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We approach several themes of classical geometry of the circle and complete them with some original results, showing that not everything in traditional math is revealed, and that it still has an open character. The topics were chosen according to authors aspiration and attraction, as a poet writes lyrics about spring according to his emotions.

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You are on page 1of 182

of Circles Geometry

Pons Editions

Brussels | 2016

of Circles Geometry

Mihail Patrascu and the second author's

mother Maria (Marioara) Smarandache,

recently passed to eternity...

of Circles Geometry

Pons Editions

Brussels | 2016

3

All rights reserved. This book is protected by

copyright. No part of this book may be

reproduced in any form or by any means,

including photocopying or using any

information storage and retrieval system

without written permission from the

copyright owners.

ISBN 978-1-59973-465-1

Contents

Introduction ....................................................... 15

Lemoines Circles ............................................... 17

1st Theorem. ...........................................................17

Proof. .................................................................17

nd

2 Theorem.......................................................... 19

Proof. ................................................................ 19

Remark. ............................................................ 21

References. ........................................................... 22

Lemoines Circles Radius Calculus ..................... 23

1st Theorem ........................................................... 23

Proof. ................................................................ 23

Consequences. ................................................... 25

st

1 Proposition....................................................... 25

Proof. ................................................................ 25

nd

2 Proposition. .................................................... 26

Proof. ................................................................ 27

Remarks. ........................................................... 28

3rd Proposition. ..................................................... 28

Proof. ................................................................ 28

Remark. ............................................................ 29

References. ........................................................... 29

Radical Axis of Lemoines Circles ........................ 31

1st Theorem. ...........................................................31

2nd Theorem...........................................................31

1st Remark. .........................................................31

1st Proposition....................................................... 32

Proof. ................................................................ 32

Comment........................................................... 34

2nd Remark. ....................................................... 34

nd

2 Proposition. .................................................... 34

References. ........................................................... 34

Generating Lemoines circles ............................. 35

1st Definition. ........................................................ 35

1st Proposition....................................................... 35

2nd Definition. ....................................................... 35

1st Theorem. .......................................................... 36

3rd Definition. ....................................................... 36

1st Lemma. ............................................................ 36

Proof. ................................................................ 36

Remark. ............................................................ 38

2nd Theorem.......................................................... 38

Proof. ................................................................ 38

Further Remarks. .............................................. 40

References. ........................................................... 40

The Radical Circle of Ex-Inscribed Circles of a

Triangle .............................................................41

1st Theorem. .......................................................... 41

Proof. ................................................................ 41

nd

2 Theorem.......................................................... 43

Proof. ................................................................ 43

Remark. ............................................................ 44

rd

3 Theorem. ......................................................... 44

Proof. ................................................................ 45

References. ........................................................... 48

The Polars of a Radical Center ........................... 49

1st Theorem. .......................................................... 49

Proof. ................................................................ 50

2nd Theorem...........................................................51

Proof. ................................................................ 52

Remarks. ........................................................... 52

References. ........................................................... 53

Regarding the First Droz-Farnys Circle ............. 55

1st Theorem. .......................................................... 55

Proof. ................................................................ 55

Remarks. ........................................................... 57

nd

2 Theorem.......................................................... 57

Remark. ............................................................ 58

Definition. ............................................................ 58

Remark. ............................................................ 58

rd

3 Theorem. ......................................................... 58

Proof. ................................................................ 59

Remark. ............................................................ 60

th

4 Theorem. ......................................................... 60

Proof. ................................................................ 60

Reciprocally. ..................................................... 61

Remark. ............................................................ 62

References. ........................................................... 62

Regarding the Second Droz-Farnys Circle.......... 63

1st Theorem. .......................................................... 63

Proof. ................................................................ 63

1st Proposition....................................................... 65

Proof. ................................................................ 65

Remarks. ........................................................... 66

2nd Theorem.......................................................... 66

Proof. ................................................................ 67

Reciprocally. ..................................................... 67

Remarks. ........................................................... 68

Proof. ................................................................ 69

References. ........................................................... 70

Neubergs Orthogonal Circles ............................. 71

1st Definition. .........................................................71

2nd Definition. ....................................................... 72

3rd Definition. ....................................................... 72

1st Proposition....................................................... 72

Proof. ................................................................ 73

Consequence. .................................................... 74

nd

2 Proposition. .................................................... 74

Proof. ................................................................ 74

th

4 Definition. ....................................................... 75

3rd Proposition. ..................................................... 75

Proof. ................................................................ 75

Reciprocally. ..................................................... 76

4th Proposition. ..................................................... 76

Proof. ................................................................ 77

References. ........................................................... 78

Lucass Inner Circles.......................................... 79

1. Definition of the Lucass Inner Circles .......... 79

Definition. ............................................................ 80

2. Calculation of the Radius of the A-Lucas Inner

Circle .................................................................... 80

Note. ................................................................. 81

1st Remark. ........................................................ 81

3. Properties of the Lucass Inner Circles .......... 81

1st Theorem. .......................................................... 81

Proof. ................................................................ 81

nd

2 Definition. ....................................................... 83

Remark. ............................................................ 83

2 Theorem.......................................................... 84

3rd Definition. ....................................................... 84

3rd Theorem. ......................................................... 84

Proof. ................................................................ 85

Remarks. ........................................................... 86

4th Definition. ....................................................... 87

1st Property. .......................................................... 87

Proof. ................................................................ 87

2nd Property. ......................................................... 88

Proof. ................................................................ 88

References. ........................................................... 88

Theorems with Parallels Taken through a

Triangles Vertices and Constructions Performed

only with the Ruler ............................................ 89

1st Problem. ........................................................... 89

2nd Problem........................................................... 89

3rd Problem. .......................................................... 90

1st Lemma. ............................................................ 90

Proof. ................................................................ 91

Remark. ............................................................ 92

nd

2 Lemma. ........................................................... 92

Proof. ................................................................ 92

3rd Lemma. ........................................................... 93

Solution. ............................................................ 93

Constructions Proof. ........................................ 93

Remark. ............................................................ 94

1st Theorem. ......................................................... 95

Proof. ................................................................ 96

2nd Theorem. ....................................................... 97

nd

Proof. ................................................................ 98

Remark. ............................................................ 99

3rd Theorem. ......................................................... 99

Proof. ................................................................ 99

Reciprocally. ................................................... 100

Solution to the 1st problem. ................................. 101

Solution to the 2nd problem. ................................ 101

Solution to the 3rd problem. ............................... 102

References. ......................................................... 102

Apolloniuss Circles of kth Rank ......................... 103

1st Definition. ...................................................... 103

2nd Definition. ..................................................... 103

1st Theorem. ........................................................ 103

Proof. .............................................................. 104

rd

3 Definition. ..................................................... 105

2nd Theorem........................................................ 105

Proof. .............................................................. 106

rd

3 Theorem. ....................................................... 107

Proof. .............................................................. 107

th

4 Theorem. ....................................................... 108

Proof. .............................................................. 108

1st Remark. ...................................................... 108

5th Theorem. ....................................................... 108

Proof. .............................................................. 109

th

6 Theorem. ....................................................... 109

Proof. .............................................................. 109

4th Definition. ...................................................... 110

1st Property. ......................................................... 110

2nd Remark. ...................................................... 110

7th Theorem. ........................................................ 111

10

References. .......................................................... 112

Apolloniuss Circle of Second Rank ................... 113

1st Definition. ....................................................... 113

1st Theorem. ......................................................... 113

1st Proposition...................................................... 114

Proof. ............................................................... 114

Remarks. .......................................................... 115

nd

2 Definition. ...................................................... 115

3rd Definition. ...................................................... 116

2nd Proposition. ................................................... 116

Proof. ............................................................... 116

Remarks. .......................................................... 118

Open Problem. ..................................................... 119

References. ......................................................... 120

A Sufficient Condition for the Circle of the 6 Points

to Become Eulers Circle ................................... 121

1st Definition. ....................................................... 121

1st Remark. .......................................................122

nd

2 Definition. ......................................................122

2nd Remark. ......................................................122

1st Proposition......................................................122

Proof. ...............................................................122

3rd Remark. ......................................................123

3rd Definition. ......................................................123

4th Remark. ..................................................... 124

st

1 Theorem. ........................................................ 124

Proof. .............................................................. 124

th

4 Definition. ..................................................... 126

2nd Proposition. .................................................. 126

11

2nd Proof. .......................................................... 127

5th Remark. ..................................................... 128

References. ......................................................... 128

An Extension of a Problem of Fixed Point ......... 129

Proof. .............................................................. 130

1st Remark. .......................................................132

2nd Remark. ......................................................132

3rd Remark. ...................................................... 133

References. .......................................................... 133

Some Properties of the Harmonic Quadrilateral 135

1st Definition. ....................................................... 135

2nd Definition. ...................................................... 135

1st Proposition...................................................... 135

2nd Proposition. .................................................. 136

Proof. .............................................................. 136

Remark 1. ......................................................... 137

rd

3 Proposition. .................................................... 137

Remark 2......................................................... 138

Proposition 4. ..................................................... 138

Proof. .............................................................. 139

3rd Remark. ..................................................... 140

5th Proposition. ................................................... 140

6th Proposition. ................................................... 140

Proof. .............................................................. 140

rd

3 Definition. ..................................................... 142

4th Remark. ..................................................... 142

7th Proposition. ................................................... 143

Proof. .............................................................. 143

5th Remark. ..................................................... 144

12

Proof. .............................................................. 145

4th Definition. ..................................................... 146

6th Remark. ..................................................... 146

9th Proposition. ................................................... 146

Proof. .............................................................. 146

10th Proposition. ..................................................147

Proof. ...............................................................147

7th Remark....................................................... 148

th

11 Proposition. .................................................. 148

Proof. .............................................................. 149

References. ......................................................... 149

Triangulation of a Triangle with Triangles having

Equal Inscribed Circles ..................................... 151

Solution. .............................................................. 151

Building the point D. ........................................... 153

Proof. .............................................................. 154

Discussion. ....................................................... 155

Remark. .......................................................... 156

Open problem. .................................................... 156

An Application of a Theorem of Orthology ........ 157

Proposition. ......................................................... 157

Proof. .............................................................. 158

Remark. .......................................................... 160

Note. ............................................................... 160

References. ......................................................... 162

The Dual of a Theorem Relative to the Orthocenter

of a Triangle ..................................................... 163

1st Theorem. ........................................................ 163

Proof. .............................................................. 164

13

2 Theorem........................................................ 165

Proof. .............................................................. 166

References. ......................................................... 168

The Dual Theorem Concerning Auberts Line ....169

1st Theorem. ........................................................ 169

Proof. .............................................................. 169

Note. ................................................................ 171

st

1 Definition. ....................................................... 171

Note. ................................................................ 171

nd

2 Definition. ...................................................... 172

2nd Theorem......................................................... 172

Note. ................................................................ 172

3rd Theorem. ........................................................ 172

Proof. ............................................................... 173

Notes. ...............................................................174

4th Theorem. ........................................................174

Proof. ...............................................................174

References. ..........................................................176

Bibliography..................................................... 177

nd

14

Introductory Note

geometry of the circle and complete them

with some original results, showing that not

everything in traditional math is revealed,

and that it still has an open character.

The topics were chosen according to

authors aspiration and attraction, as a poet

writes lyrics about spring according to his

emotions.

15

16

Lemoines Circles

In this article, we get to Lemoine's circles

in a different manner than the known one.

1st Theorem.

Let a triangle and its simedian center. We

take through K the parallel 1 2 to , 1 (), 2

(); through 2 we take the antiparallels 2 1 to

in relation to and , 1 () ; through 1 we

take the parallel 1 2 to , 2 ; through 2 we

take the antiparallels 1 1 to , 1 () , and

through 1 we take the parallel 1 2 to , 1 ().

Then:

i.

2 1 is an antiparallel of ;

ii.

1 2 1 2 = { };

iii.

The points 1 , 2 , 1 , 2 , 1 , 2 are

concyclical (the first Lemoines circle).

Proof.

i.

The

quadrilateral

2

is

a

parallelogram, and its center, i.e. the

middle of the segment (2 1 ), belongs to

the simedian ; it follows that 2 2 is

an antiparallel to (see Figure 1).

17

ii.

iii.

quadrilateral 1 2 is a parallelogram;

it follows that is a simedian; also,

is a simedian, and since , 1 2 , it

follows that we have = .

2 1 being an antiparallel to and

1 2 , it means that 2 1 is an

antiparallel to 1 2 , so the points

2 , 1 , 2 , 1 are concyclical. From 1 2

, 2 1 , 1 2 we

get that the quadrilateral 2 1 2 1 is an

isosceles trapezoid, so the points

2 , 1 , 2 , 1 are concyclical. Analogously,

it can be shown that the quadrilateral

2 1 2 1 is an isosceles trapezoid,

therefore the points 2 , 1 , 2 , 1 are

concyclical.

Figure 1

18

points, it results the concyclicity of the points

belonging to the first Lemoines circle.

2nd Theorem.

In the scalene triangle , let K be the simedian

center. We take from the antiparallel 1 2 to ;

1 , 2 ; through 2 we build 2 1 ; 1

(), then through 1 we build 1 2 the antiparallel

to , 2 (), and through 2 we build 2 1 ,

1 , and, finally, through 1 we take the

antiparallel 1 2 to , 2 ().

Then:

i.

2 1 ;

ii.

1 2 1 2 = { };

iii.

The

points

1 , 2 , 1 , 2 , 1 , 2

are

concyclical (the second Lemoines circle).

Proof.

i.

Let {} = 1 2 1 2 , having 1 2 =

and 1 2 because 1 2

i 1 2 are antiparallels to , ,

respectively, it follows that 1 2

2 1 , so 1 = 2 ; having 1 2

1 2 as well, it follows that also 2 =

1 , so 1 2 = 1 2 . Because 1 2 and

1 2 are antiparallels to and , we

19

1 2 ; since 1 2 1 2 , we have that the

triangle "1 2 is also isosceles, therefore

"1 = 1 2 , and we get that 1 2 = 1 2 .

Let {} = 1 2 1 2 ; since 1 2 and

1 2 are antiparallels to and , we

get that the triangle 2 1 is isosceles,

so 2 = 1 , but 1 2 = 1 2 implies

that 2 = 1 , then 1 2

2 1 and, accordingly, 2 1 .

Figure 2

ii.

We noted {} = 1 2 1 2 ; let {} =

2 1 1 2 ; obviously, 1 2 is a

parallelogram; if 0 is the middle of

(1 2 ), then 0 is a simedian, since 1 2

is an antiparallel to , and the middle of

the antiparallels of are situated on the

20

iii.

simedian . If 0 K, then 0 1 2

(because 1 2 = 1 2 and 1 2 1 2 ),

on the other hand, , 0 , K are collinear

(they belong to the simedian ),

therefore 0 intersects in , which is

absurd, so 0 =K, and, accordingly, 1 2

1 2 = { } . Analogously, we prove that

1 2 1 2 = { }, so 1 2 1 2 = { }.

K is the middle of the congruent

antiparalells 1 2 , 1 2 , 1 2 , so 1 =

2 = 1 = 2 = 1 = 2

.

The

simedian center is the center of the

second Lemoines circle.

Remark.

The center of the first Lemoines circle is the

middle of the segment [ ], where is the center of

the circle circumscribed to the triangle . Indeed,

the perpendiculars taken from , , on the

antiparallels 2 1 , 1 2 , 1 2 respectively pass

through O, the center of the circumscribed circle (the

antiparallels have the directions of the tangents taken

to the circumscribed circle in , , ). The mediatrix of

the segment 2 1 pass though the middle of 2 1 ,

which coincides with the middle of , so is the

middle line in the triangle passing through the

middle of () . Analogously, it follows that the

mediatrix of 1 2 pass through the middle 1 of [ ].

21

References.

[1] D. Efremov: Noua geometrie a triunghiului [The

New Geometry of the Triangle], translation

from Russian into Romanian by Mihai Miculia,

Cril Publishing House, Zalau, 2010.

[2] Gh. Mihalescu: Geometria elementelor remarcabile

[The Geometry of the Outstanding Elements],

Tehnica Publishing House, Bucharest, 1957.

[3] Ion Patrascu, Gh. Margineanu: Cercul lui Tucker

[Tuckers Circle], in Alpha journal, year XV, no.

2/2009.

22

Calculus

For the calculus of the first Lemoines

circle, we will first prove:

1st Theorem

(E. Lemoine 1873)

triangle in segments proportional to the squares of the

triangles sides.

Each extreme segment is proportional to the

corresponding adjacent side, and the chord-segment

in the Lemoines circle is proportional to the square of

the side that contains it.

Proof.

We will prove that

2

2

2 1

2

1

2

of the triangle , and 1 2 ; 1 2 ; 1 2 represent

Lemoine parallels.

The triangles 2 1 ; 1 2 and 2 1 have

heights relative to the sides 2 ; 1 and 2 1 equal

(1 2 ).

23

Hence:

1 2

2 1

2 1

1 2

1

(1)

Figure 1

antiparallels with respect to and , it follows that

2 1 ~ and 1 2 ~ , likewise 2

implies: 2 1 ~.

We obtain:

2 1

2 1

1 2

22

2

2 12

2

12

2

(2)

relations (1) and (2) that:

2

2

2 1

2

1

2

24

Consequences.

1. According to the 1st Theorem, we find that:

2 =

2

2 + 2 + 2

; 1 =

2

2 + 2 + 2

; 1 2 =

3

2 + 2 + 2

1 2

3

2 1

3

1 2

3

meaning that:

The chords determined by the first Lemoines

circle on the triangles sides are proportional to

the cubes of the sides.

Due to this property, the first Lemoines circle is

known in England by the name of triplicate ratio circle.

1st Proposition.

The radius of the first Lemoines circle, 1 is

given by the formula:

1 2 (2 + 2 + 2 )+ 2 2 2

,

(2 + 2 + 2 )2

4

21 =

(3)

in the triangle .

Proof.

Let be the center of the first Lemoines circle

that is known to represent the middle of the segment

() being the center of the circle inscribed in the

triangle .

25

( 2 +2 )

2 + 2 + 2

relation to the first Lemoines circle, we have:

2 1 = 2 2 ,

( is the tangent traced from to the first Lemoines

circle, see Figure 1).

Hence: 21 = 2 2 1 .

(4)

The median theorem in triangle implies

that:

2 =

2( 2 +2 ) 2

4

It is known that =

(2 + 2 )

2 + 2 + 2

; =

2

2 + 2

and the median from , and 2 = 2

32 2 2

(2 + 2 + 2 )

, see

(3).

Consequently: 2 =

42 = 2 +

22 2 (2 + 2 )2 2 2

(2 + 2 + 2 )2

42 2 (2 + 2 )+2 2 2

As: 2 1 =

(2 + 2 + 2 )2

2 2 (2 + 2 )

(2 + 2 + 2 )2

, and

, by replacing in (4),

2nd Proposition.

The radius of the second Lemoines circle, 2 , is

given by the formula:

2 =

2 + 2 + 2

(5)

26

Proof.

Figure 2

antiparallels traced through symmedian center that

is the center of the second Lemoines circle, thence:

2 = 1 = 2 .

If we note with and the feet of the

symmedian and the median from , it is known that:

2 + 2

2

we have:

1 2

But:

2 + 2

2 + 2 + 2

and =

2

2 + 2

1 2 = 22 , = , therefore:

2 =

2

2

and as =

2 + 2 + 2

27

Remarks.

1. If we use =

4

2 + 2 + 2

2. If, in Figure 1, we denote with 1 the middle

of the antiparallel 2 1 , which is equal to 2 (due to

their similarity), we thus find from the rectangular

triangle 1 1 that:

1

12 = 12 + 1 12 , but 12 = 2 and 1 2 =

4

1

2

2 ; it follows that:

1

21 = (2 + 22 ) =

(1 + 2 ).

We obtain:

1 =

1 + 2 .

3rd Proposition.

The chords determined by the sides of the

triangle in the second Lemoines circle are

respectively proportional to the opposing angles

cosines.

Proof.

2 1

is

an

isosceles

triangle,

2 1 =

deci

2 1

cos

= 22 , similary:

2 1

cos

28

2 1

cos

= 22 .

2 1

2

Remark.

Due to this property of the Lemoines second

circle, in England this circle is known as the cosine

circle.

References.

[1] D. Efremov, Noua geometrie a triunghiului [The

New Geometry of the Triangle], translation

from Russian into Romanian by Mihai Miculia,

Cril Publishing House, Zalau, 2010.

[2] F. Smarandache and I. Patrascu, The Geometry of

Homological Triangles, The Education Publisher,

Ohio, USA, 2012.

[3] I. Patrascu and F. Smarandache, Variance on

Topics of Plane Geometry, Educational

Publisher, Ohio, USA, 2013.

29

30

Circles

In this article, we emphasize the radical

axis of the Lemoines circles.

For the start, let us remind:

1st Theorem.

The parallels taken through the simmedian

center of a triangle to the sides of the triangle

determine on them six concyclic points (the first

Lemoines circle).

2nd Theorem.

The antiparallels taken through the triangles

simmedian center to the sides of a triangle determine

six concyclic points (the second Lemoines circle).

1st Remark.

If is a scalene triangle and is its

simmedian center, then , the center of the first

Lemoines circle, is the middle of the segment [ ],

where is the center of the circumscribed circle, and

31

follows that the radical axis of Lemoines circles is

perpendicular on the line of the centers , therefore

on the line .

1st Proposition.

The radical axis of Lemoines circles is perpendicular on the line raised in the simmedian center .

Proof.

Let 1 2 be the antiparallel to taken through

, then 1 is the radius 2 of the second Lemoines

circle; we have:

2 =

2 + 2 + 2

Figure 1

32

we evaluate the power of towards the first

Lemoines circle. We have:

= 2 2 .

(1)

1

that:

1

We obtain:

1 =

but

2

2

and

and 2 =

=

2 + 2

2 + 2 + 2

Therefore:

2

2 2 2

1

2 = ( ) = 2

;

( + 2 )2

( 2 + 2 )

(2 + 2 + 2 )2

= 22 .

(2)

and denote by and its intersection to the first

Lemoines circle.

= 2 ; by the other hand,

We have

2

diameter passing through ).

It follows that = = 2 , so and are

situated on the second Lemoines circle.

Because is a chord which is common to the

Lemoines circles, it obviously follows that is the

radical axis.

33

Comment.

Equalizing (1) and (2), or by the Pythagorean

theorem in the triangle , we can calculate 1 .

32 2 2

It is known that: 2 = 2 (2

+ 2 + 2 )2

, and

21

2

1

2 2 2

+ 2 + 2 )2

= [2 + (2

].

2nd Remark.

The 1st Proposition, ref. the radical axis of the

Lemoines circles, is a particular case of the following

Proposition, which we leave to the reader to prove.

2nd Proposition.

If (1 , 1 ) i (2 , 2 ) are two circles such as

the power of center 1 towards (2 , 2 ) is 12 , then

the radical axis of the circles is the perpendicular in

1 on the line of centers 1 2 .

References.

[1] F. Smarandache, Ion Patrascu: The Geometry of

Homological Triangles, Education Publisher,

Ohio, USA, 2012.

[2] Ion Patrascu, F. Smarandache: Variance on Topics

of Plane Geometry, Education Publisher, Ohio,

USA, 2013.

34

In this paper, we generalize the theorem

relative to the first Lemoines circle and

thereby

highlight

method

to

build

Lemoines circles.

Firstly, we review some notions and results.

1st Definition.

It is called a simedian of a triangle the symmetric

of a median of the triangle with respect to the internal

bisector of the triangle that has in common with the

median the peak of the triangle.

1st Proposition.

In the triangle , the cevian , (), is a

simedian if and only if

2nd Definition.

It is called a simedian center of a triangle (or

Lemoines point) the intersection of triangles

simedians.

35

1st Theorem.

The parallels to the sides of a triangle taken

through the simedian center intersect the triangles

sides in six concyclic points (the first Lemoines circle

- 1873).

A Proof of this theorem can be found in [2].

3rd Definition.

We assert that in a scalene triangle the line

, where and , is an antiparallel to

if .

1st Lemma.

In the triangle , let be a simedian,

(). If is the middle of the segment (), having

() and (), belonging to the simedian ,

then and are antiparallels.

Proof.

We draw through and , and ,

, () , see Figure 1. Let {} = ; since

= and is a parallelogram, it follows that

.

36

Figure 1.

(1)

(2)

(3)

=

=

(4)

(5)

(6)

(7)

or

lead to

37

relation to and .

Remark.

1. The reciprocal of Lemma 1 is also valid,

meaning that if is the middle of the antiparallel

to , then belongs to the simedian from .

2nd Theorem.

(Generalization of the 1st Theorem)

center. We take and draw , ,

where , . Then:

i.

;

ii.

, and intersect the sides of

triangle in six concyclic points.

Proof.

In triangle , let 1 , 1 , 1 the simedians

concurrent in (see Figure 2).

We have from Thales' Theorem that:

=

=

(1)

(2)

(3)

38

the parallels , , of the sides of the triangles to

the other sides.

Obviously, by construction, the quadrilaterals

; ; are parallelograms.

The middle of the diagonal falls on , so on

the simedian , and from 1st Lemma we get that

is an antiparallel to .

Since , it follows that and are

antiparallels, therefore the points , , , are

concyclic (4).

Figure 2.

are concyclic (5). From and antiparallels,

and antiparallels, we have that and

, therefore: , and since

39

therefore the points , , , are concyclic (6).

The relations (4), (5), (6) drive to the

concyclicality of the points , , , , , , and the

theorem is proved.

Further Remarks.

2. For any point found on the simedian 1 , by

performing the constructions from hypothesis, we get

a circumscribed circle of the 6 points of intersection

of the parallels taken to the sides of triangle.

3. The 2nd Theorem generalizes the 1st Theorem

because we get the second in the case the parallels are

taken to the sides through the simedian center .

4. We get a circle built as in 2nd Theorem from

the first Lemoines circle by homothety of pole and

of ratio .

5. The centers of Lemoines circles built as above

belong to the line , where is the center of the

circle circumscribed to the triangle .

References.

[1] Exercices de Gomtrie, par F.G.M., Huitime

dition, Paris VIe, Librairie Gnrale, 77, Rue Le

Vaugirard.

[2] Ion Patrascu, Florentin Smarandache: Variance on

topics of Plane Geometry, Educational

Publishing, Columbus, Ohio, 2013.

40

In this article, we prove several theorems

about the radical center and the radical

circle of ex-inscribed circles of a triangle

and calculate the radius of the circle from

vectorial considerations.

1st Theorem.

The radical center of the ex-inscribed circles of

the triangle is the Spieckers point of the triangle

(the center of the circle inscribed in the median

triangle of the triangle ).

Proof.

We refer in the following to the notation in

Figure 1. Let , , be the centers of the ex-inscribed

circles of a triangle (the intersections of two external

bisectors with the internal bisector of the other angle).

Using tangents property taken from a point to a circle

to be congruent, we calculate and find that:

= = = = = = ,

= = = = ,

41

= = = = ,

= = = = .

If 1 is the middle of segment , it follows

that 1 has equal powers to the ex-inscribed circles

( ) and ( ). Of the previously set, we obtain that 1

is the middle of the side .

Figure 1.

which we denote and , have equal powers to the

circles ( ) and ( ).

The radical axis of the circles ( ), ( ) will

include the points 1 , , .

Because = and = , it follows that

1

2

42

the parallel taken through the middle 1 of the side

to the bisector of the angle .

Denoting 1 and 1 the middles of the sides ,

, respectively, we find that the radical center of the

ex-inscribed circles is the center of the circle inscribed

in the median triangle 1 1 1 of the triangle .

This point, denoted , is the Spieckers point of

the triangle ABC.

2nd Theorem.

The radical center of the inscribed circle () and

of the ex-inscribed and ex-inscribed circles of

the triangle is the center of the 1 ex-inscribed

circle of the median triangle 1 1 1 , corresponding to

the triangle ).

Proof.

If is the contact of the inscribed circle with

and is the contact of the ex-inscribed circle with

, it is known that these points are isotomic,

therefore the middle of the segment is the middle

of the side , which is 1 .

This point has equal powers to the inscribed

circle () and to the ex-inscribed circle ( ), so it

belongs to their radical axis.

43

circles () and ( ).

The radical axis of the circles ( ), ( ) is the

perpendicular taken from 1 to the bisector .

This bisector is parallel with the internal

bisector of the angle 1 1 1 , therefore the

perpendicular in 1 on is the external bisector of

the angle 1 1 1 from the median triangle.

Analogously, it follows that the radical axis of

the circles (), ( ) is the external bisector of the angle

1 1 1 from the median triangle.

Because the bisectors intersect in the center of

the circle 1 -ex-inscribed to the median triangle

1 1 1 , this point is the center of the radical center

of the circles (), ( ), ( ).

Remark.

The theorem for the circles (), ( ), ( ) and (),

( ), ( ) can be proved analogously, obtaining the

points and .

3rd Theorem.

The radical circles radius of the circles exinscribed to the triangle is given by the formula:

1

2

44

Proof.

The position vector of the circle of the

inscribed circle in the triangle ABC is:

+

).

= 1 (

+

of ex-inscribed circle and is the center of the inscribed

circle in the median triangle 1 1 1 , therefore:

1 1

1 + 1

1 ).

1 + 1

= (

2

Figure 2.

We denote by the contact point with the -exinscribed circle of the tangent taken from to this

circle (see Figure 2).

45

= 2 2

1

= (

1 + 1 + 1 ).

2

;

we have:

1

2 = 2 (2 12 + 2 12 + 2 12 + 2

1

4

1 + 2

1 1 + 2 1 1 ).

From the law of cosines applied in the triangle

1 1 , we find that:

1 2

2

2

2

1 1 = 1 + 1 , therefore:

4

1

2

2

2

2

1 1 = ( 1 + 1 .

4

Analogously, we obtain:

1 2

2

2

2

1 1 = ( 1 + 1 ,

2

1 1 =

2 =

1

4

( 12

12

+ ( 2 + + ) 12

2 =

1

42

1

2

2 .

4

2

2

( 2 + +

2 [( + + ) 1 +

) 12

2 =

4

1

( + + )],

[2( 12 + 12 + 12 ) 2 ],

1

( 12 + 12 + 12 ) .

2

2

12 = 2 + 1 2 = 2 + [ ( )] =

2

= 2 +

()2

4

find:

46

12 = 2 + 1 2 = 2 + [ ( )] =

2

1

2

= + ( + )2 ,

4

12

+ ( + ) .

4

Evaluating 12 + 12 + 12 , we obtain:

12 + 12 + 12 =

1

= 22 + ( + + ) .

But:

+ + = 2 + 2 + 4.

It follows that:

1

2

[ 12 + 12 + 12 ] = 2 + ( 2 + 2 ) +

and

1

2 = 2 + ( 2 + 2 ).

4

Then, we obtain:

1

= 2 + 2 .

2

47

References.

[1] C. Barbu: Teoreme fundamentale din geometria

triunghiului [Fundamental Theorems of

Triangle Geometry]. Bacau, Romania: Editura

Unique, 2008.

[2] I. Patrascu, F. Smarandache: Variance on topics of

plane geometry. Columbus: The Educational

Publisher, Ohio, USA, 2013.

48

In [1] ,

the

late

mathematician

Cezar

proves two theorems which are the subject

of this article.

In a remark made after proving the first

theorem,

C.

Cosnita

suggests

an

of polar.

In the following, we prove the theorems

based on the indicated path, and state that

the second theorem is a particular case of

the

former.

Also,

we

highlight

other

1st Theorem.

Let be a given triangle; through the pairs of

points (, ) , (, ) and (, ) we take three circles

such that their radical center is on the outside.

The polar lines of the radical center of these

circles in relation to each of them cut the sides ,

and respectively in three collinear points.

49

Proof.

We denote by , , the second point of

intersection of the pairs of circles passing through

(, ) and (, ) ; (, ) and (, ) , (, ) and (, )

respectively (see Figure 1).

Figure 1

fact, {} = .

We take from the tangents 1 = 2 to the

circle (, ), 1 = 2 to the circle (, ) and 1 =

2 to the circle passing through (, ). Actually, we

build the radical circle (, 1 ) of the given circles.

The polar lines of to these circles are the lines

1 2 , 1 2 , 1 2 . These three lines cut , and

in the points , and , and these lines are

respectively the polar lines of in respect to the

50

polar lines are the radical axis of the radical circle

with each of the circles passing through

(, ), (, ), (, ), respectively. The points belong to

the radical axis having equal powers to those circles,

thereby 1 2 = .

This relationship shows that the point has

equal powers relative to the radical circle and to the

circle circumscribed to the triangle ; analogically,

the point has equal powers relative to the radical

circle and to the circle circumscribed to the triangle

; and, likewise, the point has equal powers

relative to the radical circle and to the circle

circumscribed to the triangle .

Because the locus of the points having equal

powers to two circles is generally a line, i.e. their

radical axis, we get that the points , and are

collinear, belonging to the radical axis of the radical

circle and to the circle circumscribed to the given

triangle.

2nd Theorem.

If is a point in the plane of the triangle

and the tangents in this point to the circles

circumscribed to triangles , , , respectively,

cut , and , respectively, in the points , , ,

then these points are collinear.

51

Proof.

The point is the radical center for the circles

(), (), and (), and the tangents in to

these circles are the polar lines to in relation to

these circles.

If , , are the intersections of these tangents

(polar lines) with , , , then they belong to the

radical axis of the circumscribed circle to the triangle

and to the circle reduced to the point (2 =

, etc.).

Being located on the radical axis of the two

circles, the points , , are collinear.

Remarks.

1. Another elementary proof of this theorem is

to be found in [3].

2. If the circles from the 1st theorem are adjoint

circles of the triangle , then they

intersect in (the Brocards point).

Therefore, we get that the tangents taken in

to the adjoin circles cut the sides ,

and in collinear points.

52

References.

[1] C. Coni: Coordones baricentrique [Barycentric

Coordinates], Bucarest Paris: Librairie

Vuibert, 1941.

[3] I. Ptracu: Axe i centre radicale ale cercului

adjuncte unui triunghi [Axis and radical centers

of the adjoin circle of a triangle], in Recreaii

matematice, year XII, no. 1, 2010.

[3] C. Mihalescu: Geometria elementelor remarcabile

[The Geometry of Outstanding Elements],

Bucharest: Editura Tehnica, 1957.

[4] F. Smarandache, I. Patrascu: Geometry of

Homological

Triangle,

Columbus:

The

Educational Publisher Inc., 2012.

53

54

In this article, we define the first DrozFarnys circle, we establish a connection

between it and a concyclicity theorem,

then we generalize this theorem, leading to

the generalization of Droz-Farnys circle.

The first theorem of this article was

enunciated by J. Steiner and it was proven

by Droz-Farny (Mathsis, 1901).

1st Theorem.

Let be a triangle, its orthocenter and

1 , 1 , 1 the means of sides (), (), ().

If a circle, having its center , intersects 1 1 in

1 , 1 ; 1 1 in 2 , 2 and 1 1 in 3 , 3 , then 1 =

1 = 2 = 2 = 3 = 3 .

Proof.

Naturally, 1 = 1 , 1 1 , .

It follows that 1 1 .

55

Figure 1.

similarly, and are the mediators of segments

2 2 and 3 3 .

Let 1 be the intersection of lines and 1 1

(see Figure 1); we have 1 2 1 2 = 1 2 1 2 . We

2

denote = 1 . It follows that 1 2 =

+ (1 +

2

1 )(1 1 ) = + (1 1 ).

However, 1 = 1 1 , where 1 is the projection

2

of on ; we find that 1 2 =

+ 1 .

It is known that the symmetric of orthocenter

towards belongs to the circle of circumscribed

triangle .

Denoting this point by 1 , we have 1 =

2 2 (the power of point towards the

circumscribed circle).

56

therefore

12

+

2

(2

2

2)

, where is the

Similarly,

we

2

find 22 = 32 =

+ (2

2

2 ), therefore 1 = 2 = 3 .

Remarks.

a.

b.

obtuse triangle.

1st

Theorem

can

be

equivalently

formulated in this way:

2nd Theorem.

If we draw three congruent circles centered in a

given triangles vertices, the intersection points of

these circles with the sides of the median triangle of

given triangle (middle lines) are six points situated on

a circle having its center in triangles orthocenter.

If we denote by the radius of three congruent

circles having , , as their centers, we get:

1

= 2 + (2 2 ).

2

However, in a triangle, 2 = 92 (2 + 2 +

follows that:

2 ),

= 2 + 42 (2 + 2 + 2 ).

2

57

Remark.

A special case is the one in which = , where

1

2

we find that

= 12 = 5 2 (2 + 2 + 2 ) = (2 +

2 ).

Definition.

The circle (, 1 ), where:

1

1 = 52 (2 + 2 + 2 ),

2

.

Remark.

Another way to build the first Droz-Farnys circle

is offered by the following theorem, which, according

to [1], was the subject of a problem proposed in 1910

by V. Thbault in the Journal de Mathmatiques

Elementaire.

3rd Theorem.

The circles centered on the feet of a triangles

altitudes passing through the center of the circle

circumscribed to the triangle cut the triangles sides

in six concyclical points.

58

Proof.

We consider an acute triangle and 1 , 2 , 3

the altitudes feet. We denote by 1 , 2 ; 1 , 2 ; 1 , 2

the intersection points of circles having their centers

1 , 2 , 3 to , , , respectively.

We calculate 2 of the right angled triangle

1 2 (see Figure 2). We have 22 = 12 + 1 22 .

Because 1 2 = 1 , it follows that 22 =

12 + 1 2 . We denote by 9 the mean of segment

; the median theorem in triangle 1 leads to

1

1 2 + 1 2 = 21 92 + 2 .

2

1

2

1

radius, so 1 9 = ; we get: 12 = (2 + 2 ) ;

similarly, we find that 12 = 12 = (2 + 2 ) ,

2

belong to the first Droz-Farnys circle.

Figure 2.

59

Remark.

The 2nd and the 3rd theorems show that the first

Droz-Farnys circle pass through 12 points, situated

two on each side of the triangle and two on each side

of the median triangle of the given triangle.

The following theorem generates the 3rd Theorem.

4th Theorem.

The circles centered on the feet of altitudes of a

given triangle intersect the sides in six concyclical

points if and only if their radical center is the center

of the circle circumscribed to the given triangle.

Proof.

Let 1 , 2 ; 1 , 2 ; 1 , 2 be the points of

intersection with the sides of triangle of circles

having their centers in altitudes feet 1 , 2 , 3 .

Suppose the points are concyclical; it follows

that their circles radical center and of circles centered

in 2 and 3 is the point (sides and are

radical axes), therefore the perpendicular from on

2 3 is radical axis of centers having their centers 2

and 3 .

Since 2 3 is antiparallel to , it is parallel to

tangent taken in to the circle circumscribed to

triangle .

60

perpendicular taken in on the tangent to the

circumscribed circle, therefore it is .

Similarly, the other radical axis of circles

centered in 1 , 2 and of circles centered in 1 , 3 pass

through , therefore is the radical center of these

circles.

Reciprocally.

Let be the radical center of the circles having

their centers in the feet of altitudes. Since is

perpendicular on 2 3 , it follows that is the

radical axis of circles having their centers in 2 , 3 ,

therefore 1 2 = 1 2 .

From this relationship, it follows that the points

1 , 2 ; 1 , 2 are concyclic; the circle on which these

points are located has its center in the orthocenter

of triangle .

Indeed, the mediators chords 1 2 and 1 2 in

the two circles are the altitudes from and of

triangle , therefore 1 = 2 = 1 = 2 .

This reasoning leads to the conclusion that is

the radical axis of circles having their centers 1 and

3 , and from here the concyclicality of the points

1 , 2 ; 1 , 2 on a circle having its center in ,

therefore 1 = 2 = 1 = 2 . We obtained that

1 = 2 = 1 = 2 = 1 = 2 , which shows

the concyclicality of points 1 , 2 , 1 , 2 , 1 , 2 .

61

Remark.

The circles from the 3rd Theorem, passing

through and having noncollinear centers, admit

as radical center, and therefore the 3rd Theorem is a

particular case of the 4th Theorem.

References.

[1] N. Blaha: Asupra unor cercuri care au ca centre

dou puncte inverse [On some circles that have

as centers two inverse points], in Gazeta

Matematica, vol. XXXIII, 1927.

[2] R. Johnson: Advanced Euclidean Geometry. New

York: Dover Publication, Inc. Mineola, 2004

[3] Eric W. Weisstein: First Droz-Farnys circle. From

Math World A Wolfram WEB Resurse,

http://mathworld.wolfram.com/.

[4] F. Smarandache, I. Patrascu: Geometry of

Homological

Triangle.

Columbus:

The

Education Publisher Inc., Ohio, SUA, 2012.

62

In this article, we prove the theorem

relative to the second Droz-Farnys circle,

and a sentence that generalizes it.

The paper [1] informs that the following

Theorem

is

attributed

to

J.

Neuberg

(Mathesis, 1911).

1st Theorem.

The circles with its centers in the middles of

triangle passing through its orthocenter

intersect the sides , and respectively in the

points 1 , 2 , 1 , 2 and 1 , 2 , situated on a concentric

circle with the circle circumscribed to the triangle

(the second Droz-Farnys circle).

Proof.

We denote by 1 , 2 , 3 the middles of

triangles sides, see Figure 1. Because 2 3 and

belongs to the circles with centers in 2 and 3 , it

follows that is the radical axis of these circles,

63

shows that 1 , 2 , 1 , 2 are concyclic points, because

the center of the circle on which they are situated is ,

the center of the circle circumscribed to the triangle

, hence we have that:

1 = 1 = 2 = 2 .

(1)

Figure 1.

which the points 1 , 2 , 1 , 2 are situated, hence:

1 = 1 = 2 = 2 .

(2)

Also, is the center of the circle on which the

points 1 , 2 , 1 , 2 are situated, and therefore:

1 = 1 = 2 = 2 .

(3)

The relations (1), (2), (3) show that the points

1 , 2 , 1 , 2 , 1 , 2 are situated on a circle having the

center in , called the second Droz-Farnys circle.

64

1st Proposition.

The radius of the second Droz-Farnys circle is

given by:

1

22 = 5 2 (2 + 2 + 2 ).

2

Proof.

From the right triangle 1 1 , using Pitagoras

theorem, it follows that:

12 = 12 + 1 12 = 12 + 1 2 .

From the triangle , using the median

theorem, we have:

1

12 = [2(2 + 2 ) 2 ].

4

But in a triangle,

= 21 , = 22 , = 23 ,

hence:

2

12 = 222 + 232 = .

4

But:

12 = 2

22 = 2

32 = 2

2

4

2

4

2

4

;

;

,

triangle .

1

We find that 12 = 22 = 52 (2 + 2 + 2 ).

2

65

Remarks.

a.

median theorem in the triangle 1 for

the median 1 9 (9 is the center of the

nine points circle, i.e. the middle of ()).

1

Because 9 1 = , we obtain: 22 =

2

1

2

b.

c.

d.

The statement of the 1st Theorem was the

subject no. 1 of the 49th International

Olympiad in Mathematics, held at Madrid

in 2008.

The 1st Theorem can be proved in the same

way for an obtuse triangle; it is obvious

that for a right triangle, the second DrozFarnys circle coincides with the circle

circumscribed to the triangle .

The 1st Theorem appears as proposed

problem in [2].

2nd Theorem.

The three pairs of points determined by the

intersections of each circle with the center in the

middle of triangles side with the respective side are

on a circle if and only these circles have as radical

center the triangles orthocenter.

66

Proof.

Let 1 , 2 , 3 the middles of the sides of triangle

and let 1 , 2 , 1 , 2 , 1 , 2 the intersections with

, , respectively of the circles with centers in

1 , 2 , 3 .

Let us suppose that 1 , 2 , 1 , 2 , 1 , 2 are

concyclic points. The circle on which they are situated

has evidently the center in , the center of the circle

circumscribed to the triangle .

The radical axis of the circles with centers 2 , 3

will be perpendicular on the line of centers 2 3 , and

because A has equal powers in relation to these circles,

since 1 2 = 1 2 , it follows that the radical

axis will be the perpendicular taken from A on 2 3 ,

i.e. the height from of triangle .

Furthermore, it ensues that the radical axis of

the circles with centers in 1 and 2 is the height

from of triangle and consequently the

intersection of the heights, hence the orthocenter of

the triangle is the radical center of the three

circles.

Reciprocally.

If the circles having the centers in 1 , 2 , 3

have the orthocenter with the radical center, it follows

that the point , being situated on the height from A

which is the radical axis of the circles of centers 2 , 3

67

consequently, 1 2 = 1 2 , a relation that

implies that 1 , 2 , 1 , 2 are concyclic points, and the

circle on which these points are situated has as its

center.

Similarly, 1 2 = 1 2 , therefore

1 , 2 , 1 , 2 are concyclic points on a circle of center .

Having 1 = 2 = 1 = 2 and 1 2 = 1

2 , we get that the points 1 , 2 , 1 , 2 , 1 , 2 are

situated on a circle of center .

Remarks.

1.

2.

2nd Theorem, because the three circles of

centers 1 , 2 , 3 pass through , which

means that is their radical center.

The Problem 525 from [3] leads us to the

following Proposition providing a way to

construct the circles of centers 1 , 2 , 3

intersecting the sides in points that

belong to a Droz-Farnys circle of type 2.

2nd Proposition.

1

The circles (1 , + 2 ),

2

(2 , + 2 ),

2

2

respectively in six concyclic points; is a conveniently

68

of triangle .

Proof.

According to the 2nd Theorem, it is necessary to

prove that the orthocenter of triangle is the

radical center for the circles from hypothesis.

Figure 2.

The

power

of

in

(1 , + 2 ) is equal to

2

observed

that 12 = 4 2

2

2

2 + 2 + 2

12 ( + 2 ) = 42

relation

1

12

2

2

( +

4

2

.

4

2)

with

. We

therefore

We use the

circles of centers 2 , 3 , hence H is the radical center

of these three circles.

69

References.

[1] C. Mihalescu: Geometria elementelor remarcabile

[The Geometry of Outstanding Elements].

Bucharest: Editura Tehnic, 1957.

[2] I. Ptracu: Probleme de geometrie plan [Some

Problems of Plane Geometry], Craiova: Editura

Cardinal, 1996.

[3] C. Coni: Teoreme i probleme alese de

matematic

[Theorems

and

Problems],

Bucureti: Editura de Stat Didactic i

Pedagogic, 1958.

[4] I. Ptracu, F. Smarandache: Variance on Topics of

Plane Geometry, Educational Publishing,

Columbus, Ohio, SUA, 2013.

70

In this article, we highlight some metric

properties in connection with Neuberg's

circles and triangle.

We recall some results that are necessary.

1st Definition.

It's called Brocards point of the triangle the

point with the property: = = .

The measure of the angle is denoted by and it

is called Brocard's angle. It occurs the relationship:

ctg = ctg + ctg + ctg (see [1]).

Figure 1.

71

2nd Definition.

Two triangles are called equibrocardian if they

have the same Brocards angle.

3rd Definition.

The locus of points from the plane of the

triangle located on the same side of the line as

and forming with an equibrocardian triangle with

, containing the vertex of the triangle, it's called

A-Neuberg circle of the triangle .

We denote by the center of A-Neuberg circle

by radius (analogously, we define B-Neuberg and

C-Neuberg circles).

2

(see [1]).

The triangle formed by the centers of

Neubergs circles is called Neubergs triangle.

1st Proposition.

The distances from the center circumscribed to

the triangle to the vertex of Neubergs triangle

are proportional to the cubes of triangles sides

lengths.

72

Proof.

Let be the center of the circle circumscribed to

the triangle (see Figure 2).

Figure 2.

provides:

sin( )

sin

But ( ) = ( ) () = .

We have that

sin()

sin

But

sin()

sin

2sin

2sin

3

4

73

It follows that =

3

4

Consequence.

In a triangle ABC, we have:

1)

= 3 ;

2)

ctg =

2nd Proposition.

If is the Neubergs triangle of the

triangle , then:

(2 + 2 )(4 + 4 ) 2 2 2

2 = 2 2

.

2 + 2 2 2 + 2 2 2 4 4 4

(The formulas for and are obtained

from the previous one, by circular permutations.)

Proof.

We apply the law of cosines in the triangle

:

3

3

=

, =

, ( ) = 1800 .

4

4

6 + 6 23 3 cos(1800 )

2 =

16 2

6

+ 6 + 23 3 cos

=

.

16 2

74

provides

2 + 2 2

2cos =

2

and, from din Herons formula, we find that

16 2 = 22 2 + 2 2 2 + 2 2 2 4 4 4 .

Substituting the results above, we obtain, after a

few calculations, the stated formula.

4th Definition.

Two circles are called orthogonal if they are

secant and their tangents in the common points are

perpendicular.

3rd Proposition.

(Gaultier 18B)

and only if

12 + 22 = 1 22 .

Proof.

Let (1 , 1 ), (2 , 2 ) be orthogonal (see Figure

3); then, if is one of the common points, the triangle

1 2 is a right triangle and the Pythagorean Theorem

applied to it, leads to 1 2 + 2 2 = 1 2 2 .

75

Reciprocally.

If the metric relationship from the statement

occurs, it means that the triangle 1 2 is a right

triangle, therefore is their common point (the

relationship 1 2 + 2 2 = 1 2 2 implies 1 2 + 2 2 >

1 2 2 ), then 1 2 , so 1 is tangent to the circle

(2 , 2 ) because it is perpendicular in on radius 2 ,

and as well 2 is tangent to the circle (1 , 1 ) ,

therefore the circles are orthogonal.

Figure 3.

4th Proposition.

B-Neubergs and C-Neubergs circles associated

to the right triangle (in ) are orthogonal.

76

Proof.

If () = 900 , then 2 =

2

2 + 2

6 + 6

16

= ctg 2 3 ; = ctg 2 3.

But ctg

2 + 2 + 2

4

2 = .

( 2 + 2 )2 3 2 2

4

ctg 2 3 = 2 2 3 =

2 2

4

4

+ 2 2

ctg 2 3 =

2 2

4

4

2 2

2

+ + 2

2 + 2 =

(

)

2 2

4

( 2 + 2 )( 4 + 4 2 2 ) 6 + 6

=

=

.

4 2 2

16 2

By 2 + 2 = 2 , it follows that B-Neubergs

and C-Neubergs circles are orthogonal.

77

References.

[1] F. Smarandache, I. Patrascu: The Geometry of

Homological

Triangles.

Columbus:

The

Educational Publisher, Ohio, USA, 2012.

[2] T. Lalescu: Geometria triunghiului [The Geometry

of the Triangle]. Craiova: Editura Apollo, 1993.

[3] R. A. Johnson: Advanced Euclidian Geometry. New

York: Dover Publications, 2007.

78

In this article, we define the Lucass inner

circles and we highlight some of their

properties.

Let be a random triangle; we aim to

construct the square inscribed in the triangle ,

having one side on .

Figure 1.

with , (), , , , () (see Figure 1).

We trace the line , and we note with its

intersection with () ; through we trace the

79

onto the points , in respectively .

We affirm that the quadrilateral is the

required square.

Indeed, is a square, because

, ,

, ,

Definition.

It is called A-Lucass inner circle of the triangle

the circle circumscribed to the triangle AAaDa.

We will note with the center of the A-Lucass

inner circle and with its radius.

Analogously, we define the B-Lucass inner circle

and the C-Lucass inner circle of the triangle .

the A-Lucas Inner Circle

We note = , = ; let be the height

from of the triangle .

The similarity of the triangles and

leads to:

From

, therefore =

we obtain =

80

+

.

+

.

.

(1)

Note.

Relation (1) and the analogues have been

deduced by Eduard Lucas (1842-1891) in 1879 and

they constitute the birth certificate of the Lucass

circles.

1st Remark.

If in (1) we replace =

radius of the circumscribed circle of the triangle

and represents its area, we obtain:

=

1+

1st Theorem.

The Lucass inner circles of a triangle are inner

tangents of the circle circumscribed to the triangle and

they are exteriorly tangent pairwise.

Proof.

The triangles and are homothetic

through the homothetic center and the rapport:

81

Because

are inner tangents in .

Analogously, it follows that the B-Lucass and CLucass inner circles are inner tangents of the circle

circumscribed to .

Figure 2.

circles are exterior tangents by verifying

= + .

(2)

We have:

= ;

=

and

) = 2

(0

) = 360 2).

(if () > 90 then (0

82

implies, keeping into consideration (2), that:

( )2 + ( )2 2( )( )2 =

= ( + )2 .

Because 2 = 1 22 , it is found that (2)

is equivalent to:

2 =

( )( )

But we have: =

+ = (

2+

(3)

2 2

(2+)(2+)

2+

).

2

42

sin =

2

42

circles is proven.

Analogously, we prove the other tangents.

2nd Definition.

It is called an A-Apolloniuss circle of the random

triangle the circle constructed on the segment

determined by the feet of the bisectors of angle as

diameter.

Remark.

Analogously, the B-Apolloniuss and CApolloniuss circles are defined. If is an isosceles

triangle with = then the A-Apolloniuss circle

83

triangle, its Apolloniuss circle isnt defined.

2nd Theorem.

The A-Apolloniuss circle of the random triangle

is the geometrical point of the points from the plane

of the triangle with the property:

= .

3rd Definition.

We call a fascicle of circles the bunch of circles

that do not have the same radical axis.

a.

If the radical axis of the circles fascicle is

exterior to them, we say that the fascicle

is of the first type.

b.

If the radical axis of the circles fascicle is

secant to the circles, we say that the

fascicle is of the second type.

c.

If the radical axis of the circles fascicle is

tangent to the circles, we say that the

fascicle is of the third type.

3rd Theorem.

The A-Apolloniuss circle and the B-Lucass and

C-Lucass inner circles of the random triangle

form a fascicle of the third type.

84

Proof.

Let { } = (see Figure 3).

Menelauss theorem applied to the triangle

implies that:

= 1,

so:

=1

2

2

of the exterior symmedian from of the triangle

(so the tangent in to the circumscribed circle),

namely the center of the A-Apolloniuss circle.

Let 1 be the contact point of the B-Lucass and

C-Lucass circles. The radical center of the B-Lucass,

C-Lucass circles and the circle circumscribed to the

triangle is the intersection of the tangents

traced in and in to the circle circumscribed to the

triangle .

It follows that = = 1 , so 1 belongs to

the circle that has the center in and orthogonally

cuts the circle circumscribed in and . The radical

axis of the B-Lucass and C-Lucass circles is 1 , and

1 is tangent in 1 to the circle . Considering the

power of the point in relation to , we have:

1 2 = . .

85

Figure 3.

= 1 , which proves that 1 belongs to the AApolloniuss circle and is the radical center of the AApolloniuss, B-Lucass and C-Lucass circles.

Remarks.

1.

||, the radius of the A-Apolloniuss

| 2 2 |

. The point 1 is

that 1 =

| 2 2 |

true.

86

2.

are orthogonal. Indeed, the radius of the

A-Apolloniuss circle is perpendicular to

the radius of the circumscribed circle, ,

so, to the radius of the A-Lucass circle

also.

4th Definition.

The triangle determined by the tangents

traced in , , to the circle circumscribed to the

triangle is called the tangential triangle of the

triangle .

1st Property.

The triangle and the Lucass triangle

are homological.

Proof.

Obviously, , , are concurrent in ,

therefore , the center of the circle circumscribed to

the triangle , is the homology center.

We have seen that { } = and is the

center of the A-Apolloniuss circle, therefore the

homology axis is the Apolloniuss line (the line

determined by the centers of the Apolloniuss circle).

87

2nd Property.

The tangential triangle and the Lucass triangle

of the triangle are orthogonal triangles.

Proof.

The line 1 is the radical axis of the B-Lucass

inner circle and the C-Lucass inner circle, therefore it

is perpendicular on the line of the centers .

Analogously, 2 is perpendicular on , because

the radical axes of the Lucass circles are concurrent

in , which is the radical center of the Lucass circles;

it follows that and are orthological and

is the center of orthology. The other center of

orthology is the center of the circle circumscribed to

.

References.

[1] D. Brnzei, M. Miculia. Lucas circles and spheres.

In The Didactics of Mathematics, volume

9/1994, Cluj-Napoca (Romania), p. 73-80.

[2] P. Yiu, A. P. Hatzipolakis. The Lucas Circles of a

Triangle. In Amer. Math. Monthly, no.

108/2001, pp. 444-446. http://www.math.fau.

edu/yiu/monthly437-448.pdf.

[3] F. Smarandache, I. Patrascu. The Geometry of

Homological Triangles. Educational Publisher,

Columbus, Ohio, U.S.A., 2013.

88

through a Triangles Vertices

and Constructions Performed

only with the Ruler

In

this

article,

geometric

we

solve

constructions

problems

only

with

of

the

1st Problem.

Being given a triangle , its circumscribed

circle (its center known) and a point fixed on the

circle, construct, using only the ruler, a transversal

line 1 , 1 , 1 , with 1 , 1 , 1 , such that

1 1 1 (the lines taken though

to generate congruent angles with the sides ,

and , respectively).

2nd Problem.

Being given a triangle , its circumscribed

circle (its center known) and 1 , 1 , 1 , such that 1

89

using only the ruler, a point on the circle

circumscribing the triangle, such that the lines

1 , 1 , 1 to generate congruent angles with ,

and , respectively.

3rd Problem.

Being given a triangle inscribed in a circle

of given center and a given cevian, a point on

the circle, construct, using only the ruler, the isogonal

cevian 1 to the cevian .

To solve these problems and to prove the

theorems for problems solving, we need the following

Lemma:

1st Lemma.

(Generalized Simpson's Line)

triangle and we take the lines 1 , 1 , 1

which generate congruent angles ( 1 , 1

, 1 ) with , and respectively, then the

points 1 , 1 , 1 are collinear.

90

Proof.

Let on the circle circumscribed to the triangle

(see Figure 1), such that:

1 1 1 = .

(1)

Figure 1.

quadrilateral 1 1 is inscriptible and, therefore:

1 1 .

(2).

Also from (1), we have that 1 1 is

inscriptible, and so

1 1 1 .

(3)

91

1 .

(4)

On the other hand,

+ ),

1 = 1800 (

1 = 1800 (

1 + ).

The relation (4) drives us, together with the

above relations, to:

1 1 .

(5)

Finally, using the relations (5), (2) and (3), we

conclude that: 1 1 1 1 , which justifies the

collinearity of the points 1 , 1 , 1 .

Remark.

The Simsons Line is obtained in the case when

= 900 .

2nd Lemma.

If is a point on the circle circumscribed to the

triangle and 1 , 1 , 1 are points on , and

, respectively, such that 1 = 1 =

1 = , and 1 intersects the circle a second

time in , then 1 1 .

Proof.

The quadrilateral 1 1 is inscriptible (see

Figure 1); it follows that:

92

1 1 .

(6)

On the other hand, the quadrilateral is

also inscriptible, hence:

.

(7)

which gives 1 1 .

3rd Lemma.

(The construction of a parallel with a given diameter

using a ruler)

the ruler, a parallel taken through a point of the circle

at a given diameter.

Solution.

In the given circle (, ) , let be a diameter

()] and let (, ). We construct the line

(see Figure 2). We consider on this line the point (

between and ). We join with , with and

denote = {}.

We take and let {} = . The line

is parallel to .

Constructions Proof.

In the triangle , the cevians , and

are concurrent.

Cevas Theorem provides:

93

= 1.

(8)

But is a median, = = .

From (8), we get

, which, by Thales

reciprocal, gives .

Figure 2.

Remark.

If we have a circle with given center and a

certain line , we can construct though a given point

a parallel to that line in such way: we take two

diameters [] and [ ] through the center of the

given circle (see Figure 3).

94

Figure 3.

can construct, applying the 3rd Lemma, the parallels

through and to which intersect in and ,

respectively. Since we have on the line the points

, , , such that [] [] , we can construct the

parallel through to based on the construction

from 3rd Lemma.

1st Theorem.

(P. Aubert 1899)

take three lines parallel to each other, which intersect

the circumscribed circle in , and , and is a

95

{1 } , = {1 } , = {1 } , then 1 , 1 , 1

are collinear and their line is parallel to .

Proof.

The point of the proof is to show that 1 , 1 ,

1 generate congruent angles with , and ,

respectively.

1

(

(9)

1 ) = [( ) + ( )]

2

(

1 ) = [( ) + ( )]

2

(10)

) = (

) , hence,

But implies (

from (9) and (10), it follows that:

1 1 ,

1

(

1 ) = [( ) ( )].

2

(11)

(12)

); by

) = (

But implies that (

1

(

1 ) = [( ) ( )] =

2

1

) + (

)].

= [(

2

(13)

1 1 .

(14)

From (11) and (14), we obtain: 1

1 1 , which, by 1st Lemma, verifies the

collinearity of points 1 , 1 , 1 . Now, applying the 2nd

Lemma, we obtain the parallelism of lines and

1 1 .

96

Figure 4.

2nd Theorem.

(MKensie 1887)

(1 , 1 , 1 ), and through the triangles

vertices we take the chords , , of a circle

circumscribed to the triangle, parallels with the

transversal line, then the lines , , are

concurrent on the circumscribed circle.

97

Proof.

We denote by the intersection of the line 1

with the circumscribed circle (see Figure 5) and with

1 , respectively 1 the intersection of the line

with and of the line with .

Figure 5.

that the points 1 , 1 , 1 are collinear and that the line

1 1 is parallel to .

From hypothesis, we have that 1 1 ; from

the uniqueness of the parallel taken through 1 to ,

it follows that 1 1 1 1 , therefore 1 = 1 , and

analogously 1 = 1 .

98

Remark.

We have that: 1 , 1 , 1 generate congruent

angles with , and , respectively.

3rd Theorem.

(Beltrami 1862)

vertices of a given triangle, then their isogonals

intersect each other on the circle circumscribed to the

triangle, and vice versa.

Proof.

Let , , the three parallel lines with a

certain direction (see Figure 6).

99

Figure 6.

take , belonging to the circle circumscribed

, it follows that

to the triangle, having

will be the isogonal of the cevian . (Indeed, from

it follows that .)

On the other hand, A implies

, and since

we have that

,

. From , it follows that , having

, therefore the isogonal of the parallel

is .

Reciprocally.

If , , are concurrent cevians in , the

point on the circle circumscribed to the triangle ,

let us prove that their isogonals are parallel lines. To

construct an isogonal of , we take ,

belonging to the circumscribed circle. We have

, it

the circumscribed circle, we will have

and, consequently,

follows that

, which shows that . Analogously, we

show that .

We are now able to solve the proposed problems.

100

Using the 3rd Lemma, we construct the parallels

, , with a certain directions of a diameter of

the circle circumscribed to the given triangle.

We join with , , and denote the

intersection between and , 1 ; = {1 }

and = {1 }.

According to the Auberts Theorem, the points

1 , 1 , 1 will be collinear, and , , generate

congruent angles with , and , respectively.

Using the 3rd Lemma and the remark that follows

it, we construct through , , the parallels to 1 1 ;

we denote by , , their intersections with the

circle circumscribed to the triangle . (It is enough

to build a single parallel to the transversal line 1 1 1 ,

for example ).

We join with 1 and denote by the

intersection with the circle. The point will be the

point we searched for. The constructions proof

follows from the MKensie Theorem.

101

We suppose that belongs to the little arc

in the circle

determined by the chord

circumscribed to the triangle .

In this case, in order to find the isogonal 1 , we

construct (by help of the 3rd Lemma and of the remark

that follows it) the parallel 1 to , 1 being on the

circumscribed circle, it is obvious that and 1

will be isogonal cevians.

We suppose that belongs to the high arc

; we consider

(the

determined by the chord

does not contain the point ). In this situation,

arc

we firstly construct the parallel to , belongs

to the circumscribed circle, and then through we

construct the parallel 1 to , 1 belongs to the

circumscribed circle. The isogonal of the line will

be 1 . The constructions proof follows from 3rd

Lemma and from the proof of Beltramis Theorem.

References.

[1] F. G. M.: Exercices de Gometrie. VIII-e ed., Paris,

VI-e Librairie Vuibert, Rue de Vaugirard,77.

[2] T. Lalesco: La Gomtrie du Triangle. 13-e ed.,

Bucarest, 1937; Paris, Librairie Vuibert, Bd.

Saint Germain, 63.

[3] C. Mihalescu: Geometria elementelor remarcabile

[The Geometry of remarkable elements].

Bucharest: Editura Tehnic, 1957.

102

Apolloniuss Circles

of kth Rank

The purpose of this article is to introduce

the notion of Apolloniuss circle of k t h rank.

1st Definition.

It is called an internal cevian of kth rank the line

where (), such that

= ( ) ( ).

If

is the harmonic conjugate of the point in

relation to and , we call the line an external

cevian of kth rank.

2nd Definition.

We call Apolloniuss circle of kth rank with

respect to the side of triangle the circle which

has as diameter the segment line .

1st Theorem.

Apolloniuss circle of kth rank is the locus of

points from triangle's plan, satisfying the

relation:

=( ) .

103

Proof.

Let the center of the Apolloniuss circle of kth

rank relative to the side of triangle (see

Figure 1) and , the points of intersection of this

circle with the circle circumscribed to the triangle .

We denote by the middle of arc , and we extend

to intersect the circle circumscribed in .

In triangle, is bisector; it follows that

bisector, so the harmonic conjugate of in relation

to and , thus

= .

Therefore, is on the Apolloniuss circle of rank

relative to the side , hence = .

Figure 3

104

statement; thus

internal bisector of angle . Now let us proceed as

before, taking the external bisector; it follows that

belongs to the Apolloniuss circle of center . We

consider now a point on this circle, and we

construct such that (thus ( is

). Because

the internal bisector of the angle

, it follows that and are harmonically

conjugated with respect to and . On the other

hand, the same points are harmonically conjugated

with respect to and ; from here, it follows that =

, and we have

=( ) .

3rd Definition.

It is called a complete quadrilateral the

geometric figure obtained from a convex quadrilateral

by extending the opposite sides until they intersect. A

complete quadrilateral has 6 vertices, 4 sides and 3

diagonals.

2nd Theorem.

In a complete quadrilateral, the three diagonals'

middles are collinear (Gauss - 1810).

105

Proof.

Let a given complete quadrilateral (see

Figure 2). We denote by 1 , 2 , 3 , 4 respectively the

orthocenters of , , , triangles, and

let 1 , 1 , 1 the feet of the heights of triangle.

Figure 4

occur: 1 . 1 1 1 . 1 1 = 1 . 1 1 ; they express

that the point 1 has equal powers to the circles of

diameters , , , because those circles contain

respectively the points 1 , 1 , 1 , and 1 is an internal

point.

It is shown analogously that the points 2 , 3 , 4

have equal powers to the same circles, so those points

are situated on the radical axis (common to the

circles), therefore the circles are part of a fascicle, as

106

complete quadrilateral's diagonals are collinear.

The line formed by the middles of a complete

quadrilateral's diagonals is called Gausss line or

Gauss-Newtons line.

3rd Theorem.

The Apolloniuss circle of kth rank of a triangle

are part of a fascicle.

Proof.

Let , , be concurrent cevians of kth

rank and , , be the external cevians of kth

rank (see Figure 3). The figure is a

complete quadrilateral and 2nd theorem is applied.

Figure 5

107

4th Theorem.

The Apolloniuss circle of kth rank of a triangle

are the orthogonals of the circle circumscribed to the

triangle.

Proof.

We unite to and (see Figure 1),

and (

) = 90 , it follows that = =

The congruence

shows that

is tangent to the Apolloniuss circle of center .

other Apolloniuss Circle.

1st Remark.

The previous theorem indicates that the radical

axis of Apolloniuss circle of kth rank is the perpendicular taken from to the line .

5th Theorem.

The centers of Apolloniuss Circle of kth rank of a

triangle are situated on the trilinear polar associated

to the intersection point of the cevians of 2kth rank.

108

Proof.

From the previous theorem, it results that

, so is an external cevian of rank 2 for

triangle, thus an external symmedian. Henceforth,

=(

) =(

to the vertex ).

6th Theorem.

The Apolloniuss circle of kth rank of a triangle

intersects the circle circumscribed to the triangle in

two points that belong to the internal and external

cevians of k+1th rank.

Proof.

Let and points of intersection of the

Apolloniuss circle of center with the circle

circumscribed to the (see Figure 1). We take from

and the perpendiculars 1 , 2 and 1 , 2 on

and respectively. The quadrilaterals ,

are inscribed, it follows the similarity of

triangles 1 , 2 and 1 , 2 , from where we

get the relations:

1

1

=

,

=

.

2

2

109

But

=(

) ,

=( ) ,

= ( ) and

cevian of rank + 1.

4th Definition.

If the Apolloniuss circle of kth rank associated

with a triangle has two common points, then we call

these points isodynamic points of kth rank (and we

denote them , ).

1st Property.

If , are isodynamic centers of kth rank,

then:

. = . = . ;

. = . = . .

The proof of this property follows immediately

from 1st Theorem.

2nd Remark.

The Apolloniuss circle of 1st rank is the

investigated Apolloniuss circle (the bisectors are

cevians of 1st rank). If = 2, the internal cevians of 2nd

rank are the symmedians, and the external cevians of

2nd rank are the external symmedians, i.e. the tangents

110

this case, for the Apolloniuss circle of 2nd rank, the 3rd

Theorem becomes:

7th Theorem.

The Apolloniuss circle of 2nd rank intersects the

circumscribed circle to the triangle in two points

belonging respectively to the antibisector's isogonal

and to the cevian outside of it.

Proof.

It follows from the proof of the 6th theorem. We

mention that the antibisector is isotomic to the

bisector, and a cevian of 3rd rank is isogonic to the

antibisector.

111

References.

[1] N. N. Mihileanu: Lecii complementare de

geometrie

[Complementary

Lessons

of

Geometry], Editura Didactic i Pedagogic,

Bucureti, 1976.

[2] C. Mihalescu: Geometria elementelor remarcabile

[The Geometry of Outstanding Elements],

Editura Tehnic, Bucureti, 1957.

[3] V. Gh. Vod: Triunghiul ringul cu trei coluri [The

Triangle-The Ring with Three Corners], Editura

Albatros, Bucureti, 1979.

[4] F. Smarandache, I. Ptracu: Geometry of

Homological Triangle, The Education Publisher

Inc., Columbus, Ohio, SUA, 2012.

112

Rank

This article highlights some properties of

Apolloniuss

circle

of

second

rank

in

second Brocards triangle.

1st Definition.

It is called Apolloniuss circle of second rank

relative to the vertex of the triangle the circle

constructed on the segment determined on the

simedians feet from on as diameter.

1st Theorem.

The Apolloniuss circle of second rank relative to

the vertex of the triangle intersect the

circumscribed circle of the triangle in two points

belonging respectively to the cevian of third rank

(antibisectors isogonal) and to its external cevian.

The theorems proof follows from the theorem

relative to the Apolloniuss circle of kth rank (see [1]).

113

1st Proposition.

The Apolloniuss circle of second rank relative to

the vertex of the triangle intersects the

circumscribed circle in two points and ( on the

same side of as ). Then, ( is a bisector in the

triangle , S is the simedians foot from of the

triangle .

Proof.

belongs to the Apolloniuss circle of second

rank, therefore:

=(

) .

(1)

Figure 1.

we have:

114

=( ) .

(2)

.

Remarks.

1.

2.

to the vertex of the triangle (see

Figure 1) is an Apolloniuss circle for the

triangle . Indeed, we proved that

is an internal bisector in the triangle ,

and since , the external simedians foot

of the triangle , belongs to the

Apolloniuss Circle of second rank, we

have () = 900 , therefore is an

external bisector in the triangle .

is a simedian in . Indeed, the

Apolloniuss circle of second rank, being

an Apolloniuss circle for , intersects

the circle circum-scribed to after ,

which is simedian in this triangle.

2nd Definition.

It is called adjoint circle of a triangle the circle

that passes through two vertices of the triangle and in

115

() the adjoint circle that passes through and ,

and is tangent to the side in .

About the circles () and (), we say that they

are adjoint to the vertex of the triangle .

3rd Definition.

It is called the second Brocards triangle the

triangle 2 2 2 whose vertices are the projections of

the center of the circle circumscribed to the triangle

on triangles simedians.

2nd Proposition.

The Apolloniuss circle of second rank relative to

the vertex of triangle and the adjoint circles

relative to the same vertex intersect in vertex 2 of

the second Brocards triangle.

Proof.

It is known that the adjoint circles () and ()

intersect in a point belonging to the simedian ; we

denote this point 2 (see [3]).

We have:

2 = 2 + 2 ,

but:

2 2 = 2 + 2 = .

116

bisector of the angle 2 . The bisectors theorem in

this triangle leads to:

2

2

but:

=( ) ,

consequently:

2

2

=( ) ,

of second rank.

Figure 2.

Brocards triangle, i.e. 2 , O the center of the

circle circumscribed to the triangle .

117

2 ) = 2, if

) = 2 ,

is an acute angle, then also (

therefore the quadrilateral 2 is inscriptible.

) = 900 () , it follows that

Because (

0

(

2 ) = 90 + ().

0

2 ) = 180 (), so

0

(

2 ) + (2 ) = 270 and, consequently, 2

.

Remarks.

1.

2.

3.

circles pass through 2 : the two circles

adjoint to the vertex of the triangle ,

the circle circumscribed to the triangle

(where is the center of the

circumscribed circle) and the Apolloniuss

circle of second rank corresponding to the

vertex .

The vertex 2 of the second Brocards

triangle is the middle of the chord of the

circle circumscribed to the triangle

containing the simedian .

The points , 2 and (the foot of the

external simedian to ) are collinear.

Indeed, we proved that 2 ; on the

other hand, we proved that (2 is an

internal bisector in the triangle 2 , and

118

follows from the uniqueness of the

perpendicular in 2 on .

Open Problem.

The Apolloniuss circle of second rank relative to

the vertex of the triangle intersects the circle

circumscribed to the triangle in two points and

( and apart of ).

We denote by the second point of intersection

between the line and the Apolloniuss circle of

second rank.

What can we say about ?

Is a remarkable point in triangles geometry?

119

References.

[1] I. Patrascu, F. Smarandache: Cercurile Apollonius

de rangul k [The Apolloniuss Circle of kth rank].

In: Recreaii matematice, Anul XVIII, nr.

1/2016, Iai, Romnia, p. 20-23.

[2] I. Patrascu: Axe i centre radicale ale cercurilor

adjuncte ale unui triunghi [Axes and Radical

Centers of Adjoint Circles of a Triangle]. In:

Recreaii matematice, Anul XVII, nr. 1/2010,

Iai, Romnia.

[3] R. Johnson: Advanced Euclidean Geometry. New

York: Dover Publications, Inc. Mineola, 2007.

[4] I. Patrascu, F. Smarandache: Variance on topics of

plane geometry. Columbus: The Educational

Publisher, Ohio, USA, 2013.

120

the Circle of the 6 Points

to Become Eulers Circle

In this article, we prove the theorem

relative to the circle of the 6 points and,

requiring on this circle to have three other

remarkable triangles points, we obtain the

circle of 9 points (the Eulers Circle).

1st Definition.

It is called cevian of a triangle the line that

passes through the vertex of a triangle and an opposite

sides point, other than the two left vertices.

Figure 1.

121

1st Remark.

The name cevian was given in honor of the

italian geometrician Giovanni Ceva (1647 - 1734).

2nd Definition.

Two cevians of the same triangles vertex are

called isogonal cevians if they create congruent angles

with triangles bisector taken through the same vertex.

2nd Remark.

In the Figure 1 we represented the bisector

and the isogonal cevians 1 and 2 . The following

relations take place:

1 2 ;

1

2 .

1st Proposition.

In a triangle, the height and the radius of the

circumscribed circle corresponding to a vertex are

isogonal cevians.

Proof.

Let an acute-angled triangle with the height

and the radius (see Figure 2).

122

Figure 2.

= 2

. It follows

is an inscribed angle, so

= 900 .

that

= 900 , so and

On the other hand,

are isogonal cevians.

The theorem can be analogously proved for the

obtuse triangle.

3rd Remark.

One can easily prove that in a triangle, if is

circumscribed circles radius, its isogonal cevian is the

triangles height from vertex .

3rd Definition.

Two points 1 , 2 in the plane of triangle are

called isogonals (isogonal conjugated) if the cevians

pairs (1 , 2 ), (1 , 2 ), (1 , 2 ), are composed

of isogonal cevians.

123

4th Remark.

In a triangle, the orthocenter and circumscribed

circles center are isogonal points.

1st Theorem.

(The 6 points circle)

triangle , and 1 , 1 , 1 respectively 2 , 2 , 2

their projections on the sides , and of

triangle, then the points 1 , 2 , 1 , 2 , 1 , 2

concyclical.

the

are

the

are

Proof.

The mediator of segment [1 2 ] passes through

the middle of segment [1 , 2 ] because the trapezoid

1 1 2 2 is rectangular and the mediator of [ 1 2 ]

contains its middle line, therefore (see Figure 3), we

have: 1 = 2 (1). Analogously, it follows that the

mediators of segments [1 2 ] and [1 2 ] pass through

, so 1 = 2 (2) and 1 = 2 (3). We denote by

3 and 4 respectively the middles of segments [1 ]

and [ 2 ]. We prove that the triangles 3 1 and

1

2

2

rectangular triangle 2 2 , so 3 = 2 4 ;

analogously, we obtain that 4 = 3 1 .

124

Figure 3.

We have that:

3 1 = 3 1 + 1 3 1 = 1 2 + 21 1 =

= +

1 ;

2 4

2 4 2

4 2

1 2 + 22 2 =

= +

2 .

But

1 = 2 , because the cevians 1 and

3 1 = 2 4 . Since

3 1 = 2 4 , it follows that 2 = 1 (4).

Repeating the previous reasoning for triangles

3 1 and 2 4 , where 3 and 4 are respectively

the middles of segments (1 ) and (2 ), we find that

they are congruent and it follows that 1 = 2 (5).

The relations (1) - (5) lead to 1 = 2 = 1 =

2 = 1 = 2 , which shows that the points

1 , 2 , 1 , 2 , 1 , 2 are located on a circle centered in ,

125

points given by 1 and 2 .

4th Definition.

It is called the 9 points circle or Eulers circle of

the triangle the circle that contains the middles

of triangles sides, the triangle heights feet and the

middles of the segments determined by the

orthocenter with triangles vertex.

2nd Proposition.

If 1 , 2 are isogonal points in the triangle

and if on the circle of their corresponding 6 points

there also are the middles of the segments (1 ), (1 ),

( 1 ), then the 6 points circle coincides with the

Eulers circle of the triangle .

1st Proof.

We keep notations from Figure 3; we proved that

the points 1 , 2 , 1 , 2 , 1 , 2 are on the 6 points circle

of the triangle , having its center in , the middle

of segment [1 2 ].

If on this circle are also situated the middles

3 , 3 , 3 of segments (1 ), (1 ), (1 ), then we have

3 = 3 = 3 .

126

1

2

2 = 2 , consequently is the center of the circle

circumscribed to the triangle , so 2 = .

Because 1 is the isogonal of , it follows that

1 = , therefore the circle of 6 points of the isogonal

points and is the circle of 9 points.

2nd Proof.

Because 3 3 is middle line in the triangle 1 ,

it follows that

1 1 2 3 .

(1)

Also, 3 3 is middle line in the triangle 1 , and

3 3 is middle line in the triangle 1 2 , therefore we

get

3 3 2 .

(2)

The relations (1), (2) and the fact that 1 and

2 are isogonal cevians lead to:

1 2 3 3 3 .

(3)

The point is the center of the circle

circumscribed to 3 3 3 ; then, from (3) and from

isogonal cevians properties, one of which is

circumscribed circle radius, it follows that in the

triangle 3 3 3 the line 1 3 is a height, as 3 3 ,

we get that 1 is a height in the triangle ABC and,

therefore, 1 will be the orthocenter of the triangle

127

circumscribed to the triangle .

5th Remark.

Of those shown, we get that the center of the

circle of 9 points is the middle of the line determined

by triangles orthocenter and by the circumscribed

circles center, and the fact that Eulers circle radius is

half the radius of the circumscribed circle.

References.

[1] Roger A. Johnson: Advanced Euclidean Geometry.

New York: Dover Publications, 2007.

[2] Ctlin Barbu: Teoreme fundamentale din

geometria triunghiului [Fundamental theorems

of triangles geometry]. Bacu: Editura Unique,

2008.

128

An Extension of a Problem

of Fixed Point

In this article, we extend the requirement

of the Problem 9.2 proposed at Varna 2015

Spring

Competition,

both

in

terms

of

for the problem for the ex-inscribed circle

. We also try to guide the student in the

search and identification of the fixed point,

for succeeding in solving any problem of

this type.

The statement of the problem is as follows:

We fix an angle (0, 900 ) and the line

which divides the plane in two half-planes

and . The point in the half-plane is situated

) = . The circle inscribed in the

such that (

triangle with the center is tangent to the

sides and in the points and ,

respectively. The point is located on the

segment line ( , the point between and

such that and = . The point is

situated on the segment line (, such that is

between and ; and = . Prove

129

a fixed point. (Stanislav Chobanov)

Proof.

Firstly, it is useful to note that the point varies

in the half-plane on the arc capable of angle ; we

) = 900 + , so varies on the

know as well that (

2

0

2

half-plane .

Another useful remark is about the segments

and , which in a triangle have the lengths ,

respectively , where is the half-perimeter of

the triangle with = constant; therefore,

we have with the consequence = .

Considering the vertex of the triangle the

middle of the arc capable of angle built on , we

observe that is parallel to ; more than that,

is an isosceles trapezoid, and segment

mediator will be a symmetry axis of the trapezoid, so

it will coincide with the mediator of , which is a

fixed line, so we're looking for the fixed point on

mediator of .

Let be the intersection of the mediators of

segments and , see Figure 1, where we

considered () < () . The point is on the

mediator of , so we have = ; the point is

also on the mediator of , so we have = ; it

130

get that = .

Figure 1

) = and (

) = , we

If we denote (

0

= + + ,

= 360 (900 ).

have

From + + = 3600 900 + , we find

that + + 2 = 2700 , and since + = 1800 , we

find that 2 = 900 , therefore the requested fixed

point is the vertex of triangle , situated in

) = 900 .

such that (

131

1st Remark.

If = 900 , we propose to the reader to prove that

the quadrilateral is a parallelogram; in this case,

the requested fixed point does not exist (or is the point

at infinity of the perpendicular lines to ).

2nd Remark.

If (900 , 1800 ), the problem applies, and we

find that the fixed point is located in the half-plane

, such that the triangle is isosceles, having

) = 900 .

(

We suggest to the reader to solve the following

problem:

We fix an angle (00 , 1800 ) and the line

AB which divides the plane in two half-planes,

and . The point in the half-plane is located

) = . The circle exsuch that (

inscribed to the triangle with center is

tangent to the sides and in the points

and , respectively. The point is located on the

line segment ( , is between and such

that and = . The point is

located on the line segment ( such that is

between and , and = . Prove

that the mediator of the segment passes

through a fixed point.

132

3rd Remark.

As seen, this problem is also true in the case =

90 , more than that, in this case, the fixed point is the

middle of . Prove!

0

References.

[1] Ion Patrascu: Probleme de geometrie plan [Planar

Geometry Problems]. Craiova: Editura Cardinal,

1996.

133

134

Harmonic Quadrilateral

In this article, we review some properties

of the harmonic quadrilateral related to

triangle simedians and to

Apolloniuss

Circle.

1st Definition.

A convex circumscribable quadrilateral

having the property = is called

harmonic quadrilateral.

2nd Definition.

A triangle simedian is the isogonal cevian of a

triangle median.

1st Proposition.

In the triangle , the cevian 1 , 1 () is

a simedian if and only if

1

1

135

Figura 1.

2nd Proposition.

In an harmonic quadrilateral, the diagonals are

simedians of the triangles determined by two

consecutive sides of a quadrilateral with its diagonal.

Proof.

Let be an harmonic quadrilateral and

{ } = (see Figure 1). We prove that is

simedian in the triangle .

From the similarity of the triangles and

, we find that:

(1)

we conclude that:

136

(2)

follows that:

(3)

consequently,

=

;

substituting this relation in (3), it follows that:

2

( ) =

;

the triangle . Similarly, it can be shown that is

a simedian in the triangle , that is a simedian

in the triangle , and that is a simedian in the

triangle .

Remark 1.

The converse of the 2nd Proposition is proved

similarly, i.e.:

3rd Proposition.

If in a convex circumscribable quadrilateral, a

diagonal is a simedian in the triangle formed by the

other diagonal with two consecutive sides of the

quadrilateral, then the quadrilateral is an harmonic

quadrilateral.

137

Remark 2.

From 2nd and 3rd Propositions above, it results a

simple way to build an harmonic quadrilateral.

In a circle, let a triangle be considered; we

construct the simedian of A, be it , and we denote

by D the intersection of the simedian with the

circle. The quadrilateral is an harmonic

quadrilateral.

Proposition 4.

In a triangle , the points of the simedian of A

are situated at proportional lengths to the sides

and .

Figura 2.

138

Proof.

We have the simedian 1 in the triangle

(see Figure 2). We denote by and the projections

of 1 on , and respectively.

We get:

1 (1 ) 1

=

=

.

1 (1 ) 1

Moreover, from 1st Proposition, we know that

1

2

=( ) .

1

that:

1

=

.

1

On the other hand, 1 = 1 . From 1 and

1 , hence:

1 = 1

1

1

(4)

are its projections on , and respectively, we

have:

1 ,

1 ,

1 =

2 =

hence:

1

1

=

.

1

2

Taking (4) into account, we obtain that:

1

=

.

2

139

3rd Remark.

The converse of the property in the statement

above is valid, meaning that, if is a point inside a

triangle, its distances to two sides are proportional to

the lengths of these sides. The point belongs to the

simedian of the triangle having the vertex joint to the

two sides.

5th Proposition.

In an harmonic quadrilateral, the point of

intersection of the diagonals is located towards the

sides of the quadrilateral to proportional distances to

the length of these sides. The Proof of this Proposition

relies on 2nd and 4th Propositions.

6th Proposition.

(R. Tucker)

harmonic quadrilateral minimizes the sum of squares

of distances from a point inside the quadrilateral to

the quadrilateral sides.

Proof.

Let be an harmonic quadrilateral and

any point within.

140

, , , sides of lenghts , , , and (see

Figure 3).

Figure 3.

We have:

+ + + = 2.

This is true for , , , and , , , real numbers.

Following Cauchy-Buniakowski-Schwarz Inequality, we get:

(2 + 2 + 2 + 2 )( 2 + 2 + 2 + 2 )

( + + + )2 ,

and it is obvious that:

4 2

2 + 2 + 2 + 2 2

.

+ 2 + 2 + 2

We note that the minimum sum of squared

distances is:

141

4 2

= .

2 + 2 + 2 + 2

In Cauchy-Buniakowski-Schwarz Inequality, the

equality occurs if:

= = = .

Since { } = is the only point with this

property, it ensues that = , so has the property

of the minimum in the statement.

3rd Definition.

We call external simedian of triangle a

cevian 1 corresponding to the vertex , where 1

is the harmonic conjugate of the point 1 simedians

foot from relative to points and .

4th Remark.

In Figure 4, the cevian 1 is an internal

simedian, and 1 is an external simedian.

We have:

1 1

=

.

1 1

In view of 1st Proposition, we get that:

1

2

=( ) .

1

142

7th Proposition.

The tangents taken to the extremes of a diagonal

of a circle circumscribed to the harmonic quadrilateral

intersect on the other diagonal.

Proof.

Let be the intersection of a tangent taken in

to the circle circumscribed to the harmonic

quadrilateral with (see Figure 4).

Figure 4.

conclude that:

(5)

=(

) .

(6)

143

conjugate of K with respect to A and C, so is an

external simedian from D of the triangle .

Similarly, if we denote by the intersection of

the tangent taken in B to the circle circumscribed with

, we get:

=( ) .

(7)

of the harmonic quadrilateral, we know that:

=

,

which means that:

=

,

hence = .

Similarly, it is shown that the tangents taken to

A and C intersect at point Q located on the diagonal .

5th Remark.

a. The points P and Q are the diagonal poles of

and in relation to the circle

circumscribed to the quadrilateral.

b. From the previous Proposition, it follows that

in a triangle the internal simedian of an angle

is consecutive to the external simedians of

the other two angles.

144

Figure 5.

8th Proposition.

Let be an harmonic quadrilateral inscribed

in the circle of center O and let P and Q be the

intersections of the tangents taken in B and D,

respectively in A and C to the circle circumscribed to

the quadrilateral.

If { } = , then the orthocenter of

triangle is O.

Proof.

From the properties of tangents taken from a

point to a circle, we conclude that and

. These relations show that in the triangle ,

and are heights, so is the orthocenter of this

triangle.

145

4th Definition.

The Apolloniuss circle related to the vertex A of

the triangle is the circle built on the segment [ ]

in diameter, where D and E are the feet of the internal,

respectively external, bisectors taken from A to the

triangle .

6th Remark.

If the triangle is isosceles with = ,

the Apolloniuss circle corresponding to vertex A is not

defined.

9th Proposition.

The Apolloniuss circle relative to the vertex A of

the triangle has as center the feet of the external

simedian taken from A.

Proof.

Let Oa be the intersection of the external

simedian of the triangle with (see Figure 6).

Assuming that () > ( ), we find that:

) = 1 [() + ( )].

(

2

) = ( ).

Withal,

1

( ) = [() ( )]

2

146

and

1

( ) = [( ) ( )].

2

right angled triangle, we obtain: = ; hence Oa

is the center of Apolloniuss circle corresponding to

the vertex .

Figura 6.

10th Proposition.

Apolloniuss circle relative to the vertex A of

triangle cuts the circle circumscribed to the

triangle following the internal simedian taken from A.

Proof.

Let S be the second point of intersection of

Apolloniuss Circle relative to vertex A and the circle

circumscribing the triangle .

147

Because is tangent to the circle circumscribed in A, it results, for reasons of symmetry, that

will be tangent in S to the circumscribed circle.

For triangle , and are external

simedians; it results that is internal simedian in

the triangle , furthermore, it results that the

quadrilateral is an harmonic quadrilateral.

Consequently, is the internal simedian of the

triangle and the property is proven.

7th Remark.

From this, in view of Figure 5, it results that the

circle of center Q passing through A and C is an

Apolloniuss circle relative to the vertex A for the

triangle . This circle (of center Q and radius QC)

is also an Apolloniuss circle relative to the vertex C of

the triangle .

Similarly, the Apolloniuss circle corresponding

to vertexes B and D and to the triangles ABC, and ADC

respectively, coincide.

We can now formulate the following:

11th Proposition.

In an harmonic quadrilateral, the Apolloniuss

circle - associated with the vertexes of a diagonal and

to the triangles determined by those vertexes to the

other diagonal - coincide.

148

determined by the center of the circle circumscribed

to the harmonic quadrilateral and by the intersection

of its diagonals.

Proof.

Referring to Fig. 5, we observe that the power of

O towards the Apolloniuss Circle relative to vertexes

B and C of triangles and is:

2 = 2 .

So O belongs to the radical axis of the circles.

We also have = , relatives

indicating that the point K has equal powers towards

the highlighted Apolloniuss circle.

References.

[1] Roger A. Johnson: Advanced Euclidean Geometry,

Dover Publications, Inc. Mineola, New York,

USA, 2007.

[2] F. Smarandache, I. Patrascu: The Geometry of

Homological Triangles, The Education Publisher,

Inc. Columbus, Ohio, USA, 2012.

[2] F. Smarandache, I. Patrascu: Variance on Topics of

plane Geometry, The Education Publisher, Inc.

Columbus, Ohio, USA, 2013.

149

150

Triangulation of a Triangle

with Triangles having Equal

Inscribed Circles

In this article, we solve the following

problem:

Any

triangle

cevian

in

can

two

be

divided

triangles

that

by

have

Solution.

We consider a given triangle and we show

that there is a point on the side () so that the

inscribed circles in the triangles , are

congruent. If is an isosceles triangle ( = ),

where is the middle of the base (), we assume

that is a non-isosceles triangle. We note 1 , 2 the

centers of the inscribed congruent circles; obviously,

1 2 is parallel to the .

(1)

We observe that:

1

(1 2 ) = ().

(2)

2

151

Figure

1.

, we have 1 1 2 2 ; let be the

intersection of 1 2 with , see Figure 1.

From this congruence, it is obvious that:

(1 ) (2 ).

(3)

Let be the center of the circle inscribed in the

triangle ; we prove that: is a simedian in the

triangle 1 2 .

(4)

1 ) , it follows that

Indeed, noting = (

(1 ) = . From 1 2 = , it follows that

1 2 , therefore 1 2 , indicating

that and are isogonal cevians in the triangle

1 2 .

Since in this triangle is a median, it follows

that is a bimedian.

152

the conditions (1) (4), and then we prove that this

construction satisfies the enunciation requirements.

10: We build the circumscribed circle of the given

triangle ; we build the bisector of the

angle and denote by P its intersection

with the circumscribed circle (see Figure

2).

0

2 : We build the perpendicular on to and

() side mediator; we denote 1 the

intersection of these lines.

0

3 : We build the circle (1 ; 1 ) and denote

the intersection of this circle with the

bisector ( is on the same side of the

line as ).

0

4 : We build through the parallel to 1 and

we denote it 1 .

0

5 : We build the circle (1 ; 1 ) and we denote

1 , 2 its intersections with , and

respectively.

0

6 : We build the middle of the segment (1 2 )

and denote by the intersection of the

lines and .

153

Figure 2.

Proof.

, then

The point is the middle of the arc

) = 1 ().

(

2

which points the segment (BC) is shown under angle

1

measurement ().

2

circle (1 ; 1 ) by the homothety of center and by

the report

(1 ; 1 ) of the same side of as , the segment

154

1

2

(). Since

intersect in , on the bisector , as from a property

of simedians, we get that is a simedian in the

triangle .

Due to the homothetical properties, it follows

also that the tangents in the points 1 , 2 to the circle

(1 ; 1 ) intersect in a point located on , i.e.

contains the simedian () of the triangle 1 2 , noted

{} = 1 2 .

In the triangle 1 2 , is a median, and is

simedian, therefore 1 2 ; on the other hand,

1 2 ; it follows that 1 2 , and more:

1 1 , which shows that 1 is a bisector in the

triangle ; plus, 1 , being located on the bisector of

the angle , it follows that this point is the center of

the circle inscribed in the triangle .

Analogous considerations lead to the conclusion

that 2 is the center of the circle inscribed in the

triangle . Because 1 2 is parallel to , it follows

that the rays of the circles inscribed in the triangles

and are equal.

Discussion.

The circles (1 ; 1 ), (1 ; 1 ) are unique;

also, the triangle 1 2 is unique; therefore,

determined as before, the point is unique.

155

Remark.

At the beginning of the Proof, we assumed that

is a non-isosceles triangle with the stated

property. There exist such triangles; we can construct

such a triangle starting "backwards". We consider two

given congruent external circles and, by tangent

constructions, we highlight the triangle.

Open problem.

Given a scalene triangle , could it be

triangulated by the cevians , , with ,

belonging to (), so that the inscribed circles in the

triangles , and the to be congruent?

156

An Application of a Theorem

of Orthology

In this short article, we make connections

between Problem 21 of [1] and the theory

of orthological triangles.

The enunciation of the competitional problem is:

Let ( ), ( ), ( ) be the tangents in the

peaks , , of the triangle to the circle

circumscribed to the triangle. Prove that the

perpendiculars drawn from the middles of the

opposite sides on ( ), ( ), ( ) are concurrent

and determine their concurrent point.

We formulate and we demonstrate below a

sentence containing in its proof the solution of the

competitional problem in this case.

Proposition.

The tangential triangle and the median triangle

of a given triangle are orthological. The

orthological centers are the center of the circle

circumscribed to the triangle , and 9 the center

of the circle of triangles 9 points.

157

Figure 1.

Proof.

Let be the median triangle of triangle

and the tangential triangle of the triangle

. It is obvious that the triangle and the

triangle are orthological and that is the

orthological center.

Verily, the perpendiculars taken from , ,

on ; ; respectively are internal bisectors in

the triangle and consequently passing through

, which is center of the circle inscribed in triangle

. Moreover, is the mediator of () and

accordingly passing through , and is

perpendicular on , being a mediator, but also on

which is a median line.

158

that the perpendiculars taken from , , on ,

, respectively, are concurrent. The point of

concurrency is the second orthological center of

triangles and . We prove that this point

is 9 the center of Euler circle of triangle . We

take 1 and denote by {1 } = 1 ,

being the orthocenter of the triangle . We know

that = 2 ; we prove this relation vectorially.

From Sylvesters relation, we have that:

=

+

+

, but

+

= 2

; it follows that

, so

; changing to module,

= 2

= 2

we have = 2 . Uniting to , we have

, and because 1 and , it

follows that the quadrilateral 1 is a

parallelogram.

From 1 = and = 2 we get that 1

is the middle of (), so 1 is situated on the circle of

the 9 points of triangle . On this circle, we find as

well the points - the height foot from and ;

since = 900 , it follows that 1 is the

diameter of Euler circle, therefore the middle of

( 1 ), which we denote by 9 , is the center of Eulers

circle; we observe that the quadrilateral 1 is as

well a parallelogram; it follows that 9 is the middle

of segment [].

In conclusion, the perpendicular from on

pass through 9 .

159

taken from on pass through 9 and

consequently 9 is the enunciated orthological center.

Remark.

The triangles and are

homological as well, since , , are

concurrent in O, as we already observed, therefore the

triangles and are orthohomological of

rank I (see [2]).

From P. Sondat theorem (see [4]), it follows that

the Euler line 9 is perpendicular on the homological

axis of the median triangle and of the tangential

triangle corresponding to the given triangle .

Note.

(Regarding the triangles that are simultaneously

orthological and homological)

Orthological and Homological Triangles, by Ion

Patrascu and Florentin Smarandache, we stated and

proved a theorem which was called by Mihai Dicu in

[2] and [3] The Smarandache-Patrascu Theorem of

Orthohomological Triangle; then, in [4], we used the

term ortohomological triangles for the triangles that

are simultaneously orthological and homological.

The term ortohomological triangles was used by

J. Neuberg in Nouvelles Annales de Mathematiques

160

orthogonal (one has the sides perpendicular to the

sides of the other) and homological.

We suggest that the triangles that are

simultaneously orthogonal and homological to be

called ortohomological triangles of first rank, and

triangles that are simultaneously orthological and

homological to be called ortohomological triangles of

second rank.

161

References.

[1] Titu Andreescu and Dorin Andrica: 360 de

probleme de matematic pentru concursuri [360

Competitional Math Problem], Editura GIL,

Zalau, Romania, 2002.

[2] Mihai Dicu, The Smarandache-Patrascu Theorem of

Orthohomological

Triangle,

http://www.scrib.com/ doc/28311880/, 2010

[3] Mihai Dicu, The Smarandache-Patrascu Theorem of

Orthohomological Triangle, in Revista de

matematic ALPHA, Year XVI, no. 1/2010,

Craiova, Romania.

[4] Ion Patrascu, Florentin Smarandache: Variance on

topics of Plane Geometry, Educational

Publishing, Columbus, Ohio, 2013.

[5] Multispace and multistructure neutrosophic

transdisciplinarity (100 collected papers of

sciences), Vol IV, Edited by prof. Florentin

Smarandache, Dept. of Mathematics and

Sciences, University of New Mexico, USA North European Scientific Publishers, Hanco,

Finland, 2010.

162

Relative to the Orthocenter

of a Triangle

In

[1]

we

introduced

the

notion

of

in the plane of a triangle ; we use

this notion in what follows.

We transform by duality with respect to a

circle

(, )

the

following

theorem

1st Theorem.

If is a nonisosceles triangle, its

orthocenter, and AA1 , BB1 , CC1 are cevians of a triangle

concurrent at point different from , and , , are

the intersections of the perpendiculars taken from

on given cevians respectively, with , , , then

the points , , are collinear.

163

Proof.

We note with = (BAA1 ); = (CBB1 ), =

(ACC1 ), see Figure 1.

According to Cevas theorem, trigonometric form,

we have the relation:

sin

sin

sin

= 1.

(1)

We notice that:

Area()

Area()

)

sin sin(

sin( )

Because:

1 ,

as angles of perpendicular sides, it follows that

() = () .

Therewith:

) = 1800 .

) + (

() = (

We thus get that:

sin( )

=

sin

=

=

sin()

sin

sin()

sin

;

.

we find, in view of (1), that:

= 1.

164

Figure 1.

Note.

1st Theorem is true even if is an obtuse,

nonisosceles triangle.

The proof is adapted analogously.

2nd Theorem.

(The Dual of the Theorem 1)

and 1 , 1 , 1 Bobilliers transversals relative to of

165

transversal in , and the perpendiculars in , and

on 2 , 2 , 2 respectively, intersect the Bobilliers

transversals in the points 3 , 3 , 3 , then the ceviens

3 , 3 , 3 are concurrent.

Proof.

We convert by duality with respect to a circle

(, ) the figure indicated by the statement of this

theorem, i.e. Figure 2. Let , , be the polars of the

points , , with respect to the circle (, ). To the

lines , , will correspond their poles { 4 =

; { 4 = ; { 4 = .

To the points 1 , 1 , 1 will respectively

correspond their polars 1 , 1 , 1 concurrent in

transversals pole 1 1 1 .

Since 1 , it means that the polars and 1

are perpendicular, so 1 , but 1 pass through ,

which means that contains the height from of

triangle and similarly 1 contains the height

from and 1 contains the height from of

triangle.

Consequently,

the

pole

of 1 1 1

the same way, to the points 2 , 2 , 2 will correspond

the polars to 2 , 2 , 2 which pass respectively through

, , and are concurrent in a point , the pole of

the line 2 2 2 with respect to the circle (, ).

166

Figure 2.

3 are perpendicular, 2 correspond to the cevian

, also 3 passes through the the pole of the

transversal 1 1 1 , so through , in other words

3 is perpendicular taken from on ; similarly,

2 3 , 2 3 , so 3 is perpendicular taken from

on . To the cevian 3 will correspond by duality

considered to its pole, which is the intersection of the

polars of and 3 , i.e. the intersection of lines and

3 , namely the intersection of with the

perpendicular taken from on ; we denote this

167

Thereby, we got the configuration from 1st Theorem

and Figure 1, written for triangle of orthocenter

. Since from 1st Theorem we know that , , are

collinear, we get the the cevians 3 , 3 , 3 are

concurrent in the pole of transversal with

respect to the circle (, ), and 2nd Theorem is proved.

References.

[1] Ion Patrascu, Florentin Smarandache: The Dual

Theorem concerning Auberts Line, below.

[2] Florentin Smarandache, Ion Patrascu: The

Geometry of Homological Triangles. The

Education Publisher Inc., Columbus, Ohio, USA

2012.

168

Auberts Line

In this article we introduce the concept of

Bobilliers transversal of a triangle with

respect to a point in its plan ; we prove the

Auberts Theorem about the collinearity of

the

orthocenters

in

the

triangles

of a complete quadrilateral, and we obtain

the Dual Theorem of this Theorem.

1st Theorem.

(E. Bobillier)

of the triangle so that the perpendiculars taken in ,

and , , respectively, intersect the sides

, and at , i . Then the points ,

and are collinear.

Proof.

We note that

aria ()

aria ()

169

Figure 1.

1

).

Area () = sin(

2

1

).

Area () = sin(

2

Since

) = 3 (

),

(

2

it explains that

) = cos(

);

sin(

) = sin (

) = cos(

).

sin(

2

Therefore:

)

cos(

(1).

=

)

cos(

In the same way, we find that:

170

)

cos(

(2);

=

)

cos(

)

cos(

(3).

=

)

cos(

The relations (1), (2), (3), and the reciprocal

Theorem of Menelaus lead to the collinearity of points

, , .

Note.

Bobillier's Theorem can be obtained by

converting the duality with respect to a circle from

the theorem relative to the concurrency of the heights

of a triangle.

1st Definition.

It is called Bobilliers transversal of a triangle

with respect to the point the line containing

the intersections of the perpendiculars taken in on

, , and respectively, with sides , CA and

.

Note.

The Bobilliers transversal is not defined for any

point in the plane of the triangle , for example,

where is one of the vertices or the orthocenter of

the triangle.

171

2nd Definition.

If is a convex quadrilateral and , are the

intersections of the lines and , and

respectively, we say that the figure is a

complete quadrilateral. The complete quadrilateral

sides are , , , , and , and are

diagonals.

2nd Theorem.

(Newton-Gauss)

quadrilateral are three collinear points. To prove 2nd

theorem, refer to [1].

Note.

It is called Newton-Gauss Line of a quadrilateral

the line to which the diagonals middles of a complete

quadrilateral belong.

3rd Theorem.

(Aubert)

orthocenters 1 , 2 , 3 , 4 of the traingles , ,

, and respectively, are collinear points.

172

Proof.

Let 1 , 1 , 1 be the feet of the heights of the

triangle and 1 its orthocenter (see Fig. 2).

Considering the power of the point 1 relative to the

circle circumscribed to the triangle ABF, and given the

triangle orthocenters property according to which its

symmetrics to the triangle sides belong to the

circumscribed circle, we find that:

1 1 1 = 1 1 1 = 1 1 1 .

Figure 2.

has equal power with respect to the circles of

diameters [ ], [], [ ] . As well, we establish that

the orthocenters 2 , 3 , 4 have equal powers to these

circles. Since the circles of diameters [ ], [], [ ]

have collinear centers (belonging to the Newton-

173

that the points 1 , 2 , 3 , 4 belong to the radical axis

of the circles, and they are, therefore, collinear points.

Notes.

1. It is called the Aubert Line or the line of the

complete quadrilaterals orthocenters the line to

which the orthocenters 1 , 2 , 3 , 4 belong.

2. The Aubert Line is perpendicular on the

Newton-Gauss line of the quadrilateral (radical axis of

two circles is perpendicular to their centers line).

4th Theorem.

(The Dual Theorem of the 3rd Theorem)

point in its plane for which there are the Bobilliers

transversals of triangles , , and ;

thereupon these transversals are concurrent.

Proof.

Let us transform the configuration in Fig. 2, by

duality with respect to a circle of center .

By the considered duality, the lines , , , , i

correspond to the points , , , , , (their polars).

It is known that polars of collinear points are

concurrent lines, therefore we have: = { },

174

= { } , = { } , = { } ,

= { }, = { }.

Consequently, by applicable duality, the points

, , , , and correspond to the straight lines

, , , , , .

To the orthocenter 1 of the triangle , it

corresponds, by duality, its polar, which we denote

1 1 1 , and which is the Bobilliers transversal of

the triangle in relation to the point . Indeed,

the point corresponds to the line by duality; to

the height from of the triangle , also by duality,

it corresponds its pole, which is the point 1 located

) = 900 .

on such that (

1

) =

corresponds the point such that (

1

900 .

Also, to the height from , it corresponds 1

on C such that ( 1 ) = 900 . To the

orthocenter 2 of the triangle , it will correspond,

by applicable duality, the Bobilliers transversal 2

2 2 in the triangle relative to the point .

To the orthocenter 3 of the triangle , it will

correspond the Bobilliers transversal 3 3 3

in the triangle relative to the point , and to

the orthocenter 4 of the triangle , it will

correspond the transversal 4 4 4 in the triangle

relative to the point .

175

1,4

These transversals are concurrent in the pole of

the line of the orthocenters towards the considered

duality.

It results that, given the quadrilateral ,

the Bobilliers transversals of the triangles ,

, and relative to the point are

concurrent.

References.

[1]

Geometry of Homological Triangles. The

Education Publisher Inc., Columbus, Ohio, USA

2012.

[2] Ion Patrascu, Florentin Smarandache: Variance on

Topics of Plane Geometry. The Education

Publisher Inc., Columbus, Ohio, USA 2013.

176

Bibliography

[1]

[2]

[3]

[4]

[5]

[6]

triunghiului [Fundamental Theorems of

Triangle Geometry]. Bacau, Romania: Editura

Unique, 2008.

N. Blaha: Asupra unor cercuri care au ca centre

dou puncte inverse [On some circles that have

as centers two inverse points], in Gazeta

Matematica, vol. XXXIII, 1927.

D. Brnzei, M. Miculia. Lucas circles and

spheres. In The Didactics of Mathematics,

volume 9/1994, Cluj-Napoca (Romania), p. 7380.

C.

Coni:

Coordones

baricentrique

[Barycentric Coordinates]. Bucarest Paris:

Librairie Vuibert, 1941.

C. Coni: Teoreme i probleme alese de

matematic

[Theorems

and

Problems],

Bucureti: Editura de Stat Didactic i

Pedagogic, 1958.

D. Efremov: Noua geometrie a triunghiului

[The New Geometry of the Triangle],

translation from Russian into Romanian by

Mihai Miculia. Zalau, Romania: Cril Publishing

House, 2010.

177

[7]

[8]

[9]

[10]

[11]

[12]

[13]

[14]

Geometry. New York: Dover Publications, 2007.

T. Lalescu: Geometria triunghiului [The

Geometry of the Triangle]. Craiova: Editura

Apollo, 1993.

N. N. Mihaileanu: Lecii complementare de

geometrie

[Complementary

Lessons

of

Geometry], Editura Didactic i Pedagogic,

Bucureti, 1976.

Gh.

Mihalescu:

Geometria

elementelor

remarcabile [The Geometry of the Outstanding

Elements]. Bucharest: Tehnica Publishing

House, 1957.

Ion Patrascu: Probleme de geometrie plan

[Planar Geometry Problems]. Craiova: Editura

Cardinal, 1996.

I. Patrascu: Axe i centre radicale ale cercului

adjuncte unui triunghi [Axis and radical

centers of the adjoin circle of a triangle], in

Recreaii matematice, year XII, no. 1, 2010.

Ion Patrascu, Gh. Margineanu: Cercul lui

Tucker [Tuckers Circle], in Alpha journal,

year XV, no. 2/2009.

I. Patrascu, F. Smarandache, Variance on

Topics of Plane Geometry, Educational

Publisher, Ohio, USA, 2013.

178

[15]

[16]

[17]

[18]

Homological

Triangles.

The

Education

Publisher, Ohio, USA, 2012.

V. Gh. Voda: Triunghiul ringul cu trei coluri

[The Triangle-The Ring with Three Corners].

Bucharest: Editura Albatros, 1979.

Eric W. Weisstein: First Droz-Farnys circle.

From Math World A Wolfram WEB Resurse,

http://mathworld.wolfram.com/.

P. Yiu, A. P. Hatzipolakis. The Lucas Circles of

a Triangle. In Amer. Math. Monthly, no.

108/2001, pp. 444-446. http://www.math.fau.

edu/yiu/monthly437-448.pdf.

179

180

them with some original results, showing

that not everything in traditional math is

revealed, and that it still has an open

character.

The topics were chosen according to

authors aspiration and attraction, as a

poet writes lyrics about spring according to

his emotions.

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