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FLUID MECHANICS

LECTURER: DR. MARIAH BINTI AWANG


ROOM: A-212-03 KAMPUS BANDAR
0137740458

CHAPTER 2- cont.

FLUID IN RELATIVE EQUILIBRIUM:


Hydrostatic Pressure and Buoyancy

CONTENT
2.1 Pressure

2.2 Pressure Measurement

2.3 Hydrostatic Forces

2.3 Hydrostatic Forces

HYDROSTATIC
FORCE
CONCEPT

Inclined
Submerged
Plane Surface

Submerged
Plane Surface

Submerged
Curved Surface

Horizontal
Submerged
Plane Surface

Vertical
Submerged
Plane Surface

2.3.1 On Submerged Plane


Surfaces

A plate exposed to a liquid, such as wall of a

liquid storage tank, subjected to fluid pressure


distributed over its surface.

Form a system of parallel forces, determine


magnitude & centre of pressure.

CENTRE OF PRESSURE

CENTRE OF PRESSURE

Pressure from fluid will create force to the contact

surface.

If all forces is summed Resultant force.

The direction & magnitude of force


perpendicular with plane surface at Center of
Pressure.

hc

Figure 3.2:
Pressure
distributions on
two vertical plane
areas (viewed
from edges)

F
F

hc

hp

Submerged Plane Surface

Figure 3.2 distribution of pressure is not uniform.

Inclined Submerged Plane Surface

Pressure varies from 0N at M to ON at NK.


The resultant parallel forces must act

Horizontal Submerged Plane Surface

The direction & magnitude of force

Vertical Submerged Plane Surface

point below the centered of the area.

P = h

CENTRE OF PRESSURE

hp

Center point

Center point

Figure 3.1: Hydrostatic pressure at submerged plane surface

Free surface

perpendicular with plane surface at Center of Pressure.


If plane is lower to position MN force act nearer to
cantered
the deeper plane is submerged, the closer the
resultant force moves to the centered.

Inclined Submerged Plane Surface

Inclined Submerged Plane Surface

Figure 3.3 Coordinate system is defined so that y axis is


directed along the plane surface.

Free surface

FR

At any depth, force acting is perpendicular to the surface.

MAGNITUDE OF RESULTANT FORCE, FR

is calculated using:

dF
C
P

dA

c
y

P= F/A

CP

Center point

Center of
pressure

Figure 3.3: Notation for hydrostatic force on an inclined plane


surface of arbitrary shape

(Equation 3.1)

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F = P.A
where:
P = gh
= Density (kg/m3)
g = Gravity acceleration ( 9.81 m/s2)
hc = Vertical distance from fluid to the centroid of
the area (m)
A = Submerged plane area (m2)

Inclined Submerged Plane Surface cont.

Inclined Submerged Plane Surface


LOCATION OF RESULTANT FORCE AT y DIRECTION, yR

LOCATION OF RESULTANT FORCE AT x DIRECTION, xR

is based on x-y coordinate system originating from O as

is based on x-y coordinate system originating from O as origin


to the submerged center of pressure at x direction.

origin to the submerged center of pressure at y


direction.

yR is calculated using:

xR is calculated using equation 3.3:

(Equation 3.2)

where:

(Equation 3.3)
where:
Ixc = Moment of area upon x-y coordinate system through
center of area (m4) See Table 3.1
xc = Distance from fluid surface at point O to the submerged
plane center directed along x coordinate system (m).

Ixc = Second moment of area with respect to an axis passing


througha1its centroid and parallel to the x axis (m4) See Table 3.1

yc = Distance from fluid surface at point O to the submerged plane


center directed along y coordinate system (m).

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Inclined Submerged Plane Surface

Table 3.1: Area, center point, second moment of area, moment of area with respect to an
orthogonal set of axes ( x y coordinate system)

SHAPE

DIRECTION OF RESULTANT FORCE

RECTANGULAR

Direction of resultant force is perpendicular to

Ixc

Ixyc
0

b
d

the submerged plane surface (see Figure 3.3).

TRIANGULAR

c
b

SEMI CIRCULAR

0.1098R4

CIRULAR

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Horizontal Submerged Plane Surface


hc =
yc

x
y
xc

QUARTER
CIRCULAR

0.05488R4

-0.01647R164

VERTICAL SUBMERGED PLANE SURFACE

FR

yR yc

FR

Figure 3.4: Notation for hydrostatic force on a horizontal plane surface of


arbitrary shape

Figure 3.5: Notation for hydrostatic force on a vertical plane surface of


arbitrary shape

Calculation for magnitude, location and direction of resultant force


on horizontal submerged plane surface are same as inclined plane
surface.
Distance of hc is equal to yc because of x-y coordinate system is
parallel to fluid surface.

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Calculation for magnitude, location and direction of resultant


force on vertical submerged plane surface are same as inclined
plane surface.

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Slide 13
a1

what is second moment of area?


amanifiza, 28/2/2012

SOLUTION

EXAMPLE 3.1

Consider figure below:-

A rectangular gate (width = 5 m) that leans against


the floor with an angle of 45 with the horizontal is
to be opened from its lower edge by applying a
normal force at its centre. Find the minimum force
required to open the water gate.
1.2 m
FR

B
3m

45

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SOLUTION .... Cont

SOLUTION .... Cont


(i)

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Magnitude of resultant force, FR

(ii)

where;

Location of resultant force, yR

where;

hence;

hence;
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SOLUTION .... Cont


Take moment at point B = 0, therefore, the minimum force;

Submerged curve
Surface

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SUBMERGED CURVED
SURFACE

SUBMERGED CURVED SURFACE

Many surface of interest (eg : dam, pipe and tanks)


are nonplanar curved design.

Determination of resultant force exerted to the


curved surface can be identified by considering fluid
free body diagram (right of semi circular Figure
3.6 ).
2 forces (FL and FV ) acting in the static fluid at
quarter circular surface Figure 3.7 ).

Figure 3.6: Fluid in open tank with semi circular shape at the bottom (
elevation view )

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SUBMERGED CURVED SURFACE

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SUBMERGED CURVED SURFACE


1. W 1 FORCE

(i) MAGNITUDE

Is the liquid weight over OB surface line :

(Equation 3.4)

where,
= Unit weight of fluid (water = 9.81 kN/m2)
A1 = Fluid area at zone 1 ( above OB line Table 3.1
(m2). In this case; (rectangular shape)
L = Length of plane (m)

(ii) LOCATION

Act at the center point of zone 1 obtained from Table 3.1 & in this
case;

Figure 3.7: Hydrostatic force at curved surface


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SUBMERGED CURVED SURFACE

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SUBMERGED CURVED SURFACE

2. W 2 FORCE

(ii) LOCATION
Act at the center point of zone 2 from Table 3.1 & in this case;

(i) MAGNITUDE

&

Is the liquid weight over OB curved surface :

(Equation 3.5)

where,
A2 = Fluid area at zone 2 (at OBD curved surfae Table 3.1 (m2). In
this case;
(quarter circular shape)

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SUBMERGED CURVED SURFACE


3.

SUBMERGED CURVED SURFACE

FL FORCE

(i)

MAGNITUDE

(ii) LOCATION

Is the horizontal force acting on the projected vertical plane from


BD curved surface & can be calculated as:

where,
hc = Vertical distance from fluid surface to the
submerged centriod of the area (m)
A = Projected vertical plane area rectangular
shape : Figure 3.7 (m2). In this case;

Act at the center of pressure and can be calculated as;

Equation 3.6

Equation 3.7

where,
Ixc = Second moment of area for projected plane area
(m4) which is;

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SUBMERGED CURVED SURFACE

SUBMERGED CURVED SURFACE


Finally .

(i) MAGNITUDE

Magnitude is summation of fluid weight (W1 + W2);

(ii) LOCATION

this

Equation 3.9

The resultant force and its location can be determined using


formula;

Act at the resultant of the center of W1 & W2 & can be calculated


as;

Equation 3.11

Equation 3.12

Equation 3.10

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EXAMPLE 3.2

A curved water gate 3 m width is placed at the side


of reservoir that restores water inside. Find:(i)

Magnitude of horizontal and vertical forces.

(iii)

Magnitude and location of resultant force.

(ii)

Location of horizontal and vertical forces.

SOLUTION:
Consider the free body diagram;
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SOLUTION .... Cont

SOLUTION .... Cont

(i)

Magnitude of horizontal and vertical force (FH & Fv);


(a) Horizontal component force, FL:

where;
therefore;
Hence;
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SOLUTION .... Cont

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SOLUTION .... Cont

(b) Vertical component force, W1 & W2:

(ii)

where;
therefore;

Location of horizontal and vertical forces (hcp & Xc );

where;

therefore;

where;

therefore;
Hence;
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SOLUTION .... Cont

SOLUTION .... Cont

(iii)

Magnitude and location of resultant force (FR & );

where;
therefore;

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SOLUTION .... Cont

Exercise

Sketch of the forces acting on the plane:

A 6-m high, 5-m wide

rectangular plate blocks the end


of 5-m deep water channel. The
plate hinged about a horizontal
exist along its upper edge
through a point A and is
restrained from opening by a
fixed at point B. Determine the
force exerted on the plate by the
ridge.

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Exercise

Calculate the resultant

force, FR and location of


resultant force, yR.

Exercise

Two parts are held together by a cable. Given width


is 3m. Calculate tension in each cable.

Calculate the force for


each cable.

Given: Wide of the plate


is 5m.

End

2.3. Hydrostatic Forces on Plane Surfaces