You are on page 1of 100

SIMPLE BRIDGE DESICN

USING
PR ESTRESSED BEAMS

ON

p pp

Simple Bridge Design


using
Prestressed Beams

An introduction to the design

of simply-supported bridge decks


using prestressed concrete bridge beams

B A NICHOLSON

11

ISBN 0 95000347 2 X

Prestressed Concrete Association 1997

Prestressed Concrete Association


60 Charles Street
Leicester LE11 FB

Typeset by B. A. Nicholson.
Design by G. Ballantyne.
Printedby UniskillLtd.

111

CONTENTS

FOREWORD

STANDARD BEAMS
1.1 History
1.2 Bridge deck types
1.3 Choice of section
1.4 Standard sections
1.5 Practical site considerations

2
2
4
6
6
8

BEAM & SLAB DECKDESIGN EXAMPLE

12

GRILLAGE MODEL
3.1
Introduction
3.2 SuitabilityofGrillage Analysis
3.3 Grillagemodelsfor prestressed beamdecks
3.4 Deck idealisation
3.5 Section properties
3.6 Edge stiffening
3.7 Torsion

14
14
14
16

18

20
22
24

CALCULATION OF LOADS
4.1 Introduction
4.2 Definitions
4.3 Highway loading
4.4 Wind load
4.5 Pedestrian live load
4.6 Temperature effects
4.7 Shrinkage

26
26
26
28

APPLICATION OF LOADS
5.1 LoadCombinations
5.2 Selection ofCritical LoadCases
5.3 Input to Grillage Analysis

38
38
38

40

PRESTRESSED BEAM DESIGN


6.1
General
6.2 Design Bending Moments
6.3 Serviceability Limit State
6.4 Prestress losses
6.5 Ultimate limit state
6.6 Shear
6.7 Longitudinal shear

44
44
44
46
50
56
60
66

32
32
32
36

iv

FINISHINGS
7.1
Introduction
7.2 Bearings
7.3 Waterproofing andsurfacing
7.4 Joints
7.5

Parapets

SOLID SLAB DECK DESIGN EXAMPLE


8.1 Introduction
8.2 Grillage analysis
8.3 Design oftransverse reinforcement

68
68
68
80
82
84

86
86
88

90

PRESTRESSED BEAM DESIGN

FOREWORD
For several years, the Prestressed Concrete Association has run a basiccourse
on prestressed concretebridge design. This one day course hasbeen held in
various parts of the country, and uses lecturers both from within the PCA
member companies and from outside consultants.
This book contains a development of some of the material presented in the
course. The original course notes were prepared by H. J. Lloyd, I. M. Gibb,
and A. E. Gamble. This book has been prepared by B. A. Nicholsonbased on
the material in those course notes.
The bulk ofthe booktakesthe form ofa worked example ofthe designof the
beams for a simply-supportedsingle span beam-and-slabdeck. The final section
is a partial design example of an inverted T beam deck, included in order to
illustrate the extra calculations required for a solid slabdeck.
By following the workedexamples, together with the additional commentary,
it is hoped that the reader will be ableto designsimple bridgesusing standard
precast beams,whetherthey are ofbeam-and-slab, or solid slab construction.

SIMPLE BRIDGE DESIGN USING PRESTRESSEDBEAMS

STANDARD BEAMS

1.1

HISTORY
The use ofprecast prestressed beams in bridge decks in the post World War II era
owes its success inthe mainto the foresight ofthe Prestressed Concrete Development
Group, whichin the 1950's developed the firststandard beam sectionsto be available
from the beam manufacturers.
This enabled factory production ofthe beamson a large scale, and, with the dawnof
major road construction in the late 1950'sand its philosophy ofgrade separation for
motorways and trunk roads, it gave bridge engineers scope to rationalise design
procedures using up-to-date load distribution theories.
The standard beam sections available at that time have of course themselves been
developed and modified, and in essence only one really remains today with any
significant usage. This beam,the inverted T beam,is usedin bridge decks in spans up
to about 20 metres.

Withthe rapiddevelopment ofthe UKmotorway networkin the 1960's, it was clear


that there was scope for a standardbeamthat would enable larger spanstobe achieved.
Consequently, at the end of the decade a new beam was introduced for spans from
about 15 to 30 metres. This was designated the M beam,dueto itswidthandintended
spacing. These beams were intended for use in pseudo-slab bridge decks with a
contiguous concretebottom flange using transverse reinforcement located through
lowerweb holes at 600mm centres along the beams.
Eventually engineers realised that the M beamcouldbeusedmoreefficiently in beam
and slab decks by eliminating the bottom in-situ concrete andby spacingthe beams
apart at up to 1.5 metre centres. The limitation on this type ofuse proved to be the
shear capacity ofthe beams, whichhave a web thickness of only 160mm.
Other beams developed around this time were the U beam for beam and slab decks
up to about 30 metre spans, and a U shaped variation ofthe M beamforuseas edge
beams in M beamdecks. Eventually, with the very popularM beam being used in a
manner somewhat different from its intended use, and bearing in mind the various
problemsand limitationsthispresented, a newbeam was developed by the Prestressed
Concrete Association in the late 1980's. This was designated theY beam.

The Y beam now has three variants: the TY beam, the Y beam, and the SY beam.
Together these cover all span ranges up to 45m. It is expected that in due course
inverted T beams and M beams will cease to be used in favour of the enhanced
properties ofthe Y beamranges.

STANDARD BEAMS

Inverted T beam

H
M beam

TY beam

U beam

Y beam

SY beam

4 SIMPLE BRIDGEDESIGN USING PRESTRESSED BEAMS

1.2

BRIDGE DECK TYPES


Concrete bridge superstructures using precast prestressed concretebeams fall into
threedistincttypes: slab decks, pseudo-slab decks, and beam and slab decks.
Slab Decks

Slab decks can be solid or voided, and provide simply supported spans ofup to 20
metres. These decks usestandard TY or inverted T beamsplacedside by side. The
space between them is then filled with in-situ concrete, and an overall covering of
75mm completes the deck.
Continuity ofthese decks can quite easilybe achieved by usingreinforcement in the
in-situ concreteover the supports. Suspended spansusing TYbeams or inverted T
beamscan be lightenedby introducingvoid formers into the spacebetween the beams.
Pseudo-slab Decks
This type of bridge structure is currentlynot quite so popular. Precast beams are
incorporated into avoidedslabtype ofdeck by eitheraddingan in-situ bottom flange
andtop flange, as with the original M beamdecks, or by usingvoidedbeams(e.g. box
beams).

A voided slab deck is thus created withoutthe inconvenience of temporary works


and soffit shutters, andprovidesa torsionally stiffer deck thanordinary beam andslab
decks.
Spans for this type ofbridge deck are usuallylimited by the length ofprecast beams
that can be transported to site, and thereforeare rarely more than 30 metres.
Beam and Slab Decks

The mostcommon type ofsuperstructure for smallto medium spanbridges, thistype


ofdeckcomprisesindividualprecast beams at discrete centres with an in-situ concrete
top flange. M beams, TY beams,Y beams, SYbeams, and U beams can all be used
in this form ofconstruction.
Withmost ofthe standard rangeofprecastbeams the in-situ concrete top slab is cast
into permanent formwork whichis locatedin recesses formedinthe edges ofthe top
flanges ofthe beams. Typical spans for this type ofdeck are similarto the pseudoslabdecks above, beinglimited in the mainby transportable beam components.
Standard edge beams are available to complement the Y beam, TY beam, and M
beamranges. Theseprovidea vertical visible face, andhave the capacity to carrythe
extra loads from the parapetcantilever.

STANIAiu BEAMS

This solid slab deck uses 19 T2 beams.


Service ducts are included in the infihl concrete betweenthe beams.

This bridgedeck uses nine US beamsat a spacing of 1 .72m.


Service ducts run under the footpath.
A carrierdrain runs through one ofthe U beam cells.

This bridge deck uses seven Y8 internalbeamsat a spacing of 1 .275m,


and YE8 edge beams on each side.
Service ducts run under the footpath.

6 SIMPLE BRIDGE DESIGN USING PRESTRESSED BEAMS

1.3

CHOICE OF SECTION
For the types of superstructure indicated above, the beam manufacturers provide
standard details ofthe individual sectionsand theirranges together with an indication
of typical span ranges for decks incorporating these beams and carrying standard
highway loads.

Therewill obviously be situationswhere the choice ofdeck type is notclearly indicated


by the available span, and it is also inevitable that there will be areas ofoverlap where
the choice between inverted T beams in a slabdeck or individual M or Y beamsin a
beam and slab deck may not be clear cut. In this situation it may be necessary to
evaluate more than one solution, andthe standard sections enable a swiftselection of
the available ranges for comparative design exercises to be undertaken and cost
comparisons made.

It is also possible within the standard range ofeach beamtype to be in a spanrange


that is covered by morethan one specific beamunit. In this situation itis usuallycost
effectiveto select the larger unitwhere there are no restrictivelimitationson headroom.
1.4 STANDARD SECTIONS
Design

Althoughthe various types of standard beam sections are well documented in terms
ofdimensions and structural properties, it is important to point outthat thesefactory
produced beams are standard only to the extent that they are manufactured using
standard shaped sections. The amount and magnitude ofprestress applied to each
beam is dependent on its individual situation, andmustbe determined by the designer
prior to manufacture. The standard sectionsshow where prestressing strands may
be located, but it is the responsibility ofthe designer to determine which ofthese are
to be used.
In their literature, the manufacturers give suggestions for gooddesign details. These
should be adhered to, as they leadto economy and good workmanship.
Manufacture
Precastprestressedbeamsare manufacturedin long lines ofseveralunits usingstraight
strands. These are debonded for varying distances at the endsofeach beam within
the mould. This is necessary to maintain the stress in the beam at an acceptable level
as the self-weight bendingmomentreduces approaching the supports.
Once the concrete in the moulds reaches the minimum transferstrength,detensioning
can take place, the strands between the beam can be cut, and the beams removed to
the storage areaprior to deliveryto site.

STANDARD BEAMS 7

Span in
metres: 12

14

16

20

18

22

Beams at im centres

24

26

28

Beams at 2m centres

Beam selection chart for the Y beam range, taken from PCA literature.

-4-4-

1300

-1-4-

-4--I-

1200

4--I-

-I--I-

1100

-4--I-

-I--I-

1000

4--I-

-4--I-

900
800

+4--I--I-

260
210
160

-4-

-4-

4-

110

60
0

Standard positionsfor prestressing strands in a Y8 beam.


It is up to the designer to decide which of these strand positionsto use.

30

32

S SIMPLE BRIDGEDESIGNUSING PRESTRESSED BEAMS

1.5

PRACTICAL SITE CONSIDERATIONS


Handling

Beamsare usuallymanufactured with lifting loops,thus enabling on site lifting to be


achieved with either single or twin cranesto suitthe site requirements. However, TY
beams and inverted T beams are usually lifted using a sling through the end web
holes.
Access to Site

It is ofobvious importance that there is suitable access to the bridges in order for the

beamsto be delivered and lifted offthe trailerby suitably located cranes. Ofcourse,
this also applies to the route to the construction site which must allow the delivery
lorriesto manoeuvre theirlengthy loads.
Thereis generally no problem inthe transportation ofbeams ofthe lengthsdescribed
in this book.
Camber
Variation in camber ofprestressedbeams is inevitablewhen oneconsidersthetolerance

inprestress forceandlocation, togetherwithpossiblevariation in concreteproperties


withmaturity and climatic conditions.

Itwould thereforebe impracticabletospecify any limitationon camber values,although

a tolerance on camber variationbetween beams hasbeenadopted. However, it should

been borne in mindby the designer that an occasional failure to meet the specified
tolerance on soffit level variationdoes not resultin impossible constructionconditions.
The carefulpositioning ofadjacent beamsin a deck should nearlyalways resultin an
evening out ofdifferential camber.
Edge Details

On site, construction ofparapetstring courses in oneormore stages generally follows


the construction ofthe central deck slab area. This necessitates the formationof a
construction joint along the edge beam prior to constructing the fascia.
Alternatively, it is sometimes possible to construct the fascia as a second stage casting
in the manufacturer's yard, prior to delivery to site as an almost complete unit. One
advantage of this is that the beam can be propped quite easily at the works, thus
enabling stressesin the precast beam section to be minimised.

STANDARD BEAMS

This section can be cast on site as a second stageafter the rest of


the deck, or alternatively can be cast onto the UM beam by the
manufacturer so that the edge beam and parapet can be brought
to site as a single unit.

Second stage in-situ concrete

in-situ concrete

Cast by manufacturer

Twoexamples ofedge details

10

SIMPLE BRIDGEDESIGNUSING PRESTRESSED BEAMS

Skew
Although it is possibleto manufacture precast beamswith skew ends,the increase in
cost for eachunit and the problems that skew presentsshould be considered in detail
at the design stage.
Firstly, it should be remembered that even a very smallchange in skew anglerequires
a new stop end for the mould. A change from say 300 to 31 increases the widthby
12mm for an M beam. To rationalise a range ofangles with a variation of 10, say,
would be a useful andeconomic possibility
Structural problems created by skewin the ends ofprecast beams relate specifically
to the acute corner, wherethe formation ofcracks can cause the cornerofthe flange
to spall when the beamcambers during transfer. Although notstructurally significant,
this is undesirable, and is best prevented by blocking out the corner to give a local
square end.
An additionalproblemthatpresents itselfwith skewbeams isthat oflocatingtransverse
reinforcement through the webholes. It is recommended that the standard webholes
permit reinforcement to be placedfor skews up to about35. Higherskewsthan this
would require special non-standard web holes, whichwould increase the costofthe
beamssignificantly, and may even affect the shear capacity ofthe section. For high
skewbridges, it is normally better toplace the transverse deck reinforcement atrightanglesto the beams ratherthan parallel to the abutments.
Transverse Reinforcement

For the transverse reinforcement through the webholes ofprecast beams, it is usually
better to usea numberofsmaller bars rather than a single large diameter bar, as lap
lengths are reduced andhandling becomes easier. For some awkward skew situations
it may even be sensible to use untensioned prestressing strand threaded through the
web holes instead ofreinforcing bars, as it is more flexible.
The positioning oftransverse deck reinforcement whenusing solid edge beamsmay
require the use of couplers at the edge beam interface.
Temporary Support

It is important to ensure that the beamsarc supported so that they cannot topple over

on site. Deeper beams,particularly when beingjacked to their final level and during
bearing installation, must be assessed to eliminate this risk.

STANDARD BEAMS 11

tDecks1ab
Diaphragm

M beam

L
Web hole at end ofM beam,
for diaphragm reinforcement

Local square end

to M beam
330 wide

Diaphragm
800 wide

M beambridge deck with 45 skew.


Diagrams show endsofM beamsembedded in a diaphragm.

12 SIMPLE BRIDGE DESIGN USING PRESTRESSED BEAMS

BEAM & SLAB DECK DESIGN EXAMPLE


Sections 3 to 7 of this book consist of a design example of a beam and slab deck.
This design example shows the typical sequential calculations necessary for the full
design of a precast pretensioned concreteY beam in a simply supportedbeam and
slabbridge deck.

The righthand pages show the numerical calculations involved at each stage, and the
left hand pages contain explanatory comments and further information.
The example bridgehas the following design requirements:
26.6lm single span
7.3m carriageway, plus I .0m hard strip each side
1 .5m footpath each side
HA
Loading
plus 37.5 units HB
Surfacing 100mmthick (minimum) plus20mmwaterproofing
Span
Width

The following materials will be used:

= 50 N/mm2

Precast concrete

fd =40N/mm2
= 40 N/mm2

In-situ concrete
Prestressing strand

15.2 mm diameter Dyform strand

= 1820 N/mm2
Area = 165 mm2 per strand

The edge detail was chosen for aesthetic reasons, and the outerbeams placedas near
to the edges ofthe bridgewithinthis limit. This led to the beam spacing of 1.275m.
The span charts for Y beams give spans for beams at I and 2 metre spacings. It is
straightforward to interpolate from this information to make an initial selection of
beam size, in this case Y8.
Clearly alternatives would have been possible, for example eleven Y6 beams could
have been used, at about 1 metre spacing. However, it has been foundthat unless it
is necessary to make the deck as shallow as possible, it is usually preferable to use
fewer but largerbeams.

DESIGNEXAMPLE 13

13350

llatdstn'p

540

1500

rniagew

1000

7300

1275

Cross

Overall

1275

se/of

bridgedecfordes#/,exgir/e

1000

fw
1500

540

14

SIMPLE BRIDGEDESIGNUSING PRESTRESSED BEAMS

GRILLAGE MODEL

3.1 INTRODUCTION
Early bridgedecks were analysed on a strip basis. Abnormal andwheel loads were
crudely distributed and conservative designs resulted. Experimental data became
available to determinethetransverseload carryingcharacteristicsofdecks to determine
the correct level oftransverse strength provision andto distribute loadmorelogically
to the longitudinal members. For example, in the 1950'sMorice andLittledeveloped
a Distribution Coefficient method which was a simple hand method based on
experiments which allowed for the overall distribution of loads on a plate structure
suchas a bridgedeck. It was satisfactory for skews up to 200. This method was one
ofseveral similartechniques extensively usedindesignoffices forapproximately 15
years, until the advent ofcomputer techniques which enabled larger andmore complex
structurestobe analysed moreaccurately usinggrillage, finite strip andfinite element
methods. Ofthesethreemethods grillages offer the widest range ofstructures which
can be analysed. Popular opinion suggests they are also the easiest to use and
understand.

No analysis method gives a rigorous solution, and some degree of error must be
accepted, usuallyrangingup to 10% or20% depending on complexity. Theseerrors
come from several sources, including the idealisation ofthe geometry and material
properties, and idealisation ofthe structural behaviour.
Grillage analysishas found favour as a bridge engineer's design tool because it is
perceived to have the following advantages:
Grillage beams can be positioned to correspond with physicalbeamsin
the real structure, or wheremaximum effects are anticipated.
Modern PC versions have 'user friendly' input, often designed by
engineers, anduse pre- andpost-processorsto ease subsequent checking,
searching andanalysis.
Familiarity ofuse in thedesign office enables rapid analysisandchecking,
which is vital in a competitive market.
Programs are relatively cheap, thusmaking analysis economic.

3.2 SUITABILITYOF GRILLAGE ANALYSIS


The method can be used for structures with beam and slabs decks, voided slabs or
solid slabs. It can be used for simple and continuous bridges, and allow for elastic
supports and settlement. It is suitable for right, skew and curveddecks. This range
covers hundredsifnot thousandsofbridgedecks designedin recent times, andcertainly
covers all bridges with prestressed beams.

GRILLAGE MODEL

NILLAfiANAL418/8
Thiskm/ge wi/Ike aira/ysed withagill/agea#a/qsiS.

"

The an'a/qsiSwY/bepetformedasitigtheconipaterprogram "STAN)111/181)8 from'T<esearch

fingi#reei (fiarope)L4iilted

84711 Cwe#Mw

Thisan'a/ysiS usesanhMan'dedotthogoura/sqstemofaxes. Thegui/age/i?sDr theX-Zp/are,


a,'rdthe %a.c'Sis verti2'a//yuiwards. Loadbrg wi/Ike app/ledDrthe iregative rditectikw.

Loca/axesareusedforbeirdbrg monreirt Drsresrkei, etc hr this casethe)(-axjsi/Ills %#g the


/ei'rgthofthe menrkei airdthe Y-axisisstill veflica/lyupwards. TheZ-ax/s liesDr thep/an'eof

thegui/age.

15

16

SIMPLE BRIDGE DESIGN USING PRESTRESSED BEAMS

3.3 GRILLAGE MODELS FOR PRESTRESSED BEAM DECKS


Longitudinal grillagebeams are placed onthe line ofthe physical beams, andrepresent
the composite action ofthe beam and its associated section of slab. Longitudinal
beams are alsopositioned along the parapet edgebeam. Transverseelementsrepresent
the top slab. Thereare no end diaphragms in thisbridge,but when these are present
they must alsobe represented by appropriate transverse elements.
This type ofgrillage model is suitable for beam and slab decks usingM-beamsand
Y-beams.
Because oftheusually large numberofbeamsin a T-beam deck, itmay be preferable
to model two or threebeams by onegrillagemember. Transverse elements represent
transverse solid infill elements. Because ofthe non-uniform shape ofthese elements
as they pass over and throughthe beams their depth is normally taken to the centre
line ofthetransverse holes. The widerspacing ofmodel elements doesnotmaterially
affect the transverse element idealisation since the structure acts as a true slab.
However, care is needed when evaluating design moments shearsand reactions due
to the combination ofseveral physical elements into single model elements.

U-beamdecks, although basically beam and slab decks, behave differently because
the transverse stiffness alternates across the deck between stiffthrough the beams
and flexible between the beams. The beams are positioned to try andequalise the top
slab spans between andacrossbeams. Onemethod ofmodelling a U-beamdeck is to
place longitudinalelementsonthe centre lineofeachweb. The longitudinalproperties
for each grillagebeam are then taken as halfthat ofthe composite box section. As
with the inverted T-beam decks, careis required in evaluating the outputsincethere
are now two longitudinal elements representing onephysical beam.

1
n

\U/ \U/
p

\
p

n
p

GRILLAGE MODEL

oft/re deck
The bridge

looks like

thi;

The ir-s/tiidowHskHdfa'sck7 aNdtkearetbeevi,are boM d,cot/,gog a,rdso doirot

co#tribite 10

teS

The ci

s-sec1lo,roft/re strgctiiralelemeirts oft/re bridge

t/reremre'

ri/lagebeams willbep/aced o tirelites oft/re it/irepreteirsioiredbeams, airdirom4ra/edgebeams


wi/Ibep/aceda/oirgtireparapetke'ams. Thus tiregrit/agerepreseirtatA'roft/re cross-sectloit

at1. 9Osr4rtetva/storepreseirttireslab. ThidiVidestire

Traitsverse members willbeprovided

leiigtiroft/redeck4rto 14 eqjialsectiirs. The irodes oftiregrit/age willgeiret-a/ly beoit agridof


1900x. 1275, wir/cir we//belowa2,'l aspectratio airdlirerefore satifactorq.

17

18

SIMPLE BRIDGEDESIGNUSING PRESTRESSED BEAMS

3.4 DECK IDEALISATION


Grillage analysis idealises a deck into a grid of interconnected beams. The real
dispersedeffects ofbending, shearand torsion are assumedto be concentrated in the
nearest equivalent grillagebeam.
Variations from the true behaviour arise because the real slabs element equilibrium
requirestorques andtwiststo be identical andin orthogonal directions, but in grillages
the joints can rotate differently. However, ifa slab is modelled by a sufficiently fine
grillagemesh these anomaliesare smoothedout to become almost insignificant. Again,
moments in grillage beams are proportional to the beam curvature in that direction.
In real slabs, moments also depend on the orthogonal direction curvature, but this
error is alsosufficiently small to be ignored.
There are a few fundamental requirements for competent grillagemodelling:
Place the grillagebeams coincident with the physical beams or lines of
designed strength.
Where possible, lay out the grillageto capture all the load, and for ease
ofshape generation and section property calculations.
Transverse elements should be spaced to try and reflect the aspect ratio
(length/width) ofthe whole deck.
Skew decks can be analysed by orthogonal or skew meshes. Ifthe skew
exceeds 20, the model should be laid out within 5 ofthe real skew.
Generally, transverse members should be orthogonal to the longitudinal
members, particularly when skew exceeds 20.
Bearing positionsshould be represented faithfully, and in skew bridges
the verticalstiffnessmust bemodelledwith care astheycan have significant
effect on theoretical distribution ofload.
Once the grillage model has been setup, it is recommended that an initialtest load is
applied(suchas a uniformUDL), to verifythat it is behaving correctly. The test load
case should be checkedagainst some simple hand calculations (e.g. wL2/8)to make
sure that the results are reasonable.

GRILLAGE MODEL

n//aae mvde/
Thegill/age.wode/is/towitbe/ow
The(fr-stdkgcasts/towsthe i,odeirHmbers,aitdfrtdicates

sti/'orts

a cfrc/e.

31
46i

15

61

76-

38
53
68

75

90

91

106

30
45
60

105

120

121

135

136

150

151

165

Thesecoirddhigram s/towstheitenrbern#mbethrg.'

t5t

152

-1 ii

16

164

15

18 19

50

249

262

263
290
156

ISP

158

159
304

130

19

20

SIMPLE BRIDGE DESIGN USING PRESTRESSEDBEAMS

3.5 SECTION PROPERTIES


Sincethe precast andin-situconcretestrengths do notdifferby more than 10 N/mm2,
Clause 7.4.1 permits a modular ratio of 1.0 to be used. However in the example a
moreaccurate valuehas been calculated taking into account ofthe different concrete
strengths.

The Y beams have standard notches 50 mm deep alongthe top edges. These allow
formwork to be placed between the beamsto support the deck concrete. In thiscase,
20 mmthickpermanent formwork is used,so thatthe beamprotrudes30 mm into the
deck slab. The overall height of the section is 1.590 m. The composite section
properties are calculated by assuming the section is made up from the Y8 beam, a
rectangular slab which overlaps it by 30 mm, and the small overlap areawhich must
be subtractedas it hasbeen counted twice.
The code permits stiffnesses to be represented on the gross concretesection ignoring
the reinforcement or strand. This is the most straightforward, since the amount of
reinforcement andstrand hasnot yetbeen accurately determined atthe analysis stage.
In some situations, suchas continuous bridges at supports, the transformed section
may be important and should be used.
Under transient applied forces the short term elastic modulus should be used, and
under applied deformations or long term loads the long term modulus should be
used. To save analysis time for these two situations a value between long and short
may be chosen, ideally reflecting the proportion ofpermanent to transienteffects.
Almost all analyses are executed on elastic models, even though the code allows
plastic methods with the approval of the bridge authority. An elastic analysis is
appropriateforthe serviceabilitylimit state,whichis the most importantfor the design
ofthe pretensioned beams. The use ofan elastic model for the ultimate limit state is
simple and conservative. It is a lower bound solution in which the structure is in
equilibrium andyield isnot reached.

GRILLAGE MODEL

$ectloir Propemes

&am ilo,,e.'

prg'erns from'data sheet


74rea = 0.5847m2

bean,,

9=0.639 m'

I = 0,1188s,
Comt'os/te

8/ab cocretef,=40N/nrm'2,

=31itN/m'nr
=34kN/m'm't

0220

&an,cocretef =50N/mwr,
Mod#/arratio = 31/34 =0.91

1.370

re4jiiredforca/cu/at/oiloftheseiwe,'ht
othetwie Memodular ratio willbeappliedto theslab.
The actualarea

Actual

8/ak
Overlap

'/8

ffect,Ve
area

0.280
-0.012
0.585

0.255

1,480

0,378

-0.011

1.385

-0.015

0.585

0.639

0.374

0.853m' 0.829sr

Totals

The valuesforA('y-?

94/M

A(i-7

area

0.0891 0.0011
-0.0027 0.0000
0.0366 0.1188

O.737m

O.2429m'

ir Mi tableca,,oit/qbefl//ed4rafterqhasbee,,ca/cilIated

=0.737/0.829 =0.889m'

(from'bottomofbean,)

I =0.2429si
$ectioir moduilicait owbe calculated'

&ttomofbeam', Zbb =1/9

=0.273n,3

ofbean,,
Top ofslab,

=0.347m3

Top

= "(1400-7,)= 0.475 ,3

=I/(l.590-9)
Z
i

Thi lastvalue

ot

basedoi, thetra formedsectiwproperns, so will give thetrue


stresses theslab, The modit'larratio iiruistbe diVided of
valuetofind
thetruesect/onmvduiluis fortheslabi

Zk

ot th/

347 0.91 =0.381m (foractualstressesi?tslab)

Q,

21

22

SIMPLE BRIDGE DESIGN USING PRESTRESSEDBEAMS

3.6 EDGE STIFFENING


Most decks have edge stiffening for the parapets. Many deck arrangements cause
the edge beam to be the most heavily loaded. In many instances these effects are
complementary,the extra stiffness reducing stresses from the extraloading. However,
the combined stiffliessofthe edge beamwiththe parapet upstand maybe significantly
higher than the stiffness of the internal beams, and so may attract high unwanted
loads into the parapet upstand. Care must be taken in the computermodelling to
ensure that the stiffness allocatedto the edge beam is not unrealistically high, as this
would aggravate the problem.
To counteract this 'overloading'phenomenon, the following approaches canbe taken
whenthe apparent edge beaminertiais significantly higherthan internal elements:
model the edge upstand as a separate element (usuallywith less inertia
than the main elements). This reverses the trendofattraction.
calculate thewhole deckinertia
includingthe upstands,andalsoexcluding
the upstands. Then allocate halfthe difference to each edge member.
This is likely to be significantly less than the inertia calculated for the
discreteedge shape.
makethe
edge upstand discontinuous. This is becoming more popular as
it also reduces thermal and differential shrinkage cracking. It does,
however, require careful detailing.
In the design example, the third method has been adopted. The downstand fascia and
parapet are cast after the deck has been completed, and are both cast in sections
about2.5m long separated by a narrow gap.
The stiffness of the parapet cantilever is included with the outer Y beam. Edge
longitudinal elements are included in the model alongthe line ofthe parapetsupport
upstand. These elements are givenvery small section properties so that they do not
contribute structurally to the grillage. They are only included to give the grillage
model a tidy appearance the same size and shape as the bridgedeck. Theycouldbe
omittedwithoutaffecting the results ofthe analysis. Ifnominal members are usedin
this way, however, loads should not be applied directlyto these members.

GRILLAGE MODEL

dge &am

,4n ir-sltii coircretedowirstan'dfasck reift'edfortiri I'ndge.


To acir/eve aH ecoiromia'aledgebeamdes/gM, atwo stage
ct/OHse'eirce wi/Ike ised
1n tiref

tj

tstage, tiredecicast

edgebeams.

toiitside tire

ofthestagetwo coirstriict/o.'r

The weiht

siq'poned

b' tiredec(- wil-iredgebeamsatstageo/,e, am/agri//age

a/ra4fs/ cabe carriedoutaccord/irg4'. Thi ana/qsi


hotpreseiltedhere, buttiresecM'npropeniesoft/re
stageoireedgebeamstobeused4r tirIaira4'siare;
effectiVeArea

= O,O2 m

9 =O.875m

I =O.24Om

Iiistage two, tireca,rti/everiaddea as wellas the

dicoirt4uuousparapetOHdownstairdfascki.

oftirecross-sect/oir

The

shaded OH

tiredkigrarn asedoir M'icross-sectiw, thesectioH


to beusedfortire ma4rgri//ageaira4,s, caH
be calculatedasfortire/,rteriralbeam oirtireprevious
page, airclare asfollows;

Actualarea =1.044m2

= 1,003 m
7 =l,022m

effectiVeArea

=0.316m4

Parapetedgemember'

Alt/roughthegri//age wi//41cluidemembers ruiir#r4rgalo/ig theverq' edgesofthedecA theseare Hot


struictut'rat aird verqsmallva/lieswi//beiisedfortiresect4'irpropemes.

slabmembers;
Theserepreseirta1. 900m sect/oir slab;
There

of
= 0.00153m4
I =mbt/12= 0.911.9000.2203/12
so the slab
represeirt0. 950m ofslab;
=
=
I mbd/L2 0.91 x 0.950 x 0.220/12 =0.00077m4

isHo eNddkiphragm,

eHd

members s41rplq

23

24

SIMPLE BRIDGE DESIGN USING PRESTRESSED BEAMS

3.7 TORSION
Torsional inertiacan be difficult to calculate precisely. A reasonable estimate can be
madeby dividing the section up into rectangles. The torsional inertia ofthe section is
approximately givenby the sum ofthe inertias ofthe individual rectangles. In beam
and slab bridges, the torsional inertia is normally small compared to the bending
inertia, so this approximate methodofcalculation is sufficiently accurate.

For rectangularsections,

C = k1b3d
b is the length ofthe shortside
d is the length ofthe long side
and k1 is a factordepending on the ratio d/b

where

If d/b> 2, then k1 can be approximated by:


k1

= 1/(1 -0.63 b/d)

This formula should not beused for elements which represent sections ofa wide slab.
In thiscase, the valueusedfork1 mustbe reflect the whole slabaction, and should not
be calculatedforthe individualelements. Slabstwist inboth longitudinalandtransverse
directions, so the value ofC is halved for eachdirection to reflectthisdouble action.
Additionally,the slabelements shouldbe transformed in accordance with the modular
ratio. The torsional inertia ofslab elements is thus givenby:
C = '/6mb3d
Torsionless Design

For many composite beams, as here, the torsional inertia is an order of magnitude
less than the bendinginertia. The analysisofsuchbridges canbesimplifiedby ignoring
the torsion constraints. In otherwords, torsionless design can be used.
The resulting load distribution is less effective andthis gives riseto slightly increased
bending moments. The correspondingly increased design strength is considered
adequate to carry the torques which would be associated with a full torsionmodel.
Torsionlessdesigns should not be usedfor significantskews or boxbeamdecks which
maybe chosen for theirhigh torsion stiffness properties or where torsional strength is
a significantrequirement.
Torsion should also not be ignored in UM beams and thick edge beams such as YE
beams, even ifinternalbeams are consideredtorsionless. Edge beams can be subjected
to considerable torsion due to loads from the parapet cantilever, and cracking of
thesebeams couldoccuriftorsion is ignored in the design.

GRILLAGE MODEL

of

secMi, bqidea/iiiig Me sect/o#i asMree

I127.5x0.220

0.540x1,080

T
fi$ca/cii/ate
1.

0.,50x 0.290

i'rern's forMe iidMdia/rectaiig/es;

two waqs/a
ofa wider
6 frfb3d/6

Th,

80

=O.91OL203xL2P5/6
=0,0021,?

d/b = L080/0.34o

=3.18

=(1-0.631'/d)/3 =(1-0.63/3.18)/3 =0.26,


6 =i(1b3d =0.26P0,34O31,080
=Q,Qjf3j4

'1

3.'

= 0.P5o/o.29o=2,59
=(1-0.63k/d)/3 = (1-0.63/2.59)/3 =0252
C ='1b5d =O,252x0.29OO,750

d/b

=00046i?
Total

s/o#ali',ern,,

C =00021#0.0113 + 0.0046

=0.018,?

forcostparisoir,
Theken'd4rg 4lerthT

1=0.255,?

clearlf ver,' mwcli largerMall Me toii,talbiertki.

To,%#wi/IMerefore be #regleced

25

26

SIMPLE BRIDGE DESIGN USING PRESTRESSED BEAMS

CALCULATIONOF LOADS

4.1 INTRODUCTION
The Departmental Standard BD 37/88, Loads for Highway Bridges, is currently used
to determine the loading on UK bridges. BD 37/88 effectively supersedes
BS 5400 Part2 inthe UK, pending revision ofthis Standard, anditis usedthroughout
this design example.
The loads generally specified in the Standard are nominal loads appropriate to a
return period of 120 years. Design loads will be obtainedlater by multiplying the
nominalloads by load factors given in the Standard. An additional factor, y0, is
also introduced to obtain the design load effects (moments, shears, etc.) from the
design loads. Values of are givenin BS 5400Part 4 for concretebridges.

4.2 DEFINITIONS

It is worthwhile clarifying a few definitions, as they may differfrom those usedwith


other structural design work:
Dead Load

the weight ofstructural materials in the bridge.

Superimposed
Dead Load

the weightofnon-structural materials on the


bridge, such as road surfacing, parapets, etc.

LiveLoads

loads dueto vehicular and pedestrian traffic.

PrimaryLive Loads

vertical live loads dueto weightoftraffic.

Secondary
LiveLoads

horizontal loads due to change in direction of


traffic (eg. centrifugal forces, braking,lurching).

Permanent
Loads

those loads considered to be acting at all times


(i.e. DL, SDL, and any loads due to fill).

Transient
Loads

all loads otherthan permanent loads


(i.e. wind, temperature, and live loads).

CALCULATIONOF

Los 27

C7ILCUL74TIONOTLOAD

DeadLoad
DeadloadwY/becar/iedbqthebeastsacf-l'tg%n'e, with/tocosipos/te acz'Ion'.

/f3 &asta/oite

74ra= 0.584,m2 (frostdata s*eet)


Weig'kt

=0,584x24kN/st
= 14.03k/V/st

= Q584P(f8,)+Q,2c5Q5(s/ab)-0.0120(oven'ap)

/irterna/beam'

=0,85325,2
We/g.*t =0,c5532st224kN/st3
=20.48k/V/st

idgebeam

Area

=0.5848) +0.4592(s/ab+caitt#ever)
=1.044st2

We,kt =1,044s,224kN/sr5

=25.05k/V/st

8uperh'rposedDeadLoad

Thi load4rg

app/ledto thecostposiebeast&s/akstrkc$Hre.

-f

Carrkigewa; Aspaltsiirfach'ig rsiip//cltqassumestax/stlistthi'knessof165mstover


wolecarnigewai. ThAi'rc/udes a/b waitceforwaterprooflHgprotect/on boards.

$DL =0.165st24k/V/st3
= 4.Ok/V/st2x. 1.275rn
Verge.'

The

=4.0k/V/rn2

=5,1k/V/stperbeast

wei,toftirefootpath,andnon-structural(d/scontzsruouis) str4tgcourseandfasck

wi/Iallbe takenas$DL

of

Total we,ht=14.6k/V/steackside bridge

28

SIMPLE BRIDGEDESIGNUSING PRESTRESSED BEAMS

4.3 HIGHWAYLOADING

Notional lanes

For the purposes of calculating the loads to be applied to the bridge deck, the
carriageway is split into notional lanes. In this context, the carriageway is taken as

the distance between raised kerbs, thus including the hard shoulders (see Clause
3.2.9.1). Clause 3.2.9.3 then defines how the carriageway should be split into notional
lanes. Note that in this example there are three notional lanes for loadingpurposes,
even thoughthe deck will be marked out for only two lanes oftraffic.
HA Loading

HA loading is a formula loading representing normal traffic in Great Britain. It


comprises a uniformly distributed load (UDL) andaknife edge load (KEL) combined,
or alternatively a singlewheelload.
For loaded lengths up to and including 50 m, the UDL expressed in kN per linear
metre ofnotional laneis given by the equation:

W = 336(IIL)'67
where L is the loaded length (in metres) andW is the load per metre ofnotional lane.
The KEL per notional lane is always taken as 120 kN.

The UDLand KEL are uniformlydistributed over the full widthofthe notional lane
to which they apply. However, not all lanescarrythe full HAload at the same time,
and this is dealt with by means of lane factors. These are functions of the loaded
length and the lane width, and are specified in Table 14 ofthe Standard.
The single 100 kN wheel loadalternativeto the UDL andKEL canbeplaced anywhere
onthe carriageway,andoccupies eithera circular areaof340mmdiameter ora square
areaof300mm side. The single wheelload is only significant in the local analysis of
the deck slab, which is not covered in this design example.

CALCULATIONOF LOADS

l-/iahwatLoads

6am'gewa.iwidth

= 1,0 (*ardstr') + 73
=93m

traffic laNes) +1,0

Three iiot/ona/Iawesarerei/red'

Not/offallaMe width,

/174 load'

kL

Loadedleirgt/r

=95 rn/S =5,1rn


=26.61 m'

/1AUDL =336(1/L)6'

=536(1/26.61)
k/V/rn

HAAL =120k/V
= 100k/V('si'rgIeload)

Wheelload

L)3,/&s Thkle14.'

LaMefactorskasedoit

a2

= 157(k(40-L) +3, 65(L-20))


=0 013,(3,1(40-26.61) + 3.65(26.61-20))

=0,90

&stlaMefactoi /3 = a2 =0.90
$ecoffdlaNefactoi /2 = a2 =090
ThIrdlaNefactoi

133

= 0.60

29

30

SIMPLE BRIDGEDESIGN USING PRESTRESSED BEAMS

HB Loading
HB loading represents abnormal vehicle loading. An example might be a low load
trailer carrying a power station transformer, with tractor units at front and rear.

For all public highway bridges in GreatBritain the minimum numberofunits oftype
HB loading that mustnormallybe considered is 30, butthisnumbermay be increased
up to 45 units.
For thisdesignexample, the client has specified37.5 units ofHB load.
The HB vehicleas defined in the Standard represents fouraxles with fourwheels per
axle. Oneunit ofload represents 10 kN per axle. Thusthe full 45 units maximum is
equal to 450 kN per axle or 112.5 kN per wheel.

The distance betweenthe centraltwo axles is variable. For simplysupported spans,


the smallestfigure is obviously the most critical.

As with the HA wheel load the contact surface may be taken as circularor square
with a contactpressure of 1.1 N/mm2.
Note that in thisexample the HB wheel load is less than the HAwheel load. For slab
design the HA wheelwill therefore be critical.
Longitudinal andtransverse loading

This is only required for design ofthe bearings.

CALCULATION OF

Thibridge

/15 load'

desig',edfor37,5 iiwits of/-IS load

AyJeload=37,5xl0kN =375k/V

Total/-IS vehicle weight =4 x. 375k/V


W4'eel load

=375 kN/4

= 1500k/V
=9375 k/V

forthi s4ii4siippon'edbridge,theshonest wheelbasewi/Ike critical


Thus ditance betwecir cdiltralax/es

ofMe/15 vehicle wi//betaken'as 6rn

Jorion'ta/Loads,'

Clause6,1 giVes thenorn4ra/Ion'gi'tuid4ra//oads.'

HA /on'gituda/ load =250k/V +8 k/V/rn of/oaded/en'gth

Thi

=250kA/+(8k/V/rnx2.6rn)
=463k/V

/13

appliedto on'en'otion'a/lan'e,
lon'gituidin'a/ load

=25% ofn'orn4ral/15 wei,ght


=25% 1500k/V
=375k/V

Thi eqp'all.iditr,butedbetweenthe8 wheels ofapaitofaxles,


butwi/IHotbe critical asit less than' the HA lon'gituidin'al load
Clause 6.11giVes thenornin'altran'sverseloads/
The n'orn4ral tran'sverse loaddue toskidd4rg

a s4tglepo4ttloadof300 k/V

acti.Yg4,an'qd,tecti'n('parallelto theroadsurface)

Los 31

32

SIMPLE BRIDGE DESIGNUSING PRESTRESSED BEAMS

4.4 WIND LOAD


Methods ofcalculating windloads are given in Clause 5.3 ofthe Standard.
Combination2 loading(seepage 38) isnot significantin itseffect on a largeproportion
ofbridges, suchas concrete slaborbeamand slabstructures 20m or less in span, 1 Om
or more in widthand at normal heightsaboveground. Wind load thereforedoesnot
need to be calculated for most bridges designed using prestressed beams.

4.5 PEDESTRIAN LIVE LOAD


Forloaded lengthsof36m andunder, the nominal pedestrianlive load is a uniformly
distributed live load of5.0 kN/m2.

Forsuperstructures carrying both highway andpedestrian loading, a reduction factor


of0.8 is applied to thenominal pedestrian live loading specified for footbridgesalone.
Thus, in this case the pedestrianlive load is 4.0 kN/m2.
4.6 TEMPERATUREEFFECTS
Temperatureeffects produce two aspects ofloading,namely therestraint to the overall
bridge movement due to the temperature range, and the effects of temperature
differences (or gradients) throughthe depth ofthe bridge deck.
Temperature Range

The temperature range for a particularbridge is obtained by first determining the


maximum and minimum shade air temperatures for the location ofthe bridge from
isotherms plottedon maps ofthe UK, and shown in Figures 7 and 8 in the Standard.
As these isotherm maps are derived from Meteorological Office data relatingto a
return periodof 120 years (the bridge design life), it may be necessary to adjust the
temperaturesfor a return period of50 years forcertain applicationssuchas footbridges
andcarriagewayjoints. This is achievedby a straightforward increase or reduction in
temperature as indicated in Clause 5.4.2 ofthe Standard.
Maximum andminimum effective bridgetemperatures are then derived from Tables
10 and 11 in the Standard. Prestressed beam bridges will always be type 4.

The effective bridge temperature range is then used for designing the bearings and
expansion joints, or if this movement is restrained then in determining the stress
resultants in the structure.

CALCULATION OF LOADS

WZ'tdload

t*i

Wi,dload
speci%'al/icalc/atedfor
2 wi//notbecritical

assHnted Mat Load 6omk/itat/on

/'ridge.

footpathLoads
Nom4ya//,VeloadforfootpathsigiVen/it Clause 6.5,1,1as

5i('N/m.

h'icethisbridgecarr,skikwa.i/oad/itgaswe//asthefootpath,
thereductionfactorof0.8 app/is.
Neducednom/iualload be applied = 0.8 x 5.0 = 4.0 kN/m

Temperature Nange

from

D37/88, hgures 7and&


Miuimuimshade aitteli,t'eratgre=

180

Max/mumshadealt

+3606

fromf#uire 9, bridgeconstruction
from Tab/es 10and11,

type 4.

M/iu/'ium effectiVe bridgetemperature = -11C

Ma/iuuimeffectiVebridge temperatuire= +36C

= 47C
Coefficient ofthermale.q.'ansiin = 12x1Ct6/C
Lengthbetweeneansi'nj/iuts = 27m (approx)
Temperaturerange

= 47x

x27=0. 0152m
= 76mm

Nangeofmovement
(121O6,)
movement
Nange
fromcentra/posi'tt'n

of

33

34

SIMPLE BRIDGE DESIGN USING PRESTRESSED BEAMS

Temperature Difference
Positive temperature differences occurwithinthe superstructure whenconditions are
such that solar radiation andothereffects cause a gain in heatthrough the top surface
ofthe deck. Conversely, reverse temperature differences occurwhen conditions are
suchthat heatis lost from the top surface ofthe bridge deck as a resultofre-radiation
and othereffects.
Temperature gradient diagrams for each ofthesestatesare shown on Figure 9 in the
Standard. For surfacing ofthickness other than 100mm these can be modified by
reference to Appendix C.

The coefficient ofthermalexpansion for concrete and steel is takenhere as I2x 106.
For concrete with limestone aggregates, a reduced coefficient ofthermalexpansion
of9x 10-6 can be used.

Ifthe deck were fullyrestrained at eachend, stresses proportional to the temperature

at eachpoint in the deck would arise. Thesetemperatures and stressesare shown in


the top line ofdiagrams opposite. The stress at the top of the slab, for example, is
calculated as:
Stress = E ci. T = (31,000 N/mm2)x (12x106/C) x (13.5C) = 5.02 N/mm2

In a simply supported deck there is no axial restraint at the ends, and no moment
restraint. The axial and moment components of these stresseswill be relievedby
overall lengtheningandhogging ofthe deck. A self-equilibratingsetofinternalstresses
will remain; they will exist without any external forces or reactions on the deck.
Theseinternalstresses are calculatedby subtractingthe axial and moment components
from the stresses calculated for the fully restrainedcondition.
Stresses due to negative temperature differences also need to be calculated. These
are not presented here, but exactly the same procedure is followed.

It is worth noting that the serviceability limit state stressesdetermined from these
temperature difference diagrams are subject to a load factorof0.8.

CALCULATION OF LOADS

TestfleratureD/fferen'ce

Temeratiire d/tr/iiz/'M through thecrosssect/oHigiVei,4ifiwre

9ofD37/88

PositiVeteratu1red7ereHce/
k,=0 Jim

*3

15.5CC

0,25mfl

=020m2.5CC

Cross

JOiN/mm'

$tresses 41fui/4irestrained

Temperature

deck

Difference

=iaT

Ca/cu/ateam/forcea#dmomentcomponentsofthesestresses.

$tress haskeendiVideduip Z#ofiVeblocks, 4rd/catedondkigramabove, jtreaseofca/cu/at/on.

A
1

1,275x0.15

1,2,75x0,07

2
4

//
0.626
0651
0516

1,12

1,275x0J5

1.95
0.96
0.44
0.51

0.4.zx0.18

0.75x0.20

0.375
0.086
0.037
0.077

0391

-0.822

Am/force =

Moment aboutcentroidal ax/s =


I,,

74Y

0214

0154

0.245
0,044

0015

-0.063

= 0787MN
= o.S7SMNm

st'/qsupportedbridge,ne/theraxia/forceormomentare4ifactrestra4rea so locked4t

stressesare ca/cui/atedbqsuiktract/ng theseeffectsfrom'thestressdiigramabove.'

= (0.787MN)/(0.829mi') =0.95 N/mm


Momentre/easestress = (0.373M/V&/Z
= (0.373MNm)/(0. 475m) =0.79N/mm2 at top'ofbeam', etc.
Ax/a/re/easestress

502N/mm

1,02 N/mm'

Nestrainedstresses
fromtopdhtgram

086N/mm'
095N/mm'

095

re/ease

098N/mm'

j37d

3,18N/mm'

144N/m.w'

Moment

$eif- eqii/ibrat4ig

re/ease

temperature stresses

35

36

SIMPLE BRIDGE DESIGN USING PRESTRESSED BEAMS

4.7 SHR[NKAGE
Whenthe in-situtop is cast on the precast beamssome ofthe shrinkage ofthe beams
has already occurred. Hence differential shrinkage occurs betweenthe precast and
in-situ concretes, andthis results in the development ofa pattern ofinternal stresses.
Clause 7.4.3.4 statesthatthe Table29 shrinkagevaluesmay be adopted. It is reasonable
(and usual) to assume that half of the beam shrinkage has occurred at the time of
casting the top slab. Hence the differential shrinkage assumed in the calculation is
halfofthe Table 29 shrinkage value.
The effects ofdifferential shrinkage will be reduced by creep. Allowance is madefor
thisin the calculations byusingareduction coefficient, 4. A valueof 0.43 is normally
usedfor this coefficient, as given in Clause 7.4.3.4.

The differential shrinkage stresses can be determined in a similar manner to the


differential temperature stresses. The restrained stresses are calculated, andthe axial
force and momentcomponent are subtracted to give the actual internal stresses.

CALCULATION OF LOADS 37

$rirkage

DftreHt/a/shr4tk.agebetweenslabanddec,(' creates itterna/stresses.


thetotalshithikageoft/re beam' has taI(enp/ace before thes/ak cast;

/tZassiimed/a4

Different/alskr4t.(-age stra4r,

= 0.5 x. (-300x106)= -150x106


15ot

__________________
I

I&I
Nestra/nirgforce

Nestra/n4rg stonrent

A
'

= x. x x..
= -15010 x 31000 .x. (L2,5x 0.220)x 0.43
= -0,561 MN (tensi2w)
= -0.561 x eccentric/tJ,f
=-0.561X('1,480- 0.889)
=-0,332MNm'

Ca/ri/at/onofinternalstresses

si'tri/artothecalci/ati#r fortestperatiire difference.

= -2.0N/m'm
Ax/al re/ease = ('0.561MN,)/1"O. 829nr,) = -0.68 N/mnr
Montentrelease = A4/Z1, = -0.332/0.381 = -0,5,N/m'm' attopofslab, etc.

Nestrai'redstress =

x.

x. 0

Total4,terna/stressesares/townontheri/tthanddiigram;
-2.0N/,m

-062N/mi,r

-067

4N15N/mm
-054
N/mm-

-0,66 N/mi

Nestra,'red
stresses

Ax/al

Mom'ent

&/f-eii/likrat4rg

re/ease

re/ease

skr4rtagestresses

38

SIMPLE BRIDGE DESIGN USING PRESTRESSED BEAMS

APPLICATIONOF LOADS

5.1

LOADCOMB1NATIONS
BD 37/88 considers five combinations ofloads. These are listed in detailin Table 1
of the Standard, which also gives load factors to be used in each case. The five
combinations can be summarised as follows:
Comb.

1:

Comb. 2:
Comb. 3:
Comb. 4:
Comb. 5:

Permanent loads plusprimary live loads. (For railway bridges, secondary


live load is alsoincluded.)
Wind load, plus loads in Comb. 1 (butwith some reduced load factors).
Temperature effects, againcombinedwith loads from Combination 1.
Secondary live loads (each considered separately), in combination with
permanent loads and the associated primary live load.
Bearings friction, togetherwith permanent loads.

Load combinations 1 to 3 are the primary combinationsto be considered in the overall


analysis of the bridge deck. In pretensioned beam bridge decks, Combination 2
(including wind loading) is rarelycritical, and is ignored in the design example. This
leavesCombinations 1 and 3 to be analysed.

Forbridges in theUK, the requirementsofBS 5400: Part4 must be modified according


to Departmental Standard BD 24/92, The Design ofConcrete Highway Bridges and
Structures, Use ofBS 5400: Part4: 1990. The most important change thisintroduces
relates to the Combination 1 loading. The beams must comply with Class 1 SLS
stress limits for a modifiedversion of Combination 1. BS 5400: Part 4 calls for a
maximum of 25 units ofHB load for this condition, but BD 24/92 reduces the live
loading to HAaloneforthis condition. This design example follows the requirements

of BD 24/92.

5.2 SELECTIONOF CRITiCAL LOAD CASES


In this example, maximum midspan moments will obviously be obtained by
concentrating the loads as near to midspan as possible. This means putting the HA
KEL at midspan in the lanes to which it applies, and also putting the HB vehicle at
midspan.
Positioning ofthe loads to obtain maximum bendingmomentelsewhere in the span,
or on skew bridges, is not so easy. The arrangement ofloads which give maximum
effects in the various beams can be found by trial and error. Alternatively, some
software packages will automatically analyse a multitude ofdifferentpossibilities and
report the maximum effects.
The temperature loads in Combination 3 do not cause any bendingmoments in the
beams, andso will not have a significanteffect at ULS. OnlyCombination 1 therefore
needs to be analysed at ULS.

APPLICATION OF LOADS

APPL/CA1/ONOfLO74D TO 5N/LM
Load Cases

thegri/lageana4sis. forthedesign oftherestressed


beams, onli themaxi,wmmoments(wh'ith will occarat midspan,), andthe max/mi/rn shearat
theendsofthebeamsandat
are needed Moments are reqjiiredboth at$L$ and
at WL'. On4 WL isrequiredfortheshear ca/calat4ns, batthe
cond/tiw Wi//a/so be
ana4'sed togiVemac'wrn loadson thebearings.
Loadcasesmastbeselectedforhe'at

&/owisasammaryoftheloadcasesto beanalqsed Thishasbeenbasedon fiare 13 of


,]) 37/88. Note thatthe/-/ ye/rideis widerthan airothna/lane, When the/1 ye/ride
straddles theadjicentlane, theK.L isomittedfromthatlane, andthelanefactorforthe/14
IIDLis basedon a not/9na/lane widthof2.Sm, giving alanefactorof0.7S9(see C/aase
6.4.2(b))

HA alone'

L,neJ

Combination 1 at

and11L

Combinati'on3 at

HA with 37.5 anits

L'

Combiratin 1 at
Combi'tat,kn

3 at

HA with 37.5 anits

and 11L

Combi',at,n 3 at

LandUL

HA with37.5an/tsH
to max/miseshearandreactins

in lane 1.'
Combination1

Combination 1 at

Le2
krne3

at$Land UL$

iL
/14 130.9 iL
HA, /330.6, iL
HA, J3,=O.9,

vehicle

HA,

132=0.789

HA,

/3=O.9 AL

HA, 132=0.789

H
I

HA,

vehicle

/3=O.9, AL

H, ye/ride
HA, 132=0.789

H4 J3=0.9,

/(.zL

39

40

SIMPLE BRIDGE DESIGN USING PRESTRESSEDBEAMS

5.3 INPUT TO GRILLAGE ANALYSIS


Loading to grillages can be applied in the form of member loads and joint loads.
Member loads can include UDL, varyingUDL, point loads and torque. These are
normallyapplied with reference to the local memberaxes. Joint loads can include
both forces andtorques, anddisplacements(normally usedfor settlement ofa support).
These are usually applied with reference to the global axes. In this example, only
UDL member loads and vertical joint loads will be used.

Formanygrillagesoftware packages a pre-processor routine handlesthe application


ofloads to the grillagemodel. In the example givenhere, however, a manual method

ofdistribution is given to illustrate the technique.

Uniformly distributed loads are generally applied as member loads along the main
elements. A patchload is statically distributed acrossthe members beneath the patch.
Line loads can be applied as member loads, but the HA knife-edge load in this
exampleis appliedasjoint loads. Similarly, the HB wheel loadsare staticallydistributed
between the nearest joints, and applied as joint loads.
HA loading alone

In the example opposite, Load I is the HA UDL loading for lanes 1 and2, multiplied
by the lane factor of0.9 for these lanes. Elements 179 to 234 represent four main
longitudinalbeams, andreceive member loads representing a width ofdeck ofI .275m.
The basic HA UDL is 37.3 kN/ni on a notional lane width of 3,lm, so the load
applied to members 179 to 234 is:
Member load=(1.275m/3.lm)x 37.3 kN/mx0.9= 13.81 kN/m

The remaining load is allocated to the beams represented by members 165 to 178,
and 235 to 248. So for members 165 to 178:
Member load = (0.1875m / 3.lm) x 37.3 kN/m x 0.9 = 2.03 kN/m

The last section of data shows how the individual loads are combined with factors
x as given in BD 37/88 Table 1 for Combination 1
equivalent to the factors

at SLS.

\I)

/14 [3=O.9,

ALL

\ ft)\

rii/aaei'rpiitdata

forsomeoftheCombiiattrn1 loadcasesi. listedbelow

The itpI1tdaia

LOAD1 /14

UDL

A4tjl4[N LOAD
165

TO

MNL1&2 (/3=0.9)
205

178 UN!

1.79 TO 234 UN!

235

TO

248 UN!

Thedata oii thispage refers tv

15.81
-9.88

theloadsoirthisd/agrtrnf/

_____________
LIMe!

LOAD2HAUDLL4A/i3(/3=O,6)
ML4V1?NLOAD

235 TO 248 UN!


249 TO 276 UN!
277 TO 290 UN!

L,.ye2

LIe3
____________

-2.61.7

c -9205
-1354

LOAD 3 Af M!D-PAN
10INTLOAD

3853 68 83f'f-44,42
25
98

-6.53

ff3J.79

LOAD 4 TOO7WA'f
MtA4,SLN LOAD

165
151

178 277 TO 290 UN!


-5.10
TO 164 291 TO5O4UN/f-O9O,
TO

LOADS.$UNfA6/NC
ML44BL7<LOAD
179 TO 276 UN!
LOAD 6

-5.1

VfDL

Mbl4EN LOAD
16S TO 178 277 TO 290 UN!
LOAD COM 7 (SLSCOMB. 1

12

Sf2

2 1.2

61.0

5 1,2

f -14,6

f/A ALONL)
4 1.0

f/A, /3 =0.6, !L

APPLICATION OF LOADs

riilaaei',piitdata
The

irptdataforsomeofMeCombirat/oir 1 loadcases

L074D1

AA/f$1&2 (13=0.9)

/174 //DL

MA4&N LOAD
165 TO 178 WA/I
179 TO 234 WA/I
235 TO 248 WA/I
LC)AD2HA

WDL

-2.03
-13.81
-9.88

Thedata oirt/ilspage refers to

Meloadso#i tk/digram'

/14 $=O.9, AL
/14 13=0.9, /(tL

LAM3 (13=0.6)

Mt.M&NLOAD
235 TO 248 WA/I

249 TO 276 WA/I


277 TO 290 WA/I

c -2.617
-9.205

/174,

-1.354

LOAD 3 AL A4/D-MA/

JOINTLOAD

38 53 68 83ff-44,42

f'f -6,53

23
98

ff 3J,79

LOAD 4 fOO7WA'f

MtJ14N LOAD
165 TO 178 277 TO 290 WA/I
151 TO 164 291 TO 304 WA/I

'

-5.10

-0.90

LOADS$WNM6IA/

MfMN LOAD

179 TO 276 WA/I


LOAD

-5,1

6 VfN( SDL

MMN LOAD

165 TO 178 277 TO 290 WA/I c' -14.6


LOAD 60M3 7 ($L COM&. 1

11.2
51.2

21.2
61.0

31.2

/174

ALOM)

41.0

#3=0.6,

AL

41

42

SIMPLE BRIDGE DESIGN USING PRESTRESSED BEAMS

I-IA with HB loading

The page opposite shows the input data for load cases in which the HB vehicle is
positioned formaximum edge zone longitudinal bending. Note the absence ofKEL
in the straddled lane next to the HB lane. A similarload layout is alsorequiredwith
the HB vehiclein the central lane.
The datafor Load 1 is for 37.5 units ofHB (375 kN per axle,or93.75kN per wheel).
The wheel loads are distributed between the nearest grillagejoints, and applied as
point loads. Loads 2 to 7 are similar to Loads 1 to 6 on the previous page. Loads 8
and 9 represent Combination 1 at SLS and ULS respectively.

As before, the combinations are made from applying the andy1 factors from Table
= 1.1. Thus the factor applied to
1 of BD 37/88. Note that for ULS loadings,
Load 1 in the final set of datais:

Combination factor=yxy = 1.3 x 1.1 = 1.43

Forreference, the diagram ofthe grillage model is repeatedhere, showingthe relevant


memberandjointnumbers, the notional lanes, and the positionofthe HB vehicle:
151

164

165

21

72

25

26

361

193

51

J9
52

55

56

206

234

221

235

98

249

113

265

128

2Z

178

L LL

291

248

- - --

262
276

304

Grillage output
Each software package has its own convention for output display. Generally the

memberend moments at the samejoint in any element string (eg. main longitudinal
member) are averaged to find the maximum designmoment at that joint. The sign
convention may give opposite senses for each moment in a sagging effect, or they
may be given the same sign, so care is therefore necessary in the interpretation. The
design shear forces and twistingmoments are evaluated in the sameway.
Someprogramsenvelope a group ofanalysis resultsto provideeasy identification of
maxima.

APPLICATION OF LOADS 43

/1

LOAD 1
L,4iV. 1
JOINTL04D

66 67 70 71 f'f -93,75
51 525556 f'f -140.625
36 37 40 41 -93,75
21 22 25 26 -46.875

ff

LOAD2!-IA

The date oi, thIpdgerefers to

I/B

LAN2(f3=.789)

MM&N LOAD
221 TO 234 U/Vt c-12,1

207 TO 220 UN!


235 TO 248 UNI

f7'4,

-8.66
-8.66

LOAD3/IA LAA/3 (/3=9)

MMBL LOAD
249 TO 276 UN!
235

-13,81
-3,93
-2.03

TO 248 UN!
TO 290 UN!

277

LOAD kZL
JOINTLOAD

M3

M!DSPAN

113 128 f-44.42


98

143

f-12,63
-6.53

LOADS fOO7WA'f

MtMBN LOAD
165 TO 178 277

164 291

151

TO

LOAD

68UIfAC!N

TO 290 UN!
TO 304 UN!

-5.1O

-O.9O

Mfjl4BNLOAD

179 TO 276 UN/ c' -5.1

LOAD

MMBNLOAD
165 TO 178 277 TO 290 UN!

-14.6

8 (L$ COMB. 1 37.5 UN!T$IB)


11,1 21.1 31.1 41.1
51.0 61.2 71.0
LOAD COMB

9 (UL COMB. 1 37.5 UN/T$ f/B)


2 1.43 3 1,43 4 1.43
5 1.65 6 1.925 7 1,32
LOAD COMB

1 1.43

ve/ilcle

0.789

/3=09 AL

44

SIMPLE BRIDGE DESIGN USING PRESTRESSEDBEAMS

PRESTRESSED BEAM DESIGN

6.1 GENERAL
The left hand pages in this section are in the form ofa commentary on the example
design calculations on the right hand pages.

All references to clauses and Tables in this section refer to BS 5400: Part 4: 1990.
The units used in the calculations are Meganewtons and metres. These have been
chosenin order to avoidthe need to use largenumberofpowers often, andto avoid
the need to convert between different units withincomplicated expressions. Itshould
be noted that the unit ofstress ofMN/rn2 is numerically the same as N/mm2,and so
stresseshave been quoted in the latter unit.
6.2 DESIGN BENDING MOMENTS
The grillageanalysis doesnot include the dead load ofthe beams andthe in-situ slab,
as these loads are carried by the prestressed beamsalone. Theseloads mustbe added
by hand. Appropriate load factors for the different load combinations have been
included in the grillage analysis, but need to be applied to the dead loads at this stage.

valuesare obtained from BD 37/88 Table 1. Note that a valueof1.2 has been
taken for the dead load at ULS. The Standard permits a lower value of 1.15 to be
adopted, but the onus is on the designer to ensure that the assumed unit weight of
the structure is not exceeded. Consequently most designers preferthe conservative
value of 1.2 at this stage ofthe design.
The

The value for is taken as 1.1, as given in Clause4.2.3 for methods of analysis
otherthan plastic methods, for which a value of 1.15 should be adopted.

PRESTRESSED BEAM DESIGN

$7t$D ?AA4 Df$lN


The calc.eilati2,ns whihfollow c#-e

foroneoft/re seven i'rternalbean,s,

These wi//al/beident/cj4

so tiredesi,'q#risfort/re worstcase
Des4vr&nd4igMoments

iscariiedbqtireprecast beamacti'rga/one.

The deadloadbendingmoment

Loadsare.'

= 20.48 N/m
DL precast = 14.03 kN/m
Total DL

DL lit-sit/i

= 6,45 k/I/rn

A4idspan momentsdue to deadloadare.'

6/8
6/8

DL precast = wfl/8 =14,03x 26.


DL i'r-situ = wf2/8 = 6.45 26.

= 1242k/Vm' = 1.242MNm
= 571 kNm

=0.571 MAIm

/Vvdspa#r momentsfort/re $DLandLLareobtainedfromthegri/lageana4'sis. Appropriite load

factorshavebeen/irc/uided4,theana/qsis, so thegri//ageoutputgiVesthefactoredmornents. In
thetablebelo thebend4rg momentsforloadcases3 and 4 aretakenfromthegri/lage output
formidspan ofanX#erna/beam. tachcasei'rcludes SDL, footpathloads, and/IAload 3endi'rg
moments4rthetableareal/%iA4Nm'

$L
Comb4iat,'n 1
Load case

1.' DLprecast
2.' DL ,'isitui

3.' Th4('uidl+ke/)
4.' 37.5 /I8

Nom4ral
moment

,,

i'iored
moment

WL
Combitatin3

'

,,

1.242 1.0 1,242 1.0


0.571 1.0 0.571 1.0
2.540
3.278

Combi'rat,n 1

factored
moment

1.242

0571

2117
2.980

factored
moment

1.21, 1
1,21, 1

1.639

0753
3,493
4261

45

46

SIMPLE BRIDGEDESIGNUSING PRESTRESSED BEAMS

6.3 SERVICEABILITYLIMIT STATE


The basicprestress design is carriedout at SLS. Midspan stresses are calculated for
the various load combinations atthe top andbottom ofthe beam,and atthe top ofthe
slab. Prestress must be providedto ensure that the stresseslimits are satisfied at the
time of transfer of the prestress (when the load on the beams is at a minimum), and
under maximum loadings.

The table in the calculations opposite list the relevantstresses due to all the different
loadings that need to be considered. Load cases 3 and 4 refer to the grillage load
cases for which the moments are listed on the previous page. Note that these all
include SDL, footpath loads and HA loads in the appropriate combination. The
stressesinthe table forthese load cases are simplyobtained from thebending moments
by dividing by the section moduli.

The followingloadings, andthe limiting stresses which applyto them,are specified in


Clause4.2.2 (as modified by BD 24/92) andtabulatedopposite:
Tension:
Load Combination 1: Clause 4.2.2(a)has been modified by BD 24/92 to state
that the section should be checked as Class 1 with live loading due to HA
alone. No HB load needbe considered forthis condition. Clause 6.3.2.4(a)(1)
gives a limiting tensilestressofzero for Class 1.
Load Combination 3 : Clause4.2.2(b) states that the section should be checked
as Class 2 or 3, but BD 24/92 specifies that Class 2 should be used, for which
Clause 6.3.2.4(a)(2) gives a limiting tensile stressforpretensioned concrete of
= -3.2N/mm2
-0.45

if

Compression:
Clause4.2.2(para3) specifiesthatthe section should be checked incompression
under the full Load Combination 1 and3 loadings. Table 22 gives the allowable
This gives 16 N/mm2for the slab and 20 N/mm2
compressive stress as 0.4
for the precast beam. However this value can be increased by 25% for the
upper surfaceofthe precast unitincontactwith in-situ concrete(Clause 7.4.3.2.)
provided that failure would be by tendon yield, because the in-situ concrete
confines the precastconcrete. This increase is not used in this example; it will
be seen in the ULS bending checklater in the calculations that thisconditionis
not satisfied.

PRESTRESSED BEAMDESIGN 47

Stresses atMidspan
Thebendi'rgmomentsHeed tobe conve4ed
Z#o

in ordertocarr,'o#tSLSdesiqn.

DL momentsareresitedbq tirebeamsalone, sostressesattire top andbottom ofthebeam


canbe obtainedusing
modii/i fortire
beam

'8

4 = 0,156 m3
4 =-0,fst3

Stress at top ofbeam

=1.242/0156 =796N/mm2, etc

Stressatbottomofbeam =1242/-0186=-6.68 N/mm2, ek

tirecompositesectioi forexgmp/e, stressesforSLS


Comb4ration 1. I-IA alone, are ca/ciliated fromtiremomentofL54OMNmg4'en onpage 45,
andthecomposite sect%21r modiiligiven onpage 21.'
momentsareresisted

cfr'lllage

Z1, = 0.381 m5
= 0.475 m
Zkb =-0.273m5

Stress%r topofslab =2.540/0.381=6.67N/mm2


Stress4rtopofbeam =2.540/0.475 = 5.35 N/mm'
Stressii,bottomofbeam = 2.540/-0273= -930N/mm'

dfferencestressesare4rcluded4r Comb,'nat,n 3. A loadfactor'yfl = 0.8 isapplied

Temperature

c'

to tirestresses calculatedonpage 35.

comb/nations,iftire.yirave anadverse

internalstressesdue to sirr4ricagearecluided4r all


thesestressesareascalculatedonpage 37. All

stressesut tiretablebeloware4,N/mm'. fiwres4,bracAets do nothaveanadverse effect, and


arethereforeomittedfromtiretotals,

SLS Comb4rati'on 1
Section

Load case

Precast

1.' DL &am
2.' DL Slab

Composite

y
796
3.66

3.' HA

6.67

4.'37.5frI

860

5.35
6.90

-6.68
-3.07

-930

5,'Pos Temp
6.'Neg Temp
7.'Sirruirkage
Totals

HA

37.5 i-Is
Stress l4ilts

SLS Comb4rat,'on3

1.38

-0.54

6.67
8.60

1835
1990

-1959

<16

<20

-0

(-0.52)

5,56
7.82
2.54

7.96
3.66

-6.68
-3.07

4.46
6.27

-7.76

(-0.69)
(-1.65) 0.74
(-0.52) 1.38

810

-1092
(1.15)

-1.25
-0.54

10.36

18.20 -1930
20,01 -22.46

<'16

<'20

>-3,2

48

SIMPLE BRIDGE DESIGN USING PRESTRESSEDBEAMS

BS 5896 gives the characteristic strengthof 15.2mmdiameter 7-wire strandas


232 kN. If initially stressed to 75% of its characteristic strength, the initial
force would be 0.75 x 232 = 174 kN per strand.
Dyform strand is used in the design example, initially stressed to 70% ofits
characteristicstrength. This gives an initial tension of210 kN foreach 15.2 mm
diameter strand.

It hasbeenreported that problems have occurred when stressingDyform strands


to 75% oftheircharacteristic strength. Therefore, although Clause 6.7.1 allows
up to 75% to be used for pretensioning, some manufacturers elect only to
stress Dyform strand to 70%. This reduced valueis usedin the design example.

The chosen strand pattern should always have strands located at the
manufacturers' standard positions.

PRESTRESSED BEAM DESIGN

Prestress Des/a,,

miistbeaddedto theMetstresses4tthetak/etocom/4fwith thestress/4/ilts,


fortes,,tatthebottom oft*e beam, Combiratio,,
/1,4 aloite critical'

I j*

= -19.59N/msr'

forC/ass 1prestress(ie.zero tension,), thereqjuiredprestressafterlosses mi/statleast


overcome tki stress. TaA.lMgatrhi/eccentricitqof370mm, andassllm/Hg 30% losses.'
19.59

0.7
P

P
Pe
=+
A
Z

0.5847

+ PxO,370

0.186

=7.565A4N

for 15.2 mm0Df,iform strana stressedto 70% cbaracteriti' strength,

tens/onper

strand1s210,(N
No,

of strandsretpjiited = 7.565 A4N/0.210 MN

$trandpatteriri'sing37strands,'
No, ofstrands

/1ei*tofrowabovesoffit

x
x

8
12

x.

11

1200mm
950mm
160mm
110mm
60mm

=
=
=
=
=

37
Cent,ro,d

4800
1900
1280
1320
660
9960

= 9960/37

= 269mmfromsoffit

= 0.269m
7 = 0.639m
= 0,639 - 0.269
..
eccentricit,'
= Q.370m

(asassi/med)

36strands(m/'/rllm)

49

50

SIMPLE BRIDGEDESIGN USING PRESTRESSED BEAMS

6.4 PRESTRESS LOSSES


The prestressing force does not remain at its initial value. The prestress
transferred to the beams a few days after they are cast is less than the force
initiallyjackedinto the strands. Prestress losseswhich occur at or before transfer
are due to:
(i) Relaxation ofthe strands.
(ii) Elastic shortening ofthe beamunder the prestessing force.
Stressesin the precast beam need to be checked at transfer. The prestress at
transferis calculated by subtracting the above lossesfrom the initialprestress.
Stresses in the beam are then calculated and checked against the allowable
stresses for the conditions at transferwhenthe concrete has not yet reachedits
full strength.
Clause 6.7.2.2 states that the relaxation loss should be the 1000 hour value
obtained from BS 5896, which is 2.5%. An examinationofstrand manufacturers
data indicates that it is reasonable to assume that between 25% to 50% ofthis
occurs prior to transferfor long line pretensioning operations. For ease of
calculation, it is usual to assume 50%relaxation before transfer, and 50% after.

The elastic loss at transfer is calculated at the centroid of the tendons, and is
due to the compression arising from the prestressing force, after the initial
relaxation loss prior to transfer, and the self-weight of the beam. The latter is
included because the beam cambers during transfer, and hencehas to carry its
self-weight as a simply supported beam.
The change in strand stress =

(E / E )

The net forceafter transfer= initial force - relaxation loss - elastic loss.

Stresses at transferdue to the prestress alone are calculated here. Thesemust


be added to the dead load stresses from page 47 to give the actual transfer
stresses in the precastbeam.

The stress limits for compression are given in Clause 6,3.2.2(b) and Table 23,
and for tension in Clause 6.3.2.4(b)(l). The strength ofthe concrete at transfer
In this case it is
is referred to as d which is less than the final strength
=
assumedthat f. 40 N/mm2.

PRESTRESSED BEAM DESIGN

Loss ofrestress

Ii /a/restressirg force

P=

370,210

=7.770MN

at

Ne/ax.atio,,loss

(i)

Pr,r to transfei foraretens/onedkeam, taXe '/2 oftkerelaat,'nloss of2.5%

= 7673MN

P = 0. 987-5x 7770

()

loss attrairsfee

$tress atcentreoftendons dietoakoverestressirgforce,


= + Pe2 - MDL e = 7.673 7.673 x 0.37Q2 - 1.242x 0,370
I
A
I
0.5847
0.11&3
011(33

= 13.12 + 8.84 - 3.87


= 1&09N/mnt'

zlast/cs*o4eni1gloss,

x,
x (strandarea)
= (200/31)(1&09N/mm2)(37O.OOO165m2)
= 0.713MN

Transferprestressi?rgforce, afterlosses

= 7.673 - 0.713 = 6.960 MN

(is'10.4% loss attransfer)

'tressesattransferarenowca/cii/atedandckec-edagairsta/lowable stresses.
Transferstressesdietoprestressa/one;

ZEf- 6.960

0.5847

= 11.90 -16.51

6.9600,370
0.156

= -4.61 N/mm'

mtllar4i

6.960 + 6, 960x 0.370

05847

0.186

=11.90 +13.85 = 25.75 N/mm'

t,e

Ckeci('$L'stressl,,'tsattransferforC/ass 1. The on4, stressesact4fg attn/s


are
beaml)Landprestress. DL stressesaretakenfrompage47.
Compressivestressl/m/tf/2 = 20 N/mm'
= 25.75 (prestress) - 6.68 (DL) = 1907N/mm'
Compressi'nat bottom,
Tensilestress//.'ii/t

Miri'iuim stressattop,

$ectin

b=

-1.0N/mm'

= -4.61 (prestress) +7.96(DL) = 3.35 N/mm'

sat/sfactor9 attransfer

51

52

SIMPLE BRIDGE DESIGN USING PRESTRESSED BEAMS

Furtherloss ofprestress occurs with the passage oftime. Long termprestress


losses are due to:
(i) Shrinkage ofthe concreteas it cures.
(ii) Creep ofthe concretedue to the permanent compressive stresses.
(iii) Further relaxation ofthe strands.
These losses need to be evaluatedto find the final (long term) prestressing
force. This final prestress is usually about30% less than the initial prestress,
andit is the finalvaluethat mustbe usedin the calculations forthe design ofthe
beams.
Shrinkagestrain is given in Table 29 for pretensionedmembers subjecttonormal
exposure as 300 x 106.
Creep strain is givenin Clause 6.7.2.5 as 48 x 106per N/mm2 forcube strengths

in excess of 40 N/mm2. However, ifthe stress exceeds one third ofthe cube
strength, the creep is no longer proportional to stress, and has to be increased
by a factor varyingbetween 1.0 and 1.25dependingon the stress. A modification
factor, k, is used:
= f/2
= 20 N/mm2
k = 1.25 when
= 13.33N/mm2
k = 1.0 wheny6
fd/3
=
In this case,
19.07 N/mm2
so k = 1.22 by interpolation

The concrete stress is calculated at the centroid ofthe strands, as paragraph 1


of Clause 6.7.2.5 permits the loss to be calculated based on the substantial
simplification ofassuming that the strands are concentrated at their centroid.
The final prestressing force is obtained by subtracting the shrinkage loss, the
creep loss, and the relaxation loss from the force aftertransfer.

The design stresses in the precast beamare the stresses dueto the final prestress
afterall losses, as calculated on the opposite page,plusthe stress combinations
tabulated on page 47. These stresses are then compared with the allowable
tensile and compressive stresses, also given on page 47.

PRESTRESSED BEAM DESIGN

f,'ral losses
rirlcageloss

(i)

= 300x, 10 (from Tgble 29, forHorma/e.i'osHre)


=
x A = 300XlO6X200l03(37X0000165m2)
= 0.366 MN
Creeploss

(II)

0 per

forf, ->40 N/mm2, C/*wse6.72,5g4'escreepstra,1, E = 48 x, 1


= 1.22
modf/'atloirfa'ctor(I'asedon Yb =19,07 N/mm2)

at t.4'ecelltro/doftelldons,

N/mm2

- M1 e = 6.960 + 6. 960x,Q,37Q2 - 1.242 Q37Q


A
I
I
0.5847
0.1188
0.1188
=11,90 8.02 - 3.87
=

= 16.05 N/mm-'
= x.3x.A=(1.22X48X1U6X16,Q5)y(20010)
(37x0.000165)
= 1.148MN
Nelaxuzt%9n ofstralld

(th)

Nemairitg '4ofrelaatiw loss

= 0.0125 7.770MN = 0.097MN


f/Malprestressirgforce, afteralllosses

= 6.960 - 0.366-1.145 - 0.097 = 5.349MN


(31.2%fiqa//osses)

ir

Thral stresses precast beamduetoprestressaloire.'

fPe
A Z

5.349

0.5847

5.349x,0,370 = 9.15-12,69=
-3,54N/mm2
0.156

95.349X0,370

= 915+10,64=19,79N/mm2

$Lstress/Z'rn'tsafterfiiralprestresslosses.'

C/reck,

$tress atbottomofbeam,

= 1979(prestress) -1959(Combi'ratiiir1, f/A a/o.ire)


=O.20N/mm2

->0

=16,47N/m,ir'

<20N/mm2

= -3.54(prestress) + 20.01 (CombXiratiir 3,37,5/1)

$tress at topofbeam,
$ect%,'ratmidspair

Gb

satf.factortir tens,wa.'rdcompress/o.'r.

53

BEAMS
54 SIMPLE BRIDGE DESIGN US[NG PRESTRESSED

The prestressing force and eccentricity previously calculated are for midspan
wherethe dead and imposed load moments are maxima. At othersections the
moments are smaller, and in order to satisfy the stress limits, the eccentricity
needs to be reduced. This can be achieved by either debonding or deflecting
some of the strands. In this example debonding has been adopted. Some
manufacturers prefernot to use deflected strands, andwill ask to manufacture

a debonded alternative design.

Stress limits at transfer will be criticalat all sections otherthan midspan. The
computer program specifies thedebonding required to limit the transferstresses
to f/2 in compression and -l N/mm2 in tension.
This calculation couldalternatively be carried out by hand withoutdifficulty.

PRESTRESSED BEAM DESIGN

Debond4rgofsti'ands

4 computer
,/2 it

Debondi'rgwi/Ike sedto reducetheprestressawa9fi-omMemid air/los/Mw.


at trairsferto
program kas keenusedtoI/mit thestresses

compressiw,and-l, 0N/m'm''ii tensi

it

Theprogramdetermiresastrandpatterir (compat/kle

with thealrea4'determiiredmidspairpatterir)thatfulfils these cr/ter,i,

The resultsareas

/I/ows

Strairdpatteri,atnridspan'

/e,'htofrowakovesoffit

No, ofstrands

11

60mm
110mm
160mm
950mm
1200mm

12
8
2
4

DekoirdZ.igDetails

ir

&ct,wm.

tram/s row

fromsipt

13,31

11 12
11 12
11 12
11 12
9 12
9 12
9 12
7 12
7 12
5 12
3 10

11.97
10.64
9.31

7.98
6.65
5,57
3,99
2.66
1.33

0.00

8 2
8 2
8 2
8 2

8
8
8
8
8
8

2
2
2
2
2
2

8 2

TransferN/mm2

raIN/mm2

o
3.38
3.30
3.06
2.67
2.84
2.13
1.26

0.96
-0.25
-0.84
-0.96

1908

4.42

13.21

1914
1933
1965

4.35

13.26
13.39

412
3.74
3.67
2.98

13.61

2.14
1.63

1419

0.47

1481

1926

-0.33

14,87

1719

-0.79

1406

1847
1902
19.70

18.89
1983

13,26
13.68
14.06

55

56 SIMPLEBRIDGEDESIGN USING PRESTRESSED BEAMS

6.5 ULTIMATE LIMIT STATE


After the prestress design has been carried out at SLS, a check should be made
ofthe situation at ULS.
The calculationoftheultimate moment capacity ofthe composite sectionwhich
is presentedon the followingpageadopts a commonlyusedapproximatemethod.
In this method, the pre-strain in the concrete, due to the prestress, is ignored.
Sincethe ultimate capacity ofthe section is normally(as in this case) foundto
be well in excessofthe ULS moment, a more exact calculation ofthe ultimate
capacity is not considered to be necessary.

The pre-strain in the strands is determined forthe condition afterall losses have
occurred.
The strains in the diagram are the additional strains due to loads. Hence the
pre-strain has to be addedto the strand strain at each level to obtain the total
strain.
Note that the strainat the top ofthe slab is takenas 0.0035, the failure strainof
concrete. Ultimate failure is by crushing ofthe concrete, not by yielding ofthe
strands.

PRESTRESSED

Bx

DESIGN

flexut-c

W/fi'irpfe

15<53

1266

$fress4fra/,,cuitvefor
15. 2mm / 1)0cmstraird
ref fe3,?r?$54O0Pa44

'O'

0'

00055

Presfra4',,,sfra,,ds,

=5.349MN/(200 103x57x0.000165sr9

= 0. 0043
Tiq eufcalax/s

= 0,630 m'from fop ofsecf/o,r

fra,'ts/'rsfraffds, compafhble wlfkfai7esfra6<,


af fopofsecM7n
of0.0035 4t

= 0.0044 + (0. 9O0/0.630,)


= 0.00940
C3

C4

C-5

0.0035

= O.OO44+(O.&50/0.630,)X0.0035
= 0.0091
= 0.0044 + (0.800/0.630)x 0.0035
= 0.00&34
= 0.0044 + (O.OJ0/O.63O,)0.0035

= 0.00446
= 0.0044- (O.240/O.63O,)O.OO35
= 0.0030,

2
1

57

58

SIMPLE BRIDGEDESIGN USING PRESTRESSED BEAMS

Knowing the total strains, the strand stresses at each level canbe obtained from
the stress- strain curve.

has been
For this calculation, a constant compressive stress block of 0.4
Part
4
would
in
the
concrete.
BS
5400
assumed
However,
strictly require the
parabolic rectangular stress block in Figure 1 to be used,becausethe neutral
axisis not in the flange (Clause 6.3.3.1(b)). A computer programme would
be required to perform the calculation rigorously. The approach adopted in the
example is conservative and adequate for most situations.

If the error was significant, the calculation would have to be repeatedwith a


modifiedneutralaxis depth.

Because the outermost tensions have not yielded, Clause 6.3.3.1 requires the
momentofresistance to be at least 1.15 timesthe design moment.

PRESTRESSED BEAM DESIGN

c#rveare

$tres$es(torn

(O.OO940-000633)x317+ 1266 = 1414N/rnrn2

(0.01292-0.00633)

317 + 1266

1403 N/rnrn2

c3= (O.O0&54o.00633)x317 1266

= 1387N/rnrn2

(00oj

(4 0.00446x200x103
(5= 0.00307x200x10

= 892N/mm2
= 614N/mrn2

force.'

7 =ll0.0001651414 = 2.566
7 =12x0.000165 x1403 = 2.778

= 8xO.000165x1357 = 1,831
= 20,000l65y c392 = 0.294
= 4x0,00016.5 614 = 0.405

i5

T =7.87MN

(forces/

= 0.4x40x.1,27-5x0220
= 4.4&3MN

= 0,4x50x(0.40#O.36)x0,410
= 3.477MN

.C=4.4&3+3.477
= 7.97MN

U=C (d/crept7Hcf
Tak4rg

1%)

o,,4i

ofa//force8

#era/j

MT

=(2.566X0.900)+(2.778X0,850)+(1,&31X0,&OO)

M6

= (4.4&Sx, 0520) + (3. 477x 0.205,) = 3,05 MA/rn

+(O294.)(QO1O)+(O4Q5XQ24O) =6.O4MNm'
To.ta/

.'.

Morne.#ofNes,$a,,ce

= 9O9MNrn

= 909MA/rn

MaxftrnwII/L$ rnornwt= 1.639 + 0.753 + 4.261

1,

= 6.65 MA/sr

..

Mome,# of7<es,$a,rce -> I1L

37.5

/13,

frompage 45)

/'r flex/ire

WL.

59

60

SIMPLE BRIDGE DESIGN USING PRESTRESSED BEAMS

6.6 SHEAR
A prestressed concretebeam can fail in two basic modes (see Clause 6.3.4.1):
By an inclinedweb crack developing independently of a flexural crack.
This type of failure can occur at any section of the beam (cracked or
uncrackeddue to flexure). BS 5400refers to this mode as a V0 failure.
(ii) By aflexuralcrackdeveloping into an inclined shear crack. Thistype of

(i)

failure can occuronly in regions ofthebeamwhich are cracked in flexure


under the ULS loading. BS 5400refers to this mode as a Vcr failure.

At the support,the section is flexurallyuncracked so only failure undermode (i)


need be considered.
Clause 7.4.2.2(a)allows the designereither to assume that all the shear is resisted
by the precast beam acting alone, or to calculate to shear resistancebased on
the composite section.

The expression for V0 in Clause 6.3.4.2 is based on the elastic distribution of


stressesinarectangular beam,andgives the shear force forwhich the maximum
principal tensile stress reaches thetensile strengthofthe concrete. For a flanged
beam, the expression is a conservative approximation.
The calculation method based on the precast beam alone is straightforward,
and is adopted here. A calculation based on the composite section would be
muchmore complicated, and is notrecommended. The principal tensile stress
at the centroid ofthe composite section wouldhave to be calculated. Since the
expression for V0 is based on an elasticstressanalysis, account would have to
be taken of the different stress distributions from those loads acting on the
beam alone, andthose acting on the composite beam.

A partial load factor ofeither 0.87 or 1.15 has to be applied to the compressive
stress at the centroidal axis due to prestress,
Obviously, 0.87 results in a
lower value ofV0, and so this value is used in the calculation.

f.

The full prestress is not developed within the transmission length, which is
given in clause6.7.4. Hence,ifthe support is withinthe transmission length, a
reduced value of prestress should be used in the calculations. Clause 6.7.4
states that a linear development ofstress withinthe transmission length should
be assumed.

The transmission length for 15.2mm diameter Dyform strand, calculated in


accordance with Clause 6.7.4 is:
= 360x15.2/'140 = 865mm
The calculation opposite is thereforestrictly only applicable 865 mm from the
end ofthe beam.

PRESTRESSED BEAM DESIGN 61

l'//ttateL,t, state - kear


Desiwltear.force$

*etablebe/owt/tefactoredskearforcesfor/oadcases3 ai,d 4

748 forbeirdirg momen'ts,I,!


comedIvect/qfrom

grit/age

Nomi,a/

earforce

Load 6ase
1. DL'recast

L DL4tsltii
3.

4,

017

and/nc/#derelevantfactorsand$DL, etc.

ULLoad Comb/natIon1
'y x.
1,2x. 1,1
1,2x1.1

0.06

/174

37,5H

Max/mum

0247
0114
0,396
0.584

a/sItearforceasippon frWL'LoadComb/natin 1 wIth37.5 arn'tH,

= 0247 + 0.114 + 0.584 =0.945 MN

The s/rearforce wi//beassHmed

be

r sitedb.i tkeprecast beama/one,

6lase7.4.2.2.(a)(1)

foranncrac/ed sect/on, thes/iearcapac/tI/,

= 0.67bnJf2

Q7ff

w/rere

Ii = 1400mm
b =216mm(min)

= 0.24/5
= 1.70 N/mm2

=prestressatcentroidofbeam

fromdebondi'igca/ca/atiirs,prestressatsppoti

= -0.79N/mm2

= 14.06 N/mm2
I.'rterpo/atlirgto

Idthestressatthecentroki 0.639mfromthebottom,

= 14.06 +(0.639/1.400)x.(-0.79-14.06)
=

7.28N/mm2

V= 0,670,216x1,400J1.702 0.871.707.28
= 0.749MN

62

SIMPLE BRIDGE DESIGN USING PRESTRESSED BEAMS

The 0.4 term in the expressionforrequired shear reinforcementin Clause 6.3.4.4


allows for degradation of shear capacity due to fatigue effects.
The effective depth d is the depth tothe outermost strands from the compression
face. Clause7.4.2.2(c) makes clear that thisshould be derived forthe composite
section, evenwhenthe calculation for V is based on the precast beamalone,as
here. Thus = 1590mm - 60mm = I530mm, or I .530m.

At the quarter span point the section is cracked in flexure at ULS. Henceboth
modesofshear failure should be considered.

As for shear atthe supports, the calculation for V0 is based on the precast beam
acting alone.

PRESTRESSED BEAM DESIGN

Ultoitate shear res/tallce


less
app//ed 11Lshearforce t'' so shearre4r,forceme#it
mustbeprovidedaccordingto Clause6.3.4.4,'

O.4bd- V
74 V+0.87
= 0.000536ii
= 0,536 mm2/mm

forT12/,,ks,
use 712

74

0.945 +Q,4O,216f,53O-Q.749
0,87x460x 1.530

= 2 x. 113 m'm2 = 226mm2


= 226 0.536 = 422 mm ('a(/mwm)

l,sat400mm centres.

earatQuarter'.e'an
s/reara/so.'reeds to be checked atotherposit/9ns along thebeam' ThesearetheIIL$ loadsat
thequarterspanposition. The centralportin ofthebeam wi/Ibe des/,'9nedfortheseloads, with
theendquartersre/irforcedascalculatedabove. The sectionatqjiarterspanmustbecheckedboth

ascrackedandasuncrackeditflexure.

Load Case

1. DLprecast
2. DL ,'rs/tu
3. /174
4. 37,5/-/

Nomital

Nom4i'al

shear

Coi,cident

force

moment

0094
0043

0.932

0447

1/LC Load CombX'rat,i911 1


)(

factored
shearforce

factored
coirc,de.# moment

1.2x.1.1 0124
1.2x.1.1 005.7
0.297

1.230

0590
2.789
3.290

0458

=0.639

/1B"

(a)ectiw uncrackedi,flexure V, wi//be calculatedassumingprecastbeamactsalone.

atquarterspandue toprestressandDL
stressesdue toprestressalonearecalcu/atedbqsubtractitgtheeffectoftheDL,'
The del'ondingca/cu/ati'onsgivestresses

= 2.98 - 0.932/0.156 = -3.00 N/mm2


= 13,68 + 0.932/0186 = 18.69N/mm2
/nterpolati'rg forstress at centroidofsect/on, 063 9m abovesoffit.'
6 = 18.69+"0.639/1.40q.)x(3.00-18.69,) = &79N/mm2

= 0.67 0,216x1.400J1,7Q2 + 0.87 1,70&79


= 0.808.'Wl

fromthese,

63

64

SIMPLE BRIDGE DESIGN USING PRESTRESSEDBEAMS

In the case ofthe shear resistance for a section cracked in flexure, the calculation
based on the composite section is not too complicated, and results in a higher
value of Vcr than ifthe beam assumedto act alone. The method based on the
composite section is adopted here.
Clause 6.3.4.3 gives an expression for the crackingmoment corresponding to
the ultimate tensile stress beingreachedat the extreme tensile fibre:
Mcr = (0.37'If +

f) I/y

An elastic stress distribution is assumed, butthis expression doesnot allow for


the fact that moment is applied partly to the beam alone, and partly to the
composite section. I/y is different for these two cases. Thus the cracking
moment has to be calculated by addingthe DL moments to the extramoment
at the
required on the composite section to give a stress of (0.37Jf +
bottom fibre. In this expression, value of for the precast concrete should
clearly be used. A partial factor of0.87 has to be applied to the compressive
stress dueto prestress alone,

f)

f.

The expression for Vcr is Equation 29 in Clause 6.3.4.3(a), and is an empirical


formula which gives a lower bound to the test data. The flexure-shear crack
will occurin the precast portionofthe composite section, so again the value of
to be used in this expression relates to the precast concrete.

Note that Mcr is less than the total moment at ULS. Hence the section would
be flexurally cracked at ULS.

A minimum shear reinforcement requirementis given in Clause 6.3.4.4. The


minimum reinforcement should be provided even whenthe ULS shearforceV
is less than V.

The maximum link spacings are given in Clause6.3.4.4.

PRESTRESSED BEAM DESIGN

()'ect/oHcraclced4fflexufre/ V

forcosiposite

wi/Ikecalculated

thestosteirtwhich cauisecracrg, assurnredto be wheirthetre$sX'rtheextres,eteMsile

f,brereache8(O,3+f,)=Q,37XJ3+Q,87l&69=1&&3fl//stsr2,

a costbiraticH oftheDL stomeirtsactiirgoir thebeastaloire,

The totalcracA/irg stosteirt

airdthesromeittacti'rgoirthecomt'os/te sectioir.'

DL m'oste.',t =
DLstress =

0.932+ 0447 = 1.3P9MNnr


1.379/0.186 =741N/nrm2

Mosre.#o#r cosr/'os/te sectioirrequlredtocauisecracki'rg

= (18.88-7.41)Z,,,
= 11,47x0,273

=3.I3IMNm

.. TotaIM = 1,379 + 3,131 = 4.5JOMNm


Claise6,3,4,3g4'e'

V,= 0.037bdJ?J+V

oftheteMdons 0,281stabove thesoffltatjiianersair, 80


=
d 1,590-0,281= 1.309m

The ceNtrold

= 0,037x.0,216x.1,309/

.x,0,639

= 0.638 MN
V

<V

V =

so V

crItical' V

=V

0639.> V = 0.638

A V+

0,4ba.-

t'

soshearrei/rforcemeHt/
reqjl"ed'

_0,639+0.4X0,2161,53Q-Q,638

0.874601,530

0.87fa
= 0,000218st
= 0.218 srm2/m'm
for T12I,s,

Maxlnrnrnspaciirg
(a) 0.75d

(b)4b

= 2x, 113 stm2 = 226stst2


= 226/0.218 = 1037stm' (staHst)
= 0.75 1560 =Il7Onrnr
=4x216

T12 lIrn(s at800ststce,rtres.

=864srnr

65

66

SIMPLE BRIDGE DESIGN USING PRESTRESSEDBEAMS

6.7 LONGITUDINAL SHEAR


Verticalshear forces in the beams always give riseto longitudinal shear forces.
Indeed, according to elastic theory, the longitudinal shear stress is equal in
magnitude to the vertical shear stress at any point. The construction joint
between theprecastbeam andthe in-situ deck slabformsa weak plane,andthe
longitudinal shear alongthis planeshould be checked. It is often found that the
reinforcement provided forvertical shear is adequate for the longitudinal shear
requirements ofClause 7.4.2.3.

Althoughlongitudinal shear must be checked at ULS, it is assumed in Clause


7.4.2.3that the shear force at the interface may be calculated by elastic methods,
allowing for the fact that the dead load is carried by the precast beam alone.
Only the loads applied to the composite section cause shear forces at the
interface. This is a safe assumption, asthe vertical shear capacity atthe supports
was calculated assuming the precast beam carried the whole load, thus not
relying on composite action. Similarly at quarter span, although the full section
was used for the calculation ofthe vertical shear capacity, that calculation also
assumed the dead loads to be carried by the beam alone; the assumption made
in the longitudinal shear calculation is consistent with this.

The shear capacity depends on the contact surface at the interface. It is usual
to assume a"roughas cast" surface,which only requires cleaning ofthe surface,
but no special preparation. This is defined as surfacetype 2.

to be used in the calculation is that for the weaker ofthe two


grades ofconcrete atthe interface. Thus,based on the in-situ concrete, =40
The value of
N/mm2.

Clause 7.4.2.3 call for two checksto be made:


(a) is an upperlimit on the ultimatelongitudinal shear stress, here 3.6 N/mm2,
(b) is the combinedcapacity ofthe concreteandthe reinforcement.

Both at the supports, and at midspan, the reinforcement provided for vertical
shear has also been found to be just adequate for longitudinal shear at the
interface. Note, however, that the calculated reinforcement requirement for
vertical shear atmidspan was only 0.000218 m2/m, which would not have been
enough for longitudinal shear. More reinforcement than this was provided in
order to avoid exceeding the maximum permitted spacing.

PRESTRESSED BEAM DESIGN

the

The

to oftheprecastbeam, attheitterface with theu,,'-siti,deck

miistbechecked to Ckuise7 4,2.3.

theortgiYes /ong/'tHd/ta/shearas

V1

= VA9/I
1,275

9it thisexpressirnreferto thepart of

thesectionabovethe/ongitHd/iia/shearphvre,
otherwordstheshadedareaiiithedhgram.
1.570

imp/ifbiassiirnZ'rga
themodularratio, butiwor/#fg the
s.'na//over/apbetweenthebeamands/al',
4rc/adi'rg

Longitud/ira/shearison4igeneratedbytheshearforcecarriedon thecomt'osite sectkw.


Atthesui,tt'ort m'ax/suuirnverticalshearon compositesectionigiVenon 61,'

= 0.584MN
A = 1,25mxQ,22OmxQ,91 = 0255m
9 = f.37Q+(Q.22Q/2)-O,&39 = 0.591rn
V

I =02429m4

Thesurface

(a)

(b)

(frompage2l)

= VA/I=(0.54MN)X(O255m)x(0.59P&/(0,2429m)
V,
= 0.362 MN/rn

assuimedtobe Type "roughascast Twochecksarereqflired'

= 0.09X('40N/mm2)(0.400m)

k1f1,L8

= 1.44MN/m

->

so 0/c'

Verticalshearreirforcementi T12 linksat 400mm centres


= 0,00056.5m2/m

+ 0.PA( =(0.SOMN/m2)x(0.40rn)+ 0..7x(0.000565m,)(460MN/m2)


= 0.200+0,1(32

= 0.382MN/m

->

soo/'

$irnilar4', atquarterspanthe verticalshearforce carriedb.ythecomposite sect,vn

V = 0.45(3MN

...

t'=0.284MN/m

forthevertia'alshearre4rforcementofT12lurks at800mmcentres, Ae
+ 0.7Af = 0.291 MN/rn
->
so 0/c'

0.000283 rn

atqularterspan.

Longitaduralshearrequirements aresatifledatsuipports and

67

68

SIMPLE BRIDGE DESIGN USING PRESTRESSED BEAMS

FINISHINGS

7.1

INTRODUCTION
The finishings ofa bridge deck can be defined as:
Bearings
Joints
Waterproofing andsurfacing
Parapets
Although they round off the design and detailing of a bridge deck, they should be
given very early consideration as they can have an important effect on the bridge
analysisand performance. For example, the bearing positionon an abutment can
affect the span, accessfor inspection,maintenanceandreplacement. The consideration
of carriageway surfacing profile affects loading (eg. crowningor vertical curves).
The parapet type needs to be adequately anchored into the deck edge.

7.2 BEARINGS
Althoughthe technology of bearing design can be left to the specialist suppliers'
mechanical engineers, the bridge designer should develop an appreciation of the
different bearing types to avoidproblems and failures.
There are two main types of bearing commonly used with precast beams, namely
elastomeric andpot bearings. Elastomeric bearings have been chosen for the design
example, and they are by far the most common, probably due to their lower initial
cost. However, they may prove with time to have a more limited life.
Elastomeric bearings are generally laminated, and consist ofalternate layersofsteel
andrubberbonded together. Capacities depend on the area, height, numberand size
ofthe layers. Theyaccommodate vertical loads by compression, translation by shear
deformation, and rotation by variablecompression.

In pot bearings, the confined elastomer is heavily loaded and is assumed to act like a
fluid to accommodate rotation. Translations are enabled by a sliding interface of
PTFE and stainless steel.
For elastomeric bearings, there are generally two possiblemethods ofresisting the
horizontal forces. A pin can be provided at one end and a guide at the other end,
which carryall the horizontal forces. Alternatively, as in the example, the forces can
be resisted by the horizontal stiffness of the bearings; this situation is known as a
'floatingdeck'.

FINISHINGS

Thi l'ridgewi//we18keathrg, 9
A

deci( a

e&c/ efid

ztem wi/Ike I1$ea soall18keac/iigs wi/Ike tiresame.

Plaitofbridgedec.

<

>
LoitgitiiditaImovemeittxossib/e
atbotir em/s oftirebridge

<

>

69

70

SIMPLE BRIDGEDESIGN USING PRESTRESSED BEAMS

All bearings should be bedded horizontally, even when the bridge deck has a
longitudinalfall.

Care is needed on skew bridges to keep the axis of the principal movements
and rotations in harmony with the bearing axes. This may require a wider
bearing shelf.
Bearings need to be inspected andmaintained. Ifthey need to be replaced, the
bridgedeck will have to be temporarilyjackedup. Access to the bearing shelf,
and drainage of the bearing shelf, must be provided for in the design of the
abutments (and also the piers, in the case ofmulti-span bridges). A bearing
shelf with a drainagechannel at the front is easierto clean, but increases the
spanandpossibly the abutment thickness. For largerbridges, an abutment with
an internal access gallery is sometimes justified. This gives easy access to
bearings and expansion joints, at the costofa substantially largerabutment:

End
Diaphragm

Y8 beam

Abutment

FINISHINGS 71

Deck slab

'/8 beas,

fJastoirericbeariirg

&ariHgp/x#ith

15Oi,hih

&ar4Yg
25 ,irnvfalltorear

ONC elid

ofthe

i'a

se#i

showx'rgcross

Dra4fagechaNNel

aklltmeHt keari'igshe/fan'd

stosreribeari'tg. A dra/iragec/rairire/iprovidedat thebackofthekearirgshe/f Accessto


tirekear4rgshe/fforifspect/Ma#idma/irtenancewi/Ibefromirdenreath thebridge.

72

SIMPLE BRIDGE DESIGN USING PRESTRESSED BEAMS

Calculations for bearings

The bridge designer should carry out calculations of the range of loads and
movements that the bridgebearings will sustain. Theseare then specified on a
bearing schedule, and a bearing complying with these specifications will then
beselected(often bythe contractor)using data suppliedbybearing manufacturer.
On the example bridge, all 18 bearings will be identical. On bridges where a
floating deck is not used,movements will be smallerat the pinnedend than at
the guidedend, anddifferent bearings mightbe needed.
Nominal horizontal loads have been calculated for the design example at the
same time as other nominal loads. The maximum horizontal loads for each
bearing are now calculated from these loads.

Verticalloads are obtained from the grillage analysis, exceptfor the dead load.
The permanent vertical load on the bearings needs to be specified, as well as
both the maximum andminimum loads. On continuous bridges, as well as on
some skew simply-supported bridges, the minimum load can be less than the
permanent load.

FINISHINGS

LNlNDtlA/C74L6WLATl0N'
i, al/directionsatLHeedto becalcalatedforentry1'rto t.*ebearing

Loads and
schedule.

Thibridgehasrnieidentia/e/astomeri'bearings ateach end

Loads

Longitdiiral load,'

/174 load

X critiai

Nom/iral load

= 463 KN

9 bearings atoneend

Assiinreeqjially

= 463/9 = 51.4KN
51.4xJ.0,1,0 = 51,4AN

Nosri#ralloadperbear4rg

Lloadperbeathrg

514 YYfLXYf3

Transverseload,'

= 300 MI

Nonrmalload

Ifthisloadoccars nearoneendof

bridge,

thi

loadwi/Ike resitedbybearings at
endonly.
Nomiralloadperbeathrg 300/9 = 33.3 l'N

$L'/oadperbearig33,31,O1,O = 33,3K/V
both /ririrgm andmax,'i#rnr loadsare req#ired
M4,imusrload=permanentload= DL + 'DL

Vern'calload'
DL

=
20.48KN/mx('span/2)x'yfxyf3
= 20.48
l(N/m13,3m1,0xJ,Q
= 272KN
= 4.OKN/nt2x

l.27SmX('span/2)XYILxy13
= 4.0KN/m2X1.275m13,3mxj,21,Q
= 81K/V
Mi>rmrirnrbeari'rg load

DL + $'DL

= 272 +81 = 353 K/V

Maxi,iim

reactiin fromcompiiteranalysi,
= 456KN
and
/1. loaa trcldi'rg
($DL

y)=

MaK/m#mbear4rgload = DL + 456

272 + 456 = 728KN

73

74

SIMPLE BRIDGEDESIGNUS[NG PRESTRESSED BEAMS

Effects causing bridge movements can be categorised in two ways, firstly as


internal andexternal effects, andsecondly as reversible andirreversibleeffects.
Internal effects are:
temperature (and humidity)
*
*

creep
shrinkage

External effects are:


dead andlive vertical loading
* settlement (or other ground movement)
traction and braking
centrifugal or similar effects
* erection procedures
Effects marked * are irreversible.

BS 5400: Part 9: Clause 5.15.1 gives general guidance on the forces and
movements tobe considered for bearings together with the relevantlimit states.
Forthe design example, reversible and irreversible translations androtations at
SLS are required.
Clause 6.7.2 ofBS 5400: Part 4 gives guidance on shrinkage and creep, with
Clause 6.7.2.4 referringspecifically to shrinkage,andClause 6.7.2.5 specifically
to creep.

FINISHINGS

Moves,e,#s

Trverse/

assumed that

verse di'p/acemeHt aitdrotatioff

Megli/k/e.

Lo#gitud4ra/trs/atioir. hrevers/b/eshorteir/irg ofthebridgeoccursduetoshn


afldrevers,b/e move/iteirts occurdue tothermalexair..io#r

geaitdcreep,

'hritk,ageofcoNcrete

- assumethatha/ftotalshrLiMageoccursbeforebeamsarep/aced 011
bear#igs,
'hnage/HMitle#gth = 300 x 1 total
... Total shr4ri(age = 300 x 1
x, 26600mm= &0mm
'/2shthitage ocdum'fg afterbeamsareplaced= & 0/2 = 4.0 mm

Creep ofco#crete

-aga/irassume thatoi4'halftotaloccursafterbeamsarep/aced oit


Creep/uw/t/eitgth =48 x ICY6perN/mm'

bear/itgs.

fromcalcuilati2itsforprestressedbeam
des/g.sr,
stress
at
ce#ttroid
10
N/mm'
average

Totalcreep=48xlC76x26600mmxlO/v/mm2=12,8mm
'4 creepoccufr/ifg afterbeams areplaced =12.8/2 = 6.4 mm
74551/me that total

ofshmtAageaitdcreepshorten4ig

Nom4,a/itrevers,b/e movement = '4(4.0+6.4)


itreversible movement =
x x 5.2
... lrrversib/etrailslat/onatbear/llgs

= lox 1.Oxi,2

sharedeqjia/4' ateachend
5.2 mm

= 5,2mm

Temperatuireraitge

Nom/naltemeratuirerange= 47C
Coeffi'/eitt ofthermalexpansion= 121 06/06
...

= 4?x 12x 1Ct6266OOmm


= 15.0mm'

Nomlscralra,rgeofmovement

Assume bear4rgsareff)(ed/ncen'treofraitge
...

ofmovement = 75 mm

Nomth'alraitge

Temperatureeffectsaretheon4ieffects(excepttransinttrafficloads)caHs4lgreversible
trans/atloits, Assume thesereversible movementsaresharedetpiallq'
the two
abu,tments.'

atbear4rg = 75x '4 = 3.8mm


$Lreversible traits/at/oil = )( x(3.8)
Nevers/bletrails/at/onatbeari'rgs = 1.0 x 1.0 x (3.8) = 3.8 mm
/Vom4ia/trails/at/oil

75

76

SIMPLE BRIDGE DESIGN USING PRESTRESSEDBEAMS

Irreversible rotations due to the self-weight of the precast beams take place
before the bearingsare fixed in position, so do not affect the bearings. However,
rotations due to the dead load of the slab and the superimposed dead loads
must be absorbed by the bearings, and are calculated opposite.

Creepwill cause irreversible rotation of bearings in the opposite direction to


the effects calculated here. It can be assumed that this effect is not so large as
to cause overall negative rotations greater in magnitude than the rotations
calculated here. Therefore creep rotations can be ignored, and do not need to

be calculated.

Dead load rotation must be calculated by hand, based on bendingofthe precast


section acting alone. SDL rotation is most conveniently estimated by applying
the SDL load to the composite section, and calculating the rotation by hand,
ignoring any load distribution between the beams.

Reversible rotations dueto live loads can be extracted from the grillageanalysis.
Allgrillage load cases in the design example include SDL, which must therefore
be subtractedto get the reversible effect only.

FINISHINGS

Xotatiiir

The total rotation' at the bear4ig

i'ofa

made

n'iimberofcompon'en'ts. The cam'berofthe


beamsdue to thedeadloadan'dj'restress occursbefore thebeari'rgsare 4istallea sothXdoes
Hotcauserotation'ofthebeathigs. $ag thebeamsdue to theut-situ slaban'dVL causes

of

of

irreversible rotation's. Cree" causeshoggiiig thebeams4r thelon'gterm; leadfttgto iireversuble


rotationftttheoM/ositedftection'. LiVeloadobvu2as/q causesreversiblerotatf2n's.

Deadloadofslab

$IabDLrotation'

= 6,45 ,N/m = 0,00645MA//m


= wl3/24I
(Iforbeamon'Iq)
=

(0.00645iWI/m,)x(26,6m)
24x(34000MN/m)x(0.11&3m4)

=0.00125rad,n's
iperftttposedDL =5,1 N/m = 0.0051,Wv'/m
'DL rotation' = wl3/24.zI
(usurg forcomposite section')

(0.OO5IMN/m,)x(26,6m)3

24 x(34000MN/mi,)x (0.2429m4)

= 0,00048rad,mn's
Irreversible rotation'at

umadei#'fromDL and$DL rotation's, with aproprft.'teload

factors

Lrotation' = (0,00125 1,0x 1.0) +('Q.QQQ48 1,2x 1.0)


=0.00183radhin's

fromgruilage an'alqsis outpllt whuthu'rcludes 'DL b.tn'otDL,


= 0.00281radkrns
max/mum rotatkw

atL

The reversible (liVeload) rotation

Neversublerotation'

u thusthi valuewith theDL subtracted.'

at8L = 0.00281-(0.00048 .x. 1.2x. 1.0)


= 0.00223 radkrn's

Maxhwumratewilloccur when' thebeam

uactftrgalone, with no com,t'ositeaction'. Thu

thebearfttgrotatesun'dertheweuIttoftheftr-situ slabi

= 0.00125radkin's
= (6.45 kN/m)x. (26.6m)/2
Neaction = wl/2
= 85.8N
Nate = rotation/lOOk/V
= 0.00125/0.858
Notation'

=0. OOl46radhmn's/lOOkN

when'

77

78

SIMPLE BRIDGE DESIGN USING PRESTRESSED BEAMS

Bearing Schedule
The results ofthe calculations from the previous pages are entered into a bearing
schedule. BS 5400: Part 9.1 contains a standard form of bearing schedule.
The completed schedule for the design example is shown below, and the page
opposite shows how abearing can be chosen from amanufacturers' catalogue,
and checked for compliance with the schedule.

Bearing identification mark

Numberoff
Seatingmaterial

Upper surface
Lowersurface
Upper face

Allowable average
contactpressure

Lowerface

(N/mm)
Design load
effects(kN)

Serviceability
limit state

Ultimate
limit state

Vertical

t,t'oxgMonar
f7oxgMortar
Serviceability
Ultimate

.20

Serviceability
Ultimate
maximum

.20

permanent
minimum

553
353

,28

Transverse

33,3

Longitudinal

51,4

Vertical

Transverse
Longitudinal
Irreversible

Transverse
Longitudinal
Transverse

5,2

Reversible

Longitudinal
Transverse

3.8

Irreversible
Reversible

Longitudinal
Transserse

Irreversible

Longitudinal
Transverse
Longitudinal
Transverse

000183

Reversible

Longitudinal
Transverse

0.00223

Maximum rate
Maximum

(radians/IOOkN)
Upper surface

Longitudinal
Transverse

bearing
dimensions

Lowersurface

Longitudinal
Transverse

000146
400
300
400
300

Translation
(mm)

Serviceability
limit state

Ultimate
limit state

Rotation
(radians)

Serviceability
limitstate

(mm)

Longitudinal
Overall height

Tolerable movementofbearing
under transient loads (mm)
Allowable resistance totranslation
under serviceability limit state(kN)
Allowable resistance torotation
underserviceability limitstate (kNm)
Type offixing required

Vertical

Transverse
Longitudinal
Transverse
Longitudinal
Transverse
Longitudinal
Upper surface
Lower surface

ioo
1
1
1.2.5

20
40

t,oxgMortar

poxgMortar

FINISHINGS

4025-02-08/3.

from CCL

eari'rg CataIoge, ii'Sebear4rgrefereirce


D/meMs/o/rsare 400mmx, 250mmx, 30mm
Max/mum rotatio.'rspecified
Max/mum trans/at/oilspecified

=0.00183+0.00223
= 0.OO4O6radirns
=523.8
=90mm

Notat,,r capacitq atzeroshear = a ooso


rad%iits
=
Notat,.'rcapaci at 14.7mmshear 0.0038 rad,nrs
73/f4rterpo/n,

rotationcapac/tifat 90mmshear =

Notati,, capacitq

0.0043radians > 0.00406 radiins

adeajiate.

Mix/i,wm vertia/reaction.i'ecifled=
Vern'a/ca/aci'tq, no shearorrotatXw

728k/V
=1882 k/V

Verti'a/capac/tqat0.0050 rotation = 710k/V


13/f 4rterpo/atioir,

at 0.00406 rotatin = 930 k/V > 728k/V

irearwi//reduce thevertia/capac/t.farthetkuitmax/'ram shearandmax/mum reactins never


co-ex/ so venicaIcapacit/f

adequate.

Checkstiffnesses.'
Vern'a/(compressiVe) stiffiress,
Deflectiiratmaximum load

=1745k/V/mm
= 732k/V/1745

= 0.42mm

(from catalogue)

Thi less thai,the1mmspecified a//cwabledeflectioir, andso 0A


shearstiffness,
Maxftiruimsheardeflectiir

resitanceto trans/at,,r

= 4.29k/V/mm
= 90mm
= 90 .x. 4.29

= 38,6k/V

(fromcatalogue)

Thi less than the 40k/Vspecifledz'rthebeariitgschedule, so thi


fina/4,', checkmovementundertransi'ent/oad'

a/so0A

Max/mum(transiwt)/ongitud/'ra/loadonbearirg = 51.4k/V
Moveme,rtundertra,rs,'ent/oad= 51. 4/Ks = 51.4/4.29
=12.0mm
Thi less than the 12.5mmspecifieaso transi,rtmovemeirt/ w/thi'r tolerance.

79

80

SIMPLE BRIDGEDESIGN USING PRESTRESSED BEAMS

7.3 WATERPROOFINGAND SURFACING


The minimum desirable surfacing thickness is 110mm,madeup of:

40 mm
60 mm
10 mm

wearingcourse
regulating course
waterproofing

The waterproofing is generally protected bya 20 mm red sandasphalt carpet beneath


the regulating course, increasing the thickness to 130 mm.
Two types ofwaterproofingare in commonuse, namely sheetingandspraymembranes.
Althoughgenerally thought ofas more expensive, the sprayversionsare gaining in
popularitydue to their more comprehensive coverage, and due to the fact that they
reduce the overall dead load.
Drainage ofthe waterproofing in areasnearjoints or severe crossfalls where ponding
may occurwill improve the durability ofthe surfacing in these areas.
Reference should alsobe madeto the Highways Agency Standard BD 47/94. Further
informationcanbefoundinTRRL ResearchReport 185: "A field trial ofwaterproofing
systems for concretebridge decks"by A. R. Price.

FINISHINGS 81

25mm x 25mm rebate


(i,otruiiredforspra.ywaterproorgs,'stem)
DeckwaterprooflHg

Wai'erprooflurgdetail

82

SIMPLE BRIDGE DESIGN USING PRESTRESSED BEAMS

7.4 JOINTS
The function ofanyjoint is to bridgeany gap or discontinuity between the deck and
the abutment, whilst allowing horizontal movement and rotation ofthe deck to take
place.

Theyare subject to all the effects applied to bearings, andare dividedinto two main
categories: buriedjoints and mechanicaljoints.
Buriedjoints have continuous surfacing over the structural discontinuity, and are
usually reserved forsituations where the movements are less than 15 mm. The design
example uses asphaltic plug joints at each end of the bridge span. A steel plate
bridges the gap between the deck and the abutment, and a strip of flexible asphalt
placedover it along the line ofthejoint.
Larger movements are oftenaccommodated with mechanical joints. In thiscase the
surfacing is discontinuous. An example is illustrated below.

Surfacing

Mechanical expansionjoint,
beddedon epoxy resin,
and bolted to deck and abutment
usingresin anchors.

/
__
-Deck
I

___
Abutment
wall

FINIsHINGs 83

__ \/_
'iitfaci'rg

..

Dec1(-s/ak

1'

20mm PVC
h'c3

dra4i
7lbHtme1#
wa/I

Waterprooflurg tai(e/rdowH

kack of

ai ak#tme#ts

84

SIMPLE BRIDGEDESIGN USING PRESTRESSED BEAMS

7.5 PARAPETS
There are five parapetgroups for highwaybridgesreferredto in Highways Agency
Standard BD 52/93:
P1 are required

on motorway bridges, except over railways or high risk

locations.
P2 are required for all purpose roads. Metal versions have a traffic face
mesh where pedestrians are allowed. They are subdivided into P2 (80)
and P2 (113) depending on the prevailing speed restrictions at the site.
P2 (48) are also occasionally found at urban sites.
P4 are usedon bridleways.
PS are required over railways, and usually have Pt strength requirements.
Theseare taller, and have solid infihl panels.
P6 are high containment parapets for use at high risk locations.
Standard metal versions in steeloraluminium are available from the various suppliers
listed in BS 6779 Part 1. There are differences between the types which affect the
edge plinth detailing and spacing of posts. Reinforcement should be detailed to
accommodatestandardapprovedanchorage cages. Mostdesigners give the contractor
the choice ofsteelor aluminium parapets, although individual clientauthorities may
have preferences relatingto maintenance aspects.
Concrete can also be used for the P1 and P2 containment requirements, sometimes
facedor sandwiched with othermaterials such as brick.

P6 high containment parapets are often provided in the form of precast concrete
panels, which are either cast into the edge ofthe deck, or bolted down onto it. The
edge ofthe deck must be designed to resist the high transverse bending moment that
a vehicle hittingthe parapetcan generate; seeBS 6779: Part2. The bendingmoment
is too high to be resisted by the bending strength of a standard deck slab, or the
torsional strength of M orYbeams. A torsionally stiffedge beamshould beprovided,
or the base of the parapetpanels should span over two adjacent beams.

Precast parapet
panels, 2.5m long,
bolted to deck.

A typical edge detail for a bridge deck with a high containment parapet.

FINISHINGS

P2(1131t'/i)c/am4ihrntpra1e'et

coitcreteHpstafldky

wasker$alldp/8t/'s1eeves.

Mes%,//

croiitbelowparapet base

Parapetdetails

85

86

SIMPLE BRIDGEDESIGN USING PRESTRESSED BEAMS

SOLID SLAB DECK DESIGN EXAMPLE

8.1

INTRODUCTION
The design ofprestressed beamsin a solid slab deck follows the samepattern as for
a beam& slab deck. This section consists ofa partial design example ofa solid slab
bridge deck, to demonstrate how to deal with the transverse moments and shears
using reinforcement threadedthrough the web holes ofthe precast beams.
The example bridge has the following designrequirements:
9.089m between bearings (singlespan)
6.5m carriageway (two 3.25m lanes)
I .Om footpath each side
21
Skew
HA load to BD 37/88
Loading
No HB load is required for this private development
Surfacing 180mmtotal maximum thickness (including waterproofing)
Span
Width

Inverted T beamswere chosen as the most suitable form ofconstruction for thisshort
span. The beamselection charts indicate that T2 beamsare appropriate for a span of
about9m. The beams are placedsideby side in this form ofconstruction, so for the
width ofdeckrequired, eighteenT2 beams are needed. The bridge could alternatively
have been designed usingtwelve TY2 beams.
In-situ concrete provides the infill between the beams, andthe topping over the beams.
The standard thickness for the topping is 75mm, and this is usedhere. The topping
should neverbe specifiedless than 75mmthick.

SOLID SLAB DESIGN EXAMPLE

9300

Overa//widM

400

1000

6500

C'vsssecfloit of9089m

1000

400

si'ir,i'/q

askewof2f.
kteen71? keastsaresedata saci'rgof.5Osrnr.
The kridgedeck/ta8

There aretwo lP5mstdiimeferd#cts

,t tireX'tf#/co#crete.,rdereachfoot aM.

Thi tirecrosssecfioirskowi'rgoir4iMest-rctiira/e/eme,rt-s.
Thetirickiress,r tiremiddle oftire deck 495mm,

made from Me 420mm%jk 12beamsp/usp5mm toppi


Tot-alheiirt-oftireedgebeams
920mm'.

87

88

SIMPLE BRIDGEDESIGN USING PRESTRESSED BEAMS

8.2 GRILLAGE ANALYSIS


The grillageused to analyse this bridge deck has nine longitudinal members, each
representing two inverted T beams with theirassociatedin-situconcrete:

BS 5400: Part4: Clause 7.4.1 doesnot require a modular ratioto beused for concrete
strengths varyingby ION/mm2, and so no account hasbeen taken ofthe difference
between the precast andthe in-situ concrete in the analysis ofthisbridge. The section
properties of the internal longitudinal members are therefore based on a simple
rectangularshape.
The edge members have different properties, due to the geometry ofthe edge detail,
and the presence ofservice ducts under the footpath.
Transverse members have been provided to divide the spaninto eightequal segments
of 1.1 36m. The beams oversail the bearings by 0.605m on thisbridge, so the members
alongthe line ofthe bearings represent a similarwidth ofslabto the members within
the span.
Because the skew of210 is not too large, the transversemembers have been positioned
parallel to the abutments. This leads to a simple grillagelayout, and is reasonably
accurate for small skew angles. Decks with a large skew should be analysed with a
grillageinwhichthe transverse members are at right angles to the longitudinalbeams.
Because of the discontinuous nature of the deck in the transverse direction, it is
normal (and conservative) to assume that the transverse members can be represented
by a solid slabdownto the centre ofthe webholes, which is 175mm above the soffit
ofthe inverted T beams.

SOLID SLAB DESIGNEXAMPLE

Digramofgriu/agem'ode/se toerna/qse ti/Sbridgedec*

= 9.089m

1,016

1.136

The differen'cebetween'tirestren'gtkoftireprecastcoircretebeams am!tire1'i-sitii con'crete


/S

10N/srm?, am/so a modularratioofuniu willbeassumed

$ect/on'propern'es of/rtern'allon'gitudiiralmembers (represen'tl'rgtwo beams)'

Area

= 0,495 1,016

= O,503m2

I =(0.4953l.016)/l2 =0.0103m4
c = (o,4953 1.016)/a = 0.0205m4
ect,on'roeimsoftraitsverse members(rereseirti'rg 1. 136m widthofslab)'
Thici(wess slabassumedfortran'sversemembers isdown'to web irolesof Tbeams,
wir/c.*are0, l7imabovesoffitofbeams.

of

slabtkii'kn'ess = 0.495-0.175
Area

I
C

= 0.320 x, 1,136
= (0.320x 1.136)/12

= (0.320x 1.136)/a

= 0.320 m
= 0.364 m2
= 0.0031 m4
= 0.0062m4

89

90

SIMPLE BRIDGEDESIGN USING PRESTRESSEDBEAMS

8.3 DESIGN OF TRANSVERSE REINFORCEMENT


Transverse sagging reinforcement can only be provided through the webholes ofthe
precast beams, which are at 0.610m centres. The sagging moment is therefore
recalculatedfor a 0.610m section ofslab.

Note that the depth to the reinforcement is the same as the depthassumed forthe slab
inthe analysis.

Transversereinforcementof3T 16 barsthrough eachwebhole is used. This is preferred


to a single T25bar as the extraflexibility will makeit easier to threadthe barsthrough
the web holes on site, particularly ifthese are not perfectly aligned.
Reinforcement of4T16 throughthe webholes is often usedfor the largerinverted T
andTY beams.

Note that Clause 5.3.3.2 also has a requirement for additional longitudinal shear
reinforcement in the tensile zone. Inthiscase, thisonly amounts to 83mm2 per 0.610m
section. This requirement is easily fulfilled by the excess ofbendingreinforcement
provided. Furthermore, the maximum bending andthe maximum shear will not occur
at the same place, so thisrequirement will rarelyactually result in extra reinforcement
beingneeded.
Clearly the concreteand the tensile steel have plenty of capacity to resist the shear
between the beams. The interface between the precast beamsandthe in-situconcrete
also needs to be considered. The shape of the precast beams allows shear to be
transferred by interlocking between the beams andthe in-situ concrete. Additionally,
shear can be assumed to be transferred by dowel action ofthe reinforcement through
the web holes:

= 0.7 x 0.000603 x 400


Dowel action shear capacity = 0.7 A (0.87
= 0.169 MN
This is well in excess ofthe ULS shear of0.066 MNfor a 0.610m section ofdeck.

f)

SOLID SLAB DESIGN EXAMPLE

verse$agg/ngMoment

Tra

fromthegri//ageana4fs/
max11L transversesagging momentfora 1.136iire/ement

= 101 ,VVm

eiiforcementirovidedthroaghthe vekho/es, whichareatthestandardspaci'tg0(0.61Om.


Momentper 0.610msecMw

= (0.610/1, 136) 101 = 54.2Nm


= 0.0542MNm

d = 0.320 m

D'Mto

k =0.610m
= 40 N/mm2
= 460 N/mm
z = 0,95 d = 0.304 m (assumed)

Width ofsectX9n,

Leverarm,

M=(0.87f)A8z

= 400xA8x0.304 > 0,0542MNm

,4.> 0.0542/(400x, 0.304) = 0.000446 m2


Use 3T16 (area

= 446mm2
= 603 mm2)

z =

rovi'ded

Checi(

(i- 1'1f8)d

so cony?mrirgassumptionof .z

(1

1.1X460X0.000603) = 0.961d

40x0.610x0.320

= 0.95 d

Tran'ersehe,r

MamULshear,'ta

fromgri//age,

$hearper0.610msecttn

V = 123(-N= 0.123MN

= (Ol0/l.136,)xO.123 = 0.0660MN

v = V/i'd = (0.0660MN)/(o.610mx0.320s,) = 0.34N/mm'


= 100 x 0. 000603m'
0.6IOmx 0.320m
= 0,50 N/mm' from Tak/e8

.i'ercentage reiorcement

0.31 %

=112
=

from Tak/e9
1,12x0.50 = 0.56 N/mm'

= 0.56 N/mm'

v = 0.34 N/mm' so shear capacitif

adeqjate.

91

92

SIMPLE BRIDGEDESIGNUSING PRESTRESSED BEAMS

Hogging moments can occur in this bridge deck near the edge beams, if the
edges ofthe deck are loaded, but thereis no loadnear the centre. Note that the
maximum hoggingmomentis muchlower thanthe maximum sagging moment
on the previous page.

A142 mesh will be used in the toppingthroughout the deck. This nominal
reinforcementis used in the topping concrete which is predominantly in
compression. However, at the edges of the deck where hogging occurs, this
reinforcement is not enough, and T6 bars are added.

SOLID SLAB DESIGNEXAMPLE 93

TraHsve/e
frorn

egnYageaMa4fs/',

x/llirn.'1Logg/Mg

1. 136rn e/ern&#

ofslab

Dek

= 32kA/rn

= 32 1.136 = 28.2 Nrn/rn


= 0,0282 M/Vrn/rn

d = 0,320sr-0. O4Ost = 0.280 rn


b =1.136rn
z = O.95d = O266rn

(a'prox)

M = (0.8,)A,z = 400x A8 x 0.266> 0.0282 MA/rn/rn

o, 0282/(400 0.266) = 0.000265 rn2/rn

= 265rnrn2/rn

TheA142rneskprovidesa
of142 rnrn''/ wirith
hogg4i'gattheedges ofthedeci( Add/t/Haltrailsverse re4fforcerneilt of2s,/en'gths of76bars
at200rnrn ceiltres wiYltltereforebeadded/it thetoppi'igateachsideoft/fedecA
Thta/re4rforcerneittarea

= A142rnesh + 76 200rnnt ceittres


= (142rniit2/rn) + (142rnrn2/&
= 284rnrn2/n,

> 265rnrn2/rn

reqjixved

PCA4

PRESTRESSED CONCRETEASO(i TION


60 CHARLESSTRW1.E1CE5Th iEi ]FB
Telephone:

01

6 2536161

Fe\OI

I5I48

.1