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DECLARATION

We hereby declare that this submission is our own work and that, to the best of our
knowledge and belief, it contains no material previously published or written by another
person, nor material which to a substantial extent has been accepted for the award of any
other degree or diploma by the university or other institute of higher learning, except where
due acknowledgement has been made in the text.

Signature:

Signature:

Prashant Singh

Pranad Seth

Roll No: 1202740101

Roll No: 1202740099

Signature:

Signature:

Madhup Kr. Tripathi

Anisha Agrahari

Roll No: 1202740079

Roll No: 1202740027

CERTIFICATE
This is to certify that Project Report entitled DESIGN, FABRICATION AND REVIEW OF
GO-KART which is submitted to Ajay Kumar Garg Engineering College, Ghaziabad
for the award of Bachelor of Technology (Mechanical Engineering) from APJ A.K.
Technical University, Lucknow is a record of work carried out by Prashant
Singh(1202740101), Pranad Seth(1202740099), Madhup Kr. Tripathi(1202740079) and
Anisha Agrahari(1202740027) under my supervision. The matter in this report has not been
submitted to any University or Institution for award of any degree.

Supervisor:

HoD:

Asst. Prof. Ankur Tyagi

Prof. I.P. Sharma

ME Department

Gp. Capt. (Retd.)

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
We take this opportunity to express our deep sense of gratitude and regard to Mr. Ankur
Tyagi, Asst. Prof. (ME Deptt.), Ajay Kumar Garg Engineering College, Ghaziabad for his
continuous encouragement and able guidance, we needed to complete this project.
We are also grateful to Mr. Jitendra Yadav for their continuous support and valuable
suggestions.
We would pay our sincere gratitude to the Head of the Deptt. (M.E.), Prof. I. P. Sharma for
his precious and enlightening words of wisdom which motivated us throughout our project
work.

ABSTRCT
A Go-Kart is a four wheeled vehicle designed and meant for racing only (though in some
countries it is used for fun personal transportation). It is a small four wheeler run by I.C
Engine. Go-Kart is powered by 125cc Bajaj Discover engine with single disc brake mounted
on rear shaft. The chassis are made of steel tube. There is no suspension therefore chassis
have to be flexible enough to work as a suspension and stiff enough not to break or give way
on a turn. This project deals with the design, fabrication and review of go-kart. Design and
fabrication of the Go-kart focuses on developing a simple, lightweight and easily operated
vehicle. Aspects of ergonomics, safety, ease of manufacture, and reliability are incorporated
into the design specifications. Analyses are conducted on all major components to optimize
strength and rigidity, improve vehicle performance, and to reduce complexity and
manufacturing costs. This report documents the process and methodology to produce a low
cost go-kart and finally review is also done to optimize it. We adopted iterative methodology
for designing, first we have done market research to know about various components and
materials available and their costs as well and then comparing with our requirement we have
selected them. And for final review we prepared common guidelines for conducting FMEA
analysis. With findings from FMEA we implemented required changes in our go-kart to
improve its efficiency.

TABLE OF CONTENT
Declaration

ii

Certificate

iii

Acknowledgements

iv

Abstract

List of figures

viii

List of tables

ix

List of symbols

List of Abbreviations

xi

Chapter 1.

Introduction

1-4

1.1 Introduction
1.2 Project Background
1.3 Project Planning

1
1
3

Chapter 2. Chassis

6-10

2.1 Objective

2.2 Selection of material

2.2.1 Type of steels that were available in market for making chassis

2.2.2 Reason for using circular cross section

2.3 Frame Parameters

2.4 CAD views of the frame

2.5 Analysis of Chassis (Impact Testing)

2.5.1 Front Impact

2.5.2 Side Impact

10

2.5.3 Rear Impact

11

Chapter 3. Steering System

12-16

3.1 Introduction

12

3.2 Selection of steering mechanism

12

3.2.1 Rack and Pinion steering system

12

3.2.2 Steering system comprising tie rod and modified linkage

13

3.2.3 Steering system with different length linkage

13

3.2.4 The Steering system used: Steering Knuckle system

14

3.2.5. Principle and calculation

15

3.2.6 Specifications

16

Chapter 4. Wheels and Tyres

17-18

4.1 Introduction

17

Chapter 5. Brake

19-24

5.1 Objection

19

5.2 Selection of braking components

19

5.3 Braking Calculation

20

Chapter 6. Ergonomics

26-27

6.1 Introduction

26

6.2 Ergonomics in go kart

26

Chapter 7. Failure mode and effect analysis

29-39

7.1 Introduction

23

7.2 FMEA/FMECA Overview

29

7.3 Containment consideration

30

7.4 Published standards and guidelines

30

7.5 Basic Analysis Procedure for FMEA/FMECA

33

7.6 Risk evaluation methods

33

7.7 Criticality analysis

35

7.8 Benefits for FMEA/FMECA

35

7.9 FMEA/FMECA applications

36

7.10 Recommended actions

37

7.11 Conclusion of FMEA

39

Chapter 8 Suggested Changes after Review

40-43

8.1 Objective

40

8.2 Suggested Changes in Material Selection

40

8.3 Suggested Changes in Steering System

41

8.4 Suggested Changes in Braking System

42

Appendix 1 Cost Report

44

References

45-46

List of Figures

Fig. 1.1 Go-Kart

Fig. 1.2 Old Version of Go-Kart

Fig. 1.3 Go-Kart

Fig. 1.4 Project flow chart

Fig. 2.1 Isometric view

Fig. 2.2 Front view

Fig. 2.3 Right side view

Fig. 2.4 Left side view

Fig. 2.5 Top view

Fig. 2.6 Front impact analysis from software

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Fig. 2.7 Side impact analysis from software

10

Fig. 2.8 Rear impact analysis from software

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Fig. 3.1 Rack and Pinion steering system

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Fig. 3.2 Different types of Rack and pinion assembly

13

Fig. 3.3 Used steering system

14

Fig. 3.4(a),(b) Actual picture of steering mechanism used

15

Fig. 4.1 Ram specification

17

Fig. 4.2 Tyre and hub

18

Fig. 4.3 Naming of go-kart tyres

18

Fig. 5.1 Wheel base and track width with respect to CG of vehicle

20

Fig. 6.1 Various angle for driver comfort

27

Fig. 7.1

30

FMEA format

Fig. 7.2(a) Description of various element if DFMEA format

34

Fig. 7.2(b) Description of various element of DFMEA format

35

List of Tables
Table 2.1

Chemical composition of ASTM A106 B

Table 7.1

Severity rating scale

31

Table 7.2

Occurrence rating scale

31

Table 7.3

Detection rating scale

32

Table 7.4

Prepared FMEA report

38

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List of symbols
C - Carbon
Cu - Copper
Ni- Nickel
P- Phosphorus
Si- Silicon
Cr- Chromium
V- Vanadium
Mn- Manganese
S- Sulphur
Mo- Molybdenum
F- Force
M-Mass
b- wheelbase
- maximum angle turned

- inner angle made by wheel


- outer angle made by wheel

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List of Abbreviation

BITE- Built in test


DVP- Design validation plan
FEA- Failure effect analysis
FMECA-Failure modes,effect and criticality analysis
FMEA-Failure mode and effect analysis
GMPs- Good manufacturing practices
PRA- Probalistic risk assessment
PSM- Process safety management
RBD-Reliability Block Diagram
RCM-Reliability Centered Maintenance
RG- Reliability Growth
RPN- Risk Priority Number

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