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ROOM: A-212-03 KAMPUS BANDAR

0137740458

CHAPTER 2- cont.

Hydrostatic Pressure and Buoyancy

CONTENT

2.1 Pressure

HYDROSTATIC

FORCE

CONCEPT

Inclined

Submerged

Plane Surface

Submerged

Plane Surface

Submerged

Curved Surface

Horizontal

Submerged

Plane Surface

Vertical

Submerged

Plane Surface

Surfaces

distributed over its surface.

magnitude & centre of pressure.

CENTRE OF PRESSURE

CENTRE OF PRESSURE

surface.

perpendicular with plane surface at Center of

Pressure.

hc

Figure 3.2:

Pressure

distributions on

two vertical plane

areas (viewed

from edges)

F

F

hc

hp

The resultant parallel forces must act

P = h

CENTRE OF PRESSURE

hp

Center point

Center point

Free surface

If plane is lower to position MN force act nearer to

cantered

the deeper plane is submerged, the closer the

resultant force moves to the centered.

directed along the plane surface.

Free surface

FR

is calculated using:

dF

C

P

dA

c

y

P= F/A

CP

Center point

Center of

pressure

surface of arbitrary shape

(Equation 3.1)

11

F = P.A

where:

P = gh

= Density (kg/m3)

g = Gravity acceleration ( 9.81 m/s2)

hc = Vertical distance from fluid to the centroid of

the area (m)

A = Submerged plane area (m2)

LOCATION OF RESULTANT FORCE AT y DIRECTION, yR

to the submerged center of pressure at x direction.

direction.

yR is calculated using:

(Equation 3.2)

where:

(Equation 3.3)

where:

Ixc = Moment of area upon x-y coordinate system through

center of area (m4) See Table 3.1

xc = Distance from fluid surface at point O to the submerged

plane center directed along x coordinate system (m).

througha1its centroid and parallel to the x axis (m4) See Table 3.1

center directed along y coordinate system (m).

14

Table 3.1: Area, center point, second moment of area, moment of area with respect to an

orthogonal set of axes ( x y coordinate system)

SHAPE

RECTANGULAR

Ixc

Ixyc

0

b

d

TRIANGULAR

c

b

SEMI CIRCULAR

0.1098R4

CIRULAR

15

hc =

yc

x

y

xc

QUARTER

CIRCULAR

0.05488R4

-0.01647R164

FR

yR yc

FR

arbitrary shape

arbitrary shape

on horizontal submerged plane surface are same as inclined plane

surface.

Distance of hc is equal to yc because of x-y coordinate system is

parallel to fluid surface.

17

force on vertical submerged plane surface are same as inclined

plane surface.

18

Slide 13

a1

amanifiza, 28/2/2012

SOLUTION

EXAMPLE 3.1

the floor with an angle of 45 with the horizontal is

to be opened from its lower edge by applying a

normal force at its centre. Find the minimum force

required to open the water gate.

1.2 m

FR

B

3m

45

19

(i)

20

(ii)

where;

where;

hence;

hence;

21

22

Take moment at point B = 0, therefore, the minimum force;

Submerged curve

Surface

23

SUBMERGED CURVED

SURFACE

are nonplanar curved design.

curved surface can be identified by considering fluid

free body diagram (right of semi circular Figure

3.6 ).

2 forces (FL and FV ) acting in the static fluid at

quarter circular surface Figure 3.7 ).

Figure 3.6: Fluid in open tank with semi circular shape at the bottom (

elevation view )

25

26

1. W 1 FORCE

(i) MAGNITUDE

(Equation 3.4)

where,

= Unit weight of fluid (water = 9.81 kN/m2)

A1 = Fluid area at zone 1 ( above OB line Table 3.1

(m2). In this case; (rectangular shape)

L = Length of plane (m)

(ii) LOCATION

Act at the center point of zone 1 obtained from Table 3.1 & in this

case;

27

28

2. W 2 FORCE

(ii) LOCATION

Act at the center point of zone 2 from Table 3.1 & in this case;

(i) MAGNITUDE

&

(Equation 3.5)

where,

A2 = Fluid area at zone 2 (at OBD curved surfae Table 3.1 (m2). In

this case;

(quarter circular shape)

29

30

3.

FL FORCE

(i)

MAGNITUDE

(ii) LOCATION

BD curved surface & can be calculated as:

where,

hc = Vertical distance from fluid surface to the

submerged centriod of the area (m)

A = Projected vertical plane area rectangular

shape : Figure 3.7 (m2). In this case;

Equation 3.6

Equation 3.7

where,

Ixc = Second moment of area for projected plane area

(m4) which is;

31

32

Finally .

(i) MAGNITUDE

(ii) LOCATION

this

Equation 3.9

formula;

as;

Equation 3.11

Equation 3.12

Equation 3.10

33

34

EXAMPLE 3.2

of reservoir that restores water inside. Find:(i)

(iii)

(ii)

SOLUTION:

Consider the free body diagram;

35

36

(i)

(a) Horizontal component force, FL:

where;

therefore;

Hence;

37

38

(ii)

where;

therefore;

where;

therefore;

where;

therefore;

Hence;

40

39

(iii)

where;

therefore;

41

42

Exercise

of 5-m deep water channel. The

plate hinged about a horizontal

exist along its upper edge

through a point A and is

restrained from opening by a

fixed at point B. Determine the

force exerted on the plate by the

ridge.

43

Exercise

resultant force, yR.

Exercise

is 3m. Calculate tension in each cable.

each cable.

is 5m.

End

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