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651

the Distribution Level with Power Quality

Improvement

Ahsan Q. Omran Aladi

M.Tech in Energy Systems,

Centre for Energy Studies Department,

JNTUH College of Engineering, Hyderabad, India

Email:ahsanq87@gmail.com

ABSTRACT

This paper describes improved methodology of power

quality at utility end in a grid system connected with

renewable source of energy for power generation. With

development of new functionalities solar energy based

Photovoltaic cells are upcoming energy source with higher

efficiency. With the increase in load demand, the

Renewable Energy Sources (RES) are increasingly

connected in the distribution systems which utilizes power

electronic Converters/Inverters. The Photo Voltaic (PV)

Panel is modeled based on associated equations. The use of

non-linear loads in the power system will lead to the

generation of current harmonics which in turn deteriorates

the power quality. The Problems like current unbalance,

current harmonics and also of injecting the energy generated

by renewable energy source. The inverter is controlled on

the basis of hysteresis control and thus it can be utilized as a

power converter injecting power generated from RES to the

grid. When the power generated from RES is more than the

total load power demand, the grid-interfacing inverter with

the proposed control approach not only fulfills the total load

active and reactive power demand but also delivers the

excess generated sinusoidal active power to the grid at unity

power factor. This work is carried out using

MATLAB/SIMULINK software.

Distributed generation.

1. INTRODUCTION

This paper presented here shows unique and effective

methodology for planning a grid connected to renewable

in system using Active Filter on utility side. Solar power is

harnessed through PV panels and harmonic distortion is

filtered using Shunt Active filter.

Due to increasing air pollution, global warming concerns,

diminishing fossil fuels and their increasing cost have made

it necessary to look towards Renewable Energy Sources

(RES) as a future energy solution. In finding solutions to

overcome a global energy crisis, the Photo Voltaic (PV)

system has attracted significant attention in recent years.

The government is providing incentives for further

increasing the use of grid-connected PV systems.

Renewable Energy Sources are increasingly integrated at the

distribution level due to increase in load demand which

utilize power electronic converters. Due to the extensive use

of power electronic devices, disturbances occur on the

electrical supply network. These disturbances are due to the

use of non-linear devices. These will introduce harmonics

in the power system thereby causing equipment

overheating ,damage devices ,EMI related problems etc.

Active Power Filters (APF) is extensively used to

compensate the current harmonics and load unbalance. This

will result in additional hardware requirements. So, in this

paper, the existing PV inverter acts as Shunt Active Power

Filter (SAPF) that is capable of simultaneously

compensating problems like current unbalance, Current

harmonics and also of injecting the energy generated by

RES. The shunt active filter is a voltage source inverter

(VSI), which is connected in parallel with load. Shunt

Active Power Filter has the ability to keep the mains current

balanced and sinusoidal after compensation for various

Load condition.

ISSN:2051-3240, Vol.44, Special Issue.2

652

Elimination of current harmonics, compensation of reactive

power, Correction of power factor Photovoltaic cells

converts solar energy to direct electric energy. Other virtues

of solar energy are:

generation.

2. It has no rotating parts, hence no noise, no maintenance

and long life with less maintenance.

3. Solar energy is abundantly available on earth.

4. Problem of low efficiency and higher initial cost can be

overcome by advance technology solar PV panel.

5. This energy source is non-polluting and available

continuously free of cost. The paper ends with a

conclusion on future works.

The proposed , the grid-interfacing inverter can effectively

be utilized to perform following important functions: 1)

transfer of active power harvested from the renewable

resources (wind, solar, etc.); 2) load reactive power demand

support; 3) current harmonics compensation at PCC; and 4)

current unbalance. The proposed control approach not only

fulfills the total load active and reactive power demand but

also delivers the excess generated sinusoidal active power to

the grid at unity power factor.

2.

SYSTEM DESCRIPTION

out unwanted harmonic currents by injecting a

compensation current which cancels harmonics in the line

current. Shunt active power filters compensate load current

harmonics by injecting equal but opposite harmonic

conceived using four leg converters. This topology has

proved better controllability than the classical three-leg

four-wire .In this paper, it is shown that using an adequate

control strategy, even with a three phase four-wire

system, The topology of the investigated APF and its

interconnection with the grid is presented. It consists of a

three leg four-wire voltage source inverter. In this type of

applications, the VSI operates as a current controlled

voltage source. The proposed system is Three Phase

Four wire which consists of Photovoltaic system

connected to the dc-link of a grid-interfacing inverter.

The voltage source inverter is a key element of a PV

system as it interfaces the renewable energy source to

the grid and delivers the generated power. The

Photovoltaic system is connected to grid with an

inverter coupled to dc-link. The dc-capacitor decouples

the Photovoltaic system from grid and also allows

independent control of converters on either side of dc-link.

3. PV PANELS

Solar cell is basically a photovoltaic cell form of p-n

junction. It when exposed to sunlight absorbs some energy

greater than band-gap. This creates some hole-electron

pairs proportional to incident radiations. These carriers are

affected by internal electric fields of p-n junction and forms

photo current proportional to solar insolation. PV cells have

non linear characteristics which vary with radiation intensity

and temperature.

PV cells produces less than 3W at 0.5 to 0.6 Volts, so cells

are connected in series to produce enough power. The

terminal equation for the current and voltage of the array of

PV panels are given as

ISSN:2051-3240, Vol.44, Special Issue.2

(1)

(2)

(3)

(4)

Ip = Light generated current

Vpv = Terminal voltage of the cell

ID = Diode current

Io = saturation current

Ish = shunt current

q = electron charge

k = Boltzmann constant

T = Temperature

Rs = Series Resistance

Rsh = shunt Resistance

High-penetrated grid-connected PV systems, which are

known as a type of DG in the megawatt range, are rapidly

developed. These cover the majority of the PV market in

different countries worldwide. The main components of a

grid-connected PV system includes a series/parallel

mixture of PV arrays to directly convert sunlight to DC

power and a power-conditioning unit that converts DC

power to AC power; this unit also keeps the PVs operating

at maximum efficiency.

The general diagram of grid connected PV systems.

Notably, in many cases, energy storage devices such as

batteries and super-capacitors are also considered the third

component of grid-connected PV systems. These devices

enhance the performance of PV systems, such as power

generation at night, reactive power control over the PV

systems, peak load shifting, and voltage stabilizing of

grids.

653

ARRAY

The photovoltaic array can be simulated with an equivalent

circuit model based on the photovoltaic model. Two

simulation strategies are possible. Circuit model using one

current source (Im) and two resistors (Rs and Rp). This

circuit can be implemented with any circuit simulator. The

value of the model current I calculated by the computational

block that has V, I, I0 and I pv as inputs. I0 is obtained and

Ivp is obtained. This computational block may be

implemented with any circuit simulator able to evaluate

math functions. Another circuit model composed of only

one current source. The value of the current is obtained by

numerically solving the I-V equation. For every value of Va

corresponding I that satisfies the I-V equation is obtained.

The solution can be implemented with a numerical method

in any circuit simulator that accepts embedded

programming. This is the simulation strategy proposed in.

Other authors have proposed circuits for simulating photovoltaic arrays that are based on simplified equations and/or

require lots of computational effort. In a circuit-based

photovoltaic model is composed of a current source driven

by an intricate and inaccurate equation where the parallel

resistance is neglected. In an intricate PSpice - based

simulation was presented, where the I-V equation is

numerically solved within the PSpice software. Al-though

interesting, the approach found in is excessively elaborated

and concerns the simplified photovoltaic model without the

series resistance. In a simple circuit-based photovoltaic

model is proposed where the parallel resistance is neglected.

In a circuit-based model was proposed based on the

piecewise approximation of the I-V curve. Although

interesting and relatively simple, this method does not

provide a solution to find the parameters of the I-V equation

and the circuit model requires many components. The

photovoltaic

model

circuits

implemented

with

MATLAB/SIMULINK (using the Sym Power Systems

blockset) and PSIM using the simulation strategy. Both

circuit models work perfectly and may be used in the

simulation of power electronics converters for photovoltaic

systems. The I-V curves of the Solarex MSX60 solar panel

simulated with the MATLAB/SIMULINK.

Boost converter increases voltage level for inverter and

control MPPT. Output voltage of boost converter is higher

than input voltage. Input current is same as inductor

current and hence it is not discontinuous as buck convertor

and hence input filter requirements are relaxed in boost

convertor.

If solar panels of high rating are implemented then

requirement of boost converter can also be relaxed and

ISSN:2051-3240, Vol.44, Special Issue.2

generate DC Voltage and to connect panels to grid DC

power has to be converted to AC Power. We require

inverter to convert DC to sinusoidal AC before connecting

to grid. Output voltage and frequency should be same as

that of grid voltage and frequency. Many inverter

topologies are available. In proposed scheme PWM (pulse

width modulated) Voltage Source Inverter is selected d-q

theory with phase. Output of the Inverter is near to

Sinusoidal. 6 switches are used and its switching is

controlled by discrete PWM signals. Electrical diagram for

inverter is shown in Fig.

654

system Stand-alone and grid-connected are the two main

PV system configurations. This study concerns only the

second configuration that is used to feed electricity into the

grid distribution system and/or to power loads which can

also be fed from the grid. Many studies have characterized

in deep detail PV grid-connected systems. This section

presents a brief reminder about major parameters to be

considered. Figure 2 shows that the main function to be

assured is the conversion from dc to ac through an

inverter. These inverters are connected directly to the grid.

For a safety reason, the inverter should turnoff

automatically in case of power outage. The integration of

PV systems to electricity networks is covered by the IEEE

1547. Power quality, power regulation and safety are main

issues of these standards. Norms related to power quality

present specifications related to the following parameters:

1. Harmonics that produce distortions in the voltage and

current waveforms.

by inverters and converters structures and control methods.

Systems

ISSN:2051-3240, Vol.44, Special Issue.2

between the converters and the grid.

4.Radio frequency interference that is caused by high

switching frequencies of the converters. Grounding

configurations and island operation are the main issues in

safety concerns. An islanding status occurs when the grid

doesnt provide power any more. In this case, the inverter

should shut down automatically. This operation should

happen not later than a time specified in the norms. If

grounding design doesnt follow required standards,

undesirable damaging phase to ground voltages may occur

before islanded status is reached. Regulation of the voltage

at the point of common coupling PCC (point where the

solar system is connected to the grid) is an important

matter that is also considered in norms related to

distributed resources. Voltage regulators are connected to

the PCC in order to prevent variation and unbalancing

phenomenon. If these regulators are not conveniently

specified, undesirable transient voltages may be produced

mainly when the PV system is subjected to fluctuations.

Harmonics results in voltage distortion which is a major

problem on utility side. Other problems related to

harmonics such as line loss reactive power, resonance

problem heating of equipments leads to reduction in

stability of system. Active filters provide a fair solution to

mitigate problems encountered due to harmonics on utility

side. Harmonic resonance is not an issue with this type of

filter. The active filters are used for nonlinear load having

time dependent harmonics.

6. VOLTAGE

(VSC)

SOURCE

CONVERTER

device that connected in shunt or parallel to the system. It

can generate a sinusoidal voltage with any required

magnitude, frequency and phase angle. It also converts

the DC voltage across storage devices into a set of three

phase AC output voltages. It is also capable to generate or

absorbs reactive So, it will compensate the reactive power

through AC system. The type of power switch used is an

IGBT in anti-parallel with a diode.

The dc link voltage, Vdc is sensed at a regular interval

and is compared with its reference counterpart Vdc*.The

error signal is processed in a PI-controller. The output of

the pi controller is denoted as Im. the reference. The

current templates (Ia*,Ib*,and Ic*) are obtained by

multiplying this peak value (Im) by the three-unit sine

vectors (Ua , Ub and Uc) in phase with the three source

voltages. These unit sine vectors are obtained from the

three sensed line to neutral voltages. The reference grid

655

sum of balanced grid currents. Multiplication of

magnitude Im with phases (Ua ,Ub and Uc) results in the

three phase reference supply currents (Ia*,Ib*,and Ic*).

The grid synchronizing angle obtained from phase locked

loop (PLL) is used to generate unity vector template as

(5)

(6)

(7)

The instantaneous values of reference three phase grid

currents are compute as

(8)

(9)

(10)

The neutral current is considered as

(11)

The reference grid currents(Ia*,Ib*,Ic*and In*) are

compared with actual grid currents(Ia, Ib,Icand In) to

compute the current errors as

(12)

(13)

(14)

(15)

These error signals are given to hysteresis current

controller then generates the switching pulses for six

IGBTs of the grid interfacing inverter

The hysteresis current control (HCC) is the easiest control

method to implement; it was developed by Brod and

Novotny in 1985 . The shunt APF is implemented with

three phase current controlled VSI and is connected to the

ac mains for compensating the current harmonics. The VSI

gate control signals are brought out from hysteresis band

current controller. A hysteresis current controller is

implemented with a closed loop control system and

waveforms are shown in Fig .3. An error signal is used to

control the switches in a voltage source inverter. This error

is the difference between the desired current and the

current being injected by the inverter. If the error exceeds

the upper limit of the hysteresis band, the upper switch of

ISSN:2051-3240, Vol.44, Special Issue.2

turned on. As a result, the current starts decaying

656

multi objectives for grid interfaced DG systems connected

to a 3-phase 4-wire network, an extensive simulation study

is carried out using MATLAB/Simulink. A 4-leg current

controlled voltage source inverter is actively controlled to

achieve balanced sinusoidal grid currents at unity power

factor (UPF) despite of highly unbalanced nonlinear load at

PCC under varying renewable generating conditions. A RES

with variable output power is connected on the dc-link of

grid interfacing inverter. An unbalanced 3-phase 4-wire

nonlinear load, whose unbalance, harmonics, and reactive

power need to be compensated, is connected on PCC.

the error crosses the lower limit of the hysteresis band, the

lower switch of the inverter arm is turned off and the upper

switch is turned on. As a result, the current gets back into

the hysteresis band. The minimum and maximum values

of the error.

9. SIMULATION RESULTS

The performance of the proposed structure is assessed by a

computer simulation that uses MATLAB Software. The

parameters of the proposed system are given in the tables

below. The performance of the system with proposed

control scheme is discussed, which includes the following

case studies

Simulink model of the PV solar system

energy systems

ISSN:2051-3240, Vol.44, Special Issue.2

systems

657

9. CONCLUSION

PV panels are connected in series and parallel to match

with grid voltage. Parallel connection increases current

level. This DC power is converted to AC using inverter.

Inverter is control to feed active power to the grid using

discrete PWM signals. There is harmonic injection in the

grid due to non linear load on utility side. To mitigate this

harmonics to IEEE 519 standards Shunt active filter with

VSI topology is used. Synchronous reference frame for

current control scheme is implemented for better results.

systems

total load power demand, the grid-interfacing inverter with

the proposed control approach not only fulfills the total

load active and reactive power demand but also delivers

the excess generated sinusoidal active power to the grid at

unity power factor and increases the efficiency of the

circuit. .

REFERENCES

[1] Mukhtiar Singh, Student Member, IEEE, Vinod

Khadkikar, Member, IEEE, Ambrish Chandra, Senior

Member, IEEE and

Rajiv K. Varma, Senior

Member, IEEE Grid Interconnection of Renewable

Energy Sources at the Distribution Level With

Power-Quality Improvement Features. IEEE

Transactions On Power Delivery, Vol. 26, No. 1,

January 2011.

[2]

Pavan Kumar, "Use of DC Motor-Generator Set for

Power Quality Improvement in a Renewable Energy

Based Hybrid Power System. International Journal

on Recent Trends in Engineering & Technology, Vol.

05, No. 02, Mar 2011.

ISSN:2051-3240, Vol.44, Special Issue.2

Dynamic Modeling and Simulation of Renewable

Energy Based Hybrid Power Systems DRPT 2008,

pp. 2803-2809.

[4] D.M. Brod and D.W. Novotny, Current Control of VSI

PWM Inverters, IEEE Transactions Industrial

Application, Vol. IA-21, no.4. pp.562-570,1985.

[5]

With Active Filter, in IEEE IIAS Ann.

Meeting,1987, pp,808.

[6]

Synchronization With PID Controller Based on Shunt

Active Power Line FILTER. International Journal of

Computer and Electrical Engineering, Vol.3, No.1,

February 2011.

of Distributed Generation Power Inverter as Active

Power

Filter

using

MATLAB/Simulink.

International Journal on Recent Trends in

Engineering and Technology , Vol.6, No.2,Nov 2011.

[8] R.C.Dugan, M. F. McGranaghan, S. Santoso, H. W.

Beaty, Electrical Power Systems Quality ,Second

Edition, McGraw-Hill.

[9] M. Aiello, A. Catalioti, S. Favuzza, G. Graditi,

Theoretical and Experimental Comparison of Total

Harmonic Distortion Factors for the evaluation of

Harmonic and Inter harmonic Pollution of GridConnected.''IEEE Transactions On Power Delivery,

Vol. 21, No. 3, July 2006

[10] .J. M. A. Myrzik, and M. Calais, Member, IEEE

String and Module Integrated Inverters for SinglePhase Grid Connected Photovoltaic Systems - A

Review. Power Technical Conference Proceedings,

2003 IEEE Bologna.

AUTHORS PROFILE

Mr. AHASAN Q. OMRAN

ALADI,

M.Tech

(Energy

Systems) in Center for Energy

Studies Department in JNTUH

College

of

Engineering,

Hyderabad, India. Born on 1984

in Babylon, Hilla-IRAQ.

658

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