r1 =

2 2

v r2 =

(35)

(37)

1000

(34)

(36)

1000

(33)

Sliding velocity (absolute value)


1

r b1

v s = v r1 v r2
i
i
i

(38)

Entraining velocity (absolute value)


(i)

v e = v r1 + v r2
i
i
i

CF

(39)

Nominal tangential load

F t
Figure 2 -- Transverse relative radius of
curvature for external gears

(29)

where
A (i) E
i

P
= 1000
v
t

(40)

Combined derating factor


K D = K o Km Kv

(41)

where

1 = r b1 i
i

2 = CF 1

nom

(30)
i

Ko

is overload factor;

Km

is load distribution factor;

Kv

is dynamic factor.

See ANSI/AGMA 2101--C95 for guidance in


determining Ko, Km and Kv factors.

AGMA 925--A03

AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION

Actual tangential load

For modified tooth profiles

F t = F t nom K D

(42)

Normal operating load


F wn =

Ft

(43)

cos wn cos w

Normal unit load


wn =

F wn
L min

(44)

4.3 Load sharing factor


The load sharing factor accounts for load sharing
between succeeding pairs of teeth as influenced by
profile modification, and whether the pinion or gear is
the driving member. By convention, the load sharing
factor is represented by a polygonal function on the
line of action with magnitude equal to 1.0 between
points B and D (see figure 3).
The load sharing factor is strongly influenced by
profile modification of the tooth flanks of both gears.
On the other hand, profile modifications are chosen
such that load sharing follows a desired function.
The following equations give the load sharing factor
for unmodified tooth profiles, and for three typical
cases of profile modifications.

If adequate tip and root relief is designed for high


load capacity, and if the pinion drives the gear (see
figure 4):
X = 6
7
i

i A
B A

for A i < B (48)

X = 1 for B i D
i
X = 1 + 6
7 7
i

E i
E D

(49)

for D < i E
(50)

1
6
7

1
7
A

Figure 4 -- Load sharing factor -- pinion driving

For unmodified tooth profiles


If there is no tip or root relief (see figure 3):
X = 1 + 1
3 3
i

i A
B A

for A i < B
(45)

X = 1 for B i D
i

X = 1 + 1
3 3
i

E i
E D

(46)

for D < i E
(47)

If adequate tip and root relief is designed for high


load capacity, and if the pinion is driven by the gear
(see figure 5):
X = 1 + 6
7 7
i

i A
B A

for A i < B
(51)

X = 1 for B i D
i
X = 6
7
i

E i
E D

(52)

for D < i E (53)

1
1

2
3

6
7

1
3

Figure 3 -- Load sharing factor -- unmodified


profiles
8

1
7
A

Figure 5 -- Load sharing factor -- gear driving

AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION

AGMA 925--A03

For smooth meshing

5 Lubrication

If adequate tip and root relief is designed for smooth


meshing (see figure 6):

5.1 Viscometric information

X =
i

i A
B A

(54)

for A i < B

X = 1 for B i D
i
X =
i

E i
E D

(55)
(56)

for D < i E

Lubricants are commonly referred to by their base


type, for example mineral or synthetic, and their
viscosity, usually in relation to a defined viscosity
grade. Viscosity is one of the basic and very
important properties of a lubricant and is used
extensively in tribological calculations. Viscosity is a
bulk property of a fluid, semi--fluid or semi--solid
substance that causes it to resist flow. In addition to
the basic composition and structure of the material,
viscosity decreases with increasing temperature
and increases with increasing pressure.
For a liquid under shear, the rate of deformation or
shear rate is proportional to the shearing stress. This
relationship is Newtons law, which essentially states
that the ratio of the stress to the shear rate is a
constant. That constant is viscosity. Dynamic
viscosity, , sometimes referred to as absolute
viscosity, is defined by equation 59.

Figure 6 -- Load sharing factor -- smooth


meshing

= 10 9
dv
dh

(59)

where:
4.4 Hertzian contact band
The semi--width of the rectangular contact band is
given by:
0.5

8 Xi wn ni
b H =

i
Er
i

Er

is shear stress, N/mm2;

is velocity, m/s;

is thickness of an element measured perpendicular to the flow, m;

dv is
dh

known as the rate of shear [s --1] and

sometimes listed as .

is load sharing factor (see 4.3);


is normal unit load, N/mm (see equation 44);

wn

is dynamic viscosity, mPas;

(57)

where
X

is normal relative radius of curvature, mm


(see equation 32);
is reduced modulus of elasticity given by:

Er = 2

1 21
E1

1 22
E2

(58)

where
1, 2 is Poissons ratio (pinion, gear);
E1, E2 is modulus of elasticity,
gear).

N/mm2

(pinion,

Lubricants used in industry today, however, have


their viscosity measured by capillary viscometers
which provide a kinematic viscosity. Kinematic
viscosity, , is the ratio of dynamic viscosity, , to the
density, , at a specified temperature and pressure
(see equation 60).

= 10 3

(60)

where:

is kinematic viscosity, mm2/s;

is density, kg/m3.

ASTM D445 [9] is the most widely used method for


measuring the kinematic viscosity of lubricants for
many different applications. The most commonly

AGMA 925--A03

AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION

used temperatures are 40C and 100C; these


measurements are generally made at atmospheric
pressure.

then

Under Newtons law, viscosity is independent of


shear rate. Fluids such as these are referred to as
Newtonian fluids. Most conventional, single grade
lubricants made with a relatively low molecular
weight base stock (non--polymeric) are considered
Newtonian fluids. However, there are fluids that do
not exhibit this ideal behavior because their viscosity
is not independent of shear rate. These are usually
finished blends containing higher molecular weight
polymers (viscosity modifiers or viscosity index
improvers, as well as pour point depressants) that
are sensitive to shear rate. Some exhibit shear
thinning, whereas others result in shear thickening.
It is more common in gear lubricant applications to
find shear thinning relationships due to the nature of
the polymers typically used in these formulations.
This shear thinning translates into lower effective
viscosities in the contact region under operation than
might be expected from a non--polymer blend of
similar viscosity.

Another common numeric designation that provides


information about the viscosity--temperature relationship of a fluid is the viscosity index or VI. The
viscosity index of a fluid can be calculated by ASTM
method D2270 [11]. This arbitrary measure gives a
relative viscosity--temperature sensitivity for a given
oil. The higher the value the less change in viscosity
with temperature.

Lubricant viscosity varies inversely with temperature. A truly ideal fluid would have a viscosity that is
constant over all temperature. ASTM method D341
[10] can be used to obtain the viscosity--temperature
relationship. A simplified form can be used to
estimate the kinematic viscosity of a fluid at a given
temperature if there is some viscometric information
available for the fluid at two other temperatures (see
equation 61).
(61)

where:
T

is absolute temperature, K;

is kinematic viscosity, mm2/s;

A, B are dimensionless constants.

10

log 10 log 10 40 + 0.7 log 10 log 10 100 + 0.7


log 10(373.15) log10(313.15)

5.1.2 Viscosity--pressure relationship


Equally important to temperature on the fluid
viscosity is the pressure acting on it. This is
especially important in highly loaded contacts such
as gears and rolling element bearings where pressures can easily exceed 1 GPa. The viscosity of
lubricant trapped in a concentrated contact increases exponentially with pressure. In 1893, C.
Barus established an empirical equation to describe
the isothermal viscosity--pressure relationship for a
given liquid as shown in equation 64.
(64)

where
P

is viscosity at pressure, p, mPas;

atm is viscosity
mPas;

at

atmospheric

pressure,

is pressure--viscosity coefficient, mm2/N.

Today the model continues to be refined. So and


Klaus [12] provided a comparison of the many
models developed since the Barus equation was first
introduced. The continued research aided by the
development of high pressure rheology techniques
to generate empirical information have shown that
the viscosity--pressure response of a fluid is also
related to its chemical structure [13, 14, 15]. This can
have a profound effect on the film forming capabilities of the fluid in question and the overall life of the
component involved.
5.2 Film thickness equation

A and B can be determined by solving equation 61


simultaneously with equations 62 and 63, using the
kinematic viscosity of the fluid measured at standard
temperatures of 40C and 100C.
B=

(63)

P = atm e p

5.1.1 Viscosity temperature relationship

log 10 log 10( + 0.7) = A B log 10 T

A = log 10 log 10 40 + 0.7 + B log 10(313.15)

(62)

Dowson, Higginson and Toyoda have authored


various papers on EHL film thickness [16, 17, 18,
19]. The film thickness equations given in these
papers account for the exponential increase of
lubricant viscosity with pressure, tooth geometry,
velocity of the gear teeth, material elastic properties
and the transmitted load. The film thickness
determines the operating regime of the gearset and

AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION

AGMA 925--A03

has been found to be a useful index of wear related


distress probability. Wellauer and Holloway [20] also
found that specific film thickness could be correlated
with the probability of tooth surface distress. The
Dowson and Toyoda [19] equation for line contact
central EHL film thickness will be used as shown
below.

is dynamic viscosity at temperature 1,


mPas;

is dynamic viscosity at temperature 2,


mPas;

is temperature at which 1 was determined,


C;

Dimensionless central film thickness:

is temperature at which 2 was determined,


C.

H c = 3.06

G 0.56U 0.69

W i

i
0.10

(65)

where
(i)

d=
(as a subscript) defines a point on the line of
action,

and the dimensionless parameters G, U(i) and W(i)


are defined below:

speed parameter, U(i)


M ve

2E r n

10 6

log 10 40 + 0.9

d log 10 1 + 273.15)

(71)

(72)

c = log 10 log 10 40 + 0.9 2.495752 d


(68)

is dynamic viscosity at the gear tooth


temperature, mPas.

M = 10 g 0.9

(69)

where
d

is tooth temperature, C (see 6.3).

The parameters c and d required for calculating M


can either be taken from table 2 or calculated with
equations 70 and 72, respectively. Equations 70 and
72, derived from a modification of the Walther
equation [10], will yield the parameters c and d if two
dynamic viscosities, 1 and 2, are known at two
corresponding temperatures, 1 and 2.
Since dynamic viscosity is generally available at
40C and 100C, equations 70 and 72 are modified
in equations 71 and 73 to incorporate terms
corresponding to those temperatures.

(73)

is pressure--viscosity coefficient, mm2/N.


Values range from 0.725 10 --2 mm2/N to
2.9 10 --2 mm2/N for typical gear lubricants.
Values for pressure--viscosity
coefficients vs. dynamic viscosity can be
obtained from equation 74.

where

g = 10 c M + 273.15

log 10 100 + 0.9

when 1 = 40C and 2 = 100C,

Er n

(70)

when 1 = 40C and 2 = 100C,

(67)

X wn

+273.15
log 10 2
1+273.15

c = log 10 log 10 1 + 0.9

load parameter, W(i)

log 10 1+0.9

(66)

G = Er

W i =

log 10 2+0.9

d = 13.13525 log 10

materials parameter, G

U i =

log 10

= k sM

(74)

Table 2 contains viscosity information for mineral


oils, MIL--L spec. oils, polyalphaolefin (PAO) based
synthetic oils (which contain ester) and polyalkylene
glycol (PAG) based synthetic oils, as well as
constants c, d, k and s for use in the equations 69
through 74. These values were obtained from the
data shown in figures 7 through 11 [22]. It is
important that the film thickness is calculated with
values of viscosity and pressure--viscosity coefficient for the gear tooth temperature, M, (see 6.3).
The central film thickness at a given point is:
h c = H c n 10 3
i

(75)

(see clause 4 for n ).


i

11

AGMA 925--A03

AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION

Table 2 -- Data for determining viscosity and pressure--viscosity coefficient


Lubricant
Mineral oil

PAO -- based
synthetic non-VI improved oil

PAG -- based
synthetic2)

MIL--L--7808K
Grade 3
MIL--L--7808K
Grade 4
MIL--L--23699E

ISO VG1)
32
46
68
100
150
220
320
460
680
1000
1500
2200
3200
150
220
320
460
680
1000
1500
2200
3200
6800
100
150
220
320
460
680
1000

40
27.17816
39.35879
58.64514
86.91484
131.4335
194.2414
284.6312
412.0824
613.8288
909.4836
1374.931
2031.417
2975.954
128.5772
189.9828
278.3370
402.8943
600.0179
868.1710
1310.350
1933.070
2827.726
6077.362
102.630
153.950
225.790
328.430
472.130
697.920
1026.37

100
4.294182
5.440514
7.059163
9.251199
12.27588
15.98296
20.60709
26.34104
34.24003
38.56783
49.58728
62.69805
78.56109
16.17971
21.60933
28.66405
37.54020
53.20423
68.60767
91.03300
118.0509
151.2132
244.5559
19.560
27.380
40.090
56.710
77.250
113.43
163.30

c
10.20076
10.07933
9.90355
9.65708
9.42526
9.24059
9.09300
8.96420
8.84572
9.25943
9.19946
9.15646
9.13012
7.99428
7.79927
7.63035
7.49799
7.16434
7.12008
7.07678
7.06113
7.06594
7.11907
6.42534
6.19586
5.76552
5.49394
5.35027
5.06011
4.85075

d
--4.02279
--3.95628
--3.86833
--3.75377
--3.64563
--3.55832
--3.48706
--3.42445
--3.36585
--3.52128
--3.48702
--3.46064
--3.44157
--3.07304
--2.98154
--2.90169
--2.83762
--2.69277
--2.66528
--2.63766
--2.62221
--2.61561
--2.62091
--2.45259
--2.34616
--2.16105
--2.04065
--1.97254
--1.84558
--1.75175

k
0.010471
0.010471
0.010471
0.010471
0.010471
0.010471
0.010471
0.010471
0.010471
0.010471
0.010471
0.010471
0.010471
0.010326
0.010326
0.010326
0.010326
0.010326
0.010326
0.010326
0.010326
0.010326
0.010326
0.0047
0.0047
0.0047
0.0047
0.0047
0.0047
0.0047

s
0.1348
0.1348
0.1348
0.1348
0.1348
0.1348
0.1348
0.1348
0.1348
0.1348
0.1348
0.1348
0.1348
0.0507
0.0507
0.0507
0.0507
0.0507
0.0507
0.0507
0.0507
0.0507
0.0507
0.1572
0.1572
0.1572
0.1572
0.1572
0.1572
0.1572

12

11.35364

2.701402

9.58596

--3.82619

0.005492

0.25472

17

16.09154

3.609883

9.08217

--3.60300

0.005492

0.25472

23

22.56448

4.591235

8.91638

--3.51779

0.006515

0.16530

NOTES:
1) (mm2/s)
40
2) Copolymer of ethylene oxide and propylene oxide in 50% weight ratio.

The specific film thickness is the ratio of film


thickness divided by the composite roughness of the
contacting gear teeth and can be used to assess
performance.
To determine this ratio, the cutoff wavelength for the
composite surface roughness measurement (x)
should be comparable to the width of the Hertzian
contact, 2b H . This results in x becoming 2b as
i

12

H
i

shown in equation 76.


hc
2b

H
i

2b

(76)

H
i

This may not be practical because many surface


measuring instruments have a fixed cutoff wavelength (usually 0.8 mm).

AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION

AGMA 925--A03

1 000 000
ISO VG
3200
2200
100 000

1500
1000
680
460

Dynamic viscosity (mPas)

10 000

320
220
150
100

1000

68
46
32

100

10

1
200

250

300

350

400

450

500

Temperature (K)

Figure 7 -- Dynamic viscosity versus temperature for mineral oils

Following the concepts in [21], equation 76 can be


approximated by:

2b

H
i

0.5

Lx
x 2b
Hi

hc

x = Ra 21x + Ra 22x

0.5

(77)

(78)

where
2b

H
i

is specific film thickness at point i with a


filter cutoff wavelength of 2bH;

Lx

is filter cutoff wavelength used in measuring


surface roughness, mm. Any cutoff length,
Lx, can be used (for example, L0.8 = 0.8 mm
cutoff);

13

AGMA 925--A03

AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION

is composite surface roughness for filter


cutoff wavelength Lx, mm;

Ra1x is pinion average surface roughness for Lx,


mm;

Rq 2x L x
where

Rqx2 is variance or square of the root mean


square roughness, mm.

Ra2x is gear average surface roughness for Lx,


mm.

also [25]:

Use of the radical term in equation 77 for roughness


adjustment is developed below.

Ra x =

From Gaussian statistics [24], it is seen that:

(79)

2 Rqx

(80)

From equations 79 and 80:


Ra x L 0.5
x

(81)

1 000 000
ISO VG
6800
100 000

3200
2200
1500
1000
680

Dynamic viscosity (mPas)

10 000

460
320
220
150

1000

100

10

1
200

300
350
400
450
500
Temperature (K)
Figure 8 -- Dynamic viscosity versus temperature for PAO--based synthetic non--VI--improved oils

14

250

AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION

AGMA 925--A03

Hence, for a 0.8 mm cutoff length,

Ra 2b

H
i

= Ra 0.8

0.8

0.5

i
L0.8

2b H

= Ra

0.5

2
2
10.8 + Ra 2 0.8

yields equation 83

which is equation 77 developed for a 0.8 mm cutoff


length.

(82)

Substitute equation 82 into equation 78 once


each for Ra1x and for Ra2x to obtain 2b .
H
i
Using this in equation 76, noting that

0.5

i L
2b
= 0.8
0.8 2b H
H
i
i
hc

(83)

1010000000
000 000

1000000
1 000
000

Dynamic viscosity (mPas)

100
000
100000

1010000
000

1000
1000

100
100
ISO VG
1000
680
460
320
220
150
100

10
10

11
200 225 250 275 300 325 350 375 400 425 450 475 500
Temperature (K)
Figure 9 -- Dynamic viscosity versus temperature for PAG--based synthetic oils

15

AGMA 925--A03

AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION

1000

MIL--L--23699E
MIL--L--7808K Grade 4

100
Dynamic viscosity (mPas)

MIL--L--7808K Grade 3

10

0.1

200

250

300
350
Temperature (K)

400

450

500

Figure 10 -- Dynamic viscosity versus temperature for MIL Spec. oils

Pressure--viscosity coefficient (mm2/N)

Mineral oil
MIL--L--7808K
MIL--L--23699E
Synthetic oil (PAO)
Synthetic oil (PAG)

0.1

0.01

0.001

0.1

10
100
1000
Dynamic viscosity (mPas)

10 000

100 000 1 000 000

Figure 11 -- Pressure--viscosity coefficient versus dynamic viscosity


16

AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION

6 Scuffing
6.1 General
The term scuffing as used in this information sheet is
defined as localized damage caused by solid--phase
welding between surfaces in relative motion. It is
accompanied by transfer of metal from one surface
to another due to welding and subsequent tearing,
and may occur in any highly loaded contact where
the oil film is too thin to adequately separate the
surfaces. Scuffing appears as a matte, rough finish
due to the microscopic tearing at the surface. It
occurs most commonly at extreme end regions of the
contact path or near points of single tooth contact.
Scuffing is also known generically as severe
adhesive wear.
Scoring was a term commonly used in the U.S. to
describe the same phenomenon now defined as
scuffing (welding and tearing of mating surfaces).
See ANSI/AGMA 1010--E95 or ISO 10825:1995.
6.1.1 Mechanism of scuffing
The basic mechanism of scuffing is caused by
intense frictional heat generated by a combination of
high sliding velocity and high contact stress.
Scuffing occurs under thin film, boundary lubrication
conditions and can be affected by physical and
chemical properties of the lubricant, nature of the
oxide films, and gear material.
When gear teeth are separated by a thick lubricant
film, contact between surface asperities is minimized and there is usually no scuffing. As lubricant
film thickness decreases, asperity contact increases
and scuffing becomes more probable. A very thin
film, such as in boundary lubrication, together with a
high contact temperature suggests a high probability
of scuffing is possible in the absence of antiscuff
additives in the lubricant.
6.1.2 Probability of scuffing
Bloks [1] contact temperature theory states that
scuffing will occur in gear teeth that are sliding under
boundary--lubricated conditions, when the maximum contact temperature reaches a critical
magnitude. The contact temperature is the sum of
two components: the flash temperature and the
tooth temperature. See 6.4.
Scuffing most commonly occurs at one of the two
extreme end regions of the contact path or near the
points of single tooth contact.

AGMA 925--A03

Prediction of the probability of scuffing is possible by


comparing the calculated contact temperature with
limiting scuffing temperature. The limiting scuffing
temperature can be calculated from an appropriate
gear scuffing test, or can be provided by field
investigations.
For non--additive mineral oils, each combination of
oil and gear materials has a limiting scuffing
temperature that is constant regardless of the
operating conditions. It is believed that the limiting
scuffing temperature is not constant for synthetic
and high--additive EP lubricants, and it must be
determined from tests that closely simulate the
operating condition of the gearset.
6.2 Flash temperature
The flash temperature is the calculated increase in
gear tooth surface temperature at a given point along
the line of action resulting from the combined effects
of gear tooth geometry, load, friction, velocity and
material properties during operation.
6.2.1
Fundamental
temperature, fl

formula

for

flash

The fundamental formula is based on Bloks [1]


equation.
X wn
fl = 31.62 K m m
i


bH

0.5

v r1 v r2
i
i

B M1 v r1
i

0.5

0.5

(84)

+ B M2 v r2
i

where
is 0.80, numerical factor valid for a semi-elliptic (Hertzian) distribution of frictional
heat over the instantaneous width, 2 bH, of
the rectangular contact band;

mm
X

is load sharing factor (see 4.3);


is normal unit load, N/mm (see equation 44);

wn
v r1

is mean coefficient of friction (see 6.2.2);

is rolling tangential velocity of the pinion, m/s


(see equation 36);

17

AGMA 925--A03

v r2

AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION

is rolling tangential velocity of the gear, m/s


(see equation 37);

BM1 is thermal contact coefficient of the pinion


material, N/[mm s0.5K] (see 6.2.3);
BM2 is thermal contact coefficient of the gear
material, N/[mm s0.5K] (see 6.2.3);
bH

is semi--width of Hertzian contact band, mm

The surface roughness is taken as an average of the


average values:
Ra + Ra 2x
(87)
R avgx = 1x
2
where

(see equation 57);

Ra1x is pinion average surface roughness for filter


cutoff length, Lx, mm;

(as a subscript) defines a point on the line of


action.

Ra2x is gear average surface roughness for filter


cutoff length, Lx, mm.

In this equation, the coefficient of friction may be


approximated by different expressions, for instance
as proposed by Kelley [2, 4] and AGMA 217.01 [7].
The influence of surface roughness is incorporated
in the approximation of the coefficient of friction.
6.2.2 Mean coefficient of friction, m m

The mean coefficient of friction is an approximation


of the actual coefficient of friction on the tooth flank,
which is an instantaneous and local value depending
on several properties of the oil, surface roughness,
lay of the surface irregularities like grinding marks,
material properties, tangential velocities, forces and
dimensions.
Three methods may be used to determine the value
of m m to be used in equation 84.
i

-- input a value based upon experience, which


is a constant;
-- input a value from equation 85, which is also
a constant;
-- input a value from equation 88, which varies
along the line of action.
6.2.2.1 Approximation by a constant
A constant coefficient of friction along the line of
action has been assumed by AGMA 217.01 [7] and
Kelley [2]:
m m = m m const = 0.06 C R
i
avg

(85)

The surface roughness constant, C R


, is limited
avgx
to a maximum value of 3.0:
1.0 C R

avgx

1.13
3.0
1.13 R avgx

(86)

Equation 85 gives a typical value for gears operating


in the partial EHL regime. It may be too low for
18

boundary lubricated gears where mm may be higher


than 0.2, or too high for gears operating in the
full--film regime where mm may be less than 0.01.

6.2.2.2 Empirical equation


An empirical equation for a variable coefficient of
friction is the Benedict and Kelley [5] equation,
supplemented with the influence of roughness:

29 700 Xiwn
log 10
m m = 0.0127 C R

2
i
avgx
Mvsivei

(88)

where the surface roughness expression is taken in


accordance with equations 86 and 87. Equation 88
is not valid at or near the operating pitch point, as vs
goes to zero.
where
M

is dynamic viscosity of the oil at gear tooth


temperature, M, mPas;

vs

is sliding velocity, m/s (see equation 38);

ve

is entraining velocity, m/s (see equation 39).

6.2.3 Thermal contact coefficient, BM


The thermal contact coefficient accounts for the
influence of the material properties of pinion and
gear:
B M1 = M1 M1 c M1

0.5

B M2 = M2 M2 c M2

0.5

(89)
(90)

For martensitic steels the range of heat conductivity,


M , is 41 to 52 N/[s K] and the product of density
times the specific heat per unit mass, M cM is
about 3.8 N/[mm2K], so that the use of the average
value BM = 13.6 N/[mm s0.5 K] for such steels will not
introduce a large error when the thermal contact
coefficient is unknown.
6.2.4 Maximum flash temperature
To locate and determine the maximum flash temperature, the flash temperature should be calculated

AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION

AGMA 925--A03

at a sufficient number of points (for example, 25 to


50) on the line of action. Calculate flash temperatures at points between SAP and LPSTC during
double tooth contact, at LPSTC and HPSTC for
single tooth contact, and between HPSTC and EAP
during double tooth contact.

tion, an accurate value of the gear tooth temperature


be used for the analysis.

If the contact temperature (see 6.4) is greater than


the mean scuffing temperature (see 6.5) for the
lubricant being used, there is a potential risk for
scuffing (see 6.5.5).

6.3.3 Thermal network

6.3 Tooth temperature


The tooth temperature, M, is the equilibrium temperature of the surface of the gear teeth before they
enter the contact zone. In some cases [26], the tooth
temperature may be significantly higher than the
temperature of the oil supplied to the gear mesh.
6.3.1 Rough approximation
For a very rough approximation, the tooth temperature may be estimated by the sum of the oil
temperature, taking into account some impediment
in heat transfer for spray lubrication if applicable, and
a portion that depends mainly on the flash temperature, for which the maximum value is taken:
M = k sump oil + 0.56 fl max
where

(91)

The tooth temperature can be measured by testing,


or determined according to experience.

The tooth temperature can be calculated from a


thermal network analysis [43] (see figure 12).
The tooth temperature is determined by the heat flow
balance in the gearbox. There are several sources
of frictional heat, of which the most important ones
are the tooth friction and the bearing friction. Other
heat sources, like seals and oil flow, may also
contribute. For gear pitchline velocities above 80
m/s, churning loss, expulsion of oil between meshing
teeth, and windage loss become important heat
sources that should be considered. Heat is conducted and transferred to the environment by
conduction, convection and radiation.
6.4 Contact temperature
6.4.1 Contact temperature at any point
At any point on the line of action (see figure 13) the
contact temperature is:
(92)

B = M + fl
i
i

ksump = 1.0 if splash lube; 1.2 if spray lube;


oil

6.3.2 Measurement and experience

where

is oil supply or sump temperature, C;

fl max is maximum flash temperature, C, see


6.2.
However, for a reliable evaluation of the scuffing risk,
it is important that instead of the rough approxima-

is tooth temperature, C (see 6.3);

fl

is flash temperature, C (see 6.2).

(as a subscript) defines a point on the line of


action.

Oil

Pinion

Case
Friction power

Gear

Air

Shafts

Bearings

Friction
power
Figure 12 -- Example of thermal network

19

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AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION

machines. The mean scuffing temperature was


derived from data published by Blok [27].

B max
i

fl

Equation 94 gives the scuffing temperature for


non--antiscuff mineral oils (R&O in accordance with
ANSI/AGMA 9005--E02 [28]).

fl max
i

S = 63 + 33 ln 40
where
40

(94)

is kinematic viscosity at 40 C, mm2/s (table


2).

Equation 95 gives the scuffing temperature for


antiscuff mineral oils (EP gear oil in accordance with
ANSI/AGMA 9005--E02).
A

Figure 13 -- Contact temperature along the line


of action

6.4.2 Maximum contact temperature

(93)

where
fl max is maximum flash temperature, C (see
6.2).
6.5 Scuffing temperature
The scuffing temperature is the temperature in the
tooth contact zone at which scuffing is likely to occur
with the chosen combination of lubricant and gear
materials. The scuffing temperature is assumed to
be a characteristic value for the material--lubricant
system of a gear pair, to be determined by gear tests
with the same material--lubricant system.
When B max (see figure 13) reaches the scuffing
temperature of the system, scuffing is likely. The
mean scuffing temperature is the temperature at
which there is a 50% chance of scuffing.
6.5.1 Mean scuffing temperature for mineral oils
Scuffing temperatures for mineral oils with low
concentrations of antiscuff additives are independent of operating conditions. Viscosity grade is a
convenient index of oil composition, and thus of
scuffing temperature.
Equations 94 and 95 are approximate guides for
mineral oils and steels typical of IAE and FZG test
20

Table 3 gives the mean scuffing temperature for oils


with steels typical of the aerospace industry.
Table 3 -- Mean scuffing temperatures for oils
and steels typical of the aerospace industry

The maximum contact temperature is:


B max = M + fl max

(95)
S = 118 + 33 ln 40
6.5.2 Mean scuffing temperature for oils and
steels typical of aerospace industry

Lubricant
MIL--L--7808
MIL--L--23699
DERD2487
DERD2497
DOD--L--85734
ISO VG 32 PAO
DexronR II1)

Mean scuffing
temperature, C
205
220
225
240
260
280
290

NOTE:
1) DexronR is a registered trademark of General
Motors Corporation.

6.5.3 Extension of test gear scuffing temperature


for one steel to other steels
The scuffing temperature determined from test
gears with low--additive mineral oils may be extended to different gear steels, heat treatments or
surface treatments by introducing an empirical
welding factor.
S = X W fl max, test + M, test

(96)

where
XW

is welding factor (see table 4);

fl max, test is maximum flash temperature of test


gears, C;

AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION

is tooth temperature of test gears, C.

M, test

6.5.4 Scuffing temperature for oils used in


hypoid gear application
Scuffing temperature for high--additive oils (hypoid
gear oil) may be dependent on operating conditions.
Therefore, the scuffing temperature should be
obtained from tests that closely simulate operating
conditions of the gears.
Table 4 -- Welding factors, XW
Material
Through hardened steel
Phosphated steel
Copper--plated steel
Bath or gas nitrided steel
Hardened carburized steel
-- Less than 20% retained austenite
-- 20 to 30% retained austenite
-- Greater than 30% retained austenite
Austenite steel (stainless steel)

XW
1.00
1.25
1.50
1.50
1.15
1.00
0.85
0.45

6.5.5 Scuffing risk


Scuffing risk can be calculated from a Gaussian
distribution of scuffing temperature about the mean
value. Typically, the coefficient of variation is at least
15%. Therefore, use the procedure of annex B to
calculate the probability of scuffing:
where

proposed which may support the gear geometry and


rotor dimensions most suitable to the gear application. Gear drives cover a wide field of operating
conditions from relatively low pitch line velocities
with high specific tooth loads, to very high pitch line
velocities and moderate specific tooth loads.
Lubricants vary, as well, between mineral oils with
little or no additives to antiscuff lubricants with
substantial additives.
The flash temperature method described in 6.2
through 6.5 is based on Bloks contact temperature
theory. The flash temperature, fl, must be added to
the steady gear tooth temperature, M, to give the
total contact temperature, B. The value of the
contact temperature for every point in the contact
zone must be less than the mean scuffing temperature of the material--lubricant system or scuffing may
occur.
6.6.1 Integral temperature method
The integral temperature method [29] has been
proposed as an alternative to the flash temperature
method by which the influence of the gear geometry
imposes a critical energy level based on the
integrated temperature distribution (for example,
numerically integrating using Simpsons rule) along
a path of contact and adopting a steady gear tooth
temperature. This method involves the calculation of
a scuffing load basically independent of speed, but
controlled by gear geometry. Application requires
comparison of the proposed gearset based on a test
rig result to a known test rig gearset and tested oil.
A comparison of the flash temperature method and
integral temperature method has shown the
following:

y = B max
my = s
y = 0.15 s
Table 5 gives the evaluation of scuffing risk based on
the probability of scuffing [7].
Table 5 -- Scuffing risk
Probability of scuffing
<10%
10 to 30%
>30%

AGMA 925--A03

Scuffing risk
Low
Moderate
High

6.6 Alternative scuffing risk evaluation


The calculation of the scuffing load capacity is a very
complex problem. Several alternative methods are

-- Bloks method and the integral temperature


method give essentially the same assessment of
scuffing risk for most gearsets;
-- Bloks method and the integral temperature
method give different assessments of scuffing
risk for those cases where there are local
temperature peaks. These cases usually occur in
gearsets that have low contact ratio, contact near
the base circle, or other sensitive geometries;
-- Bloks method is sensitive to local temperature peaks because it is concerned with the
maximum instantaneous temperature, whereas
the integral temperature method is insensitive to
these peaks because it averages the temperature
distribution.

21

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AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION

7 Surface fatigue (micro-- and macropitting)

6.6.2 Other scuffing methods


6.6.2.1 PVT Method

7.1 General information

Almen [30] popularized the PVT method for


predicting scuffing where:
P

is Hertzian pressure;

is sliding velocity;

is distance along line of action.

PVT was used during World War II by designers in


automotive and aircraft industries. It worked well for
a narrow range of gear designs, but was unreliable
when extrapolated to other gear applications.
6.6.2.2 Borsoff scoring factor method
Borsoff [31, 32, 33, 34] conducted many scuffing
tests during the 1950s and found scuffing resistance
increased when test gears were run at high speeds.
Borsoff introduced a scoring factor, Sf:
2b
Sf = v H
s

(97)

where
Sf

is contact time, ms (sec 10 --3);

bH

is semi--width of Hertzian contact band, mm;

vs

is sliding velocity, m/s.

Sf is the time required for a point on one tooth to


traverse the Hertzian band of the mating tooth.
Borsoffs test data showed a linear relationship
between scuffing load and scoring factor, Sf. Borsoff
recommended that a number of considerations
should be made before using his method for specific
applications.
6.6.2.3 Simplified scuffing criteria for high speed
gears
Annex B of ANSI/AGMA 6011--H98 [35] has been
used to evaluate scuffing risk of high speed gear
applications.
There are other methods for evaluating scuffing of
gear teeth not mentioned here. Other methods may
also have application merit. Most importantly, the
gear designer should recognize scuffing as a gear
design criteria.
22

Surface fatigue, commonly referred to as pitting or


spalling, is a wear mode that results in loss of
material as a result of repeated stress cycles acting
on the surface. There are two major sub--groups
under surface fatigue known as micro-- and macropitting. As their names imply, the type of pitting is
related to the size of the pit. Macropits usually can be
seen with the naked eye as irregular shaped cavities
in the surface of the tooth. Damage beginning on the
order of 0.5 to 1.0 mm in diameter is considered to be
a macropit.
The number of stress cycles occurring before failure
is referred to as the fatigue life of the component.
The surface fatigue life of a gear is inversely
proportional to the contact stress applied. Although
contact stress is probably the major factor governing
life, there are many others that influence life. These
include design factors such as tip relief and crowning, surface roughness, physical and chemical
properties of the lubricant and its additive system,
and external contaminants such as water and hard
particulate matter.
7.2 Micropitting
Micropitting is a fatigue phenomenon that occurs in
Hertzian contacts that operate in elastohydrodynamic or boundary lubrication regimes and have
combined rolling and sliding. Besides operating
conditions such as load, speed, sliding, temperature
and specific film thickness, the chemical composition of a lubricant strongly influences micropitting.
Damage can start during the first 105 to 106 stress
cycles with generation of numerous surface cracks.
The cracks grow at a shallow angle to the surface
forming micropits that are about 10 20 mm deep by
about 25 -- 100 mm long and 10 20 mm wide. The
micropits coalesce to produce a continuous fractured surface which appears as a dull, matte surface
to the observer.
Micropitting is the preferred name for this mode of
damage, but it has also been referred to as grey
staining, grey flecking, frosting, and peeling. Although micropitting generally occurs with heavily
loaded, carburized gears, it also occurs with nitrided,
induction hardened and through--hardened gears.
Micropitting may arrest after running--in. If micropitting continues to progress, however, it may result in

AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION

reduced gear tooth accuracy, increased dynamic


loads and noise. Eventually, it can progress to
macropitting and gear failure.
7.2.1 Micropitting risk evaluation
Factors that influence micropitting are gear tooth
geometry, surface roughness, lubricant viscosity,
coefficient of friction, load, tangential speed, oil
temperature and lubricant additives. Common
methods suggested for reducing the probability of
micropitting include:

AGMA 925--A03

turning or branching back to the surface. Eventually,


material will dislodge from the surface forming a pit,
an irregular shaped cavity in the surface of the
material. With gears the origin of the crack is more
likely surface initiated because lubricant film thickness is low resulting in a high amount of asperity or
metal--to--metal contact. For high--speed gears with
smooth surface finishes, film thickness is larger and
sub--surface initiated crack formation may dominate.
In these cases an inclusion or small void in the
material is a source for stress concentration.

--

reduce surface roughness;

--

increase film thickness;

--

use higher viscosity oil;

--

reduce coefficient of friction;

--

run at higher speeds if possible;

Laboratory testing commonly uses a 1% limit on


tooth surface area damage as a criteria to stop a test.
However, for field service applications one should
always abide by the equipment manufacturers
recommendations or guidelines for acceptable limits
of damage to any gear or supporting component.

--

reduce oil temperature;

7.4 Regimes of lubrication

-- use additives with demonstrated micropitting


resistance;
-- protect gear teeth during run--in with suitable
coatings, such as manganese phosphate, copper
or silver plating.
CAUTION: Silver or copper plating of carburized gear
elements will cause hydrogen embrittlement, which
could result in a reduction in bending strength and fatigue life. Thermal treatment shortly after plating may
reduce this effect.

Surface roughness strongly influences the tendency


to micropit. Gears finished to a mirrorlike finish have
been reported to eliminate micropitting [36, 37, 38].
Gear teeth have maximum micropitting resistance
when the teeth of the high speed member are harder
than the mating teeth and are as smooth as possible
[39].
Currently there is no standard test for determining
micropitting resistance of lubricants. However, FVA
Information Sheet 54/IV describes a test that uses
the FZG C--GF type gears to rank micropitting
performance of oils [40]. At present, the influence of
lubricant additives is unresolved. Therefore, the
micropitting resistance of a lubricant should be
determined by field testing on actual gears or by
laboratory tests.
7.3 Macropitting
Macropitting is also a fatigue phenomenon. Cracks
can initiate either at or near the surface of a gear
tooth. The crack usually propagates for a short
distance at a shallow angle to the surface before

7.4.1 Introduction to regimes of lubrication


Gear rating standards have progressed and been
refined to take into account many of the major
variables that affect gear life. With respect to
calculated stress numbers, variables such as load
distribution, internally induced dynamic loading and
externally induced dynamic loading are accounted
for by derating factors. Variables such as material
quality, cycle life and reliability are accounted for by
allowable stress numbers, stress cycle factors and
reliability factors.
Along with these influences, it has been recognized
that adequate lubrication is necessary for gears to
realize their calculated capacity. Indeed, AGMA
gearing standards have acknowledged this fact by
stating this need as a requirement in order to apply
the various rating methods.
Much of the groundwork for lubrication theory came
about in the 1960s and 1970s. This period saw the
advent and proliferation of jet travel, space travel,
advanced manufacturing processes and advanced
power needs. These technological and industrial
developments led to the need for better gear rating
methods which, in turn, resulted in rapid progress in
industrial, vehicle and aerospace gearing standards.
High speed gearing was coming into greater use, but
it was not as well understood as the industry would
have liked. To compensate, designs tended to focus
on making higher speed stages of gearing more
successful, sometimes to the detriment of slower
speed stages. This is how the gearing industry

23

AGMA 925--A03

AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION

started to get its first glimpses into the importance of


lubrication on the life of gearing.

defined the three regimes of lubrication at the


operating pitch diameter as follows:

It was not uncommon to see a three (3) stage


industrial gear drive with problems as follows: a high
speed set of gears that looked relatively undamaged, an intermediate speed set of gears that was
experiencing initial pitting, and a slow speed set of
gears that was experiencing advanced pitting and
tooth breakage. In the event that all three stages
were designed to have similar load intensity factors
(K--factors and unit loads) the problem could be
particularly puzzling. Rating theory at the time
indicated that with all other things equal, the higher
speed stages of gearing should have been failing
sooner than the lower speed stages, due to greater
stress cycles.

-- Regime III: Full EHL oil film is developed and


separates the asperities of gear flanks in motion
relative to one another;

At issue was the tribological condition between


surfaces of two mating teeth. Elastohydrodynamic
lubrication (EHL) theory showed that factors like
relative surface velocity and local oil viscosity at the
contact area directly affected thickness of the EHL oil
film that separated asperities on surfaces of two
mating gear teeth. For a multiple stage gear reducer,
higher speed stages of gearing, with higher surface
velocities, tended to produce thicker EHL oil films,
better capable of separating asperities on mating
teeth. Lower speed stages, with lower surface
velocities, tended to produce thinner EHL oil films,
less capable of separating asperities on mating
teeth.
Through the years, a great many researchers and
companies inside and outside of the gear industry
have sought to quantify the effects of EHL oil film
theory on the life of gearing. There are many ways in
which one could hypothesize the effects of inadequate oil films on degradation of gear tooth surfaces
and its results on the life of gearing. Indeed, a
comprehensive treatment of this subject could fill
many volumes. Added to this is the fact that this is
still a very active area of gear research. With this in
mind, it is still useful to put forth a simplified
description of how inadequate oil films can lead to
decreased life of gears. So, very simply put, thinner
oil films lead to a greater chance of more frequent
and more detrimental degree of contact between
asperities on mating gear teeth. The more severe
this is, the more likely it will lead to pitting, a
recognized form of surface fatigue in gearing.
The effects of this phenomenon on the fatigue life of
gearing were introduced by Bowen [41]. Dudley [42]
24

-- Regime II: Partial EHL oil film is developed


and there is occasional contact of the asperities of
gear flanks in motion relative to one another;
-- Regime I: Only boundary lubrication exists
with essentially no EHL film and contact of the
asperities of gear flanks in motion relative to one
another is pronounced.
The implementation of this theory involves what is
currently referred to as the stress cycle factor for the
surface durability of gears, ZN, (this used to be called
the life factor for surface durability). Keeping in mind
that regime of lubrication depends ultimately on the
degree of separation between asperities, Dudley
proposed that the effect could be quantified by
making proper adjustments to the curves that
determine the stress cycle factor. Thus, we have as
follows:
7.4.2 Regime III
This regime of lubrication, characterized by full EHL
oil film development, occurs mainly when gears have
relatively high pitch line velocity, good care is taken
to ensure that an adequate supply of clean, cool oil is
available (of adequate viscosity and formulation),
and good surface finishes are achieved on the
gearing. As such, aerospace gearing, high speed
marine gearing, and good quality industrial gear
drives tend to have gears that operate within regime
III. Thus, stress cycle factor curves that appear in
standards for these gears are the basis for rating
gears that operate within regime III.
7.4.3 Regime II
This regime of lubrication, characterized by partial
EHL oil film development, occurs mainly when gears
have moderate pitch line velocities, moderate care is
taken to ensure that an adequate supply of clean,
cool oil is available (of adequate viscosity and
formulation), and moderately good surface finishes
are achieved on the gearing. As such, vehicle
gearing is very characteristic of gears that operate
within regime II. Dudley uses information from the
stress cycle factor curves in vehicle standards to
create a branch from the regime III curve for cycles
greater than 100 000. It is felt that effects of
operation within regime II on fatigue life will not begin
to be realized until this point in the life of a gear.

AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION

7.4.4 Regime I
This regime of lubrication, characterized by boundary lubrication, occurs mainly when gears have low
pitch line velocities, little care is taken to ensure that
an adequate supply of clean, cool oil is available (of
adequate viscosity and formulation), and relatively
rough surface finishes are achieved on the gearing.
Many types of gearing can fall into this range of
operation, including all types mentioned above.
Dudley used fatigue curves generated for ball and
roller bearings as a basis for regime I stress cycle
factor curves. These curves, first developed in the
1940s, indicated that with a ten--fold increase in

AGMA 925--A03

cycles, load capacity of a bearing drops off by a


factor of 2.0. Thus, a stress curve for Hertzian
contact would drop off by about a factor of 1.41
(square root of 2.0). Bearings back in the 1940s
commonly had surface finishes and oil films very
analogous to gears operating in regime I. This
information is used to create a branch from the
regime III curve at cycles greater than 100 000.
Figure 14 shows the curves that result from Dudleys
method of regimes of lubrication. Below, the method
is described in fuller detail and calculations are given
to show how one assesses which regime of lubrication should be applied to a given set of gears.

4.00
3.00
2.00

Stress cycle factor, ZN

1.50
1.00
0.90
0.80
0.70
0.60
0.50

Regime III
Regime II

0.40
0.30

Regime I

0.20
0.15
0.10
0.09
0.08
0.07
0.06
0.05

102

103

104

105

106

107

108

Number of load cycles, N

109

1010

1011

1012

Figure 14 -- Plot of regimes of lubrication versus stress cycle factor

Table 6 -- Stress cycle factor equations for regimes I, II and III


Regime of lubrication
Regime III
Regime II
Regime I

Stress cycle factor for surface durability


Z N = 1.47
for N < 10 000 cycles
Z N = 2.46604 N 0.056

for N 10 000 cycles

ZN =

3.83441 N 0.094

for N 100 000 cycles

ZN =

7.82078 N 0.156

for N 100 000 cycles

25

AGMA 925--A03

7.5 Estimating life with respect to surface


durability
After calculating the minimum EHL film thickness
based on 5.2, one must calculate the specific film
thickness. In figure 14, specific film thicknesses
greater than or equal to 1.0 indicate the beginning of
regime III and the end of regime II lubrication.
Specific film thicknesses between 0.4 and 1.0
indicate operation within regime II and specific film
thicknesses less than or equal to 0.4 indicate
regime I.
Once the regime of lubrication is determined, one
can calculate the stress cycle factor, ZN, shown in
figure 14. ZN is used to calculate gear rating in
ANSI/AGMA 2101--C95.

8 Wear
Wear is a term describing change to a gear tooth
surface involving removal or displacement of material, due to mechanical, chemical or electrical action.
In the boundary lubrication regime, some wear is
inevitable. Many gears, because of practical limits on
lubricant viscosity, speed and temperature, must
operate under boundary lubricated conditions.
Mild wear occurs during running--in and usually
subsides with time, resulting in a tolerable wear rate
and a satisfactory lifetime for the gearset. Wear that
occurs during running--in may be beneficial if it
smoothes tooth surfaces (increasing specific film
thickness) and increases the area of contact by
removing minor imperfections through local wear.
The amount of wear that is tolerable depends on the
expected lifetime for the gearset, and on requirements for noise and vibration. Wear rate may
become excessive if tooth profiles are worn to the
extent that high dynamic loads are encountered.
Excessive wear may also be caused by contamination of the lubricant by abrasive particles. When wear
becomes aggressive and is not preempted by
scuffing or bending fatigue, wear and pitting will likely
compete for the predominate failure mode.
8.1 Abrasive wear
Abrasive wear is removal or displacement of material due to the presence of hard particles suspended in
26

AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION

the lubricant or embedded in flanks of mating teeth.


The choice of lubricant usually does not have any
direct effect on abrasive wear. Abrasive particles can
be present, however, as debris from other forms of
wear such as fatigue pitting and adhesion. The
lubricant should not react with any systemic materials or with any contaminants. Products of these
reactions can be abrasive. In large open gears, the
film thickness of highly viscous lubricants may
prevent three--body abrasion from small particles.
8.2 Wear risk evaluation
The boundary lubrication regime consists of exceedingly complex interactions between additives in the
lubricant, metal, and atmosphere making it impossible to assess accurately the chance of wear or
scuffing from a single parameter such as specific film
thickness. However, empirical data of figure 15 have
been used as an approximate guide to the probability
of wear related distress. Figure 15 is based on data
published by Wellauer and Holloway [20] that were
obtained from several hundred laboratory tests and
field applications. The curves of figure 15 apply to
through--hardened steel gears ranging in size from
25 mm to 4600 mm in diameter that were lubricated
with mineral--based, non--EP gear lubricants. The
authors [20] defined tooth flank surface distress as
surface pitting or wear that might be destructive or
could shorten the gear life. Most of the data of figure
15 pertain to gears that experienced lives in excess
of 10 million cycles.
8.2.1 Adjustments to the surface distress and
specific film thickness curves
The surface distress and specific film thickness
curves (figure 15) were derived from the Wellauer
and Holloway curves. The curves are adjusted to
account for different definitions of composite surface
roughness and specific film thickness.
8.2.1.1 Average surface roughness adjustment
Reference [20] used root mean square surface
roughness. This information sheet uses average
surface roughness. The relationship between root
mean square and average surface roughness varies
with the machining process. Typically,
Rq x 1.11 Ra x

(98)

AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION

AGMA 925--A03

Specific film thickness,

10

5%
40%
80%

0.1

0.01

0.1

10
Pitch line velocity (m/s)

100

1000

Figure 15 -- Probability of wear related distress


8.2.1.2
Composite
adjustment

roughness

h c , of equation 75, provides film thickness values

Reference [20] used an arithmetic average for the


composite surface roughness:

1.316 times the Dowson and Higginson [17] minimum film thickness, hmin, used by the Wellauer and
Holloway paper [20].

Rq x avg =

Rq1x + Rq 2x
2

surface

(99)

Specific film thickness adjustment factor is derived


as follows:
Wellauer and Holloway [20] defined as:

where
Rq1x, Rq2x is root mean square surface roughness, pinion and gear respectively, for
filter cutoff length, Lx, mm.
Composite surface roughness used in this information sheet is root mean square average of average
surface roughness, see equation 78.
If Rq1x = Rq2x and Ra1x = Ra2x (similar surface
roughnesses),
x = 2 Ra1x = 2 Ra 2x

(100)

Rq x avg = Rq 1x = Rq 2x

(101)

8.2.1.3 Specific film thickness adjustment


The curves of figure 15 were also adjusted for
different definitions of film thickness. The Dowson
and Toyoda equation for central film thickness [19],

W&H =

h min
Rqx avg

(102)

This information sheet uses h c and x defined by


i
equations 75 and 100:
hc
i
(103)
i =
x
Substituting adjustment factors into the equation for
gives:
min =

1.316 (1.11)h min


2 Rq

(104)

x avg

(105)
min = 1.033 W&H
and is used to adjust the specific film thickness
provided by Wellauer and Holloway. This vertical
axis adjustment is now reflected in figure 15.

27

AGMA 925--A03

AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION

Finally, the units of pitch line velocity, vt, were


adjusted from feet per minute to meters per second.
Note that specific film thickness is dimensionless.
8.2.2 Wear risk probability
The curves of figure 15 can be fitted with the
following equations:

+ 0.47767
5% = 2.68863
vt

+ 0.64585
40% = 4.90179
vt

80% = 9.29210
+ 0.95507
vt

(106)
(107)
(108)

Using the following definition, the mean minimum


specific film thickness, m min, and the standard
deviation, min, can be calculated by simultaneous
solution (two equations in two unknowns) using any
two of the adjusted Wellauer and Holloway curves
(5% and 40%, 40% and 80%, or 5% and 80%):
x=

min m min
min

(ref [24])

(109)

where
x

is value of the standard normal variable


determined by probability;

min

is specific film thickness (equation 105);

m min is mean minimum specific film thickness;


min is standard deviation of the minimum
specific film thickness.
Figure 15 and equations 106 through 108 are listed
in the percent failure mode, Q(x). This must first be
converted to a percent survival mode, P(x), by the
equation P (x) = 1 Q (x). With P(x) known, the value
x may be determined from the table Normal
Probability Function and Derivatives of reference
[24].
5%:

P (x) = 20%
x 80% = 0.84163389
Use several film thickness values from figure 15 to
find how mean minimum specific film thickness,
m min, and standard deviation of the minimum
specific film thickness, min, vary with pitch line
velocity. An example is shown below:
v t = 5 ms
5% = 0.9849
40% = 0.6149
This gives the following equations that are solved for
min:
1.6449 =
0.2534 =

0.9849 m min
min
0.6149 m min
min

1.6449 min = 0.9849 m min


0.2534 min = 0.6149 m min
Subtracting the bottom equation from the upper
equation yields:
1.3915 min = 0.3700
min = 0.3700 = 0.2659
1.3915
Using min in the first equation, m min is found:
1.6449 =

0.9849 m min

0.2659
m min = 0.9849 1.6449 (0.2659)
m min = 0.5475
This process was repeated for all data points along
the curves in the following combinations: 5%--40%,
40%--80% and 5%--80%. Results of these calculations were averaged and the values are shown in
table 7.

Q (x) = 5%

Curve--fitting the inverse of the mean, m 1

P (x) = 95%

inverse of the standard deviation, 1 , versus the


min
1
inverse of the pitch line velocity, v , results in the
t
following:

x 5% = 1.64491438
40%:
Q (x) = 40%
P (x) = 60%
x 40% = 0.25335825
80%:
28

Q (x) = 80%

min

, and the

for vt 5 m/s

m min = 5.43389
+ 0.71012
vt

(110)

AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION

min =

0.01525 + 9.43942 + 2.06085


vt
v 2t

(111)

for vt > 5 m/s:

m min = 5.47432
+ 0.70153
vt

min =

(112)

9.7849 + 6.19681 + 2.34174


vt
v 2t

(113)
Association of a mean and standard deviation with
each pitch line velocity allows the probability of wear
distress to be assigned given specific EHL operating
conditions using the procedure of annex B and
using:
y = min
m y = m min
y = min

AGMA 925--A03

Table 7 -- Calculation results


vt (m/s)
0.25
0.50
1.00
1.50
2.00
2.50
3.00
3.50
4.00
4.50
5.00
10.00
15.00
20.00
25.00
30.00
35.00
40.00
45.00
50.00
100.00
150.00
200.00
250.00

m min
0.04455408
0.08636353
0.16271966
0.23073618
0.29172511
0.34673387
0.39660952
0.44204486
0.48361240
0.52178951
0.55697759
0.80016431
0.93691698
1.02464932
1.08573704
1.13072662
1.16524421
1.19256659
1.21473204
1.23307514
1.32309469
1.35614631
1.37331023
1.38382249

min
0.02496302
0.04757665
0.08689583
0.11982298
0.14771523
0.17158123
0.19218459
0.21011292
0.22582491
0.23968331
0.25197825
0.32484801
0.35693985
0.37431229
0.38496185
0.39205782
0.39707727
0.40079104
0.40363655
0.40587858
0.41541491
0.41831071
0.41968741
0.42048785

29

AGMA 925--A03

AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION

(This page is intentionally left blank.)

30

AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION

AGMA 925--A03

Annex A
(informative)
Flow chart for evaluating scuffing risk and oil film thickness
[The foreword, footnotes and annexes, if any, are provided for informational purposes only and should not be
construed as a part of AGMA 925--A03, Effect of Lubrication on Gear Surface Distress.]

START

z1, z2, mn, , aw, n, ra1, ra2, b, n1,


P, Ko, Km, Kv, E1, E2, 1, 2, Ra1x,
Ra2x, nop, Tip, Driver, mmet, M,
BM1, BM2, oil, ksump, M, , Lx,
M,test, XW, 40, fl max, test,
S met

Get Input Data

P1
Tip

profile modification
0 = none
1 = modified for high load capacity
2 = modified for smooth meshing

mmet

method
for
approximating
mean
coefficient of friction
1 = Kelley and AGMA 217.01 method
(constant)
2 = Benedict and Kelley method (variable)
Other = enter own value for mm (constant)

gear tooth temperature (C)


0 = program calculates with equation 91
0 ! input own value

Driver driving member


1 = pinion
2 = gear
nop

number of calculation points along the line


of action (25 recommended)

dynamic viscosity (mPas) at gear tooth


temperature, M
0 = calculate using table 2 and equation 69
0 ! input own value (must also input )

pressure viscosity coefficient (mm2/N)


0 = calculate using table 2 and equation 74
0 ! input own value (must also input M)

ksump = 1.0 if splash lube


= 1.2 if spray lube

of
calculating
scuffing
S met method
temperature, s
0 = from test gears (need to also input
fl max, test, M, test and XW from table 4
1 = R&O mineral oil
2 = EP mineral oil
Other = enter own value of s (C), (see
table 3)

31

AGMA 925--A03

AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION

P1

u
r1
r2
rw1
t
rb1
rb2
wt
pbt
pbn
px
b
w
wn

(Eq 1)
(Eq 2)
(Eq 3)
(Eq 4)
(Eq 5)
(Eq 6)
(Eq 7)
(Eq 8)
(Eq 9)
(Eq 10)
(Eq 11)
(Eq 12)
(Eq 13)
(Eq 14)

CF
CA
CC
CD
CE
CB
Z

(Eq 15)
(Eq 16)
(Eq 17)
(Eq 18)
(Eq 19)
(Eq 20)
(Eq 21)

(Eq 23)
na = fractional part of

(1 n r) n a
yes

(Eq 22)
nr = fractional part of

Lmin

(Eq 25)

1
2
vt
(Ft)nom
KD
Ft
Fwn
wn
Er

(Eq 33)
(Eq 34)
(Eq 35)
(Eq 40)
(Eq 41)
(Eq 42)
(Eq 43)
(Eq 44)
(Eq 58)

R avg

(Eq 87)

CR

no
helical gear

yes
spur gear

32

(Eq 24)

Lmin

(Eq 27)

avgx
m m const

=0

no

(Eq 86)
(Eq 85)
(Eq 78)

P2

Lmin

(Eq 26)

AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION

AGMA 925--A03

P2

C1, C2, C3, C4, C5 = CA, CB, CC, CD, CE

1, 2, 3, 4, 5

(Eq 28)

A, B, C, D, E = 1, 2, 3, 4, 5

i=1

i>5

Xi
Xi
Xi

(Eq 45)
(Eq 46)
(Eq 47)

Xi
Xi
Xi

(Eq 54)
(Eq 55)
(Eq 56)

Xi
Xi
Xi

(Eq 48)
(Eq 49)
(Eq 50)

Xi
Xi
Xi

(Eq 51)
(Eq 52)
(Eq 53)

yes
no

i = A + (i 6 )

E A
(nop 1)

(Eq 29)
(Eq 30)
(Eq 31)
(Eq 32)
(Eq 36)
(Eq 37)
(Eq 38)
(Eq 39)

1i
2i
ri
ni
vr1i
vr2i
vsi
vei

yes

yes

no

(eq 57)

bH1
yes

Tip = 0

i = i+ 1

no
Tip = 2
no

i = nop + 6
yes

Driver = 1
no

P3

33

AGMA 925--A03

AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION

P3

K = 0.8

yes

M = 0

yes

no
(M input)

mmet = 2
no
yes

(Eq 85)

mm const

mm const = mmet

M = 0

M = 0

mmet = 1
no

no
(M & input)

yes

yes
no
(M &
input)

mm const

M*

(Eq 69)

(Eq 74)

(Eq 85)

Call subroutine
Max_Flash_Temp
fl max
Call subroutine
Max_Flash_Temp
fl max

Call subroutine
Max_Flash_Temp
fl max

(Eq 91)

P3A

yes

M = 0

(Eq 91)

no
(M input)

yes

M1 = M

Call subroutine
Max_Flash_Temp
fl max

M*

(Eq 69)

(Eq 74)

mm const = 0

M = 0
P3A

(Eq 69)

(Eq 74)

no
(o & input)

same
page

Call subroutine
Max_Flash_Temp
fl max

P4

yes

* See table 2 for constants in these equations calculated per 71 and 73.

34

(Eq 91)

|M1 -- M| < 0.01

no

AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION

AGMA 925--A03

P4

(Eq 66)

hmin = 100

min > 2bH(i)


min = 100
yes

no
i=1

U(i)

(Eq 67)

W(i)

(Eq 68)

min = 2bH(i)

i=i+1
no

i = nop + 6
yes

Hc(i)

(Eq 65)

hc(i)

(Eq 75)

(eq 93)

B max

P5

hmin > hc(i)


yes

no

hmin = hc(i)

2bH(i)

(Eq 77)

35

AGMA 925--A03

AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION

P5
yes

P scuff < 0.10

S met = 0

Srisk = low

no

yes

S (eq 96)
no

R&O Mineral Oil


S met = 2

yes

S (Eq 95)

no
s = S met

S risk = high

yes

S (eq 94)

no

Srisk = moderate

no

test gears
(need fl max, test,
M test & XW input)

S met = 1

yes

P scuff 0.30

Rq1x

(Eq 98)

Rq2x

(Eq 98)

Rqx avg

(Eq 99)

min

(Eq 105)

no

v t 5 ms

EP Mineral Oil

yes
m min

(Eq 110)

min

(Eq 111)

y = B max

m min

(Eq 112)

my = s

min

(Eq 113)

Enter own value of s

y = 0.15 s

Call subroutine
Probability

y = min
m y = m min
y = min

Return POF

Call subroutine Probability


Return POF

Pscuff = POF

36

AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION

AGMA 925--A03

Subroutine Probability
y, m y, y input

x (eq B.1)

|x| > 1.6448

yes
Q = 0.05

no
t (eq B.4)
ZQ (eq B.3)
Q (eq B.2)

x>0
no

yes
POF = 1.0 -- Q

POF = Q

Return POF

POF = Probability of failure

37

AGMA 925--A03

AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION

Subroutine Max_Flash_Temp
i=1

fl max = 0

mm const = 0

no

yes

mm is a (given) constant
or calculated by equation
85 (AGMA 217.01 and
Kelley)

s(i) or X(i)
< mach**

yes

no
mm(i)
(Eq 88)
(Benedict and Kelley)

mm(i) = mm const

mm(i) = 0

yes
mm(i) or bH(i)
< mach**

yes

no

mm(i) = 0

no

yes
fl max = fl(i)

(Eq 84)

fl(i)

fl(i) = 0

fl(i) > fl max


no

i=i+ 1

i = nop + 6
yes
Return

**Eq 88 is not valid at vs(i) = 0 or X(i) = 0 or near zero, and Eq 84 is not valid at bH(i) = 0 or near zero.
mach is a small finite number (e.g., 10 --10). In case the calculated mm(i) < 0, set mm(i) = 0.

38

no

AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION

AGMA 925--A03

Annex B
(informative)
Normal or Gaussian probability
[The foreword, footnotes and annexes, if any, are provided for informational purposes only and should not be
construed as a part of AGMA 925--A03, Effect of Lubrication on Gear Surface Distress.]

where

B.1 Normal or Gaussian probability


For random variables that follow normal (Gaussian)
distributions, the following procedure [24] can be
used to calculate probabilities of failure in the range
of 5% to 95%:
x=

y m y
y

(B.1)

is the tail area of the normal probability


function;

ZQ

is the normal probability density function.

Probability of failure:
if x > 0, then:
probability of failure = 1 -- Q;

where

else
probability of failure = Q

is the standard normal variable;

is the random variable;

my

is the mean value of random variable y;

is the standard deviation of random variable


y.

where

Evaluation of Q:

ZQ

0.5(x )
= 0.3989422804 e

(B.3)

b 1 = 0.319381530
b 2 = 0.356563782
b 3 = 1.781477937

if x > 1.6448, then:

b 4 = 1.821255978

Q = 0.05;

b 5 = 1.330274429

else
Q = Z Q b 1t + b 2t 2 + b 3t 3 + b 4t 4 + b 5t 5
(B.2)

p = 0.2316419
1
t=
1 + p|x|

(B.4)

are constants given in reference [24].

39

AGMA 925--A03

AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION

(This page is intentionally left blank.)

40

AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION

AGMA 925--A03

Annex C
(informative)
Test rig gear data
[The foreword, footnotes and annexes, if any, are provided for informational purposes only and should not be
construed as a part of AGMA 925--A03, Effect of Lubrication on Gear Surface Distress.]

C.1 Test rig gear data


Table C.1 provides a summary of gear data for
several back to back test rigs that have been used for
gear lubrication rating and research.

41

42

Pinion torque
range

Primary wear
assessment
a
mn
n

wt
z1
z2
b
ra1
ra2
x1
x2
Quality number
Quality standard
Ra1
Ra2
n1
oil
Ref document

Symbol

AGMA 925--A03

Nm

mm
mm
rpm
deg C
-- --

mm
mm
deg
deg
deg
-- --- -mm
mm
mm
-- --- --- --

Units

91.5
4.5
20
0
22.44
16
24
20
44.385
56.25
0.8635
-- 0.5103
5
ISO 1328
0.3 -- 0.7
0.3 -- 0.7
2170
90--140
ISO 14635--1
ASTM
D5182--97
CEC
L--07--A--95
3.3 -- 534.5

Scuffing

FZG A

3.3--534.5

91.5
4.5
20
0
22.44
16
24
10
44.385
56.25
0.8635
--0.5103
5
ISO 1328
0.3 -- 0.7
0.3 -- 0.7
2170
90--120
ISO/WD
14635--2

Scuffing

FZG A10

135 -- 376

Pitting (micro
& macro)
91.5
4.5
20
0
22.44
16
24
14
41.23
59.18
0.1817
0.1715
5
DIN 3962
0.3 -- 0.5
0.3 -- 0.5
2250
90--120
FVA Info
Sheet
54/7

FZG C

28 -- 265

91.5
4.5
20
0
22.44
16
24
14
41.23
59.18
0.1817
0.1715
5
DIN 3962
0.4 -- 0.6
0.4 -- 0.6
2250
90
FVA Info
Sheet
54/I--IV

FZG
C -- GF
Micropitting

0 -- 100

88.9
3.175
20
0
20
28
28
6.35/2.8
47.625
47.625
0
0
13
AGMA 2000
0.3 -- 0.4
0.3 -- 0.4
10000
49 -- 77
NASA
TP -- 2047
(1982)

Pitting

NASA

Table C.1 -- Summary of gear data for lubricant testing

0 -- 270

88.9
3.175
22.5
0
22.5
28
28
6.35
47.22
47.22
0
0
13
AGMA 2000
0.46 -- 0.64
0.46 -- 0.64
10000
74
ASTM
D1947--83
(1984)

Scuffing

Ryder

250 -- 400

Pitting (micro
& macro)
91.5
3.629
20
0
21.31
20
30
14
40.82
58.18
0.2231
0.0006
12--13
AGMA 2000
0.5 -- 0.8
0.5 -- 0.8
2250
80
-- --

AGMA

20 -- 407

82.55
5.08
20
0
26.25
15
16
4.76
45.02
47.69
0.3625
0.3875
5
ISO 1328
0.3 -- 0.8
0.3 -- 0.8
4K -- 6K
70 -- 110
IP166/77
(1992)

Scuffing

IAE

AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION

AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION

AGMA 925--A03

Annex D
(informative)
Example calculations
[The foreword, footnotes and annexes, if any, are provided for informational purposes only and should not be
construed as a part of AGMA 925--A03, Effect of Lubrication on Gear Surface Distress.]

******************************************************************************
SCUFFING AND WEAR RISK ANALYSIS ver 1.0.9 -- AGMA925--A03
SCORING+ EX.#1
DATE:2002/04/18
TIME:08:08:23
******************************************************************************
***** GENERAL AND GEOMETRY INPUT DATA *****
SCORING+ EX.#1
Input unit (=1 SI, =2 Inch)
(iInputUnit)
1.000000
Output unit (=1 SI, =2 Inch)
(iOutputUnit)
1.000000
Gear type (=1 external, =2 internal)
(iType)
1.000000
Driving member (=1 pinion, =2 gear)
(iDriver)
2.000000
Number of pinion teeth
(z1)
21.000000
Number of gear teeth
(z2)
26.000000
Normal module
(mn)
4.000000 mm
Helix angle
(Beta)
0.000000 deg
Operating center distance
(aw)
96.000000 mm
Normal generating pressure angle
(Alphan)
20.000000 deg
Standard outside radius, pinion
(ra1)
46.570900 mm
Standard outside radius, gear
(ra2)
57.277000 mm
Face width
(b)
66.040000 mm
Profile mod (=0 none, =1 hi load, =2 smooth)
(iTip)
1.000000
***** Material input data *****
Modulus of elasticity, pinion
(E1) 206842.718795 N/mm^2
Modulus of elasticity, gear
(E2) 206842.718795 N/mm^2
Poissons ratio, pinion
(Nu1)
0.300000
Poissons ratio, gear
(Nu2)
0.300000
Average surface roughness at Lx, pinion
(Ra1x)
0.508000 mu m
Average surface roughness at Lx, gear
(Ra2x)
0.508000 mu m
Filter cutoff of wavelength x
(Lx)
0.800000 mm
Method for approximate mean coef. friction
(Mumet)
1.000000
Welding factor
(Xw)
1.000000
***** Load data *****
Pinion speed
(n1)
308.570000 rpm
Transmitted power
(P)
20.619440 kW
Overload factor
(Ko)
1.000000
Load distribution factor
(Km)
1.400000
Dynamic factor
(Kv)
1.063830
***** Lubrication data *****
Lubricant type (=1 Mineral, =2 Synthetic,
=3 MIL--L--7808K, =4 MIL--L--23699E)
(iLubeType)
1.000000
ISO viscosity grade number
(nIsoVG)
460.000000
Kinematic viscosity at 40 deg C
(Nu40)
407.000000 mm^2/s
***** Input temperature data *****
Tooth temperature
(ThetaM)
82.222222 deg C
Thermal contact coefficient, pinion
(BM1)
16.533725 N/[mm s^.5K]
Thermal contact coefficient, gear
(BM2)
16.533725 N/[mm s^.5K]
Oil inlet or sump temperature
(Thetaoil)
71.111111 deg C
Parameter for calculating tooth temperature
(ksump)
1.000000
Dynamic viscosity at gear tooth temperature
(EtaM)
43.000000 mPas
Pressure--viscosity coefficient
(Alpha)
0.022045 mm^2/N
Method of calculating scuffing temperature
(Thetasmet)
2.000000
Maximum flash temperatrue of test gears
(Thetaflmaxtest)
0.000000
Tooth temperature of test gear
(ThetaMtest)
0.000000
Number of calculation points
(nNop)
25.000000

43

AGMA 925--A03

AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION

******************************************************************************
SCUFFING AND WEAR RISK ANALYSIS ver 1.0.9 -- AGMA925--A03
SCORING+ EX.#1
DATE:2002/04/18
TIME:08:08:23
******************************************************************************
***** GEOMETRY CALCULATION *****
Gear ratio
(u)
1.238095
Standard pitch radius, pinion
(r1)
42.000000 mm
Standard pitch radius, gear
(r2)
52.000000 mm
Pinion operating pitch radius
(rw1)
42.893617 mm
Transverse generating pressure angle
(Alphat)
20.000000 deg
Base radius, pinion
(rb1)
39.467090 mm
Base radius, gear
(rb2)
48.864016 mm
Transverse operating pressure angle
(Alphawt)
23.056999 deg
Transverse base pitch
(pbt)
11.808526 mm
Normal base pitch
(pbn)
11.808526 mm
Axial pitch
(px)
---------------Base helix angle
(Betab)
0.000000 deg
Operating helix angle
(Betaw)
0.000000 deg
Normal operating pressure angle
(Alphawn)
23.056999 deg
Distance along line of action -- Point A
(CA)
7.715600 mm
Distance along line of action -- Point B
(CB)
12.913884 mm
Distance along line of action -- Point C
(CC)
16.799142 mm
Distance along line of action -- Point D
(CD)
19.524126 mm
Distance along line of action -- Point E
(CE)
24.722409 mm
Distance along line of action -- Point F
(CF)
37.598080 mm
Active length of line of action
(Z)
17.006810 mm
Transverse contact ratio
(EpsAlpha)
1.440214
Fractional part of EpsAlpha
(nr)
0.440214
Axial contact ratio
(EpsBeta)
0.000000
Fractional part of EpsBeta
(na)
0.000000
Minimum contact length
(Lmin)
66.040000 mm
***** GEAR TOOTH VELOCITY AND LOADS *****
Rotational (angular) velocity, pinion
(Omega1)
32.313375
Rotational (angular) velocity, gear
(Omega2)
26.099264
Operating pitch line velocity
(vt)
1.386038
Nominal tangential load
(Ftnom)
14876.538066
Combined derating factor
(KD)
1.489362
Actual tangential load
(Ft)
22156.550486
Normal operating load
(Fwn)
24080.178937
Normal unit load
(wn)
364.630208

rad/s
rad/s
m/s
N
N
N
N/mm

***** MATERIAL PROPERTY AND TOOTH SURFACE FINISH *****


Reduced modulus of elasticity
(Er) 227299.690984 N/mm^2
Average of pinion and gear average roughness
(Ravgx)
0.508000 mu m
Surface roughness constant
(CRavgx)
1.816720
Composite surface roughness at filter cuttoff
(Sigmax)
0.718420 mu m

44

AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION

AGMA 925--A03

**********************************************************************************
SCUFFING AND WEAR RISK ANALYSIS ver 1.0.9 -- AGMA925--A03
SCORING+ EX.#1
DATE:2002/04/18
TIME:08:08:23
**********************************************************************************
***** LOAD SHARING RATIO AND bH *****
Index
(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)
(E)

Roll
Ang(rad)
0.19549
0.32721
0.42565
0.49469
0.62641

XGamma
0.14286
1.00000
1.00000
1.00000
0.00000

Rhon(mm)
6.13226
8.47833
9.29314
9.38554
8.46633

bH
0.05982
0.18610
0.19484
0.19581
0.00000

Index
(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)
(E)

(
(
(
(
(

1)
2)
3)
4)
5)

0.19549
0.21345
0.23140
0.24936
0.26731

0.14286
0.25970
0.37654
0.49339
0.61023

6.13226
6.53669
6.91441
7.26541
7.58971

0.05982
0.08327
0.10313
0.12101
0.13755

(
(
(
(
(

( 6)
( 7)
( 8)
( 9)
( 10)
( 11)
( 12)
( 13)
( 14)
( 15)

0.28527
0.30322
0.32118
0.33913
0.35709
0.37504
0.39300
0.41095
0.42890
0.44686

0.72708
0.84392
0.96076
1.00000
1.00000
1.00000
1.00000
1.00000
1.00000
1.00000

7.88729
8.15816
8.40233
8.61978
8.81052
8.97455
9.11187
9.22247
9.30637
9.36356

0.15306
0.16770
0.18160
0.18765
0.18971
0.19147
0.19293
0.19410
0.19498
0.19558

( 6)
( 7)
( 8)
( 9)
( 10)
( 11)
( 12)
( 13)
( 14)
( 15)

( 16)
( 17)
( 18)
( 19)
( 20)

0.46481
0.48277
0.50072
0.51868
0.53663

1.00000
1.00000
0.81791
0.70106
0.58422

9.39403
9.39780
9.37485
9.32520
9.24883

0.19589
0.19593
0.17698
0.16342
0.14857

( 16)
( 17)
( 18)
( 19)
( 20)

( 21)
( 22)
( 23)
( 24)
( 25)

0.55459
0.57254
0.59050
0.60845
0.62641

0.46737
0.35053
0.23369
0.11684
0.00000

9.14575
9.01596
8.85946
8.67625
8.46633

0.13214
0.11362
0.09196
0.06435
0.00000

( 21)
( 22)
( 23)
( 24)
( 25)

1)
2)
3)
4)
5)

**** P3 -- Calculate flash temperature ****


Dynamic viscosity at 40 deg C
Dynamic viscosity at 100 deg C
Factor c
Factor d
Factor k
Factor s
Mumet -- use Kelley and AGMA 217.01
Surface roughness constant
Mean coef. of friction, const. (Eq 85)

(Eta40C)
(Eta100C)
(c_coef)
(d_coef)
(k_coef)
(s_coef)
(Mumet)
(CRavgx)
(Mumconst)

412.082400
26.341040
8.964201
--3.424449
0.010471
0.134800
1.000000
1.816720
0.109003

mPas
mPas

45

AGMA 925--A03

AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION

**********************************************************************************
SCUFFING AND WEAR RISK ANALYSIS ver 1.0.9 -- AGMA925--A03
SCORING+ EX.#1
DATE:2002/04/18
TIME:08:08:23
**********************************************************************************
**** Calculate flash temperature ****
Index
(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)
(E)

K
0.80
0.80
0.80
0.80
0.80

Mum
0.1090
0.1090
0.1090
0.1090
0.0000

XGamma
0.1429
1.0000
1.0000
1.0000
0.0000

bH (mm)
0.059822
0.186102
0.194840
0.195806
0.000000

vs (m/s)
0.5306
0.2269
0.0000
0.1592
0.4628

vr1 (m/s)
0.2493
0.4173
0.5428
0.6309
0.7989

vr2 (m/s)
0.7799
0.6442
0.5428
0.4717
0.3360

1)
2)
3)
4)
5)

0.80
0.80
0.80
0.80
0.80

0.1090
0.1090
0.1090
0.1090
0.1090

0.1429
0.2597
0.3765
0.4934
0.6102

0.059822
0.083275
0.103129
0.121010
0.137549

0.5306
0.4892
0.4478
0.4064
0.3650

0.2493
0.2722
0.2951
0.3180
0.3409

0.7799
0.7614
0.7429
0.7244
0.7059

13.6320
19.2004
22.7228
24.7713
25.6466

(
(
(
(
(

( 6)
( 7)
( 8)
( 9)
( 10)

0.80
0.80
0.80
0.80
0.80

0.1090
0.1090
0.1090
0.1090
0.1090

0.7271
0.8439
0.9608
1.0000
1.0000

0.153056
0.167704
0.181595
0.187648
0.189713

0.3236
0.2822
0.2408
0.1995
0.1581

0.3638
0.3867
0.4096
0.4325
0.4554

0.6874
0.6689
0.6505
0.6320
0.6135

25.5359
24.5661
22.8276
19.2753
15.1349

( 6)
( 7)
( 8)
( 9)
( 10)

( 11)
( 12)
( 13)
( 14)
( 15)

0.80
0.80
0.80
0.80
0.80

0.1090
0.1090
0.1090
0.1090
0.1090

1.0000
1.0000
1.0000
1.0000
1.0000

0.191471
0.192930
0.194098
0.194979
0.195577

0.1167
0.0753
0.0339
0.0075
0.0489

0.4783
0.5012
0.5241
0.5470
0.5699

0.5950
0.5765
0.5580
0.5395
0.5210

11.0832
7.1033
3.1799
0.7011
4.5531

( 11)
( 12)
( 13)
( 14)
( 15)

( 16)
( 17)
( 18)
( 19)
( 20)

0.80
0.80
0.80
0.80
0.80

0.1090
0.1090
0.1090
0.1090
0.1090

1.0000
1.0000
0.8179
0.7011
0.5842

0.195895
0.195934
0.176983
0.163420
0.148569

0.0903
0.1317
0.1731
0.2145
0.2559

0.5928
0.6157
0.6386
0.6615
0.6844

0.5025
0.4840
0.4655
0.4470
0.4285

8.3886
12.2201
13.8125
15.2621
15.9136

( 16)
( 17)
( 18)
( 19)
( 20)

( 21)
( 22)
( 23)
( 24)
( 25)

0.80
0.80
0.80
0.80
0.80

0.1090
0.1090
0.1090
0.1090
0.0000

0.4674
0.3505
0.2337
0.1168
0.0000

0.132141
0.113623
0.091964
0.064352
0.000000

0.2973
0.3386
0.3800
0.4214
0.4628

0.7073
0.7302
0.7531
0.7760
0.7989

0.4100
0.3915
0.3730
0.3545
0.3360

15.6888
14.4671
12.0443
7.9953
0.0000

( 21)
( 22)
( 23)
( 24)
( 25)

(
(
(
(
(

Thetafl (C)
13.6320
22.0835
0.0000
14.7688
0.0000

Index
(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)
(E)

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------The max. flash temp. occurs at point (10)


(Thetaflmax)
25.646608 deg C
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Dynamic viscosity at the gear tooth temperature
Pressure--viscosity coefficient

46

(EtaM)
(Alpha)

43.000000
0.022045

mPas
mm^2/N

1)
2)
3)
4)
5)

AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION

AGMA 925--A03

**********************************************************************************
SCUFFING AND WEAR RISK ANALYSIS ver 1.0.9 -- AGMA925--A03
SCORING+ EX.#1
DATE:2002/04/18
TIME:08:08:23
**********************************************************************************
********** P4 -- Specific film thickness **********
Material parameter (eq 66)

(G)

5010.821688

Index
(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)
(E)

U
1.587561e--11
1.184300e--11
1.105036e--11
1.111223e--11
1.267961e--11

W
0.000037
0.000189
0.000173
0.000171
0.000000

Hc
3.539329e--05
2.458469e--05
2.365326e--05
2.376807e--05
0.000000e+00

hc (mu m)
0.217041
0.208437
0.219813
0.223076
0.000000

Lambda2bH
0.781203
0.425354
0.438395
0.443804
0.000000

Index
(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)
(E)

(
(
(
(
(

1)
2)
3)
4)
5)

1.587561e--11
1.495710e--11
1.420027e--11
1.357156e--11
1.304655e--11

0.000037
0.000064
0.000087
0.000109
0.000129

3.539329e--05
3.220166e--05
3.010396e--05
2.854084e--05
2.730927e--05

0.217041
0.210492
0.208151
0.207361
0.207269

0.781203
0.642142
0.570609
0.524768
0.491992

(
(
(
(
(

( 6)
( 7)
( 8)
( 9)
( 10)

1.260712e--11
1.223958e--11
1.193348e--11
1.168076e--11
1.147515e--11

0.000148
0.000166
0.000183
0.000186
0.000182

2.630903e--05
2.548198e--05
2.479093e--05
2.439213e--05
2.414785e--05

0.207507
0.207886
0.208301
0.210255
0.212755

0.466937
0.446895
0.430320
0.427292
0.430014

( 6)
( 7)
( 8)
( 9)
( 10)

( 11)
( 12)
( 13)
( 14)
( 15)

1.131183e--11
1.118707e--11
1.109806e--11
1.104277e--11
1.101981e--11

0.000179
0.000176
0.000174
0.000172
0.000171

2.395433e--05
2.380784e--05
2.370556e--05
2.364541e--05
2.362595e--05

0.214979
0.216934
0.218624
0.220053
0.221223

0.432510
0.434789
0.436856
0.438717
0.440375

( 11)
( 12)
( 13)
( 14)
( 15)

( 16)
( 17)
( 18)
( 19)
( 20)

1.102840e--11
1.106830e--11
1.113982e--11
1.124380e--11
1.138168e--11

0.000171
0.000171
0.000140
0.000121
0.000101

2.364633e--05
2.370628e--05
2.428942e--05
2.481221e--05
2.546118e--05

0.222134
0.222787
0.227710
0.231379
0.235486

0.441830
0.443084
0.476505
0.503875
0.537840

( 16)
( 17)
( 18)
( 19)
( 20)

1)
2)
3)
4)
5)

( 21)
1.155550e--11
0.000082
2.627996e--05
0.240350
0.582071
( 21)
( 22)
1.176804e--11
0.000062
2.735014e--05
0.246588
0.644006
( 22)
( 23)
1.202294e--11
0.000042
2.885557e--05
0.255645
0.742128
( 23)
( 24)
1.232482e--11
0.000022
3.139471e--05
0.272388
0.945273
( 24)
( 25)
1.267961e--11
0.000000
0.000000e+00
0.000000
0.000000
( 25)
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Minimum film thickness found at point(5)
(hmin)
0.207269 mu m
Min. specific film thk. found at point (B)
(LambdaMin)
0.425354
Tooth temperature
(ThetaM)
82.222222 deg C
Max. flash temperature
(Thetaflmax)
25.646608 deg C
Minimum film thickness
(hmin)
0.207269 mu m
Maximum contact temperature
(ThetaBmax)
107.868830 deg C
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

47

AGMA 925--A03

AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION

**********************************************************************************
SCUFFING AND WEAR RISK ANALYSIS ver 1.0.9 -- AGMA925--A03
SCORING+ EX.#1
DATE:2002/04/18
TIME:08:08:23
**********************************************************************************
**** P5 -- Calculate risk of scuffing and wear ****
***** Risk of scuffing *****
Method of calculating scuffing temperature
Mean scuffing temperature

(Thetasmet)
(Thetas)

2.000000
316.290835

deg C

***** Probability of scuffing *****


Maximum contact temperature
(y)
107.868830 deg C
Mean scuffing temperature
(Muy)
316.290835 deg C
Approx. standard deviation of scuffing temp.
(Sigmay)
47.443625 deg C
Standard normal variable, x =
((y--muy)/Sigmay)
--4.393046
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Probability of scuffing
Pscuff = 5% or lower
Based on AGMA925--A03 Table 5, scuffing risk is low
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Average surface roughness, pinion
Average surface roughness, gear
Average surface roughness (rms), pinion
Average surface roughness (rms), gear
Arithmetic average of rms roughness
Minimum specific film thickness
Pitchline velocity is less than 5 m/s
Mean min. specific film thk. (eq. 110)
Std. dev. of min. spec. film thk. (eq. 111)

**** Risk of wear ****


(Ra1x)
(Ra2x)
(Rq1x)
(Rq2x)
(Rqxavg)
(Lambdamin)
(vt)
(MuLambdaMin)
(SigmaLambdaMin)

0.508000
0.508000
0.563880
0.563880
0.563880
0.425354
1.386038
0.215956
0.112623

mu m
mu m
mu m
mu m
mu m
m/s

***** Probability of wear *****


Minimum specific film thickness
(y)
0.425354
Mean minimum specific film thickness
(muy)
0.215956
Standard deviation of the min. specific film
(Sigmay)
0.112623
Standard normal variable, x =
((y--muy)/Sigmay)
1.859273
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Probability of wear
Pwear = 5% or lower
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

48

AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION

AGMA 925--A03

Bibliography

The following documents are either referenced in the text of AGMA 925--A03, Effect of Lubrication on Gear
Surface Distress, or indicated for additional information.
1.
Blok, H., Les Tempratures de Surface dans les Conditions de Graissage sans Pression Extrme,
Second World Petroleum Congress, Paris, June, 1937.
2.
Kelley, B.W., A New Look at the Scoring Phenomena of Gears, SAE transactions, Vol. 61, 1953,
pp. 175--188.
3.

Dudley, D.W., Practical Gear Design, McGraw--Hill, New York, 1954.

4.
Kelley, B.W., The Importance of Surface Temperature to Surface Damage, Chapter in Engineering
Approach to Surface Damage, Univ. of Michigan Press, Ann Arbor, 1958.
5.
Benedict, G. H. and Kelley, B. W., Instantaneous Coefficients of Gear Tooth Friction, ASLE transactions,
Vol. 4, 1961, pp. 59--70.
6.

Lemanski, A.J., AGMA Aerospace Gear Committee Gear Scoring Project, March 1962.

7.
AGMA 217.01, AGMA Information Sheet -- Gear Scoring Design for Aerospace Spur and Helical Power
Gears, October, 1965.
8.

SCORING+, computer program, GEARTECH Software, Inc., 1985.

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ASTM D445--97, Standard Test Method for Kinematic Viscosity of Transparent and Opaque Liquids (the
Calculation of Dynamic Viscosity).
10.

ASTM D341--93(1998), Standard Viscosity -- Temperature Charts for Liquid Petroleum Products.

11. ASTM D2270--93(1998), Standard Practice for Calculating Viscosity Index From Kinematic Viscosity at
40 and 100C.
12. So, B. Y. C. and Klaus, E. E., Viscosity--Pressure Correlation of Liquids, ASLE Transactions, Vol. 23, 4,
409--421, 1979.
13. Novak, J. D. and Winer, W. O., Some Measurements of High Pressure Lubricant Rheology, Journal of
Lubricant Technology, Transactions of the ASME, Series F, Vol. 90, No. 3, July 1968, pp. 580 591.
14. Jones, W. R., Johnson, R. L., Winer, W. O. and Sanborn, D. M., Pressure--Viscosity Measurements for
Several Lubricants to 5.5x10 8 N/m 2 (8x10 4 psi) and 149C (300F), ASLE Transactions, 18, pp. 249 262,
1975.
15. Brooks, F. C. and Hopkins, V., Viscosity and Density Characteristics of Five Lubricant Base Stocks at
Elevated Pressures and Temperatures, Preprint number 75--LC--3D--1, presented at the ASLE/ASME
Lubrication Conference, Miami Beach, FL, October 21 23, 1975.
16. Dowson, D. and Higginson, G. R., New Roller -- Bearing Lubrication Formula, Engineering, (London),
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19. Dowson, D. and Toyoda, S., A Central Film Thickness Formula for Elastohydrodynamic Line Contacts,
5th Leeds--Lyon Symposium Proceedings, Paper 11 (VII), 1978, pp. 60--65.

49

AGMA 925--A03

AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION

20. Wellauer, E. J. and Holloway, G.A., Application of EHD Oil Film Theory to Industrial Gear Drives,
Transactions of ASME, J. Eng., Ind., Vol. 98., series B, No 2, May 1976, pp. 626--634.
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Trans. Vol. 33 (No. 4), 1990, pp. 535--542.
22.

Viscosity and pressure -- viscosity data supplied by Mobil Technology Company and Kluber Lubrication.

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pp. 431--434, February 1978.
24. Handbook of Mathematical Functions, National Bureau of Standards (NIST), U.S. Government Printing
Office, Washington, D.C., 1964.
25.

Rough Surfaces, edited by Thomas, T.R., Longman, Inc., New York, 1982, p. 92.

26.

Errichello, R., Friction, Lubrication and Wear of Gears, ASM Handbook, Vol. 18, Oct. 1992, pp. 535--545.

27. Blok, H., The Postulate About the Constancy of Scoring Temperature, Interdisciplinary Approach to the
Lubrication of Concentrated Contacts, NASA SP--237, 1970, pp. 153--248.
28.

ANSI/AGMA 9005--E02, Industrial Gear Lubrication.

29. Winter, H. and Michaelis, K., Scoring Load Capacity of Gears Lubricated with EP--Oils, AGMA Paper No.
P219.17, October, 1983.
30.

Almen, J.O., Dimensional Value of Lubricants in Gear Design, SAE Journal, Sept. 1942, pp. 373--380.

31. Borsoff, V.N., Fundamentals of Gear Lubrication, Summary Report for Period March 1953 to May 1954,
Bureau of Aeronautics, Shell Development Company, Contract No. 53--356c, p. 12.
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34.

Borsoff, V.N., Predicting the Scoring of Gears, Machine Design, January 7, 1965, pp. 132--136.

35.

ANSI/AGMA 6011--H98, Specification for High Speed Helical Gear Units.

36. Nakanishi, T. and Ariura, Y., Effect of Surface--Finishing on Surface Durability of Surface--Hardened
Gears, MPT 91, JSME International Conference on Motion and Power Transmissions, 1991, pp. 828--833.
37. Tanaka, S., et al, Appreciable Increases in Surface Durability of Gear Pairs with Mirror--Like Finish,
ASME Paper No. 84--DET--223, 1984, pp. 1--8.
38. Ueno, T., et al, Surface Durability of Case--Carburized Gears on a Phenomenon of Gray Staining of
Tooth Surface, ASME Paper No. 80--C2/DET--27, 1980, pp. 1--8.
39. Olver, A.V., Micropitting of Gear Teeth -- Design Solutions, presented at Aerotech 1995, NEC
Birmingham, October 1995, published by I. Mech. E., 1995.
40. FVA Information Sheet Micropitting, No. 54/7 (July, 1993) Forschungsvereinigung Antriebstechnik e.V.,
Lyoner Strasse 18, D--60528, Frankfurt/Main.
41. Bowen, C. W., The Practical Significance of Designing to Gear Pitting Fatigue Life Criteria, ASME Paper
77--DET--122, September 1977.
42. Dudley, D.W., Characteristics of Regimes of Gear Lubrication, International Symposium on Gearing and
Power Transmissions, Tokyo, Japan, 1981.
43. Blok, H., The Thermal--Network Method for Predicting Bulk Temperatures in Gear Transmissions, Proc.
7th Round Table Discussion on Marine Reduction Gears held in Finspong, Sweden, 9--10 September 1969.
44. Blok, H., Thermo--Tribology -- Fifty Years On, keynote address to the Int. Conf. Tribology; Friction,
Lubrication and Wear -- 50 Years On, Inst. Mech. Engrs., London, 1--3 July 1987, Paper No. C 248/87.
50

AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION

AGMA 925--A03

45. Ku, P.M. and Baber, B.B., The Effect of Lubricants on Gear Tooth Scuffing, ASLE Transactions, Vol. 2,
No. 2, 1960, pp. 184--194.
46. Winter, H., Michaelis, K. and Collenberg, H.F., Investigations on the Scuffing Resistance of High--Speed
Gears, AGMA Fall Technical Meeting Paper 90FTM8, 1990.
47.

ANSI/AGMA 6002--B93, Design Guide for Vehicle Spur and Helical Gears.

48.

Barish, T., How Sliding Affects Life of Rolling Surfaces, Machine Design, 1960.

49. Massey, C., Reeves, C. and Shipley, E.E., The Influence of Lubrication on the Onset of Surface Pitting in
Machinable Hardness Gear Teeth, AGMA Technical Paper 91FTM17, 1991.

51

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AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION
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