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Bachelor of technology in civil engineering

Mr. Parag Agrawal

Assistant Professor

Submitted by:

Piyush Kumar Yadav (1209700077)

Praveen Jaiswal (1209700081)

Prateek Singh (1209700080)

Rajesh Ranjan (1209700086)

Greater Noida - 201306,

Uttar Pradesh, India.

Affiliated to

Dr. APJ Abdul Kalam Technical University LUCKNOW

May, 2016

ABSTRACT

Earthen buildings are traditionally constructed since prehistoric times in all parts of the

world. Yet there is practically no standardization attempted so far. As usually constructed, they

are weak and most vulnerable to complete the collapse as observed during earthquakes in the

past. An attempt has been made here to identify the main defects and structural weakness in such

constructions. Then suggestions are given to improve their behavior under normal conditions and

to increase their resistance to earthquakes. It is recognized that no test results are yet available to

evaluate such recommendations. The need to carryout properly planned investigations is

therefore emphasized.

DECLARATION

We hereby declare that the practical project report entitled Earthquake Resistant Building is

being submitted in the particle fulfilled of the requirement for the B.Tech Civil Engineering of

the Galgotias College of Engineering And Technology.

Certified that the above statement made by the students is correct to the best of

our knowledge and belief.

Under Guidance

Mr. Parag Aggrawal

(Asst. Professor)

Greater Noida

Galgotias College of Engineering

And Technology

Head of Department

Dept. of Civil Engineering

Galgotias College of Engineering

And Technology

ii

ACKNOWLEDGMENT

The satisfaction that accompanies the successful completion of any task would be in

complete without the mention of people whose ceaseless cooperation made it possible, whose

constant guidance and incouragement crown all efforts with success.

We are greatful to our project coordinator and our project guide Mr. Parag Agrawal for his

guidance, inspiration and constructive suggestions that helped us in the preparation of this

project.

We also thank Dr. Maya(Head of Department Civil Engineering, GCET) for her

knowledgeable insight and guidance.

I am obliged to all the staff members, for the valuable information provided by them. Last but

not the least, we thank our fellow students who have helped in successful completion of this

project.

Praveen Jaiswal

Prateek Singh

Rajesh Ranjan

iii

Table of Contents

ABSTRACT .............................................................................................................. I

DECLARATION.................................................................................................... II

ACKNOWLEDGMENT ...................................................................................... III

CHAPTER-1 .............................................................................................................1

INTRODUCTION ................................................................................................1

CHAPTER-2 ...7

LITERATURE REVIEW GENERAL ..................................................................7

CHAPTER-3 .............................................................................................................9

OBJECTIVE .........................................................................................................9

CHAPTER-4 ...........................................................................................................10

METHODOLOGY .............................................................................................10

4.1 Base Isolation System ..............................................................................10

4.1.1 Basic idea of how base isolation works................................................10

4.1.2 Base isolation technique in India .........................................................11

4.2 Seismic Analysis by Response Spectra ....................................................12

4.2.1 Response Spectrum Concept .................................................................12

4.2.2 Response Spectrum Analysis Applied to MDOF Systems ....................14

4.2.3 Ductile Behavior Consideration ...........................................................15

4.3 Seismic Response by Time-History Analysis ...........................................17

4.3.1 Response of a SDOF System to General Dynamic Loading; Duhamels

Integral...........................................................................................................17

4.3.2 Linear Time History Analysis for MDOF Systems ...............................19

4.3.3 Time History Analysis for Earthquakes................................................19

4.4 Equivalent Static Method.........................................................................20

CHAPTER-5 ...........................................................................................................22

MAKING OF BUILDINGS & STRUCTURES EARTHQUAKE PROOF .......22

5.1 What is an earthquake? ...........................................................................22

5.2 What makes a building or structure fail in earthquakes? .......................24

iv

engineering? ..................................................................................................25

5.4 When looking at design and construction, how do we build earthquake

proof buildings? .............................................................................................27

5.6 Ground Motion ........................................................................................32

CHAPTER-6 ...........................................................................................................34

DESIGN CONSIDERATION AND CALCULATION......................................34

6.1 Calculation ..............................................................................................35

CHAPTER-7 ...........................................................................................................49

IMPORTANCE OF CONSTRUCTION & MAINTENANCE...........................49

7.1 Need for a comprehensive approach to earthquake-resistant

construction. ..................................................................................................49

7.2 Importance of conceptual design.............................................................50

7.3 Control or decrease of demands..............................................................50

CHAPTER-8 ...........................................................................................................51

CONCLUSION ...................................................................................................51

REFERENCES .......................................................................................................52

List of Figure

FIGURE 1 SATELLITE VIEW .............................................................................................. 1

FIGURE 2 GRAPH REPRESENTATION ................................................................................. 2

FIGURE 3 COLUMN VIEW .............................................................................................. 3

FIGURE 4 DIFFERENCE IN COLUMN .................................................................................. 4

FIGURE 5 BUILDING CRACK ........................................................................................... 5

FIGURE 6 RESTRAIN VIEW ............................................................................................. 6

FIGURE 7 ISOLATION BEARING ..................................................................................... 10

FIGURE 8 ISOLATION BEARING ON MOVEMENT ............................................................... 10

FIGURE 9 REPRESENTATION OF SPECTRUM ..................................................................... 12

FIGURE 10 MOMENT VIEW ......................................................................................... 13

FIGURE 11 DISTANT VIEW IN MOMENT ......................................................................... 13

FIGURE 12 S-W GRAPH ............................................................................................. 14

FIGURE 13 BUILDING DESIGN ...................................................................................... 23

FIGURE 14 FOUNDATION DESIGN ................................................................................. 26

FIGURE 15 STEEL BEAM ............................................................................................. 28

FIGURE 16 EARTH QUAKE PROVE BUILDING .................................................................... 29

FIGURE 17 HAITI EARTH QUAKE 2010 .......................................................................... 31

FIGURE 18 NIIGATA EARTHQUAKE 1964 ........................................................................ 32

FIGURE 19 JAPAN EARTHQUAKE 2011 .......................................................................... 33

FIGURE 20 EARTHQUAKE PROVE BUILDING DESIGN ........................................................... 34

vi

CHAPTER-1

INTRODUCTION

An earthquake-proof building is a building that has been built to survive an earthquake. The

building is built with technology made to help the building survive an earthquake. Buildings falls

in earthquakes because joints and connections cannot resist the tremendous stresses imposed by

many tones of pressure concentrated on bolts, welds and other fixings.

Seismology is the study of vibrations of earth mainly caused by earthquakes. The study of

these vibrations by various techniques, understanding the nature and various physical processes

that generate them from the major part of the seismology.

Elastic rebound theory is one such theory, which was able to describe the phenomenon of

earthquake occurring along the fault lines. Seismology as such is still a very unknown field of

study where a lot of things are yet to be discovered.

The above Picture is showing the fault lines and we can see that epicenters are all concentrated

all along the fault lines. The reason for seismic activities occurring at places other than the fault

lines are still a big question mark. Also the forecasting of earthquake has not been done yet and

would be a landmark if done so.

There is general saying that its not the earthquake which kills people but its the bad engineering

which kills people. With industrialization came the demand of high rise building and came

dangers with that.

A seismic design of high rise buildings has assumed considerable importance in recent times.

In traditional methods adopted based on fundamental mode of the structure and distribution of

earthquake forces as static forces at various stories may be adequate for structures of small

height subjected to earthquake of very low intensity but as the number of stories increases the

seismic design demands more rigorous.

2

During past earthquakes, reinforced concrete (RC) frame buildings that have columns of

different heights within one storey, suffered more damage in the shorter columns as compared to

taller columns in the same storey. Two examples of buildings with short columns in buildings on

a sloping ground and buildings with a mezzanine floor can be seen in the figure given below.

3

Poor behavior of short columns is due to the fact that in an earthquake, a tall column and a short

column of same cross section move horizontally by same amount which can be seen from the

given figure below.

4

However, the short column is stiffer as compared to the tall column, and it attracts larger

earthquake force. Stiffness of a column means resistance to deformation- the larger is the

stiffness, larger is the force required to deform it.

If a short column is not adequately designed for such a large force, it can suffer significant

damage during an earthquake. This behavior is called Short Column Effect. The damage in these

short columns is often in the form of X-shaped cracking - this type of damage of columns is due

to shear failure.

.

Many situations with short column effect arise in buildings. When a building is rested on

sloped ground, during earthquake shaking all columns move horizontally by the same amount

along with the floor slab at a particular level (this is called rigid floor diaphragm action). If

short and tall columns exist within the same storey level, then the short columns attract several

5

times larger earthquake force and suffer more damage as compared to taller ones. The short

column effect also occurs in columns that support mezzanine floors or loft slabs that are added in

between two regular floors.

There is another special situation in buildings when short-column effect occurs. Consider a wall

(masonry or RC) of partial height built to fit a window over the remaining height. The adjacent

columns behave as short columns due to presence of these walls. In many cases, other columns

in the same storey are of regular height, as there are no walls adjoining them. When the floor slab

moves horizontally during an earthquake, the upper ends of these columns undergo the same

displacement. However, the stiff walls restrict horizontal movement of the lower portion of a

short column, and it deforms by the full amount over the short height adjacent to the window

opening. On the other hand, regular columns deform over the full height. Since the effective

height over which a short column can freely bend is small, it offers more resistance to horizontal

motion and thereby attracts a larger force as compared to the regular column. As a result, short

column sustains more damage. X-cracking in a column adjacent to the walls of partial height. In

new buildings, short column effect should be avoided to the extent possible during architectural

design stage itself. When it is not possible to avoid short columns, this effect must be addressed

in structural design. The Indian Standard IS:13920-1993 for ductile detailing of RC structures

requires special confining reinforcement to be provided over the full height of columns that are

likely to sustain short column effect. The special confining reinforcement (i.e., closely spaced

closed ties) must extend beyond the short column into the columns vertically above and below

by a certain distance. In existing buildings with short columns, different retrofit solutions can be

employed to avoid damage in future earthquakes. Where walls of partial height are present, this

will eliminate the short column effect.

6

CHAPTER-2

LITERATURE REVIEW GENERAL

Performance evaluation of structures should be conducted considering post-elastic

behavior. Therefore, a nonlinear structures are expected to deform inelastically when subjected

to severe earthquakes, so seismic analysis procedure must be used for evaluation purpose as

post-elastic behavior cannot be determined directly by an elastic analysis. Moreover, maximum

inelastic displacement demand of structures should be determined to adequately estimate the

seismically induced demands on structures that exhibit inelastic behavior. Various simplified

nonlinear analysis procedures and approximate methods to estimate maximum inelastic

displacement demand of structures are proposed in literature. The widely used simplified

nonlinear analysis procedure, pushover analysis is discussed in detail.

The published reports ATC 40 (1996) and FEMA 273 (1997) highlighted the non-linear static

pushover analysis. It is an efficient method for the performance evaluation of a structure

subjected to seismic loads. The step by step procedure of the pushover analysis is to determine

the capacity curve, demand curve and performance point. These reports deal with modeling

aspects of the hinge behavior, acceptance criteria and procedures to locate the performance

point.Sudhir K. Jain and Rahul Navin (2000) studied the seismic strengthening of multistorey

reinforced concrete frames which were assessed by means of non-linear pseudo static analysis of

four bays, three, six and nine storey frames were designed for seismic zones I to V as per Indian

codes. The over strength increases as the number of storeys decreases; over strength of the three

storey frame was higher than the nine storey frame. Further, interior frames have higher over

strength as compared to exterior frames of the same building. These observations were

significant for seismic design codes which, at present do not take into account the variation in

over strength.

A modal pushover analysis procedure for estimating seismic demands for buildings was

developed by Chopra and Goel (2002). The modal pushover analysis was applied to a ninestorey steel building to determine the peak inelastic response and it was compared with rigorous

non-linear response history analysis. It was concluded that the modal pushover analysis was

accurate enough for practical application in building evaluation and design. Santosh Kumar et al.

(2003) studied the evaluation of multistorey buildings with and without considering the stiffness

of infill located in zone III. The study compromised of seismic loads, gravity load analysis and

lateral load analysis as per the seismic code for the bare and infill structure by considering

different analytical models, and their evaluation was carried out using pushover analysis. The

results in terms of natural periods, lateral deformation and ductility ratio were compared for the

different building models. It was concluded that the performance point of all the building models

considered for the study falls before the life safety point. Hence the buildings need not be

7

retrofitted. Base shear capacity was observed to be 20 greater than the design base shear;

therefore the building has safe under design basis earthquake.

Anil Babu et al. (2008) conducted vulnerability analysis on two existing multistorey buildings.

Gravity load analysis, response spectrum analysis and pushover analysis were performed. The

capacity of each member was obtained and compared with the demand. The result showed the

level of vulnerability of the buildings. The first building, which was in zone III, was able to

sustain the gravity load. The second building, located in zone IV, however was adequate under

gravity load. But, under earthquake load, demands on some of the members crossed their

capacities.

Shahrin Hossain (2011) followed the procedures of ATC 40 in evaluating the seismic

performance of residential buildings in Dhaka. The present study investigated as well as

compared the performances of bare frame, full infilled and soft ground storey buildings. For

different loading conditions resembling the practical situations of Dhaka city, the performances

of these structures were analysed with the help of capacity curve, capacity spectrum, deflection,

drift and seismic performance level. The performance of an in filled frame was found to be much

better than a bare frame structure. It is found that, consideration of effect of the infill leads to

significant change in the capacity. Investigation of buildings with soft storey showed that soft

storey mechanism reduced the performance of the structure significantly and makes them most

vulnerable type of construction in earthquake prone areas.

Ramaraju et al. (2012) carried out the nonlinear analysis (pushover analysis) for a typical six

storey office building designed for four load cases, considered three revisions of Indian (IS: 1893

and IS: 456) codes. In that study, nonlinear stressstrain curves for confined concrete and userdefined hinge properties as per Eurocode 8 were used. A significant variation was observed in

base shear capacities and hinge formation mechanisms for four design cases with default and

user-defined hinges at yield and ultimate. This may be due to the fact that, the orientation and the

axial load level of the columns cannot be taken into account properly by the default-hinge

properties. Based on the observations in the hinging patterns, it was apparent that the userdefined hinge model was more successful in capturing the hinging mechanism compared to the

model with the default hinge.

CHAPTER-3

OBJECTIVE

Most of the loss of life in past earthquakes has occurred due to the collapse of buildings,

constructed in traditional materials like stone, brick, adobe and wood,which were not perticularly

engineered to be earthquake resistant.While theoretically , if appropiate resoures and building

materials are made available, it may be possible to construct buildings which can withstand the

effects of earthquake without any appriciable damage, but practically it is not feasible to do so

due to very high costs involved.From the safety view point, the safety of human life is the

primary concern and the functioning of the buildings has lower priority.

If a building is designed and constructed in such a way that even in the event of the probable

maximum earthquake intensity in the region,

1-An ordinary building should not suffer total or partial collapse,

2-it should not suffer such irreparable damage which would require demolishing and

rebuilding,

3-It may sustain such damage which could be repair quickly and the put back to its usual

functioning,

4-The damage to an important building should even be less so that the functioning of the

activities during post-emergency period may continue unhampered and the community buildings

may be used as temprory shelters for the adversly affected people.

The present state of research indicates that fortunately the above structural safety can be

achieved by adopting appropriate design and construction details involving only small extra

expenditure which would be within the economic means.

The object of this project is to deal with the basic concepts involved in achieving

appropriate earthquake resistance of such buildings as stated above, which may be collectively

called as Non-Engineered Buildings.In this project we are designing a G+4 office cum residential

building with respect to several dead and live loads or vertical loads as well as eathquake loads

or horizontal loads.

CHAPTER-4

METHODOLOGY

4.1 Base Isolation System

A base isolated structure is supported by a series of bearing pads which are placed between the

building and the buildings foundation.The bearing is very stiff and strong in the vertical

direction but flexible in the horizontal direction.

10

The figure shows an earthquake acting on both, a base isolated building and a conventional

fixed base building. Due to earthquake, the ground beneath each building begins to move to the

left. Each building responds with movement, the building undergoes displacement towards the

right. The buildings displacement in the direction opposite to the ground motion is due to the

inertia. The inertial force acting on a building are the most important of all those forces

generated during earthquake. The inertial forces which the building undergoes are proportional

to the buildings acceleration of the ground motion. Actually buildings do not shift in only one

direction. Due to the complex nature of earthquake ground motion, the building tends to vibrate

back and forth in varying directions.

In addition to displacing towards right, the un-isolated building is also shown to be changing

its shape from a rectangular to a parallelogram, this is deformation of the building. The primary

cause of earthquake damage to buildings is the deformation which the building undergoes as a

result of the inertial forces acting upon it.

Even though the base-isolated building is too displacing but it retains its original rectangular

shape. Deformation undergoes only in the rubber-lead bearings supporting the building. The base

isolated building itself escapes the deformation and damage which implies that the inertial force

acting on it has been reduced. Experiments and observation of base isolated buildings in

earthquake has been shown to reduce building acceleration to as little as 1/4 of the acceleration

of comparable fixed-base buildings.

Acceleration is decreased because the base isolation system increases a buildings period of

vibration, the time it takes for the building to roll back and forth and then back again. In general,

structures with longer periods of vibration tend to reduce acceleration, while those with shorter

periods tend to increase or amplify acceleration.

Finally, the rubber isolation bearings are highly elastic so they dont suffer any damage and the

lead plug reduces the energy of motion (that is Kinetic Energy) by converting it into heat. By

reducing the heat entering the building, it helps to slow down and eventually stop the buildings

vibration sooner than would otherwise be the case, it damps the buildings vibration.

In India, base isolation technique was first applied after the 1993 Killari (Maharastra)

earthquake. Two single storey buildings in newly relocated Killari town were built with rubber

base isolators resting on hard ground.

After the 2001 Bhuj (Gujarat) earthquake, the four-storey Bhuj Hospital building was built with

base isolation technique. All of these are brick masonry buildings with concrete roof.

11

Response spectrum analysis is perhaps the most common method used in design to

evaluate the maximum structural response due to the seismic action. This is a linear approximate

method based on modal analysis and on a response spectrum definition. According to the

analogy between SDOF and MDOF systems, the maximum modal response of the nth mode, Y ,

is the same as for a SDOF system havin =n and =n.

It should be emphasized that this procedure only leads to the maximum response, instead

of fully describing the response. This saves up a lot of calculation effort with evident

consequences in the time consumed and CPU requirements. The maximum response is

established for each mode by means of the adequate response spectrum. Therefore the response

spectrum analysis is often considered to be the most attractive method for the seismic design of a

given structural system.

To explain the response spectrum concept, one considers a SDOF system submitted to an

external action that may be either an applied force or a support displacement. The procedures

used to formulate and solve the equation of motion, q(t ), and therefore to achieve the time

dependent response of the referred SDOF system, were already discussed in paragraphs 2.1 to

2.5. For the response spectrum definition, it is necessary to evaluate the value of the maximum

response, which may be easily determined once its equation of motion, q(t ), is fully known.

If the procedure of determining the maximum response is repeated for a

sufficient range of SDOF systems, with a specified critical damping ratio, , and for different

natural vibration frequencies, , submitted to the same external action, it is possible to define a

function and represent it in a diagram similar to the one shown in figure 8. This diagram is

12

generally known as a response spectrum, S(, ). Usually it is represented with the x-axis being

the natural vibration frequencies or periods of vibration of the SDOF and the y-axis being the

corresponding maximum response values. Generally, in the same graph different response

spectra, corresponding to the same action and to different damping ratios usually found in

common structures (2%, 5% and 10%) are shown as in figure 8.

Figure 8 represents a typical relative displacement response spectrum, Sd ( , ), for values of

critical damping ratio, , usually found in common structural systems. The meaning of the

relative displacement, q*. It is worth to analyse the evolution of the response spectrum function:

1) For low values of frequency, close to zero, one may see that the maximum value for the

relative displacement tends to a certain value, which is the support displacement, qs. This is

easily explained if one remembers the concept of the natural vibration frequency, , in a SDOF

system. In fact a SDOF with a low value of is very flexible and behaves as shown in figure 9

when submitted to a support displacement.

2) After a certain value of frequency, the relative displacement tends to zero. In fact high values

of frequency correspond to a very stiff system. The response motion will then be as shown in

figure 10 the relative displacements, q*, tend to zero.

13

It should be noted that the maximum responses, S(, ) may be presented in every desired

form, i.e. for displacements, Sd ( , ), velocities, Sv (, , and accelerations, Sa (, ) , or even

in the form of internal forces or bending moments in a given point of the SDOF system. The

available response spectra used for design purpose, in most of the Seismic Design codes, are

defined by means of an accelerogram representing a typical earthquake in the region of the

structure.

The equation of motion for the nth degree of freedom under a support excitation in direction J

for a given MDOF system may be written as:

(1)

For direction J, the maximum value for the modal coordinate in terms of displacements, Yn,max

, may be easily achieved if the displacement response spectrum, Sd ( , ), is available. Instead

of solving mathematically an expression in the form of (2.80), Yn,max is established from the

response spectrum, (n Sd n , ), for the SDOF system with both the same natural vibration

frequency, n and critical damping ratio, n . The procedure is illustrated in figure.

After establishing the maximum value for the modal coordinate, Y = Sd, the modal participation

factor is recovered as:

(2)

14

In the same way one may calculate the maximum response in terms of accelerations, Yn,max , or

velocities, Y , if the corresponding spectra, Sa ( ) or Sv ( )are accessible.

(3)

We now discuss the problem of establishing a reasonable value for the global maximum response

of the system. The assumption behind the reasoning expressed in (1), i.e. to sum the maximum

values of each modal coordinate, Y n,max, certainly will correspond to an upper limit of the

global response with a low probability of occurrence, since is very unlikely for the maximum

modal responses to happen simultaneously. In fact this is the main disadvantage of the response

spectra analyses: The result provided is a set of extreme values that dont take place at the same

time and therefore do not correspond to an equilibrium state. Thus this method cant provide

information on the failure mode of the structure, which is an important information from the

engineering point of view.

To minimize these disadvantages it is necessary to combine the modal responses. There are

several ways of carrying out this and it is out of the purpose of the present text to discuss them.

Therefore only two methods are presented. It should be mentioned that there is some controversy

about which method leads to better results. In the design codes, usually the first method to be

discussed below is suggested. However is up to the designer to choose more accurate procedures

of combining the modal response if the SRSS method cant be applied.

As may be understood by the discussion so far, earthquake analysis by response spectra is based

on the assumption that the system behaves linearly. This means that even for the maximum

response situation the internal forces on the different structural elements of the system are

assumed to be proportional to the displacements achieved.

15

However this hypothesis is far from reality for structural materials as reinforced concrete or

steel. For instance, a sketch of the stress-strain curve for steel, in figure, shows that this material

will roughly behave linearly until yielding and thereafter non-linearly until failure. The symbols

y and u stand for yielding and ultimate strains, respectively. The capacity of the material to

absorb deformations in a stabilized way is called ductility. One way of measuring ductility is the

ratio of ultimate deformation to the yielding deformation. The larger this value the more ability

of the material to dissipate energy after yielding, and therefore the more ductile. The seismic

design criteria consider that a structure submitted to an extreme earthquake should be prevented

from collapse but significant damage is expected. Therefore this type of action must be included

among the design load conditions for the Ultimate Limit State design. Under these conditions,

yielding is expected which will lead to inelastic response of the structure.

Assuming that the deflections, , produced by a given earthquake are essentially

the same whether the structure behaves linearly or yields significantly, one can utilize the nonlinear behaviour and design structures for less values of stresses, , or internal forces, F. This

idea is illustrated in figure.

Therefore if the response spectra method is used to design a structural system, the stresses

/internal forces corresponding to the maximum deformations previously achieved may be

reduced to take into account the yielding of the material. This is done by means of the

coefficient, , called the reduction factor or behavior coefficient the physical meaning of which

is shown in figure above.

The determination of this coefficient is also a matter of controversy. Usually, the value given for

the behaviour coefficient is much less than the real one as the elastic response is reduced using

further reduction coefficients. However, it is accepted that in order to maximize the non-linear

behaviour of the system and thus its behaviour coefficient, it is desirable to design it in a

redundant way i.e. with a sufficient number of plastic hinges allowed before collapse.It should be

stated that ductility does not depend only on the material characteristics but also on the system

and the direction of loading. Consider, for instance, the MDOF system. The horizontal motion of

the mass will induce bending moments on the column whereas the vertical motion of the mass

will lead to a compression tension. For the first situation the moment-rotation curve will show

16

that the element has capacity to absorb deformations after yielding and so ductile behaviour may

be assumed. On the other hand, the axial force axial deformation diagram often show brittle

behaviour and so = 1 is usually adopted. This is the reason why in most of the analyses, for

vertical seismic action, the reduction factor is taken as unity.

Time-History analysis is a step-by-step procedure where the loading and the response history are

evaluated at successive time increments, t steps. During each step the response is evaluated

from the initial conditions existing at the beginning of the step (displacements and velocities) and

the loading history in the interval. With this method the non-linear behaviour may be easily

considered by changing the structural properties (e.g. stiffness, k) from one step to the next.

Therefore this method is one of the most effective for the solution of non-linear response, among

the many methods available. Nevertheless, in the present text, a linear time history analysis is

adopted i.e. the structural properties are assumed to remain constant during the entire loading

history and further it is assumed that the structure behaves linearly. As a consequence the mode

superposition method, already discussed in chapter 2, may be applied.

Duhamels Integral

The equilibrium equation for a given general dynamic loading, p(t), may be expressed in the

same form as (4) for a damped SDOF system, i.e.:

(4)

It should be noted that both the response, q(t), and the dynamical loading, p(t), depend on time.

The purpose of Duhamels integral is to achieve the response at any time, t, due to load applied

at another time .

The response to general dynamic loading of a SDOF system subjected to initial conditions q0

and q is deduced considering first the corresponding free vibration response.

(5)

If the starting time is different from 0, the above expression may be written in a general form

introducing as the time corresponding to the initial conditions:

17

(6)

Now we consider the same SDOF system acted upon by a load p(). This load induces into the

system a velocity variation, q& , in the interval given by the impulse-momentum

relationship:

(7)

The second term in this equation represents the area of the plot p() in the time interval . For a

differential time interval, d, this area is simply p()d, which allows to re-write equation:

(8)

Using the previous relation and noticing that the response after the termination of the short

duration impulse, p( ) d , is a free vibration motion subjected to an initial velocity, dq&(), one

may write the differential response, dq(t), as follows, for t>:

(9)

The entire loading history may be considered to consist of a succession of such short impulses,

each producing its own differential response according to the expression above. Because the

system is assumed to be linear, the total response may be established by summing all the

differential responses developed during the loading history. This is the same as saying that the

response at time t is given by the integral of the differential displacements since time t=0 until

time t., i.e.:

(10)

This result is known as Duhamels Integral and is one of the most important results in Structural

Dynamics as it may be used to express the response of any damped SDOF system subjected to

any form of dynamical loading, p(). There are several procedures to evaluate this integral and it

is out of the purpose of this text to discuss them here.

To take into account initial conditions, the free damped vibration response must be

added to the solution, which leads to the result:

18

(11)

As one may notice the general response for damped SDOF systems is composed by two terms

with the same nature as discussed. The first term reflects only the influence of the initial

conditions and the second term corresponds to the loading effect on the structural response

The determination of the modal coordinates of a given MDOF systems, Yn(t), is accomplished

in which the vector {p(t )} represents the general dynamic loading applied in the corresponding

degrees of freedom. in which the vector {p(t )} represents the general dynamic loading applied in

the corresponding degrees of freedom.

(12)

assuming that the systemstarts from rest, with =n and =n , i.e.:

(13)

As mentioned before, an earthquake action is considered as a base motion computed on the basis

of the support acceleration. The equation of motion for the nth mode under direction J is the

following:

(14)

Remembering the expression of the modal participation factor, PnJ, it is obvious that the second

term may be written as:

19

(15)

the load vector {p(t)} as:

(16)

By substituting the value of p(t):

(17)

The problem now consists in solving this expression above for each modal coordinate. One of

the most common techniques is to assume the load subdivided into a sequence of time intervals,

steps, in which the modal coordinates, Yn(t), are calculated. This procedure is called the step-bystep integration method and next we shall briefly describe one of the many different ways to

solve it.

This method is perhaps the simplest procedure at disposal for a structural engineer to perform an

earthquake analysis and achieve reasonable results. It is prescribed in any relevant code for

earthquake analysis and is widely used especially for buildings and other common structures

meeting certain regularity conditions.

The method is also called The Lateral Forces Method as the effects of an earthquake

are assumed to be the same as the ones resulting from the statical transverse loadings. As

discussed before, in the Rayleigh method, an inertia loading provides a good approximation to

the natural vibration shape of the structure. If the structural response is not significantly affected

by contributions from higher modes of vibration it is reasonable to assume that with an

appropriate set of inertia forces one may achieve a good approximation for the response. This is

the basic concept of the Equivalent Static Method. Each code presents its own procedure to

compute and to distribute the static equivalent forces in order to achieve the earthquake effects

on the structure11.

Usually an expression is defined to prescribe the minimum lateral seismic force, also

designated the base shear force. One usual requirement for the structure regarding the

application of this method is that the natural vibration period of the structure should be limited

by a maximum value, which leads to a certain minimum value of frequency/stiffness. This is due

to the fact that often the response is mainly controlled by the first mode of vibration. Thus,

imposing a minimum value of frequency the higher modes contribution may be neglected.

20

The structure to be analysed by the equivalent static method should respect certain

regarding its geometrical regularity and stiffness distribution such as:

All lateral load resisting elements (such as columns or walls) should run from

the base to the top without any interruption:

Mass and lateral stiffness should not change abruptly from the base to the top;

Geometrical asymmetries in height or in plan due to setbacks should not

exceed certain values;

21

CHAPTER-5

MAKING OF BUILDINGS & STRUCTURES

EARTHQUAKE PROOF

What is an earthquake?

What makes a building or structure fail in earthquakes?

How can we make buildings resistant to earthquakes?

When looking at design and construction, how do we earthquake proof buildings?

How can existing buildings be strengthened to resist earthquakes?

Chinese Version

There are a wide variety of earthquake effects - these might include a chasm opening up or a

drop of many metres across a fault line. Therefore, it is not possible to design an earthquake

proof building which is guaranteed to resist all possible earthquakes. However, it is possible

during your design and construction process to build in a number of earthquake resistant features

by applying earthquake engineering techniques, which would increase enormously the chances

of survival of both buildings and their occupants.

Both the sea bed and the land that we inhabit are formed of a crusty skin of light rocks floating

on the soft centre of the earth, which is made of heavier molten rock and molten iron. This crusty

skin is not one solid piece but is made up of lumps, separated by faults and trenches, or pressed

together into mountains. These separate lumps and plates are not static but are moved in slow

motion by convection forces in the molten core, gravitational forces from the Sun and Moon and

centrifugal forces from the Earth's rotation. Some plates are moving apart, particularly in the Mid

Ocean Trenches, where molten material pushes up and shoves the plates apart, whilst others are

bumping into each other head on, these form mountains like the Himalayas (the whole of the

Indian Sub-Continent is moving northwards and hitting Asia, for example). Some are sliding one

over another, like the west coast of the Americas, where the land plates are sliding over the

denser ocean bed plates, causing the Andes and the Rockies to be thrust upwards. Some plates

are moving along past each other, sticking together a while at a fault line, often in combination

with bumping or sliding under/over (As in San Francisco).

All of these movements cause earthquakes (and usually volcanoes as well). If the movement was

steady, about a millimeter or so a year, no one would notice. But the plates tend to jam; the

movement carries on, but the material where they touch is stretched, or compressed, or bent

sideways. The material deforms (like stretching or compressing or twisting a bit of plastic). At

some stage it reaches the breaking point along all or part of the joint, then it breaks, and there is a

sudden movement. The movement may be tiny or may be several feet; but enormous amounts of

energy are released, far more than the biggest Nuclear Bombs. The shock waves from this

release of energy shoot out in all directions, like the ripples

22

23

When you throw a stone in a pond: except that they travel faster through the land. They can

be measured all around the whole world. This is an Earthquake.

Prior to the Earthquake there are often little warning shakes, where highly stressed bits break

and the plate joints readjust themselves a little, but allow the main join to become more stressed.

After the primary Earthquake when the main join has failed and moved, there is another

readjustment, and further bits around the fault become overstressed too, and they fail. These

aftershocks can themselves be highly energetic Earthquakes. After the Earthquake, the area

settles down again. But the movement carries on and the next Earthquake is already building up,

remorselessly. People forget and build buildings and structures that are going to kill their

children next time when they could ensure that during the design and construction phase some

earthquake proof measures have been incorporated.

An Earthquake moves the ground. It can be one sudden movement, but more often it is a

series of shock waves at short intervals, like our ripples from the pebble in the pond analogy

above. It can move the land up and down, and it can move it from side to side.

All buildings can carry their own weight (or they would fall down anyway by themselves).

They can usually carry a bit of snow and a few other floor loads and suspended loads as well,

vertically; so even badly built buildings and structures can resist some up-and-down loads. But

buildings and structures are not necessarily resistant to side-to-side loads, unless this has been

taken into account during the structural engineering design and construction phase with some

earthquake proof measures taken into consideration. This weakness would only be found out

when the Earthquake strikes, and this is a bad time to find out. It is this side-to-side load which

causes the worst damage, often collapsing poor buildings on the first shake. The side-to-side load

can be worse if the shocks come in waves, and some bigger buildings can vibrate like a huge

tuning fork, each new sway bigger than the last, until failure. This series of waves is more likely

to happen where the building is built on deep soft ground, like Mexico City. A taller or shorter

building nearby may not oscillate much at the same frequency.

Often more weight has been added to a building or structure at most frequently at greater heights;

say another floor and another over that; walls built round open balconies and inside partitions to

make more, smaller, rooms; rocks piled on roofs to stop them blowing away; storage inside. This

extra weight produces great forces on the structure and helps it collapse. The more weight there

is, and the higher this weight is in the building, the stronger the building and its foundations must

be to be resistant to side earthquakes; many buildings have not been strengthened when the extra

weight was added. Often, any resistance to the sway loading of the building is provided by walls

and partitions; but these are sometimes damaged and weakened in the Main Earthquake. The

building or structure is then more vulnerable, and even a weak aftershock, perhaps from a

slightly different direction, or at a different frequency, can cause collapse. In a lot of multi storey

buildings, the floors and roofs are just resting on the walls, held there by their own weight; and if

there is any structural framing it is too often inadequate. This can result in a floor or roof falling

off its support and crashing down, crushing anything below.

24

Often more weight has been added to building or structure at a higher level, for example

another floor, extra walls and partitions, extra storage or even rocks piled on roofs to stop them

blowing away. Small cracks appear in the concrete. The bonding of the 'stirrups' (the small steel

bars which bind the main reinforcement together) to the concrete weakens, the outer concrete

crumbles (spalling), the main reinforcing bars can bend outwards away from the column and all

strength disappears. This was beautifully demonstrated under the Oakland Freeway, where huge

round concrete columns crumbled and crumpled. They have now been reinforced with massive

belts around them as a result of an earthquake engineering review and to improve structural

dynamics.

In a lot of multi storey buildings the lower floor has more headroom (so taller columns); and

it often has more openings (so less walls); and it is usually stood on 'pinned' feet with no

continuity. So the ground-to-first floor columns, which carry the biggest loads from the weight

and the biggest cumulative sideways loads from the earthquake, are the longest and the least

restrained and have the least end fixity. They are often the first to fail. It only takes one to fail for

the worst sort of disaster, the pancake collapse so familiar to anyone who has seen the results in

Armenia, Mexico, Turkey, Iran, Peru, and now Pakistan and Kashmir. Sometimes buildings are

built on soft soil; this can turn into quicksand when shaken about, leading to complete slumping

of buildings into the soil. Some tall buildings can stay almost intact but fall over in their entirety.

The taller the building, the more likely this is to happen, particularly if the building can oscillate

at the frequency of the shock waves, and particularly if some liquefaction of soft soil underneath

has allowed the building to tilt.

earthquake engineering?

To be earthquake proof, buildings, structures and their foundations need to be built to be resistant

to sideways loads. The lighter the building is, the less the loads. This is particularly so when the

weight is higher up. Where possible the roof should be of light-weight material. If there are

floors and walls and partitions, the lighter these are the better, too. If the sideways resistance is to

be obtained from walls, these walls must go equally in both directions. They must be strong

enough to take the loads. They must be tied in to any framing, and reinforced to take load in their

weakest direction. They must not fall apart and must remain in place after the worst shock waves

so as to retain strength for the aftershocks.

If the sideways resistance comes from diagonal bracing then it must also go equally all round

in both directions. Where possible, it should be strong enough to accept load in tension as well as

compression: the bolted or welded connections should resist more tension than the ultimate

tension value of the brace (or well more than the design load) and it should not buckle with loads

well above the design load. And the loads have got to go down to ground in a robust way. If the

sideways load is to be resisted with moment resisting framing then great care has to be taken to

ensure that the joints are stronger than the beams, and that the beams will fail before the

columns, and that the columns cannot fail by spalling if in concrete. Again the rigid framing

should go all around, and in both directions.

25

If the building earthquake resistance is to come from moment resisting frames, then special

care should be taken with the foundation-to-first floor level. If the requirement is to have a taller

clear height, and to have open holes in the walls, then the columns at this level may have to be

much stronger than at higher levels; and the beams at the first floor, and the columns from

26

ground to second floor, have to be able to resist the turning loads these columns deliver to the

frame. Alternatively, and preferably, the columns can be given continuity at the feet. This can be

done with 'fixed feet' with many bolts into large foundations, or by having a grillage of steel

beams at the foundation level able to resist the column moments. Such steel grillage can also

keep the foundations in place.

If the beams in the frame can bend and yield a little at their highest stressed points, without

losing resistance, while the joints and the columns remain full strength, then a curious thing

happens: the resonant frequency of the whole frame changes. If the building was vibrating in

time with shock waves, this vibration will tend to be damped out. This phenomenon is known as

'plastic hinging' and is easily demonstrated in steel beams, though a similar thing can happen

with reinforced concrete beams as long as spalling is avoided.

All floors have to be connected to the framing in a robust and resilient way. They should

never be able to shake loose and fall. Again all floors should be as light as possible. They should

go all round each column and fix to every supporting beam or wall, in a way that cannot be

shaken off. One way of reducing the vulnerability of big buildings is to isolate them from the

floor using bearings or dampers, but this is a difficult and expensive process not suitable for low

and medium rise buildings and low cost buildings (though it may be a good technique for

Downtown Tokyo). Generally it is wise to build buildings that are not too high compared to their

width in Earthquake areas, unless special precautions are taken.

earthquake proof buildings?

When designing earthquake safe structures the first consideration is to make the highest bit, the

roof, as light as possible. This is best done with profiled steel cladding on light gauge steel Zed

purlins. This can also have double skin with spacers and insulation. It can have a roof slope

between 3 and 15 degrees. If it is required to have a 'flat' roof, this could be made with a

galvanized steel decking and solid insulation boards, and topped with a special membrane. Even

a 'flat' roof should have a slope of about 2 degrees. If it is required to have a 'flat' concrete roof,

then the best solution is to have steel joists at about 2m, 6", centers, and over these to have

composite style roof decking. Then an RC slab can be poured over the roof, with no propping;

the slab will only be say 110mm, 4 1/2", and will weigh only about 180 kg/sqm. Such a slab will

be completely bonded to the frame and will not be able to slip off, or collapse.

If the building or structure is a normal single storey, then any normal portal frame or other steel

framed building, if the design and construction is competently done, will be resistant to

Earthquake loads. If it is to have 2 or more stories, more needs to be done to ensure its survival

in an earthquake. As with the roof, the floors should be made as light as possible. The first way

to do this is to use traditional timber joists and timber or chipboard or plywood flooring. If this is

done it is vital that the timber joists are firmly through bolted on the frames to avoid them

slipping or being torn off. The frame needs them for stability and the floor must never fall down.

A better alternative is to substitute light gauge steel Zeds for the timber joists. These can span

further and are easier to bolt firmly to the framework. Then, floor-boards or tongue-and-groove

27

chipboard can easily be screwed to the Zeds. However in Hotels, Apartment buildings, Offices

and the like, concrete floors may be needed. In such cases we should reduce the spans to the

spanning capacity of composite decking flooring, and pour reinforced concrete slabs onto our

decking. The decking is fixed to the joists, the joists into the main beams, the main beams into

the columns and the concrete is poured around all the columns. There is simply no way that such

floors can fall off the frame.

Once the floors are robustly fitted to the frames, the frames themselves must be correctly

designed. Please look at the diagram above.

28

29

The frame should not be built on simple pinned feet at ground level. Outside earthquake

zones it is normal to build a 'nominally pinned footing' under each column. This actually gives

some fixity to the base as well as horizontal and vertical support. But in an earthquake, this

footing may be moving and rotating, so rather than provide a bit of fixity, it can push to left or

right, or up and down, and rotate the column base, helping the building to collapse prematurely.

Any pinned footing may actually be moving differently from other footings on the same

building, and so not even be giving horizontal or vertical support, but actually helping to tear the

building apart. So to earthquake proof the building REIDsteel would start with steel ground

beams joining the feet together, and these should have moment resistance to prevent the bottoms

of the columns from rotating. These ground beams may well go outside the line of the building,

thus effectively reducing the height-to-width ratio as well, helping to reduce total over-turning.

This ground beam may be built on pads or piles or rafts as appropriate. On loose soils, the

bearing pressure should be very conservatively chosen, to minimise effect of liquefaction.

By applying earthquake engineering techniques, REIDsteel would then fit the columns to

these ground beams with strong moment connections. Either the connections should be strong in

both directions, or some columns designed to resist loads in one direction and others in the other

direction. The columns should not be the item that fails first: the ground beam should be able to

rotate and form plastic hinges before either the connection or the column fails. The reason is that

a column failing could instigate a collapse; the connection failing could instigate the column

failure. In comparison, the plastic hinging of the ground beam takes time, absorbs energy, and

changes the resonant frequency of the frame while leaving the frame nearly full strength.

Next, REIDsteel would fix the main beams to the outer columns with full capacity joints. This

will almost always mean haunched connections. Great care would be taken to consider the shear

within the column at these connections. The connections should be equally strong in both up or

down directions, and the bolt arrangement should never fail before the beam or the column. In

extreme earthquake sway, the beams should always be able to form hinges somewhere, in one or

two places, without the column with its axial load failing elastically. In this way the frame can

deflect, the plastic hinges can absorb energy; the resonant frequency of the structure is altered,

all without collapse or major loss of strength. All this takes a little time until the tremor passes.

The inner columns do not give a lot of sway resistance, but even so, should have connections

which do not fail before the beam or the column. Then, the floors are fitted, Light-weight or

conventional cladding is fitted to the frames, light-weight or thin concrete roofs are fitted as

described above. You have a building that will behave very well in an earthquake with

significant resistance to damage.

Nothing can be guaranteed to be fully resistant to any possible earthquake, but buildings

and structures like the ones proposed here by REIDsteel would have the best possible chance of

survival; and would save many lives and livelihoods, providing greater safety from an

earthquake.

Earthquakes are a major geological phenomena. Man has been terrified of this phenomena for

ages, as little has been known about the causes of earthquakes, but it leaves behind a trail of

destruction. There are hundreds of small earthquakes around the world every day. Some of them

are so minor that humans cannot feel them, but seismographs and other sensitive machines can

30

record them. Earthquakes occur when tectonic plates move and rub against each other.

Sometimes, due to this movement, they snap and rebound to their original position. This might

cause a large earthquakes as the tectonic plates try to settle down. This is known as the Elastic

Rebound Theory.

Every year, earthquakes take the lives of thousands of people, and destroy property worth

billions. The 2010 Haiti Earthquake killed over 1,50,000 people and destroyed entire cities and

villages. Designing Earthquake Resistant Structures is indispensable. It is imperative that

structures are designed to resist earthquake forces, in order to reduce the loss of life. The science

of Earthquake Engineering and Structural Design has improved tremendously, and thus, today,

we can design safe structures which can safely withstand earthquakes of reasonable magnitude.

Earthquakes cause massive vibrations in the Earths crust. This can cause a number of

problems in the ground, which in turn becomes a hazard to all life and property. The effect

depends on the geology of soil and topography of the land.

31

The most destructive of all earthquake hazards is caused by seismic waves reaching the ground

surface at places where human-built structures, such as buildings and bridges, are located. When

seismic waves reach the surface of the earth at such places, they give rise to what is known as

strong ground motion. Strong ground motions causes buildings and other structures to move and

shake in a variety of complex ways. Many buildings cannot withstand this movement and suffer

damages of various kinds and degrees.

32

33

CHAPTER-6

DESIGN CONSIDERATION AND CALCULATION

A detailed earthquake resistant design of a four storey public cum office building according to

IS 13920: 1993 following with IS 456: 2000 and SP 16: 1980

34

6.1 Calculation

Preliminary data

1. Type of structure

2. Zone

3. Layout

4. Number of stories

5. Ground storey height

6. Floor-to-floor height

7. External walls

8. Internal walls

9. Live load

10.Materials

11.Seismic analysis

1):2002)

12.Design philosophy

456: 1978

13.Ductility design

14.Size of exterior column

15.Size of interior column

16.Size of beams in longitudinal

and transverse direction

17.Total depth of slab

IV

As shown in fig

Four(G+3)

4.0 m

3.35 m

250 mm thick including plaster

150 mm thick including plaster

3.5 kN/m2

M 20 and Fe 415

Equivalent static method(IS 1893(Part

Limit state method conforming to IS

IS 13920: 1993

300*530 mm

300*300 mm

300*450 mm

120 mm

35

LOADING DATA

Dead Load (DL)

Terrace water proofing (TWF) = 1.5kN/m2

Floor Finish (FF) = 0.5kN/m2

Weight of slab = 25D kN/m2, where D is total depth of slab

(Assuming total depth of slab = 120 mm)

Weight of walls

36

Internal walls (150 mm thick) = 3 kN/m/meter height (20 @ 0.25)

Live Load (LL)

Roof = 1.5 kN/m2

Live load on floor = 3.5 kN/m2

Ah = (Z/2) (Sa/g)(I/R)

Sa/g = 2.5* , I = 1.0,m

R = 5.0 (SMRF)

Ah = (0.24/2) * (2.5) * (1.0/5.0) = 0.06

T = 0.09 h/d1/2 = 0.09 * (14.05)/(11.50)1/2 = 0.372

For T = 0.372 , Sa/g = 2.5 (from IS 1893 (Part 1): 2002)

Dead Load Analysis

DL at roof level

Weight of slab = 25D = 25 * 0.12 = 3.0 kN/m2

Weight of finishes = F.F. + T.W.F. = 0.5 + 1.5 = 2.0 kN/m2

Total weight = 5.0 kN/m2

Total weight on beam C1-C5

Tributary floor area on beam C1-C5 = 0.5 * (0.9 + 4.6) * 1.85 * 2 = 10.175 m2

Slab weight on beam C1-C5 = 5 * 10.175 = 50.875 m2

Weight on beam C1-C5 per meter = 50.875/4.6 = 11.05 kN/m

Self-weight of beam = 25 * 0.30 * (0.45-0.10) = 2.625 kN/m

Total weight on beam C1-C5 = 11.05 + 2.625 = 13.684 kN/m

Total weight on beam C5-C5

37

Total weight on beam C5-C5 = 5 * 2.645 = 13.225 kN/m

Weight on beam C5-C5 = 13.225/2.3 = 5.75 kN/m

Self weight of beam = 25 * 0.30 * (0.45-0.10) = 2.625 kN/m

Total weight on beam C5-C5 = 5.75 + 2.625 = 8.375 kN/m

DL at floor level

Weight of slab = 25D = 25 * 0.12 = 3.0 kN/m2

Weight of finishes (F.F) = 0.5 kN/m2

Total weight = 3.5 kN/m2

Total weight on beam C1-C5

Tributary floor area on beam C1-C5 = 0.5 * (0.9+4.6) * 1.85 * 2 = 10.175 m2

Slab weight on beam C1-C5 = 3.5 * 10.175 = 35.62 kN

Weight on beam C1-C5 per meter = 35.62/4.6 = 7.74 kN/m

Self-weight of beam = 25 * 0.30 *(0.45-0.10) = 2.625 kN/m

Weight of walls = 20 * 0.15 * (3.35 0.45) = 14.50 kN/m

Total weight on beam C1-C5 = 7.74 + 14.50 + 2.625 = 24.86 kN/m

Total weight on beam C5-C5

Tributary floor area on beam C5-C5 = 0.5 *2.3 *1.15 * 2 = 2.645 m2

Total weight on beam C5-C5 = 3.5 * 2.645 = 9.2575 kN

Weight on beam C5-C5 = 9.2575/2.3 = 4.025 kN/m

Self-weight of beam = 25 * 0.30 * (0.45 0.10) = 2.625 kN/m

Weight of walls = 20 * 0.15 * (3.35 0.45) = 14.50 kN/m

Total weight on beam C5-C5 = 4.025 + 2.625 +14.50 = 21.15 kN/m

38

LL at roof level

Weight of live load = 1.5 kN/m2

Total weight on beam C1-C5

Tributary floor area on beam C1-C5 = 0.5 * (0.9+4.6) * 1.85 * 2 = 10.175 m2

Total weight on beam C1-C5 = 1.5 * 10.175 = 15.265 kN

Weight on beam C1-C5 = 15.625/4.6 = 3.32 kN/m

Total weight on beam C5-C5

Tributary floor area on beam C5-C5 = 0.5 * 2.3 * 1.15 * 2 = 2.645 m2

Total weight on beam C5-C5 = 1.5 * 2.645 = 3.9675kN

Weight on beam C5-C5 = 3.9675/2.3 = 1.725 kN/m

LL at floor level

Weight of live load = 3.5 kN/m2

Total weight on beam C1-C5

Tributary floor area on beam C1-C5 = 0.5 * (0.9 +4.6) * 1.85 * 2 = 10.175 m2

39

Weight on beam C1-C5 = 35.62/4.6 = 7.74 kN/m

Total weight on beam C5-C5

Tributary floor area on beam C5-C5 = 0.5 * 2.3 * 1.15 * 2 = 2.645 m2

Total weight on beam C5-C5 = 3.5 * 2.645 = 9.2575 kN

Weight on beam C5-C5 = 9.2575/2.3 = 4.025 kN/m

Determination of total base shear

Dead load

(a) Weight of floor i.e. (Ws + FF) = 40.70 *11.50 * (3.0+0.5) = 1638.175 kN

(b) Weight of roof i.e. (Ws + TWF + FF) = 40.70 * 11.50 * (3.0+1.5+0.) = 2340.25 kN

(c) Weight of peripheral beams (Transverse) = (2(4.6-0.45/2-0.3/2)*2.625)*2 + (1(2.30.30/2-0.3/2) * 2.625) * 2 = 54.86 kN

40

(e) Weight of parapet wall (1.0m height, 150 mm thick) = 2 * (40.70 + 11.50) * 1.0 * 3 =

313.20 kN

(f) Weight of external wall (thickness of wall 250 mm ) = 20 *0.25 * (20.9 + 74.8) * (3.35

0.45) = 1387.65 kN

(g) Interior beams (Transverse) = ((2 * 4.225 + 2.0) * 2.625 ) * 11 = 274.32 kN

(h) Interior beams (Longitudinal) = ((3.7-0.3) * 2.625 * 11) * 2 = 196.35 kN

(i) Weight of interior walls (thickness = 150 mm),

Length (Transverse) = ((4.6 0.45/2 0.3/2) * 2 + (2.3-0.3)) * 10 = 104.5 m

Length (Longitudinal) = ((3.7 -0.3) * 11 * 2) = 74.8 m

Height = 3.35-0.45 = 2.90 m

Weight = 20 * 0.15 * (104.5 + 74.8) * 2.90 = 1559.91 kN

(j) Weight of exterior column/height = 2 * 12 *0.30 * 0.53 * 25 = 95.4 kN/m

(k) Weight of interior column/height = 2 * 12 * 0.30 * 0.30 * 25 = 54 kN/m

Live Load

Live load on roof = Zero

Live load on floors = 50% of 3.5 kN/m2 = 1.75 kN/m2

Total live load on each floor = 40.70 * 11.50 * 1.75 = 819.08 kN

Concentrated mass

At roof = (b + c + d + e + f/2 + g + h + i/2 + j * 3.35/2 + k * 3.35/2) + 0.0 = 5074.98 kN

At 2nd and 3rd floor = (a + c + d + f + g + h + i + (j + k) 3.35) + 819.08 = 6578.95 kN

At 1st floor = (a+ c + d + f + g + h+ i + (j + k)(3.35 + 4.0)0.5) + 819.08 = 6622.82 kN

Total weight = 5074.98 + 2 * 6578.95 + 6622.80 = 24855.69 kN

Total base shear = Ah * W= 0.06 * 24855.69 = 1491.34 kN

Base shear in each frame = 1491.34/12 = 125 kN

Determination of design lateral loads at each floor

Level

Wi (MN)

hi (meter)

(1)

(2)

(3)

Roof (level 5)

5.074

Third floor

6.578

Wi hi2

(4)

Wihi2/ Wi hi2

Qi(kN)

(5)

(6)

14.05

1001.62

0.452

56.50

10.70

753.16

0.34

42.50

41

Second floor

6.578

7.35

355.36

0.16

20.00

First floor

6.622

4.00

105.95

0.048

6.00

0.00

= 2216.04

= 1.0

Ground floor

= 125

LOAD COMBINATION

Load case

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

1.5 (DL + IL)

1.2 (DL+IL+EL)

1.2 (DL + IL EL)

1.5 (DL + EL)

1.5 (DL EL)

0.9 DL + 1.5 EL

0.9 DL + 1.5 EL

42

The member shall preferably have a width-to-depth ratio of more 0.3 Width/Depth = 300/450 =

0.67 > 0.3

OK

Width less than 200 mm = 300 mm

OK

OK

Longitudinal reinforcement

Reinforcement at section 2 due to hogging moment 219.1 kN-m

Assuming 25 mm dia bars with 25 mm clear cover

Effective depth (d) = 450-25-25/2 = 412.5 mm

From Table D, SP 16: 1980

Mu,lim/bd2 = 2.76 (For M 20 and Fe = 415)

Mu,lim = 2.76 * 300 * 412.52 = 140.88kN-m

Actual moment 219.1 kN-m is greater than Mu,lim. So section is doubly reinforced.

From Table 50, SP 16: 1980

Mu/bd2 = (219.1 * 106)/(300 * 412.52) = 4.29 =4.30

d/d = (25 + 12.5)/41.25 = 0.091 = .01

Referring to table 50, SP 16:1980

P1(top)= 1.429 and P1(bottom)= 0.498

(1)

Reinforcement at section 2 due to sagging moment

Mu,lim = 2.76 * 300 * 412.52 = 140.88 kN-m

Actual moment 112.3 kN-m is smaller than Mu,lim, so section is singly reinforced.

Reinforcement from table 2, SP 16:1980

Mu/bd2 = (112.3 * 106)/(300 * 412.52) = 2.54

P2(bottom) = 0.857

(2)

43

P(top) = 1.429 and P(bottom) = 0.857

Reinforcement at top (At) = 1.429 * 300 * 412.52 = 1768.38 mm2 (2 @ 16 mm of diameter + 4 @

22 mm of diameter = 1922 mm2)

Reinforcement at bottom (Ab) = 0.857 * 300 * 412.52 = 1060.54 mm2 (2 @ 16 mm of diameter

+2 @ 22 mm of diameter = 1162 mm2)

Top and bottom reinforcement shall consist at least 2 bars throughout the member length

OK

Tension steel ratio should be less than 0.24 fck1/2/fy , i.e. 0.258 given 0.857

OK

Shear reinforcement

Details of web reinforcement

Minimum diameter of hoop 6 mm and in case of beam with clear span greater than 5 m hoop

diameter 8 mm

OK

At section 2

Pt = 1922/(300 * 412.5) = 0.0155 = 1.5% at top

Pb = 1162/(300 * 412.5) = 0.00938 = 0.938% at bottom

Referring Table 50, SP 16: 1980

Mu,lim/bd2 = 4.7 (Pt = 1.55 and d/d = 0.10)

Mu,lim (Hogging moment capacity) = 4.70 * 300 * 412.52 = 239.92 kN-m

Table 2, SP 16 : 1980

Mu,lim (Sagging moment capacity) = 2.72 * 300 * 412.52 = 138.84 kN-m

At section 7

Pt = 1162/(300 * 412.5) = 0.00938 = 0.938% at top

Pb = 515/(300 * 412.5) = 0.00416 = 0.416% at bottom

Referring Table 2, SP 16: 1980

Mu,lim/bd2 = 2.72 (Pt = 0.938 and fck 20)

Mu,lim (Hogging moment capacity) = 2.72 * 300 * 412.52 = 138.84 kN-m

44

Design of Exterior Column

Size of column

300 mm * 530 mm

Concrete mix

M 20

Vertical reinforcement

Fe 415

475.6 kN

203.3 kN

IS 13920:1993 specification will be applicable if axial stress greater than 0.1 fck i.e. 475.6 *

1000/300 * 530 = 2.99 N/mm2 greater than 0.1 * 20 = 2 N/mm2

OK

Minimum dimension of member should not less than 250 mm (300 mm) OK

Shortest cross section dimension/perpendicular dimension should not less than 0.4 i.e. 300/530

= 0.56

OK

Assume 20 mm diameter with 40 mm cover (d = 40 + 10 = 50 mm, d/D = 50/530 = 0.094=

0.10

From chart 45 , SP 16 : 1980

Pu/fckbD = 475.6 * 103/(20 * 300 * 530) = 0.15

Mu/fckbD2 = 203.30 * 106/ (20 * 300 * 5302) = 0.12

Reinforcement on four sides from Chart 45, SP 16 : 1980

P/fck = 0.08, reinforcement in % = 0.08 * 20 = 1.6%

As = pbd/100 = 1.6 * 300 * 530/100 = 2544 mm2

Using 8 bars @ 20 diameter

Transverse reinforcement

Hoop requirement is as per IS 13920

If the length of hoop is greater than 300 mm a cross tie shall be provided

45

Hoop spacing shall not be exceeded half the least lateral dimension of column i.e. 300/2 = 150

mm.

A factored shear force is given by

Vu = 1.4(Mu,limbL + Mu,limbR)/hst

Where Mu,limbL and Mu,limbR are moment of resistance, of opposite sign, of beams and hst is the

storey of height.

Moment of resistance of beam at section 2 is

Pt = 1922/(300 * 412.5) = 0.0155 = 1.55% at top

Pb = 1162/(300 * 412.5) = 0.00938 = 0.938% at bottom

Referring Table 50 , SP 16 : 1980

Mu,lim(Hogging moment capacity) = 4.70 * 300 * 412.52 = 239.92 kN-m

Mu,lim (Sagging moment capacity) = 2.72 * 300 * 412.52 = 138.84 kN-m

Nominal shear reinforcement shall be provided in accordance with IS 456 : 2000

Use 8 mm diameter two-legged stirrups Asv = 2 * 50.26 = 100.52 mm2

Design of Interior Column

Size of column

300 mm * 300 mm

Concrete mix

M 20

Vertical reinforcement

Fe 415

428.9 kN

56 kN-m

Vertical reinforcement

Assume 20 mm diameter with 40 mm cover (d = 40+10 = 50 mm , d/D = 50/300 = 0.16)

From Chart SP 16 : 1980

Pu/fckbD = 428.9 * 103/(20 * 300 * 300) = 0.238

Mu/fckbD2 = 56 * 106/(20 * 300 * 3002) = 0.104

46

Providing 6 @ 20 mm diameter.

Transverse reinforcement

A factored shear force is given by

Vu = 1.4(Mu,limbL + Mu,limbR)/hst

Where Mu,limbL and Mu,limbR are moment of resistance, of opposite sign, of beams and hst is the

storey of height.

Moment of resistance of beam at section 7 is

Pt = 1162/(300 * 412.5) = 0.938 % at top

Pb = 515/(300 * 412.5) = 0.416% at bottom

Referring Table 2 , SP 16 : 1980

Mu,lim(Hogging moment capacity) = 2.72 *300 * 412.52 = 138.84 kN m

Mu,lim (Sagging moment capacity) = 1.35 * 300 * 412.52 = 68.91 kN-m

Nominal shear reinforcement shall be provided in accordance with IS 456 : 2000

Use 8 mm diameter two-legged stirrups

As = 2 * 50.26 = 100.52 mm2

Spacing will be 187.5 mm c/c but hoop spacing is 150 mm c/c.

47

Detailing of Reinforcement

48

CHAPTER-7

IMPORTANCE OF CONSTRUCTION &

MAINTENANCE

Design and construction of a structure are intimately related and the achievement of good

workmanship depends, to a large degree, on the simplicity of detailing of the members and of

their connections and supports. For example, in the case of a reinforced concrete structure,

although it is possible to detail complex reinforcement on paper and even to realize it in

laboratory specimens so that seismic behavior is improved, in the field such design details may

not be economically feasible. A design is only effective if it can be constructed and maintained.

construction.

The need for a more comprehensive approach to the earthquake-resistant construction

problem than that covered by existing seismic code procedures has been discussed by the author

in several publications and has been summarized in Reference 13. In a comprehensive approach

to the design of a structure it is first necessary to establish the design criteria, that is, behavior of

the structure - serviceability, damageability, and safety against collapse. Once the design criteria

are established,the limit state controlling the design, the selection of the design earthquake(s)

should be done according to the comprehensive approaches summarized. In this comprehensive

attempt to overcome the uncertainties involved in modeling the real three-dimensional soilfoundation-superstructure system and in the estimation of the demands and supplies, usually

derived from numerical analysis, the design cannot be based on a single deterministic analysis of

a single selected model. The designer should consider several models, based on possible ranges

over which the parameters governing the behavior of the real system can vary.

49

As discussed in several publications, the author believes that in order to overcome or

decrease the uncertainties to which the values of most of the parameters in the estimation of the

demands and supplies are subjected in any current seismic-resistant design procedure, it is

necessary to pay more attention to conceptual design [12, 13]. Conceptual design is defined as

the avoidance or minimization of problems created by the effects of seismic excitation by

applying an understanding of the behavior rather than using numerical computations. Examples

of conceptual design are given in Reference 13. From the analysis of the basic design equations

and the general equation for predicting response [12, 13], it becomes clear that to overcome

detrimental effects of the uncertainties in many of the factors in these equations the following

philosophy can be applied: (1) control or decrease the demands as much as possible, and (2) be

generous in the supply, particularly by providing large ductility with stable hysteretic behavior

(toughness).

Because of the uncertainties regarding the dynamic characteristics of future earthquake

ground motions and their modifications as a result of the interaction of the soil with the

foundation-superstructure system response, the conceptual idea would be to control the input to

the structure foundation. One promising method is through the use of base isolation techniques

including energy absorbing devices in the system [16]. In the case of buildings, a decrease in

demand can be achieved by a proper selection of the configuration of the building and its

structural layout and by the proper proportioning and detailing of the structural and nonstructural components, that is, by following the basic principles or guideline for achieving

efficient seismic-resistant construction.

50

CHAPTER-8

CONCLUSION

The tasks of providing full seismic safety for the residents inhabiting the most earthquake-prone

regions are far from being solved. However in present time we have new regulations in place for

construction that greatly contribute to earthquake disaster mitigation and are being in applied in

accordance with world practice.

In the regulations adopted for implementation in India the following factors have been found to

be critically important in the design and construction of seismic resistant buildings:

occurrence and the likely severity of ground shaking and ground failure;

893 , IS

13920 to ensure good performance during future earthquakes.

analysis .i.e. ductility design should be done.

-spatial solutions should be applied that provide symmetry and regularity in the

distribution of mass and stiffness in plan and in elevation.

away with the harmful effects like that of SHORT COLUMN EFFECT .

Researchers indicate that compliance with the above-mentioned requirements will contribute

significantly to disaster mitigation, regardless of the intensity of the seismic loads and specific

features of the earthquakes. These modifications in construction and design can be introduced

which as a result has increase seismic reliability of the buildings and seismic safety for human

life.

51

REFERENCES

1. Chopra.R, Kumar.R, Chawla.K.S, T.P.Singh, Traditional Earthquake Resistant Houses, Honey

Bee, Vol 11&Vol 12,Oct 2000-Nov 2001.

2. Deodhar.S.V, Dubey.S.K, Remedial Measures Against Earthquake disaster, National Building

Material and Construction World, Vol 2, Jan 2003, Pg 52-56.

3. Earthquake Tip 8, What is seismic design philosophy?, Indian Concrete Journal, Jan 2004, Vol

2.

4. Earthquake Tip 17, How do earthquakes affect reinforced concrete buildings? Indian Concrete

Journal, April 2004, Vol 1.

5. IS 456: 2000, Plain and Reinforced code of practice.

6. IS 1893(Part-1): 2002, Criteria for earthquake resistant design of structure.

7. IS 13920: 1993, Ductile detailing of RCC structure subjected to earthquake force.

8. SP: 16, Design aid for reinforced concrete to IS 456: 2000.

9. Ramamurtham, Theory of structures.

52

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