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CHAPTER III

METHODOLOGY

This chapter covers the methods and procedure undertaken by the researchers.
It is composed of four parts namely Site and Load Assessment, Data Gathering, System
Design, and Economic Analysis.

3.1 Project Design


This diagram helps readers for an easier understanding of the methods
undertaken by the researchers. This project design indicates the order of the tasks
underdone by the researchers to complete the project.
Data Gathering

Cost and Specification


Selection of System Components

Solar Insolation
Location of Panels
Load Estimation

System Design
Design Specification

Economic Analysis

Tilt and Orientation


Grid-Tie System
Fig. 3.1 Project Design

3.2 Project Locale


This section indicated the location where the study was conducted.

3.3 Project Instruments


This section of the method undertaken by the researchers indicates the
instruments used to acquire a specific data.

3.4. Project Procedure


Following the project design, under this section will be the data acquired,
discussions on a specific section of the project design

3.4.1 Data gathering


To design a PV system, Site and load assessment is necessary.
Availability of sunlight on the site and the solar panels energy output needs to be
assessed.

3.4.1.1 Solar Insolation


To determine the solar insolation for the location selected for the
solar power system to be designed.

3.4.1.2 Location of Panels


To determine the location of solar panels, certain factors must be
considered: it must receive a great amount of sunlight (considering solar

insolation), there should be no or at least a little obstacles for the sunlight


to reach the panels; and the location of the panels should be near to the
load to be supplied to minimize losses.

3.4.1.3 Load Estimation


It is necessary to determine the load to be supplied by the proposed
system. The monthly electric consumption of MSU-GSC will be collected
and will be used for computations of the estimated economic advantages
of the system.

3.4.2 Cost and Specifications


Under this section will be the data especially the cost and specifications of
the components used in the estimation of the system designed.

3.4.2.1 Selection of System Components


In designing of Photovoltaic System, it is desirable to select high
quality and efficient components. Also, availability within the region and
price of the materials is to be considered.

3.4.3 System Design


Under this section will be the product of the project which is the design of
the solar power system along with discussions and remarks made by the
researchers based on observed and researched data.

3.4.3.1 Design Specification


It is important to properly utilize the components from renowned
manufactures with good reputation in designing the system. This section
will tell what kind of solar power system will be used for the design.

3.4.3.2 Tilt and Orientation


To get the maximum energy from the sun, the best possible tilt and
orientation must be determined.

3.4.3.3 Expected Output


Expected output of the designed system

3.4.4 Economic Analysis


Under this section will be the computation of different common economic
interest of a project.

3.4.4.1 Cost Estimation of System Components


Estimation of the system components are obtained from different
suppliers around the Philippines. Comparison among these prices and
specifications will determine which components will be used.

3.4.4.2 System Components Life Span


Life Span of the components of the system is significant for the

economic analysis for it determines the amount of time the system will be
useful.

3.4.4.3 Expected Payback Period


To determine when the project will obtain its breakeven period.

CHAPTER IV
DATA ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSIONS

This chapter covers the data gathered by the researchers for the study following
the methods set.

4.1 Project Locale


The researchers are currently 5th year Electrical Engineering Students of
Mindanao State University General City Campus. The project is conducted at the
Engineering Laboratory of Mindanao State University General Santos City.

4.2 Project Instruments


In acquiring required data, the researchers used the following instruments:
Ladder and surveying tape for manual measurement of the roofs
dimensions.
Internet, books and journals mainly for searching necessary
information

4.3 Project Procedure


The flow of the project is as follows:

4.3.1 Site and Load Assessment


For the implementation of the project, specific data necessary was

attained by the researchers.

4.3.1.1Solar Insolation
The solar irradiance in Fatima, General Santos city at a ground
level exceeds 1000W/m2. The monthly average insolation incident on a
horizontal surface ranges from values 4.55 5.35 kWh/m 2 per day
(Andrade & Barraquias, 2014).

22-year
average

JAN

FEB

MAR

APR

MAY

JUNE

4.55

4.88

5.35

5.63

5.19

4.88

JULY
AUG
4.96
5.08
ANNUAL

SEP
5.2

OCT
5.05

NOV
4.88

DEC
4.62

5.02
AVERAGE

Figure 4.1 22-Year average solar irradiance in Fatima, General Santos City (Andrade &
Barraquias, 2014).

4.3.1.2 Location of panels


As per the title of the study, the proposed solar power system is
located at the 1st roof facing north of the new engineering laboratory
building of Mindanao State University in accordance to the acquired solar
insolation.

Figure 4.2 Photo taken from Google Earth as of April 3, 2016

For the dimensions of the roof, the researchers manually checked if the
dimensions in the design and the actual dimensions are the same. The
dimensions measured were 7.7mx14.12m and the designed were 7.73mx14.15m
having an angle of 9.13 degrees.

Figure 4.3 Sketch-up design of the building given by Engr. Junlex Tubilid

4.3.1.3 Load Estimation


The peak load of MSU-GenSans Engineering Laboratory is
75MVA. The load is three phase having 3x25kVA having a continuous load
of at-least 20kW during school days.

4.3.2. Cost and Specification


Under this section of chapter 4 are the cost and specification for the

components considered in designing the system.

Selection of System Components


For the components used in this study, the researchers used the
products of the local companies such as Solar System Philippines. The
reason of the researchers for this is that these suppliers are local, and
prices obtained from these suppliers if not exact, are nearly the range of
products locally available.
For components not included in the quotation and prices taken from
local suppliers, the researchers used products from other international
suppliers to have an estimate of the cost.
The components used in this study may or may not be the
components to be used in the actual implementation, thus prices may still
go down and overall cost may be lower of this projects design.

COST OF COMPONENTS from Local Supplier


Component
1 Solar Panel

Description
Trina Solar Solar Power Phil.

2 OffGrid Inverter

Unit price (Php)


11,980

Growatt 500W Solar Power Phil.


92,695
SMA Sunny Tri Power 9000TL
3 Grid-tie Inverter
Solar Power Phil.
185,130
RITAR DC 12-200ah
4 Battery
Solar Power Phil.
20,667
Table 4.1 (list of component prices used from local suppliers)
4.3.2.1. Solar Panels

The solar considered for this study was Solar Power Philippiness
250W Trina Solar. The main reason behind the selection of the component
was that it was locally available. For consideration of other products, list of
available solar panel internationally is available at the appendix.

Given are some of the panels specifications


Rated Power
Max. Module eff.
Max Power Voltage
Open Circuit Voltage
Solar Cells
Module Dimensions
Weight

For

the

complete

data

sheet

250W
15.9%
30.3V
38V
Polycrystalline
1650 992 35 mm
18.6 kg

of

the

solar

panel,

check

http://solarsystemsphilippines.com/wp-content/uploads/2015/10/SSPI_TSM-250PA05APOLY-DATASHEET.pdf
4.3.3. System Design
This section covers the output design and system specification of the study.
4.3.3.1 Design Specification
The researchers fully utilized the 2 million budget of the project,
having an output of 20kW with back-up hybrid/offgrid system. Estimation is
as shown below.