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A

PROJECT REPORT ON

Hydraulic Cutting Machine


(2012-2016)
SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULLFILMENT OF THE
REQUIREMENT FOR THE AWARD OF THE DEGREE OF
BACHELOR OF TECHNOLOGY IN
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

UNDER THE GUIDANCE OF Mr. SUBODH BARTHWAL


DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING
DIT SCHOOL OF ENGINEERING GREATER NOIDA
Submitted By JAINESH KUMAR
ARUN KUMAR
KESHAV CHAUHAN
BASANT SANDILYA
ASHWANI KUMAR

CERTIFICATE
This is to certify that the B.Tech project entitled Hydraulic Cutting Machine has been
completed by the students of final year of Mechanical Engineering ,DIT School Of
Engineering in satisfactory manner for partial fulfillment of the requirement for the award
of the degree of Bachelor Of Technology in Mechanical Engineering during the academic
year 2015-16 under the supervision of Mr. Subodh Barthwal, department of Mechanical
Engineering, DIT School Of Engineering.

Mr. Subodh Barthwal


Department Of Mechanical Engineering
DIT School Of Engineering

ACKNOWLEDEMENT
Words cannot express our profound gratitude to all those who have supported and
guided us in making our dream a reality.
We specially thank our Guide and Head of the Department of Mechanical Engineering
Mr. Subodh Barthwal who had been so kind as to extend their whole hearted
support and precious guidance which inspired us to take up this challenge and to
complete the project successfully.
We are also thankful to all our departments and friends who have sincerely shares
their valuable knowledge with us.

PREFACE

In this particular project we have used a robotic arm, which is hydraulically operated and
controlled by syringes filled with some fluid. At the end of this robotic arm a motor is
fitted on which we can mount cutting blade to perform the cutting action at the desired
location .In this motor, in future we can also use some other kind of tools for various
mechanical operations. It consists of various parts connected to each other in a predesigned manner which are guided in a constrained way to obtain required output. Fluid
power has been used to move the arm in different directions to make it reach at desired
location. Along with hydraulic power we have also used a DC battery to supply power to
all the four motors used in this project.

PROJECT TEAM

JAINESH KUMAR(1229140039)

KESHAV CHAUHAN(1229140043)

BASANT SANDILYA (1229140029)

ARUN KUMAR(1229140018)

ASHWANI KUMAR(1229140023)

B.Tech
Mechanical Branch Final Year
Batch- 2012-2016

LIST OF COMPONANTS
Figure No.

Description

Page No.

Wooden Ramp

17

DC gear motor

19

Power Supply

18

DC Gear Motor

19

Diode

23

Syringes

27

Battery

18

Rotor

19

Fluid Lines

28

CONTENTS
CERTIFICATE

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

PREFACE

PROJECT TEAM

LIST OF COMPONENTS

1. INTRODUCTION

1.1 INTRODUCTION TO FLUID POWER


1.2 ASSETS OF USING FLUID POWER
1.3 BASIC PRINCIPLE
1.4 APPLICATIONS OF PASCALs LAW
1.5 ADDITIONAL ADVANTAGES

2. ADVANTAGES OF FLUID POWER

3. FABRICATION DETAILS

8
9
11
12
13

14

15

MAIN PARTS AND DETAILS


3.1 WOODEN RAMP.

17

3.2 POWER SUPPLY.

18

3.3 DC GEAR MOTOR.

19

3.4 DIODE

23

3.5 RECTIFIER

25

3.6 SYRINGES AND PIPES

27

4. WORKING PRICIPLE

28

5. Building the Cardboard Robotic Cutting machine

29

5.1The Cardboard Robotic Cutting machine Base

29

5.2The Cardboard Robotic Cutting machine Limbs

30

5.3 The Cardboard Robotic Cutting machine Joints

30

5.4The Cardboard Robotic Cutting machine Muscles

31

6. OPERATION

32

6.1 Single acting vs. double acting Cylinders

34

6.2 FLUID LINES AND FITTINGS

35

6.3 TYPES OF LINES

35

6.4 PIPES AND TUBING

36

7. SELECTION OF PIPES AND TUBING

37

8.APPLICATIONS

39

9.ADVANTAGES

41

10.PRECAUTIONS

42

11.LIMITATIONS

43

12. CONCLUSION

44

REFERENCES
BIBLIOGRAPHY
Photo Gallery

1- INTRODUCTION

1.1 INTRODUCTION TO FLUID POWER


Fluid

power is

a term

which was

created

to include

the generation,

control,and application of smooth, effective power of pumped or compressed fluids (eithe


r liquids or gases) when this power is

suitably

used to provide force and motion to

mechanisms. This force and motion maybe in the form of pushing, pulling , rotating,
regulating,

or driving. Fluid

power includes hydraulics, which

Liquids and gases are similar in many respects. The differences are

involves liquids.
pointed

out

in

the appropriate areas of this manual. This manual presents many of the fundamental
concepts in the fields of hydraulics and pneumatics. It is intended as a basic
reference for all personnel of the Navy whose duties and responsibilities require them to
have a knowledge of the fundamentals of fluid power. Consequently, emphasis is placed
primarily on the theory of operation of typical fluid power systems and components that
have applications in naval equipment. Many applications of fluid power are presented in
this manual to illustrate the functions and operation of different systems and components.
However , these are only representative of the many applications of fluid power in naval
equipment.
Individual training manuals for each rate provide information concerning the application
of fluid power to specific equipment for which the rating is responsible

1.2 ASSETS OF USING FLUID POWER


The extensive use of hydraulics and pneumatics to transmit power is due to the fact that p
roperlyconstructed fluid power systems possess a number of favorable characteristics. Th
ey eliminate the need for complicated systems of gears, cams, and levers. Motion can be
trans-mitted without the slack inherent in the use of solid machine parts. The fluids used
are not subject to breakage as are mechanical parts, and the mechanisms are
not subjected to great wear.The different parts of a fluidpower system can be convenientl
y located at widely separated points, since the forces generated arerapidly transmitted ove
r considerable distances with small loss.
These forces can be conveyed up and down or around corners with small loss in
efficiency,without complicated mechanisms. Very largeforces can be controlled by much
smaller ones and can be transmitted through comparatively smalllines and orifices. If the
system is well adapted to the work it is required to perform, and if it is notmisused, it can
provide smooth, flexible, uniform action without vibration, and is unaffected byvariation
of load. In case of an overload,an automatic release of pressure can be guaranteed, so
that the system is protected against breakdown or strain.
Fluid power systems can provide widely variablemotions in both rotary and straight-line
trans-missionof power. The need for controlby hand can be
minimized. In addition, fluid power systems are economical to operate. The question may
arise as towhy hydraulics is used in some applications and pneumatics in others. Many fa
ctors are considered bythe user and/or the manufacturer when determining which type of
system to use in a specificapplication.
If the applicationrequires speed, a medium amount of pressure, and only fairly accurate c
ontrol, a pneumatic systemmay be used. If the application requires only a medium.
Like the cutting machine of a human worker, a robotic cutting machine incorporates an
articulation system or skeleton, and a set of muscles, which together function in much the
same way as their biological counterparts. The skeleton is composed of rigid links that
connect varying numbers of joints that are capable of sliding, twisting or rotating. The
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robot's muscles come in the form of actuators that convert hydraulic, electrical or
pneumatic energy into power for each joint. Next there is an electronic nervous system of
wires and sensors that carries commands to the muscles of the robotic cutting machine
and then back to an external computer.
The main difference between the cutting machine of the robot and that of a human is
found at the cutting machine's extremity. Rather than having a flexible, multi-fingered
hand, typical robot cutting machines end in special-purpose devices called end-effectors,
which are installed directly into the wrist. To reduce the number of calculations, needed
to determine the robot's exact position, the base is generally kept stationary. In a few
applications, however, like the robots in spot welding, robots are programmed to follow
an assembly line. The motions of the robots can be programmed by means of direct
teaching where the cutting machine is manually guided through its desired motion and the
robot's computer remembers these specific motions, sort of like a watch and learn
method. Robots can also be taught by means of programming by a computer specialist.
Finally there is always the option of creating a learning computer that will gather data as
it makes mistakes and on the following attempt, it won't make the same mistake again.
However, this method isn't suited for all instances. For example, having a surgical robot
that is about to operate on you and is still in the process of learning where to make the
incision won't give you the feeling of security. Nevertheless, this still can be used for
robots in the real world, life is completely unpredictable.

1.3 BASIC PRINCIPLE


The basic concept used behind the operation is PASCALs LAW. This law states that
when a pressure is applied at one point of a fluid contained in a constrained volume, then
the pressure due to that force is equally transmitted to all the points of the fluid, which are
acted upon by the same pressure.
Using the same principle, we applied pressure to fluid in syringe which is transmitted to
other end of tube which is connected to a syringe. This motion of the syringe is used to
move the links or parts of the mechanism which are attached to respective syringes.

1.4 APPLICATIONS OF PASCALS LAW

The underlying principle of the hydraulic jack and hydraulic press.

Force amplification in the braking system of most motor vehicles.

Used in artesian wells, water towers, and dams.


Scuba divers must understand this principle. At a depth of 10 meters under water,
pressure is twice the atmospheric pressure at sea level, and increases by about 100
kPa for each increase of 10 m depth.

Usually Pascal's rule is applied to confined space (static flow), but due to the
continuous flow process, Pascal's principle can be applied to the lift oil
mechanism (which can be represented as a U tube with pistons on either end).
However, the lift height will be in microns because energy will be drained and
pressure will be diminished after each impact with the lifting material, but force
exerted will be equal.

Applied force in cylinder P1A1.

The underlying principal of hot isostatic pressing

1.5 Additional Advantages Of Fluid Power


Hydraulic and pneumatic systems share many benefits for the machines in which they are installed.
These include:

High horsepower-to-weight ratio You could probably hold a 5-hp hydraulic motor in the
palm of your hand, but a 5-hp electric motor might weight 40 lb or more.

Safety in hazardous environments because they are inherently spark-free and can tolerate
high temperatures.

Force or torque can be held constant this is unique to fluid power transmission

High torque at low speed unlike electric motors, pneumatic and hydraulic motors can
produce high torque while operating at low rotational speeds. Some fluid power motors can
even maintain torque at zero speed without overheating

Pressurized fluids can be transmitted over long distances and through complex machine
configurations with only a small loss in power

Multi-functional control a single hydraulic pump or air compressor can provide power to
many cylinders, motors, or other actuators

Elimination of complicated mechanical trains of gears, chains, belts, cams, and linkages

Motion can be almost instantly reversed

2 ADVANTAGES OF FLUID POWER


Ease and accuracy of control: By the use of simple levers and push buttons, the
operator of a hydraulic system can easily start, stop, speed up and slow down.
Multiplication of force: A fluid power system (without using cumbersome gears,
pulleys and levers) can multiply forces simply and efficiently from a fraction of a pound,
to several hundred tons of output.
Constant force and torque: Only fluid power systems are capable of providing a
constant torque or force regardless of speed changes.
Simple, safe and economical: In general, hydraulic systems use fewer moving parts in
comparison with mechanical and electrical systems. Thus they become simpler and easier
to maintain.
In spite of possessing all these highly desirable features, hydraulic systems also have
certain drawbacks, some of which are:
Handling of hydraulic oils which can be quite messy. It is also very difficult to
completely eliminate leakage in a hydraulic system.
Hydraulic lines can burst causing serious human injuries.
Most hydraulic fluids have a tendency to catch fire in the event of leakage, especially in
hot regions.

3. FABRICATION DETAILS
Here's a mechanical cutting machine our team built as final year project using hydraulic
power and DC power. It uses syringes and rubber tubing to act as a hydraulic system. For
the most part syringes work nicely, but filling them up so there's no trapped air is a pain.
Since water is practically incompressible, the syringe plungers should move equally
because both syringes are the same diameter.

Fig 1 Syringes and Pipes


We mounted the whole device on a wooden board which is strong
enough to bear the load of various components of the machines like
switches, rotation motor and especially the battery which is the
heaviest. Wooden ramp has four wheels which helps the whole device
to move from one place to another with the help of DC motors
mounted on 2 of its front wheels.
Above the board there is rotary platform mounted with the rotation of
360 degree angle. This platform can rotate 360 degree with the help of
another DC motor.

The main component which is hydraulic arm is mounted over this


rotary platform with different arrangements of syringes and hydraulic
tubes .So this was the brief introduction of all the fabrication work done
in this project, detailed explanation of different components is given
below individually.
The gripper has a total vertical displacement of 27 inches. It can reach 5 inches below its
base, and a maximum of 22 inches above. The whole cutting machine can rotate through
about 35 degrees which is pretty good compared to my classmates

MAIN PARTS AND THEIR DETAILS


3.1 WOODEN RAMP
3.2 POWER SUPPLY
3.3 DC GEAR MOTOR.
3.4 DIODES
3.5 Hydraulic Cylinders and Lines(Syringes and Tubes)

3.1 WOODEN RAMP


The whole apparatus is mounted on wooden board. The board is supported by the four
wheels which can move the whole machine from one place to another with the help of
two DC motors mounted on the front two wheels of the board. These motors are
controlled by the switches.

Fig.2 Wooden Ramp Pieces


The wooden board should be strong enough to bear the load of various parts of the
apparatus. Specifications of the wooden Boards are ;
Wooden board

12 * 18 INCHES

Platform

500mm * 600mm

Thickness of board :

20 m

3.2 POWER SUPPLY


A dc battery of 12v has been used in this project to supply power to various motors of the
apparatus like motors used on the wheels,motor used at the rotary platform and also the
cutting tool motor.

Fig.3 Battery

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3.3 DC MOTOR
In this project we have used four DC motors,two on the wheels ,one on the arm for
rotation of the cutter and the last one has been used to rotate he rotatry platform 360
degree around.
A DC motor is a mechanically commutated electric motor powered from direct
current (DC). The stator is stationary in space by definition and therefore its current. The
current in the rotor is switched by the commutator to also be stationary in space. This is
how the relative angle between the stator and rotor magnetic flux is maintained near 90
degrees, which generates the maximum torque.

Fig 4 DC Motor

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Like all electric motors or generators, torque is produced by the principle of Lorentz
force, which states that any current-carrying conductor placed within an external
magnetic field experiences a torque or force known as Lorentz force. Advantages of a
brushed DC motor include low initial cost, high reliability, and simple control of motor
speed. Disadvantages are high maintenance and low life-span for high intensity uses.
Maintenance involves regularly replacing the brushes and springs which carry the electric
current, as well as cleaning or replacing the commutator. These components are necessary
for transferring electrical power from outside the motor to the spinning wire windings of
the rotor inside the motor. Brushes are made of conductors.

The introduction of DC motors to run machinery eliminated the need for local steam or
internal combustion engines, and line shaft drive systems. DC motors can operate directly
from rechargeable batteries, providing the motive power for the first electric vehicles.
Today DC motors are still found in applications as small as toys and disk drives, or in
large sizes to operate steel rolling mills and paper machines.

Brush
A brushed DC electric motor generating torque from DC power supply by using internal
mechanical commutation, space stationary permanent magnets form the stator field.
Torque is produced by the principle of Lorentz force, which states that any currentcarrying conductor placed within an external magnetic field experiences a force known as
Lorentz force. The actual (Lorentz) force and also ( torque since torque is F x l where l is
rotor radius) is a function for rotor angle and so the green arrow/vector actually changes
length/magnitude with angle known as torque ripple) Since this is a single phase two pole

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motor the commutator consists of a split ring, so that the current reverses each half turn
( 180 degrees).
The brushed DC electric motor generates torque directly from DC power supplied to the
motor by using internal commutation, stationary magnets (permanent or electromagnets),
and rotating electrical magnets.
Like all electric motors or generators, torque is produced by the principle of Lorentz
force, which states that any current-carrying conductor placed within an external
magnetic field experiences a torque or force known as Lorentz force. Advantages of a
brushed DC motor include low initial cost, high reliability, and simple control of motor
speed. Disadvantages are high maintenance and low life-span for high intensity uses.
Maintenance involves regularly replacing the brushes and springs which carry the electric
current, as well as cleaning or replacing the commutator. These components are necessary
for transferring electrical power from outside the motor to the spinning wire windings of
the rotor inside the motor.Brushes are made of conductors.

Brushless
Main articles: Brushless DC electric motor and Switched reluctance motor
Typical brushless DC motors use a rotating permanent magnet in the rotor, and stationary
electrical current/coil magnets on the motor housing for the rotor, but the symmetrical
opposite is also possible. A motor controller converts DC to AC. This design is simpler
than that of brushed motors because it eliminates the complication of transferring power
from outside the motor to the spinning rotor. Advantages of brushless motors include long
life span, little or no maintenance, and high efficiency. Disadvantages include high initial
cost, and more complicated motor speed controllers. Some such brushless motors are
sometimes referred to as "synchronous motors" although they have no external power
supply to be synchronized with, as would be the case with normal AC synchronous
motors.

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Uncommutated
Other types of DC motors require no commutation.

Homopolar motor A homopolar motor has a magnetic field along the axis of

rotation and an electric current that at some point is not parallel to the magnetic field. The
name homopolar refers to the absence of polarity change.
Homopolar motors necessarily have a single-turn coil, which limits them to very low
voltages. This has restricted the practical application of this type of motor.

Ball bearing motor A ball bearing motor is an unusual electric motor that consists

of two ball bearing-type bearings, with the inner races mounted on a common conductive
shaft, and the outer races connected to a high current, low voltage power supply. An
alternative construction fits the outer races inside a metal tube, while the inner races are
mounted on a shaft with a non-conductive section (e.g. two sleeves on an insulating rod).
This method has the advantage that the tube will act as a flywheel. The direction of
rotation is determined by the initial spin which is usually required to get it going.

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3.4 DIODE

The simplest semiconductor device is made up of a sandwich of P-type semi-conducting


material, with contacts provided to connect the p-and n-type layers to an external
circuit. This is a junction Diode. If the positive terminal of the battery is connected to
the p-type material (cathode) and the negative terminal to
The N-type material (Anode), a large current will flow. This is called forward Current or
forward biased.If the connections are reversed, a very little current will flow. This is
because under this condition, the p-type material will accept the electron from the
negative terminal of the battery and the N-type material will give up its free
electrons to the battery, resulting in the state of electrical equilibrium since the Ntype material has no more electrons. Thus there will be a small current to flow
and the diode is called Reverse biased. Thus the Diode allows direct current to
pass only in one direction while blocking it is the other direction. Power diodes are
used in concerting AC into DC. In this , current will flow freely during the first half
cycle (forward biased) and practically not at all during the other half cycle
(reverse biased). This makes the diode an effective rectifier, which convert ac into
pulsating dc. Signal diodes are used in radio circuits for detection. Zener diodes are
used in the circuit to control the voltage.

15

Fig 5 Diodes

16

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3.5 RECTIFIER
A rectifier is an electrical device that converts alternating current (AC), which
periodically reverses direction, to direct current (DC), current that flows in only one
direction, a process known as rectification. Rectifiers have many uses including as
components of power supplies and as detectors of radio signals. Rectifiers may be made
of solid state diodes, vacuum tube diodes, mercury arc valves, and other components. The
output from the transformer is fed to the rectifier. It converts A.C. into pulsating D.C. The
rectifier may be a half wave or a full wave rectifier. In this project, a bridge rectifier is
used because of its merits like good stability and full wave rectification. In positive half
cycle only two diodes( 1 set of parallel diodes) will conduct, in negative half cycle
remaining two diodes will conduct and they will conduct only in forward bias only.

4.4 FILTER

Capacitive filter is used in this project. It removes the ripples from the output of
rectifier and smoothens the D.C. Output

received from this filter is constant until the

mains voltage and load is maintained constant. However, if either of the two is varied,
D.C. voltage received at this point changes. Therefore a regulator is applied at the output
stage.
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The simple capacitor filter is the most basic type of power supply filter. The use
of this filter is very limited. It is sometimes used on extremely high-voltage, low-current
power supplies for cathode-ray and similar electron tubes that require very little load
current from the supply. This filter is also used in circuits where the power-supply ripple
frequency is not critical and can be relatively high. Below figure can show how the
capacitor changes

and discharges.

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3.6 Syringes And Fluid Pipes

We have used syringes in place of cylinders and piston for pushing and transmitting the
fluid power from one place to another syringe through various pipe lines. Because it is
just a simple model so the syringes used for cylinders are good for the demonstration
purpose and transmitting the required fluid force. The length of the pipes should be long
enough with some allowances ,so that the movement of different arms could be done
easily.

Fig 6

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4.WORKING PRINCIPLE
Pascal's law is the basic principle behind the working of this hydraulic arm.
Pascal's law states that-"pressure exerted anywhere in a confined incompressible fluid
is transmitted equally in all directions throughout the fluid"

Hydraulic System-A hydraulic drive system is a drive that uses confined pressurized
incompressible fluid (Water in our case) to power hydraulic machinery.
A hydraulic drive system is a drive or transmission system that uses pressurized hydraulic
fluid to power hydraulic machine. The term hydrostatic refers to the transfer of energy from
flow and pressure, not from the kinetic energy of the flow.
A hydraulic drive system consists of three parts:
The generator (e.g. a hydraulic pump), driven by an electric motor valves, filters, piping etc.
(to guide and control the system); and the actuator (e.g. a hydraulic motor or hydraulic
cylinder) to drive the machinery.

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5 Building the Cardboard Robotic Cutting machine

The cardboard robotic cutting machine must have a sturdy base. If it is not secured it

will topple over when it attempts to cut the object.

The cardboard robotic cutting machine must have at least two parts to the limb. These

are generally referred to as the biceps and the forecutting machine. Some cardboard
robotic cutting machines also have hands or fingers.

The cardboard robotic cutting machine must have at least two joints. The elbow joint

enables it to bend over to the object. The wrist or finger joints allow it to pick up the
object. Some cardboard robotic cutting machines also have a third joint at the shoulder
near the base.

The cardboard robotic cutting machine must have a muscle system. This powers it

through its motions. This can be human muscle pulling strings, hydraulics pushing liquid
or electricity sending impulses to motors.

5.1The Cardboard Robotic Cutting machine Base


Students are given far more cardboard than they need to build an cutting machine
measuring 18 inches. The bulk of this cardboard must be used to provide stability for
the cardboard robotic cutting machine base. The tape can be used to piece together the
random sized cardboard pieces. Binder clips, clothes pins and coat hangers can give the
base form and weight. They can also secure the base to a table or other object if that is
allowed. Any left over supplies should be used to weigh down the cardboard robotic
cutting machine base. Mount the cutting machine far to one side leaning over the base.

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5.2 The Cardboard Robotic Cutting machine Limbs


The supplies provided make it easy to create a cardboard robotic cutting machine 18
inches long. The problem lies in the strength of the cutting machine.
A single strand of cardboard will likely fold and collapse if made to pick something up.
The 22 inch lengths of cardboard can be folded in half and used for the cardboard robotic
cutting machine limbs. Give them added strength by reinforcing them with the popsicle
sticks and pencils. You can also use a bent coat hanger.

5.3 The Cardboard Robotic Cutting machine Joints


The cardboard robotic cutting machine joints must be strong yet flexible. The small wire
nails can be driven through the elbow joint and bent on the other end.
This will allow the cardboard robotic cutting machine to move up and down while
holding it together. Another option is to pierce the joint all the way through with a pencil
and use it as the elbow joint. The clothes pins and binder clips work well for the fingers.
Attach them to the end of the cardboard robotic cutting machine.

5.4 The Cardboard Robotic Cutting machine Muscles


The cardboard robotic cutting machine needs power to perform its task of picking up an
object. This can be provided in three ways that are dictated by the rules of the particular
experiment.
They are:

human power

hydraulic power

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5.4.1 Human Power


This is the simplest way to control a cardboard robotic cutting machine. A series of
strings must be set up within the cardboard robotic cutting machine to make it work. Use
the twine or fishing line to mimic muscles. They must be wrapped around the joints in a
way that the operator can pull them and make the cardboard robotic cutting machine
move. Have different strings perform different functions. This is what the human body
does. Different muscles control different movements. Have one string move the cutting
machine forward and back. Have another string bend the elbow. Have a third string
release the fingers. It may take some practice to operate, but the cardboard robotic cutting
machine should function similar to a human cutting machine.

5.4.2 Hydraulic Power


For hydraulic power, a series of water filled tubes are strung along the cardboard robotic
cutting machine. Water is forced through the tubes with syringes. The water can be
channeled to different tubes performing different functions just like the human powered
model. However, since the tubes are interconnected, all these functions are performed at
once. This requires a great deal of experimentation and tinkering to get the movement
right.

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6. Operation
Hydraulic cylinders get their power from pressurized hydraulic fluid ,which is water in
our case. The hydraulic

cylinder consists of a cylinder barrel, in which a piston

connected to a piston rod moves back and forth. The barrel is closed on each end by the
cylinder bottom (also called the cap end) and by the cylinder head where the piston rod
comes out of the cylinder. The piston has sliding rings and seals. The piston divides the
inside of the cylinder in two chambers, the bottom chamber (cap end) and the piston rod
side chamber (rod end). The hydraulic pressure acts on the piston to do linear work and
motion.
When we apply pressure from othe outside, the piston pushes the water in the pipelines
and from there to the other piston and cylinder arrangement which is syringe in our case.
The piston moves instead downwards if oil is pumped into the piston rod side chamber.
Now the other side of the piston is attached to some arm or shaft of any arm of the tool
which need motion. Thus we get motion from the hydraulic power and this motion can be
easily converted in different direction for doing different operations using different
mechanism.
If we talk about some real time hydraulic systems then, The piston is a short, cylindrical
metal component that separates the two parts of the cylinder barrel internally. The piston
is usually machined with grooves to fit elastomeric or metal seals. These seals are often
O-rings, U-cups or cast iron rings. They prevent the pressurized hydraulic oil from
passing by the piston to the chamber on the opposite side. This difference in pressure
between the two sides of the piston causes the cylinder to extend and retract. Piston seals
vary in design and material according to the pressure and temperature requirements that
the cylinder will see in service. Generally speaking, elastomeric seals made from nitrite
rubber or other materials are best in lower temperature environments, while seals made of
Viton are better for higher temperatures. The best seals for high temperature are cast iron
piston rings.
The piston rod is typically a hard chrome-plated piece of cold-rolled steel which attaches
to the piston and extends from the cylinder through the rod-end head. In double rod-end
cylinders, the actuator has a rod extending from both sides of the piston and out both ends

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of the barrel. The piston rod connects the hydraulic actuator to the machine component
doing the work. This connection can be in the form of a machine thread or a mounting
attachment, such as a rod-clevis or rod-eye. These mounting attachment scan be threaded
or welded to the piston rod or, in some cases, they are a machined part of the rod-end.
The cylinder head is fitted with seals to prevent the pressurized oil from leaking past the
interface between the rod and the head. This area is called the rod gland. It often has
another seal called a rod wiper which prevents contaminants from entering the cylinder
when the extended rod retracts back into the cylinder. The rod gland also has a rod wear
ring. This wear ring acts as a linear bearing to support the weight of the piston rod and
guides it as it passes back and forth through the rod gland. In some cases, especially in
small hydraulic cylinders, the rod gland and the rod wear ring are made from a single
integral machined part.

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6.1 Single acting vs. double acting CylindersSingle acting cylinders are economical and the simplest design. Hydraulic fluid enters
through a port atone end of the cylinder, which then moves the piston to extend the rod.
An external force returns the piston to its normal position and forces the hydraulic fluid
back through the supply tubing to the fluid reservoir
Double acting cylinders have a port at each end, supplied with hydraulic fluid for both the
retraction and extension of the piston. They are used where an external force is not
available to retract the piston or where high force is required in both directions of
travel .An hydraulic cylinder should be used for pushing and pulling only. No bending
moments or side loads should be transmitted to the piston rod or the cylinder to prevent
rapid failure of the rod seals. For this reason , the ideal connection of an hydraulic
cylinder is a single clevis with a spherical ball bearing. This allows the hydraulic actuator
to move and allow for any misalignment between the actuator and the load it is pushing
.In our project we have used Syringes working as hydraulic cylinders

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6.2 FLUID LINES AND FITTINGS


The control and application of fluid power would be impossible without suitable means
of transferring the fluid between the reservoir, the power source, and the points of
application. Fluid lines are used to transfer the fluid, and fittings are used to connect the
lines to the power source and the points of application.

6.3 TYPES OF LINES


Three types of lines is used in this system are pipe (rigid), tubing (semi rigid) and
hose(flexible).There are number of factors are considered while selecting the line for
particular system. These factors include the type of fluid required system pressure and the
location of the system .For example, heavy pipe might be used for a large stationary fluid
power system, but comparatively light weight tubing must be used in aircraft and missile
systems because weight and space are critical factors. Flexible hose is required in
installations where units must be free to move relative to each other.

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6.4 PIPES AND TUBING


There are three important dimensions of any tubular product
outside diameter (OD), inside diameter(ID), and wall thickness. Sizes of pipe are listed
by the nominal (or approximate) ID and the wall thickness. Sizes of tubing are listed by
the actual OD and the wall thickness.

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7. SELECTION OF PIPES AND TUBING


The material, ID, and wall thickness are the three primary considerations in the selection
of lines for a particular fluid power system. The ID of a line is important, since it
determines how much fluid can pass through the line in a given time period (rate of
flow)without loss of power due to excessive friction and heat. The velocity of a given
flow is less through a large opening than through a small opening. If the ID of the line is
too small for the amount of flow, excessive turbulence and friction heat cause
unnecessary power loss and overheated fluid.

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Difficulties We Faced During Execution Of This IdeaEvery cardboard robotic cutting machine will be put together in a slightly different way,
but they will all have the same basic elements in common:

The cardboard robotic cutting machine must have a sturdy base. If it is not secured it

will topple over when it attempts to pick up the object.

The cardboard robotic cutting machine must have at least two parts to the limb. These

are generally referred to as the biceps and the forecutting machine.

Some cardboard robotic cutting machines also have hands or fingers.

The cardboard robotic cutting machine must have at least two joints. The elbow joint

enables it to bend over to the object. The wrist or finger joints allow it to pick up the
object.

Some cardboard robotic cutting machines also have a third joint at the shoulder near

the base.

The cardboard robotic cutting machine must have a muscle system. This powers it

through its motions. This can be human muscle pulling strings, hydraulics pushing liquid
or electricity sending impulses to motors.

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8. APPLICATIONS

In future this kind of machine can be computerized using CNC which can make it
better

It can be used for machining purposes of different materials.

Various machining tools can be attached to the motor at the end of the arm which
can perform various operations

We can save a very large amount of energy using hydraulic power.

It can be used for various machining industries for various purposes.

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TUNNEL MAKING

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9. Advantages

It gives more power than pneumatic systems.

Reliable and easy to operate.

No additional components required for transmission of energy.

It can also be run on solar energy using solar panel.

It is portable so, we can use it for complex places.

Less loss of energy due to mechanical friction.

Eco friendly and completely pollution free.

We can also make it fully automatic by using CNC.

It can save many Lives as we can use it for working in complex places.

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10. Precautions

Check the fluid lines for any kind of leakage before use.

Do not let the air enter in the syringe while filling up the lines.

All the arms should be properly aligned.

Follow normal laboratory rules

Bear proper apron and goggles while doing the cutting action of wooden boards

Wires of the motor should be properly attached to the battery.

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LIMITATION OF MY PROJECT
The first limitation is regarding the type of fluid being used, which is the water. Its
viscosity is low. Therefore it cannot offer a good seal at the pistons water cannot
withstand high pressure, when high pressure is applied, it leaks out of the piston.
The syringes which are being used here are not able to provide a tight seal between the
fluid and piston.
The sideways angle of coverage is limited to approximately 170 degree.

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11. CONCLUSIONOur design uses extremely simple ideas and mechanisms to achieve a complex set of
actions and is intended to imitate the actions of the operators. However, these hydraulic
arms are expensive for small scale industries. If the major problem of high initial cost is
addressed, a robotic hydraulic arm can be introduced in any industry to bring in
automation. The mechanical links and parts that have been fabricated are extremely
simple. Thus we have successfully completed our project for the submission as a final
year project of B.Tech Mechanical Branch.

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REFERENCES
1. R.S. Khurmi and J.K.Gupta, Kinematics of Machine, Eurasia Publishing House ( pvt.)
2. Strength of Material by: Dr. Sadhu Singh, Danpat Publications Delhi 3. R.S. Khurmi
and J.K. Gupta , Machine Design, Eurasia Publishing House ( pvt.) Ltd
4. Theraja B.L., Electrical Teachnology vol.II, New Delhi, S. Chand & Co., 2005
5. The World Book Encylopedia vol. II, USA, World Book Inc., 1992
6. PSG Design Data, Coimbatore, PSG College of Tech., 2000.
7. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chain_drive
8. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/sproket.
9. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Freewheel.jpg
10. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/freewheel

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Bibliography
1.
2.
3.

Advanced engineering
Energy conservations
New science experiments

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PIC -1, Top view

PIC-2

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PIC-3

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The cutter

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Basic Hydraulic Working

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