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Analysis and Design of Continuous Slab and Beam Footing

Ubani Obinna U. (2016)

EXAMPLE ON THE ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF CONTINUOUS


SLAB AND BEAM FOOTING PER BS 8110-1:1997
Ubani Obinna Uzodimma
Department of Civil Engineering, Nnamdi Azikiwe University
PMB 5025, Awka, Anambra State, Nigeria
E-mail: ubani456@gmail.com

1.1 Introduction
This design is just an excerpt from my final year project Structural Analysis and Design of 35,000
Capacity Reinforced Concrete Stadium. After analysis and design of the superstructure (see figure
1.1), I realized I had a very large magnitude of axial loads and moments at the foundation.
Foundations must be designed to resist geotechnical and structural failure, and at the same time
should be economical. The ultimate bearing capacity of the supporting soil at 2.00m depth was very
good at 380 KN/m2, (gravely sand at Naze, Owerri) so shallow foundation was adopted.

Figure 1.1: A section through the stadium

However, adopting a pad footing proved very uneconomical given the large area of excavation
required (columns are spaced at 6.0m), and the depth of concrete needed to handle shear forces was
much. Raft foundation proved to be too expensive for a soil with such good bearing capacity. After
much consideration, I realized that chaining the columns continuously will do the trick, but at the
same time, I could combine the slab with upstand beams running continuously along the axis of the
column. My whole aim was to reduce the great quantity of concrete that would have been required to
control diagonal shear by using shear reinforcements (stirrups) in the beams which proved to be much
cheaper (see Figure 1.1).

Figure 2.2: Schematic form of continuous beam and slab foundation

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Analysis and Design of Continuous Slab and Beam Footing

Ubani Obinna U. (2016)

For this paper, I selected an axis from the structure in which the intermediate columns had
approximately an ultimate axial load of 3081.075 KN each while the end columns had an axial load of
1680.3 KN (see Figure 1.3).

Figure 3.3: Loading configuration of the foundation.

From the symmetrical arrangement of the loads, it is quite obvious that the centroid will pass through
the middle column, hence, soil pressure can be assumed to be uniform under the whole length of the
footing.

1.2 Design Data


Concrete cover = 50mm; Fy = 460 N/mm2; Fyv = 460 N/mm2; Fcu = 30 N/mm2
Dimension of all columns = (500 300 mm); Bearing Capacity = 380 KN/m2
Total Ultimate Limit State (ULS) Load = 2(1680.3) + 5(3081.075) = 18765.975 KN
Axial load conversion factor to Serviceability Limit State (SLS) = 1.45
.

NSLS =

= 12942.05 KN

Assume 12% of service load to be the self weight of the footing


SW =

12942.05 = 1553.04 KN

Area of footing required Areq =

Taking a 36.3m long base, the width B =

= 38.14 m2

= 1.051 m

Provide a 1.1 m x 36.3m x 1.1m (trial depth) base (Aprov = 39.93 m2)
Earth Pressure intensity (q) =

= 469.97 KN/m2

1.3 Design of the slab (per meter strip)


Bending moment on the slab is maximum at the face of the column (in this case at the face of the
upstand beams) (clause 3.11.2.2 BS 8110-1:1997)
Width of the beam = 500mm = 0.5m
Hence, Moment arm (jxx) =

. .

= 0.30 m

Assume depth of slab h = 300mm; concrete cover = 50mm and assuming that Y12mm bars will be
used at the slab;
Hence, the effective depth (d) = 300 50 (12/2) = 244mm
The design moment Mx-x =
k=

= 21.14 KN.m

= 0.012; k < 0.156, no compression steel needed (clause 3.4.4.4)

Lever arm (la) = 0.5 + (0.25 k/0.9)0.5; Hence la = 0.95


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Analysis and Design of Continuous Slab and Beam Footing


Area of tension steel required ASreq =
Minimum area of steel ASmin =

. .

.
.

Ubani Obinna U. (2016)


= 212.17 mm

= 390 mm2 (Table 3.25 BS 8110-1:1997)

Provide Y12 @ 200 mm c/c (Asprov = 566 mm2/m)


Distribution bars on slab
ASmin =

= 390 mm2 (Table 3.25 BS 8110-1:1997)

Provide Y12 @ 200 mm c/c (Asprov = 566 mm2/m) in longitudinal direction as distribution bars
Check for shear
The concrete resistance shear stress (Vc) = 0.632

Vc = 0.632

(Table 3.8 BS 8110-1:1997)

Vc = 0.632 0.6144 1.1315 = 0.439 N/mm2


1
2

For Fcu = 30N/mm , Vc = 0.439

30 3
=
25

0.4665 N/mm2

Critical diagonal shear force at d from face of support = V = q(jxx d)


V = 467.97 (0.30 0.244) = 28.078 KN/m
The shear stress v =

= 0.1151 N/mm2 (clause 3.4.5.2 BS 8110-1:1997)

0.1151 N/mm2 < 0.4665 N/mm2


Diagonal Shear is ok
Punching shear is also ok (perimeter falls outside the footing dimensions). Hence design is ok.

1.4 Design of the longitudinal beam


Uniformly distributed soil reaction on beam = 467.97 KN/m2 1.1m = 514.77 KN/m

This is just like a continuous


beam that is turned upside down,
and analysing it by Clapeyrons
three moment equation gives the
bending moment and shear force
diagram shown in figure 1.4.

Figure 4.4: Internal stresses diagram

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Analysis and Design of Continuous Slab and Beam Footing

Ubani Obinna U. (2016)

Bottom reinforcement design


Width of beam (b) = 500mm; Total depth h = 1100mm, Concrete Cover Cc = 50mm; Assume
Y32mm bars
Effective depth d = h Cc - /2 - links = 1100 50 16 10 = 1024mm
Design of points B and F
M = 1960.09 KN.m

k=

= 0.124 (clause 3.4.4.4 BS 8110-1:1997)

k < 0.156, no compression steel needed


Lever arm (la) = 0.5 + (0.25 k/0.9)0.5; Hence la = 0.834
ASreq =

.
.

ASmin =

. .

= 5252 mm

= 1430mm2 (Table 3.25 BS 8110-1:1997)

Provide 7Y32mm BOT (Asprov = 5628 mm2)


Design of point D (Bottom) to cover all bottom midspan areas
M = 1603.71 KN.m

k=

= 0.1019 (clause 3.4.4.4 BS 8110-1:1997)

k < 0.156, no compression steel needed


la = 0.5 + (0.25 K/0.9)0.5 Hence la = 0.869
ASreq =

. .
.

ASmin =

= 4124 mm

= 1430 mm2 (Table 3.25 BS 8110-1:1997)

Provide 4Y32mm + 3Y25mm BOT (Asprov = 4689mm2) mainly around the mid span supports. (See
detailed drawings)
Top reinforcement design
Width of flange (bf) = 1100mm
Span A-B and F-G
M = 1440.08 KN.m

k=

= 0.0416 (clause 3.4.4.4 BS 8110-1:1997)

k < 0.156, no compression steel needed


la = 0.5 + (0.25 K/0.9)0.5 Hence la = 0.95
ASreq =

. .

.
.

= 3387.5 mm

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Analysis and Design of Continuous Slab and Beam Footing


ASmin =

Ubani Obinna U. (2016)

= 990 mm2 (Table 3.25 BS 8110-1:1997)

Provide 4Y32mm + 2Y16mm TOP (Asprov = 3618 mm2)

Mid span areas (between spans B and F)


M = 802.71 KN.m

k=

= 0.023 (clause 3.4.4.4 BS 8110-1:1997)

k < 0.156, no compression steel needed


la = 0.5 + (0.25 K/0.9)0.5; Hence la = 0.95
ASreq =
ASmin =

.
.

. .

.
.

= 1888.224 mm

= 990mm2 (Table 3.25 BS 8110-1:1997)

Provide 4Y25mm + 2Y16mm TOP (Asprov = 2366 mm2)


Longitudinal side bars
Provide Y16mm @ 200mm c/c both faces. (Clause 3.12.11.2.6 BS 8110-1:1997)
Shear design
Maximum shear force on the whole foundation = 1870.99 KN
.

Hence maximum shear stress v =

= 3.654 N/mm2 (clause 3.4.5.2 BS 8110-1:1997)

3.654 N/mm2 < 0.830 < 5 N/mm2


Hence, section is ok for shear
Shear design of support of column A
Shear force at support of column A = 1217.63 kN
.

At d from the face of column, Vd =

Shear stress v =

Vc = 0.632
Vc = 0.632

.
.

= 613.29 KN (clause 3.4.5.10 BS 8110-1:1997)

= 1.197 N/mm2 (clause 3.4.5.2 BS 8110-1:1997)

(Table 3.8 BS 8110-1:1997)



Vc = 0.632 0.891 1 = 0.5629 N/mm2


For Fcu = 30N/mm2, Vc = 0.5629

= 0.5978 N/mm2

Vc + 0.4 < v Hence shear reinforcement is required


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Analysis and Design of Continuous Slab and Beam Footing

Ubani Obinna U. (2016)

Trying 4 legs of Y10mm (Asv = 314mm2), we have;


Spacing Sv =

( .

= 458 mm (Table 3.7 BS 8110-1:1997)

Maximum spacing = 0.75d = 0.75 1024 = 768 mm (clause 3.4.5.5 BS 8110-1:1997)


Provide 4Y10mm @ 300mm c/c links as shear reinforcement (adopted as nominal reinforcement)

At column support B (Span A-B)


Shear force on footing = 1870.99 KN
.

At d from the face of column, Vd =

= 1266.64 KN (clause 3.4.5.10 BS 8110-1:1997)

Shear stress at d from the face of column v =

= 2.474 N/mm2

(Table 3.8 BS 8110-1:1997)

Vc = 0.632

Vc = 0.632


Vc = 0.632 1.032 1 = 0.652 N/mm2
For Fcu = 30N/mm2, Vc = 0.652
= 0.692 N/mm2
Vc + 0.4 < v Hence shear reinforcement is required
Trying 4 legs of Y10mm, we have
Spacing Sv =

( .

= 154 mm (Table 3.7 BS 8110-1:1997)

Maximum spacing = 0.75d = 0.75 1024 = 768 mm (clause 3.4.5.5 BS 8110-1:1997)


Provide 4Y10mm @ 150mm c/c links as shear reinforcement
Extent of shear links
Total shear force resistance of the reinforced concrete Vn =

0.95 Fyv + bw Vc d

Vc = 0.692 N/mm2
Vn =

0.95 460 + 500 0.692 1024

Vn = 706.326 KN
Extent of shear links Sn =
Extent of shear links Sn =

+d
.

+ 1.024 = 2.112 m

Stop shear links at 2.2 m from face of column and provide nominal reinforcement
At column support B (Span B-C)
Shear force = 1633.4 KN
At d from the face of column, Vd =

v =

. .
.

= 1029 KN (clause 3.4.5.10 BS 8110-1:1997)

= 2.00 N/mm2 (clause 3.4.5.2 BS 8110-1:1997)

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Analysis and Design of Continuous Slab and Beam Footing

Vc = 0.632

Ubani Obinna U. (2016)

(Table 3.8 BS 8110-1:1997)


Vc = 0.632


Vc = 0.632 1.032 1 = 0.652 N/mm2
For Fcu = 30N/mm2, Vc = 0.652
= 0.692 N/mm2
Vc + 0.4 < v Hence shear reinforcement is required
Trying 4 legs of Y10mm, we have
Spacing Sv =

( .

= 209.9 mm (Table 3.7 BS 8110-1:1997)

Maximum spacing = 0.75d = 0.75 1024 = 768 mm (clause 3.4.5.5 BS 8110-1:1997)


Provide 4Y10mm @ 200mm c/c links as shear reinforcement

At column support D (middle column)


Shear force at middle column = 1574.01 kN
.

At d from the face of column, Vd =


Shear stress v =

= 969.668 KN (clause 3.4.5.10 BS 8110-1:1997)

= 1.893 N/mm2 (clause 3.4.5.2 BS 8110-1:1997)

(Table 3.8 BS 8110-1:1997)

Vc = 0.632

Vc = 0.632

Vc = 0.632 0.9711 1 = 0.613 N/mm2


For Fcu = 30N/mm2, Vc = 0.613
= 0.6517 N/mm2
Vc + 0.4 < v Hence shear reinforcement is required
Trying 4 legs of Y10mm, we have
Spacing Sv =

( .

= 221.087 mm (Table 3.7 BS 8110-1:1997)

Maximum spacing = 0.75d = 0.75 1024 = 768 mm (clause 3.4.5.5 BS 8110-1:1997)


Provide 4Y10mm @ 200mm c/c links as shear reinforcement
Extent of shear links
Total shear resistance of the concrete Vn =

0.95 Fy + bw Vc d

Vc = 0.6517 N/mm2
Vn =

0.95 460 + 500 0.6517 1024

Vn = 685.69 KN
Extent of shear links Sn =
Extent of shear links Sn =

+d
.

+ 1.024 = 1.049 m

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Analysis and Design of Continuous Slab and Beam Footing

Ubani Obinna U. (2016)

Stop shear links at 1.1 m from face of column and provide nominal reinforcement = 3Y10 @ 300mm

Detailing
Typical sections cut through points Band C is shown in Figure 1.5. Kindly download full detailed
drawing from www.structville.blogspot.com

Figure 5.5: Sections through points B and C

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