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A beam and slab type continuous footing was designed using BS8110-1:1997 to carry axial load from columns spaced at 6m c/c. See how the design was done. www.structville.blogspot.com

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SLAB AND BEAM FOOTING PER BS 8110-1:1997

Ubani Obinna Uzodimma

Department of Civil Engineering, Nnamdi Azikiwe University

PMB 5025, Awka, Anambra State, Nigeria

E-mail: ubani456@gmail.com

1.1 Introduction

This design is just an excerpt from my final year project Structural Analysis and Design of 35,000

Capacity Reinforced Concrete Stadium. After analysis and design of the superstructure (see figure

1.1), I realized I had a very large magnitude of axial loads and moments at the foundation.

Foundations must be designed to resist geotechnical and structural failure, and at the same time

should be economical. The ultimate bearing capacity of the supporting soil at 2.00m depth was very

good at 380 KN/m2, (gravely sand at Naze, Owerri) so shallow foundation was adopted.

However, adopting a pad footing proved very uneconomical given the large area of excavation

required (columns are spaced at 6.0m), and the depth of concrete needed to handle shear forces was

much. Raft foundation proved to be too expensive for a soil with such good bearing capacity. After

much consideration, I realized that chaining the columns continuously will do the trick, but at the

same time, I could combine the slab with upstand beams running continuously along the axis of the

column. My whole aim was to reduce the great quantity of concrete that would have been required to

control diagonal shear by using shear reinforcements (stirrups) in the beams which proved to be much

cheaper (see Figure 1.1).

Page 1

For this paper, I selected an axis from the structure in which the intermediate columns had

approximately an ultimate axial load of 3081.075 KN each while the end columns had an axial load of

1680.3 KN (see Figure 1.3).

From the symmetrical arrangement of the loads, it is quite obvious that the centroid will pass through

the middle column, hence, soil pressure can be assumed to be uniform under the whole length of the

footing.

Concrete cover = 50mm; Fy = 460 N/mm2; Fyv = 460 N/mm2; Fcu = 30 N/mm2

Dimension of all columns = (500 300 mm); Bearing Capacity = 380 KN/m2

Total Ultimate Limit State (ULS) Load = 2(1680.3) + 5(3081.075) = 18765.975 KN

Axial load conversion factor to Serviceability Limit State (SLS) = 1.45

.

NSLS =

= 12942.05 KN

SW =

12942.05 = 1553.04 KN

= 38.14 m2

= 1.051 m

Provide a 1.1 m x 36.3m x 1.1m (trial depth) base (Aprov = 39.93 m2)

Earth Pressure intensity (q) =

= 469.97 KN/m2

Bending moment on the slab is maximum at the face of the column (in this case at the face of the

upstand beams) (clause 3.11.2.2 BS 8110-1:1997)

Width of the beam = 500mm = 0.5m

Hence, Moment arm (jxx) =

. .

= 0.30 m

Assume depth of slab h = 300mm; concrete cover = 50mm and assuming that Y12mm bars will be

used at the slab;

Hence, the effective depth (d) = 300 50 (12/2) = 244mm

The design moment Mx-x =

k=

= 21.14 KN.m

Downloaded from www.structville.blogspot.com

Page 2

Area of tension steel required ASreq =

Minimum area of steel ASmin =

. .

.

.

= 212.17 mm

Distribution bars on slab

ASmin =

Provide Y12 @ 200 mm c/c (Asprov = 566 mm2/m) in longitudinal direction as distribution bars

Check for shear

The concrete resistance shear stress (Vc) = 0.632

Vc = 0.632

1

2

30 3

=

25

0.4665 N/mm2

V = 467.97 (0.30 0.244) = 28.078 KN/m

The shear stress v =

Diagonal Shear is ok

Punching shear is also ok (perimeter falls outside the footing dimensions). Hence design is ok.

Uniformly distributed soil reaction on beam = 467.97 KN/m2 1.1m = 514.77 KN/m

beam that is turned upside down,

and analysing it by Clapeyrons

three moment equation gives the

bending moment and shear force

diagram shown in figure 1.4.

Page 3

Width of beam (b) = 500mm; Total depth h = 1100mm, Concrete Cover Cc = 50mm; Assume

Y32mm bars

Effective depth d = h Cc - /2 - links = 1100 50 16 10 = 1024mm

Design of points B and F

M = 1960.09 KN.m

k=

Lever arm (la) = 0.5 + (0.25 k/0.9)0.5; Hence la = 0.834

ASreq =

.

.

ASmin =

. .

= 5252 mm

Design of point D (Bottom) to cover all bottom midspan areas

M = 1603.71 KN.m

k=

la = 0.5 + (0.25 K/0.9)0.5 Hence la = 0.869

ASreq =

. .

.

ASmin =

= 4124 mm

Provide 4Y32mm + 3Y25mm BOT (Asprov = 4689mm2) mainly around the mid span supports. (See

detailed drawings)

Top reinforcement design

Width of flange (bf) = 1100mm

Span A-B and F-G

M = 1440.08 KN.m

k=

la = 0.5 + (0.25 K/0.9)0.5 Hence la = 0.95

ASreq =

. .

.

.

= 3387.5 mm

Page 4

ASmin =

M = 802.71 KN.m

k=

la = 0.5 + (0.25 K/0.9)0.5; Hence la = 0.95

ASreq =

ASmin =

.

.

. .

.

.

= 1888.224 mm

Longitudinal side bars

Provide Y16mm @ 200mm c/c both faces. (Clause 3.12.11.2.6 BS 8110-1:1997)

Shear design

Maximum shear force on the whole foundation = 1870.99 KN

.

Hence, section is ok for shear

Shear design of support of column A

Shear force at support of column A = 1217.63 kN

.

Shear stress v =

Vc = 0.632

Vc = 0.632

.

.

For Fcu = 30N/mm2, Vc = 0.5629

= 0.5978 N/mm2

Downloaded from www.structville.blogspot.com

Page 5

Spacing Sv =

( .

Provide 4Y10mm @ 300mm c/c links as shear reinforcement (adopted as nominal reinforcement)

Shear force on footing = 1870.99 KN

.

= 2.474 N/mm2

Vc = 0.632

Vc = 0.632

Vc = 0.632 1.032 1 = 0.652 N/mm2

For Fcu = 30N/mm2, Vc = 0.652

= 0.692 N/mm2

Vc + 0.4 < v Hence shear reinforcement is required

Trying 4 legs of Y10mm, we have

Spacing Sv =

( .

Provide 4Y10mm @ 150mm c/c links as shear reinforcement

Extent of shear links

Total shear force resistance of the reinforced concrete Vn =

0.95 Fyv + bw Vc d

Vc = 0.692 N/mm2

Vn =

Vn = 706.326 KN

Extent of shear links Sn =

Extent of shear links Sn =

+d

.

+ 1.024 = 2.112 m

Stop shear links at 2.2 m from face of column and provide nominal reinforcement

At column support B (Span B-C)

Shear force = 1633.4 KN

At d from the face of column, Vd =

v =

. .

.

Page 6

Vc = 0.632

Vc = 0.632

Vc = 0.632 1.032 1 = 0.652 N/mm2

For Fcu = 30N/mm2, Vc = 0.652

= 0.692 N/mm2

Vc + 0.4 < v Hence shear reinforcement is required

Trying 4 legs of Y10mm, we have

Spacing Sv =

( .

Provide 4Y10mm @ 200mm c/c links as shear reinforcement

Shear force at middle column = 1574.01 kN

.

Shear stress v =

Vc = 0.632

Vc = 0.632

For Fcu = 30N/mm2, Vc = 0.613

= 0.6517 N/mm2

Vc + 0.4 < v Hence shear reinforcement is required

Trying 4 legs of Y10mm, we have

Spacing Sv =

( .

Provide 4Y10mm @ 200mm c/c links as shear reinforcement

Extent of shear links

Total shear resistance of the concrete Vn =

0.95 Fy + bw Vc d

Vc = 0.6517 N/mm2

Vn =

Vn = 685.69 KN

Extent of shear links Sn =

Extent of shear links Sn =

+d

.

+ 1.024 = 1.049 m

Page 7

Stop shear links at 1.1 m from face of column and provide nominal reinforcement = 3Y10 @ 300mm

Detailing

Typical sections cut through points Band C is shown in Figure 1.5. Kindly download full detailed

drawing from www.structville.blogspot.com

Page 8

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