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MULTIROLE FIGHTER AIRCRAFTS

Aircraft Design Project- I


SUBMITTED BY

CHINNAMUTHU M

720711101028

CHINNARAJA A

720711101029

DEIVAMOORTHY B

720711101030

DELHI DURAI

720711101031

DEPARTMENT OF AERONAUTICAL ENGINEERING


HINDUSTHAN COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY
COIMBATORE.

HINDUSTHAN
COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY
COIMBATORE - 641 032.

DEPARTMENT OF AERONAUTICAL ENGINEERING

Certified that this is the bonafide record of work done by DEIVAMOORTHY B


in the Aircraft Design Project-I (AE 2356 ) of this Institution, as prescribed by the
Anna University for the Sixth Semester during the year 2013-2014.

Place: Coimbatore
Date:

Staff in-charge

Head of the Department

University Register no 720711101030


Submitted for the Aircraft Design project - I ( AE2356) Practical Examination of the Anna
University conducted on 08.04.2014

Internal Examiner

External Examiner

WHEN YOU DESIGN AN AIRPLANE THINK ABOUT HOW YOU WOULD FEEL
IF YOU HAD TO FLY IT! SAFETY FIRST. Sign on the wall of the design office at Douglas
Aircraft Company, 1992.

Aircraft design is an evolutionary process rather than a revolutionary process. Thanks to


Sir George Cayley who is a milestone in the evolutionary process. If anyone wants to design an
aircraft without taking any help from previous designs, it will be a one of two extremes, one a
success with the hectic and long process or a failure even after long duration.
Airplane design is an art and a science. In that respect it is difficult to learn by reading a
book. Airplane design the intellectual engineering process of creating on paper a flying machine
to meet certain specification and requirements established by potential users or to pioneer
innovative, new ideas and technology, like the aircraft to be designed here.
An example of the former is the designer of most commercial transports, starting at least
with the Douglas DC-1 in 1932, which was designed to meet or exceed various specifications by
an airplane company.
An example of the later is the design of Rocket- powered Bell X-1, the first airplane to
exceed the speed of sound in level of climbing or level flight on October 14, 1947. The design
process is indeed an intellectual activity, but a rather a special one that is tempered by good
intuition developed via experience, by attention paid to successful airplane designs that have been
used in past, and by design procedures and databases that are a part of every airplane
manufacturers.
So there is a need to conduct a literature survey related to what sort of aircraft is going to
be designed.
The project is centered towards a design of safe jet transport. The objective of this project
is to provide a better design by manipulating the previous designs.

TABLE OFCONTENTS

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Date

Exercise Name

23.1.14
23.1.14
30.1.14
06.2.14
20.2.14
27.2.14
27.2.14
06.3.14
20.3.14
27.3.14
27.3.14

Literature survey
Comparative Plots
Weight estimation
Engine selection
Airfoil selection
Wing design
Wetted area calculation
Drag polar
Drag calculation
Thrust required calculation
Rate off climb calculation

Marks

Signature

LISTOF SYMBOLS

R -Range
V -Velocity
C -specific fuel consumption
E -Loitering time
L/D -lift to drag ratio
-Velocity at altitude
-Density at altitude
S - wing surface area
b - wing span

-coefficient of viscosity at altitude

-Horizontal tail volume coefficient


- Horizontal tail arm length
- Horizontal tail area
-Wing area
-Wing mean chord
LVT -Vertical tail arm length
SVT Vertical tail area
CVT -Vertical tail volume coefficient
bW -Wing span
SW -Wing area
VTO - Vertical take-off distance
STO - Take-off distance
FTO - Take-off thrust
VA - Approach Velocity
S Wetted area
-Sweep angle
- Taper ratio

INTRODUCTION

BASIC DESIGN PROCESS:An airplane design is both an art and a science. Airplane design is an intellectual
engineering process of creating on paper a flying machine to
Meet specifications established by users
Pioneer innovative, new ideas and technology.
The design process is an intellectual activity developed via experience, by attention paid to
successful airplane designs that have been used in the past and by design procedures and databases
that are a part of every airplane manufacturer.
PHASES OF AIRPLANE DESIGN:From the time when an airplane materializes as a new thought to the time the finished product is
ready, the complete design undergoes three distinct phases in perfect sequences which are
Conceptual design
Preliminary design
Detail design
CONCEPTUAL DESIGN:The design process starts with a set of specifications or much less frequently to desire to implement
pioneering. There is a concrete goal where we designers are aiming at. The first step towards it is
conceptual design. Within a fuzzy latitude, overall shape, size, weight are determined for the
potential user.
The product of the conceptual design phase is layout of airplane configuration on paper. This
drawing has flexible lines, which can be slightly changed. However we get a detailed account of
the layout configuration at the end of this phase. The major drivers during the conceptual design
process are aerodynamics, propulsion and flight performance.
Structural and control system considerations are not dealt in detail but however they are not dealt
in detail but however they are not totally absent. The designer is influenced by qualitative aspects.
No part of the design process is carried out in total vacuum unrelated to other parts.
PRELIMINARY DESIGN:-

This phase includes only minor changes to be made in the configuration layout. There is serious
control and structural system analysis and design takes place. During this phase substantial wind
tunnel testing will be carried out and major computational fluid dynamics (CFD) calculations. At
the end of the phase, the airplane configuration is frozen and defined. The drawing process is called
lofting. This process makes precise shape of outside skin of airplane making certain all sections fit
together.
The end of the phase is the decision if the airplane is to be manufactured or not. It is no longer a
critical condition where you bet your company on full scale development of a new airplane.
DETAIL DESIGN:This phase is literally the nuts and bolts phase of airplane design. The aerodynamic, propulsion,
structures, performance, flight control analysis are over in the preliminary phase. The airplane is
to be fabricated and machined. The size, number and location of rivets, fasteners are determined
now. Flight simulators are developed. At the end of this phase, the aircraft is ready to be fabricated.
THE SEVEN INTELLECTUAL PIVOT POINTS FOR CONCEPTUAL DESIGN:The overall conceptual design is anchored by seven intellectual pivot points seven factors that
anchor the conceptual design thought process. They allow different, detailed thinking to reach out
in all directions from each point.
REQUIREMENTS:The requirements are given by the people who are going to buy the customers. For other aircrafts,
these requirements are usually set by the manufacturer in full appreciation of needs of owner.
Requirements of one airplane are different from the other. There can be no stipulated specific
standard. There must be established requirements that serve as impinge off point for design
process. The requirements that are frequently stipulated are:

Range
Takeoff distance
Stalling velocity
Endurance
Maximum velocity
Rate of climb

For dog fighting combat, maximum turn rate and minimum turn radius

Maximum load factor


Service ceiling
Cost
Reliability and maintainability

Maximum size.

SEVEN INTELEECTUAL PIVOT POINTS FOR DESIGN

REQUIREMENTS

WEIGHT OF AIRPLANE FIRST ESTIMATE

CRITICAL PERFORMANCE PARAMETER

LIFT COEFFICENT (CLMAX)

LIFT-TO-DRAG RATIO
(L/DMAX)

WING LOADING (W/S)

THRUST TO WEIGHT
RATIO(T/W)

CONFIGURATION LAYOUT SHAPE


ANDSIZE OF AIRPLANE ON DRAWING

BETTER WEIGHT ESTIMATE

NO
PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS-DOES DESIGN
MEET REQUIREMENTS

YES

S
OPTIMIZATION

AIRCRAFT CONCEPTUAL DESIGN PROCESS

BETTER
REQUIREMENTS

NEW CONCEPT
IDEAS

REVISED LAYOUT

TECHNOLOGY AVAILABLE
AERO

WEIGHT
INITIAL LAYOUT

CONCEPT SKETCH
PROPULSION

AERO

WEIGHTS

FIRST GUESS SIZING

COST

STRUCTURE
S

LANDING GEAR

PROPULSION
ETC

SIZING AND
PERFORMANCES
OPTIMIZATION

REFORMED SIZE PERFORMANCE


OPTIMIZATION

PRELIMNARY DESIGN

CRITICAL PERFORMANCE PARAMETERS:Requirements stipulate the performance of the new aircraft. The critical parameters are:
Maximum lift coefficient
Lift to drag ratio (L/D)
Thrust to weight ratio (T/W)
Therefore the next step is to make first estimates of W/S and T/W to achieve the performance as
stipulated by requirements.
CONFIGURATION LAYOUT:The configuration layout is a drawing of the shape and size of the airplane as evolved till stage.
The critical performance parameters along with first weight estimate helps to draw the
configuration and approximate the size of the aircraft.

BETTER WEIGHT ESTIMATE:The overall size and shape of the airplane are better known now. There is now an improved
estimate of weight based on performance parameters. A more detailed estimate of fuel is required
now.
PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS:This is the point where the configuration is judged if it can meet all original specifications. An
interactive process is initiated where the configuration is modified. The critical performance
parameters are adjusted for improving performance. In this stage, some mature decisions should
be made as the specifications or cost or unavailable technology.
Hence some specifications might be relaxed so that others might get higher priority.
OPTIMIZATION:When iterative process is over, it has produced a viable airplane. This leads to optimization. The
optimization analysis is carried out may be carried out by a systematic variation of different
parameters T/W, W/S and plotting the performance of graphs which can be found using a sizing
matrix or a carpet plot from which optimum design can be found.
WEIGHT OF AIRPLANCE FIRST ESTIMATE:No airplane can take off the ground unless it produces a lift greater than its weight. There
should be a first estimate of gross takeoff weight. The weight estimate is the next pivot point after
the requirements. Lilienthal, Langley and Wright brothers knew more weight means more drag.
This needed an engine with greater power and hence more weight
CONSTRAINT DIAGRAM:A constraint diagram is constructed which identifies allowable solution space for airplane design.
A constraint diagram consists of plots of the sea level thrust to take off weight ratio versus wing
loading attakeoff weight ratioTO/WO versuswing loading at takeoff WO /S determined by
intellectual pivot point.

THE DESIGN WHEEL

SIZING
AND
TRADE
STUDIES

DESIGN

REQUIREMEN
T

ANALYSIS

DESIGN
CONCEPT

CLASSIFICATION OF AIRPLANES
1. FUNCTIONAL CLASSIFICATIONS
a. Civil Airplanes
b. Military Airplanes
Civil Airplanes

Cargo transport
Passenger travel
Mail distribution
Agricultural
Ambulance
Executive transport
Training
Sports
Air taxi & charter
Forestry
Fish and wildlife sanctuary
Construction
Aerial photography
Off- shore drilling

Military Airplanes

Strategic fighters
Interceptors
Escort fighters
Tactical bombers
Strategic bombers
Ground attack airplanes
Photo-reconnaissance airplanes
Multipurpose airplanes

2. CLASSIFICATION BY POWER PLANT


a. Types of engine
i. Piston Engines
ii. Turbo-Prop Engines
iii. Turbo-jet Engines
iv. Ram-jet Engines
v. Rockets
b. Number of engines
i. Single Engine
ii. Twin Engine
iii. Multi-Engine
c. Location of power plant
i. Engine (with propeller) located in fuselage nose
ii. Pusher Engine located in the rear fuselage
iii. Engines (jet) submerged in the wing
1. At the root
2. Along the span
iv. Engines (jet) in nacelles suspended under the wing(pod mountings)

v. Engines (jet) located on the rear fuselage


vi. Engines (jet) located within the rear fuselage
3. CLASSIFICATION BY CONFIGURATION
a. Shape and position of wing
b. Type of fuselage
c. Location of horizontal tail surfaces
d. Types of Landing gear

Exp.No:1

Date: 23.01.2014
LITERATURE SURVEY

It is very easy to design an aircraft if we have datas about already existing aircrafts of similar
type. It provides more satisfaction and avoids confusion while choosing some design parameters
for our aircraft. In this detailed survey some many important design drivers like aspect ratio, wing
loading, overall dimensions and engine specifications are determined for our reference. It assists
in proposing a new design and modification in our design which will improve the performance of
the proposed aircraft. This assures the performance of the aircraft as per the design calculations
and easy way of designing an aircraft within particular period of time. So in this literature survey
we have collected some ten already existing 20 seated jet transport aircraft for our reference of
design parameters. Mostly these aircrafts have similar characteristics in many designs aspects
which are shown in the table.

GEOMETRIC SPECIFICATIONS
Sl.

Name of theAircraft

Aspect Ratio

No.

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21

Chengdu J-10
EurofighterTyphoon
F/A-18 Hornet
F-16 Fighting
Falcon
F-35 Lighting II
HAL Tejas
JAS 39 Gripen
JF-17 Thunder
Lockheed F-22
Raptor
MiG-29
MiG-29K
MiG-29M
Mirage 2000
Mitsubishi F-2
Rafale
Su-27m
Su-35
Sukhoi Su -47
Sukhoi T-50 PAKFA
T-50 Golden Eagle
Tornado IDS

Wing Span

Length

Wing Area

Wing Loading

(m)

(m)

(m2)

(Kg/m2)

2.87
2.09
3.98

9.75
11.61
12.3

15.49
20.83
17.1

5.43
6.45
4.7

33.1
64.57
38

3.56
2.68
1.75
2.35
3.66

9.96
10.7
8.2
8.4
9.45

15.06
154.67
13.2
14.1
14.93

4.88
4.33
4.4
4.5
4.72

27.87
42.7
38.4
30
24.4

2.36
3.42
3.34
3.42
2.03
3.56
2.55
3.78
3.78
3.71

13.56
11.4
11.99
11.4
9.13
11.13
10.8
15.3
15.3
15.16

18.9
17.37
17.3
17.37
14.36
15.52
15.27
21.9
21.9
22.6

5.08
4.73
4.4
4.73
5.2
4.69
5.34
5.9
5.9
6.3

78.04
38
43
38
41
34.84
45.7
62
62
61.87

3.49
2.49
7.27

14.7
14
13.91

21.935
19.8
16.72

6.36
6.05
5.95

62
78.8
26.6

WEIGHT SPECIFICATIONS
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No.

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21

Empty
Name of the Aircraft

Weight
(Kg)

Chengdu J-10
EurofighterTyphoon
F/A-18 Hornet
F-16 Fighting Falcon
F-35 Lighting II
HAL Tejas
JAS 39 Gripen
JF-17 Thunder
Lockheed F-22
Raptor
MiG-29
MiG-29K
MiG-29M
Mirage 2000
Mitsubishi F-2
Rafale
Su-27m
Su-35
Sukhoi Su -47
Sukhoi T-50 PAK-FA
T-50 Golden Eagle
Tornado IDS

Gross Weight

Maximum Take-off Weight

(Kg)

(Kg)

9,750
8777
10400
8570
13300
6500
6800
6586

14,250
11,346
13,013
11,675
17,490
9,500
9,068
9,586

19,277
14300
23500
19200
31800
13200
14000
12383

19700
13380
18550
11000
7500
9527
9500
8400
8400
16375
8400
18500
13890

22,822
16,720
20,950
13,100
10,100
13,927
14,200
11,215
14,000
21,645
13,490
23,300
17,140

38000
22400
24500
20000
17000
22090
24500
34500
34500
35000
38800
37000
28000

POWERPLANT SPECIFICATIONS
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1
2
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7
8
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12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21

Number
Name of the Aircraft

Type of Engine

of
Engines

Chengdu J-10
EurofighterTyphoon
F/A-18 Hornet
F-16 Fighting Falcon
F-35 Lighting II
HAL Tejas
JAS 39 Gripen
JF-17 Thunder
Lockheed F-22
Raptor
MiG-29
MiG-29K
MiG-29M
Mirage 2000
Mitsubishi F-2
Rafale
Su-27m
Su-35
Sukhoi Su -47
Sukhoi T-50 PAK-FA
T-50 Golden Eagle
Tornado IDS

Turbofan
Turbofan
Turbofan
Turbofan
Turbofan
Turbofan
Turbofan
Turbofan
Turbofan
Turbofan
Turbofan
Turbofan
Turbofan
Turbofan
Turbofan
Turbofan
Turbofan
Turbofan
Turbofan
Turbofan
Turbofan

Power or Thrust per Engine


(KN)

1
1
2
1
1
1
1
1

79.43
44
48.98
76.3
125
53.9
54
49.4

2
2
2
2
1
1
2
2
2
2
2
2
2

104
88.26
88.3
81.4
64.3
76
50.04
86.3
86.3
83.4
123
93.1
71.53

PERFORMANCE SPECIFICATIONS

Sl.
No.

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21

Maximum
Name of the Aircraft

speed
(m/s)

Chengdu J-10
EurofighterTyphoon
F/A-18 Hornet
F-16 Fighting Falcon
F-35 Lighting II
HAL Tejas
JAS 39 Gripen
JF-17 Thunder
Lockheed F-22
Raptor
MiG-29
MiG-29K
MiG-29M
Mirage 2000
Mitsubishi F-2
Rafale
Su-27m
Su-35
Sukhoi Su -47
Sukhoi T-50 PAK-FA
T-50 Golden Eagle
Tornado IDS

2695
2450
1190
2120
1930
1350
2,204
1960
2410
2400
2200
2600
2530
2469.6
1,912
2390
2390
1717
2500
1770
2400

Cruising

Service ceiling

Range

speed (m/s)

(Km)

(Km)

386.11
588.89
347.22
670.54
536.43
383.33
388.89
544.44

18,000
16765
15240
15240
18288
15000
15240
16920

1149
2900
2000
1950
2220
850
1865
1689

19812
18013
17500
17500
17060
18000
15,235
18000
18000
18000
17300
14630
15240

2960
1430
1500
1600
1550
834
3,700
3600
3600
3300
3000
1851
1390

670.56
666.21
610.56
694.5
649.44
590
385.83
375
510.42
500
416.67
246.39
268.06

Exp.No:2

Date:23.01.2014

COMPARATIVE GRAPHS

Speed Vs aspect ratio

SPEED Vs ASPECT RATIO

ASPECT RATIO

7.50

5.00

2.50

0.00
0

200

400

SPEED (m/s)

600

800

Speed Vs rate of climb

SPEED Vs R/C
450

R/C (m/s)

300

150

0
0

200

400

SPEED (m/s)

Speed Vs range

600

800

SPEED Vs RANGE

RANGE (Km)

6000

4000

2000

200

400

600

800

600

800

SPEED (m/s)

Speed Vs altitude

SPEED Vs ALTITUDE

ALTITUDE (m)

30,000

20,000

10,000

0
0

200

400

SPEED (m/s)

Speed Vs wing loading

SPEED Vs WINGLOADING
WINGLOADING (Kg/m2)

800

600

400

200

200

400

600

800

600

800

SPEED (m/s)

Speed Vs b/l

SPEED Vs b/l
1.000

b/l

0.750

0.500

0.250

0.000
0

200

400

SPEED (m/s)

RESULT:
From the above comparative graphs and calculation,
1. Velocity Vs Aspect ratio
Velocity =660m/s
Aspect ratio =3.0
2. Velocity Vs Rate of climb
Velocity

=640 m/s

Rate of climb=300m/s
3. Velocity Vs Range
Velocity = 650m/s
Range

= 2000 Km

4. Velocity Vs altitude
Velocity =650m/s
Altitude =18000 Km
5. Velocity Vs Wing loading
Velocity

=642m/s

Wing loading =355Kg/m2


6. Velocity Vs b/l
Velocity=640m/s
b/l=0.63
Average velocity = 647m/s =2.19 Mach

Exp.No:3

Date: 30.01.2014

PRIMARY WEIGHT ESTIMATION


The purpose of this section is to introduce a technique to obtain the first estimate of the maximum
take-off weight for an aircraft before it is designed and built. The word estimation is intentionally
selected to indicate the degree of the accuracy and reliability of the output. Hence, the value for
the maximum take-off weight is not final and must be revised in the later design phases. The result
of this step may have up to about 20% inaccuracies, since it is not based on its own aircraft data.
But the calculation relies on the other aircraft data with similar configuration and mission. Thus,

we are adopting the past history as the major source of the information for the calculation in this
step. At the end of the preliminary design phase, the take-off weight estimation is repeated by
using another more accurate technique.
An aircraft has a range of weights from minimum to maximum depending upon the number of pilots
and crew, fuel, and payloads (passengers, loads, luggage, and cargo). As the aircraft flies, the fuel is
burning and the aircraft weight is decreasing. The most important weight in the design of an aircraft
is the maximum allowable weight of the aircraft during take-off operation. It is also referred to as
all up weight. The design maximum take-off weight (MTOW or WTO) is the total weight of an
aircraft when it begins the mission for which it is designed. The maximum design take-off weight
is not necessarily the same as the maximum nominal take-off weight, since some aircraft can be
overloaded beyond design weight in an emergency situation, but will suffer a reduced performance
and reduced stability. Unless specifically stated, maximum take-off weight is the design weight. It
means every aircraft component (e.g. wing, tail) is designed to support this weight.

The major factor that determines the whole design of aircraft especially the selection of
overall weight, airfoil and power plant of the aircraft.
Total weight of an airplane is given by,
WTO =WC+WPL+WF+WE

Where,
WTO = Design takeoff weight of the aircraft
WC = crew weight
WPL = weight of the payload
WF = weight of the fuel
WE = empty weight
To simplify the calculation, both fuel and empty weights can be expressed as fractions of the total
takeoff weight, i.e., Wf/WO. Equation

WO = WC+WPL+

)W +(
TO

This can be solved for WTO as follows:

)W

TO

WTO

)W (

WTO =

)W

TO =

TO

WC+WPL

Now WTO can be determined if (WF/WTO) and (WE/WTO) can be estimated.


These are described below.
WPL=WPASSENGERS+WBAGGAGE

Assuming that each passenger with baggage weight is 90kg then the payload weight is,
W Pay Load = 3000 kg
Assuming that each crew with baggage weight is 90kg then,
W Crew =(1*90 ) = 90kg
So,
Wpl+Wc
W TO = --------------------------------1-(W f/WTO) (WE / WTO )
(90+3000)
= -------------------------------1-(0.287)-(0.6)
= 27345.13kg

MISSION PROFILE:-

From the figure the various stages of aircraft during mission is as follows,
1 start &warm up
2 Taxiing in the runway
3 Takeoff
4 Climb
5 Cruising
6 Loiter
7 Descent
8 Dush out
9 Drop bombs
10 Strafe
11 Dash in
12 Climb
13 Crusing
14 Decent
15 Landing.
For subsonic jet transport aircraft weight fuel fraction is,
(W15/W0) = ( W1/W0) * ( W2/W1) * ( W3/W2) * ( W4/W3) * ( W5/W4) * ( W6/W5) * ( W7/W6) *
(W8/W7) * ( W9/W8 ) * ( W10/W9) * ( W11/W10 ) * ( W12/W11 ) * ( W13/W12 ) * ( W14/W13 ) * (
W15/W14 )

APPROXIMATE WEIGHT ESTIMATION:

Weight fraction for each profile in mission segment,


For Warm up,
(W1/W0) =0.990
For Taxy,
(W2/W1) =0.990.
For Takeoff,
(W3/W2) =0.990.
For Climb,
(W4/W3) =0.971.
For Cruising,
(W5/W4) = 0.954
For loiter,
(W6/W5) =0.967
For descent,
(W7/W6) = 0.990
For Dush Out,
( W8/W7 ) = 0.951
For Drop Bombs,
( W9/W8 ) = 0.990
For Strafe,
( W10/W9 ) = 0.967
For Dash in,
( W11/W10 ) = 0.954
For Clime,
( W12/W11 ) = 0.971
For Cruise in,
( W13/W12 ) = 0.990
For Decent,
( W14/W13 ) = 0.990
For landing,
(W15/W14) =0.990

Then,
(WF/WTO) = (1-W15/W0))
=0.287
Assume Empty Weight fraction,

So, overall weight,


WPL + WC
W TO = ---------------------------------1-(W f/WTO) (WE / WTO )
Approximate Overall weight = 27345.13 kg

RESULT:
Thus the final Takeoff weight of the proposed aircraft was estimated using fuel fraction method
were as follows,

WTO (APPROXIMATE)

=27345.13 kg.

Exp.No:4

Date: 06.02.2014
ENGINE SELECTION

Thrust to weight ratio

Thrust matching

Engine rating

Rubber sizing of the engine

Number of the engines

Thrust to weight ratio:


T/W directly affects the performance of the aircraft. An aircraft with a higher T/W will
accelerate more quickly, climb more rapidly, reach a higher maximum speed, and sustain higher
turn rates. On the other hand, the larger engines will consume more fuel throughout the mission,
which will drive up the aircraft up the aircrafts takeoff gross weight to perform the design mission.
T/W is not a constant. The weight of the aircraft varies during the flight as fuel is burned.
Also, the engines thrust varies with altitude and velocity (as does the horsepower and propeller
efficiency, (p).When the designers speak of an aircrafts thrust-to-weight ratio they generally refer
to the T/W during sea-level static (zero velocity), standard-day conditions.

T/WTO Ratio for General Aviation- single engine is 0.60


Overall weight of aircraft WTO =27345.13 kg =268.255 KN.
Then,
T=0.60268.255
=160.95 KN
So, the thrust needed=160.95 KN
From the literature survey the nearest value of the thrust corresponding aircraft is Jet engine
The Jet engine has the following characteristics,

Thrust per engine =160.95 KN

Number of engine = 1

Type of engine

= Turbofan

Total thrust

=160.95 KN

RESULT:

Name of engine selected = Turbofan

Number of engine

=2

Total thrust

= 160.95 KN

Exp.No:5

Date:20.02.2014
AIRFOIL SELECTION

Wing design:
This chapter focuses on the detail design of the wing. The wing may be considered as the most
important component of an aircraft, since a fixed-wing aircraft is not able to fly without it. Since
the wing geometry and its features are influencing all other aircraft components, we begin the
detail design process by wing design. The primary function of the wing is to generate sufficient
lift force or simply lift (L). However, the wing has two other productions, namely drag force or
drag (D) and nose-down pitching moment (M). While a wing designer is looking to maximize the

lift, the other two (drag and pitching moment) must be minimized. In fact, wing is assumed ad a
lifting surface that lift is produced due to the pressure difference between lower and upper surfaces.
During the wing design process, eighteen parameters must be determined. They are as follows:
1. Wing reference (or planform) area (SW or Sref or S)
2. Number of the wings
3. Vertical position relative to the fuselage (high, mid, or low wing)
4. Horizontal position relative to the fuselage
5. Cross section (or airfoil)
6. Aspect ratio (AR)
7. Taper ratio
8. Tip chord (Ct)
9. Root chord (Cr)
10. Mean Aerodynamic Chord (MAC or C)
11. Span (b)
12. Twist angle
13. Sweep angle
14. Dihedral angle
15. Incidence (iw)
16. High lifting devices such as flap
17. Aileron
18. Other wing accessories

The airfoil, in many respects, is the heart of the airplane. The airfoil affects the cruise speed, takeoff and landing distances, stall speed, handling qualities, and overall aerodynamic efficiency
during all phases of flight. The design of the airfoil is a complex and time consuming process.
Much of the Wright brothers success can be traced to their development of airfoils using a wind
tunnel of their own design, and the in-flight validation of those airfoils in their glider experiments
if 1901-1902. More recently, the low speed airfoils develop by peter Lissaman contributed much
to the success of the man-powered Gosssmer Condor, and the airfoils designed by John Rontz
were instrumental to the success of Burt Rutans radical designs.

Cruising Reynolds number (Re) as follows,


Density*Vcr*C
Recr = -------------------------Viscosityalt
=282.98*106
=Velocity at altitude
= Density at altitude
C = (s/b)
= 5.07m
S
b

= wing surface area


= wing span

And, from standard air table at altitude 18000 m,


Temp = 216.16 k.
Density = 0.819 kg/m2
= 1.79*10-5
VCR = M * a
a = ( 1.4*287*216.16 )0.5
=294.71 m/s

Aspect ratio of our aircraft=3.0


From the literature survey for that aspect ratio,
Area=77.03 m2

Span=15.2 m
And,

c =s/b =5.07m

For the Reynoldss number approximately, from the THEORY OF WING SECTION by ABBOT
following data can be obtained.
Airfoil type

Maximum lift coefficient

Minimum drag coefficient

NACA 63-006

0.83

0.004

NACA 63-009

1.18

0.0042

NACA 63-206

1.02

0.04

NACA 64-006

0.83

0.038

NACA 64-009

1.119

0.038

Fig: NACA 64-009 Aerofoil

RESULT:
From the above analysis NACA 64-009 series type airfoil was selected for our aircraft design.

Exp.No:6

Date:27.02.2014
Wing and Tail Calculations

Fuselage:
Once the takeoff gross weight has been estimated, the fuselage, the wing. And tail can be sized.
Many methods exist to initially estimate the required fuselage size. For certain types of aircraft,
the fuselage size is determined strictly by real world constraints. For example, a large passenger
aircraft devotes most of its length to the passenger compartment. Once the number of passengers
is known and the number of seats across is selected, the fuselage length and diameter are essentially
determined.
Wing:
Actual wing size can now be determined simply as the takeoff weight divided by takeoff wing
loading. Remember that this reference area of the theoretical, trapezoidal wing, and includes the
area extending into the aircraft center line.
Tail Volume Co-efficient:
For the initial layout, the historical approach is used for the estimation of the tail size. The
effectiveness of a tail in generating a moment about the centre of gravity is proportional to the
force produced by the tail and to the tail moment arm. The primary purpose of the tail is to counter
the moments produced by the wing.

1. Length of fuselage:
LFU = a woc
= 15.2/0.63
= 24.13 m.
2. Surface area:
Aspect ratio of our aircraft=3.0
From the literature survey for that aspect ratio,
Area=77.03 m2

Span=15.20 m.
3. Taper ratio

Taper ratio is defined as the ratio between the tip chord (Ct) to the root chord (Cr). This
definition is applied to the wing, as well as the horizontal tail, and the vertical tail.General, the
taper ratio varies between zero and one. 0 1
The taper ratio can be defined as,

tip chord

=root chord

And the value for the taper ratio in general from design book is0.4
2s

So, C root chord =b(1+)


277.03

=15.2(1+0.3)
And, Ctip chord = C root chord
=2.338 m.

=7.796 m.

4. Aerodynamic mean chord:


2

1++2

=3 C root chord(

(1+)

= 3 7.796

1+0.3+0.32
(1+0.3)

=5.56 m.
Location of mean chord is, x = 0.25x5.56 = 1.39 m.
b (1+2)

And, y =
=

6 (1+)
15.2 (1+0.6)
6

(1+0.3)

=3.117 m.

5. Vertical and horizontal volume coefficient:

CHT =

Where,
-Horizontal tail volume coefficient
- Horizontal tail arm length
- Horizontal tail area
-Wing area
-Wing mean chord
Since, is 25% of the fuselage length,
= 0.25
= 0.2524.13
= 6.0325 m.
For our design,

=77.03m2
=5.56 m.
From Aircraft design: A Conceptual approach by Daniel.P.Raymer 3rd Ed,
=0.40 So,
SHT=
SHT=

0.405.5677.03
6.0325

= 28.39 m2

And,

Where,
LVT -Vertical tail arm length
SVT Vertical tail area
CVT -Vertical tail volume coefficient
bW -Wing span
SW -Wing area
Since, is 50% of the fuselage length,
= 0.5
= 0.524.13
=10.8585 m.
For our design,
= 77.03m2.
= 15.2m.
From Aircraft design: A Conceptual approach by Daniel.P.Raymer 3rd Ed,
=0.07 m.

So,

=
=

15.277.030.07
10.8585

= 7.547 m2

Fig: Geometry of wing

RESULT:
The dimensional parameters are,
Wing span,

bw=15.2m

Wing area,

Sw=77.06m2

Root chord,

Cr=7.8 m

Tip chord,

Ct=2.34m

Mean aerodynamic chord length,

Cw=5.56m

Horizontal tail Surface,

SHT=28.39m2

Vertical tail surface,

SVT=7.547m2

Exp.No:7

Date:27.02.2014

Wetted area calculations

Aircraft wetted area (Swet), the total exposed surface area, can be visualized as the area of the
external parts of the aircraft that would get wet if it were dipped into water. The wetted area must
be calculated for drag estimation, as it the major contributor to friction drag.
The wing and tail wetted areas can be approximated from their platforms. The wetted area is
estimated by multiplying the true view exposed plan form area is estimated by multiplying the true
view exposed planform area (S exposed) times a factor based upon the wing or tail thickness ratio.
If a wing or tail were paper thin, the wetted area would be exactly twice the true plan form area.
The effect of finite thickness id to increase the wetted area, as approximated by the following
equations.
Note that the true exposed plan form area is the projected area divided by the cosine of the dihedral
angle.
If t/c 0.05,
S wet =2.003 S exposed
If t/c 0.05,
S wet= S exposed [1.977 + 0.52(t/c)]
The exposed area can be measured from the drawing in several ways. A professional designer will
have access to a planimeter a mechanical device for measuring areas. Use of the planimeter is a
dying art as the computer replaces the drafting board. Alternatively the area can be measured by
tracing onto graph paper and counting squares.
The wetted area of the fuselage can be initially estimated using just the side and top views of the
aircraft. The side and top view projected areas of the fuselage are measured from the drawing, and
the values are averaged.
For a long, thin body circular in cross section, this average projected area times will yield the
surface wetted area. If the body is rectangular in cross section, the wetted area will be four times
the average projected area. For typical aircraft the following equation provides a reasonable
approximation.

S wet=3.4 [(A top + A side) / 2) ]


A more accurate estimation of wetted area can be obtained by graphical integration using a number
of fuselage cross sections. If the perimeters of the cross sections are measured and plotted Vs
longitudinal locations, using the same units on the graph, then the integrated area under the
resulting curve gives the wetted area.
Perimeters can be measured using a professionals map-measure, or approximated using a piece
of scrap paper. Simply follow around the perimeter measurements should not include the portions
where components join, such as at the wing fuselage intersection. These areas are not wetted.

CALCULATIONS
1) For fuselage

d2f
4

denotes its wetted calculation


From Airplane Design Part II by Dr.Johnroskam,
From wing design calculation Lf
Now, df =

24.13
8.5

lf
df

for Single Engine Aircraft is 6.5,

=24.13 m,

=2.84 m,

d2f 2.842
=
=
=6.335 m2
4
4

2) For wing

sw =
tw
A known relation,
= 0.09(from aerofoil t/c max)
croot
From wing design calculation,croot is 7.8 m,

w =0.095.56 = 0.5004 m.
= 0.500415.2 =7.161 m2

3)For horizontal tail

sht = ht ht =9.970.05004 =0.5 m2


ht = vt = 10 percent w =0.10.5004 =0.05004
From Aircraft design: A Conceptual approach by Daniel P.Raymer,

b2ht
(AR)ht=
= 3.5
sht
Now,

b2ht = 3.528.4 = 99.4 m


4) For vertical tail
(AR)vt=

b2vt
svt

= 1.1

=vt t vt = 2.8810.05004 =0.1112 m2.


5) Engine area

e2
4

1.422
=
4
=1.583 m2.

6) 1/4 flap deflection


=15
For Single Engine range, (0.05 to 0.1)
The below is average of above range,

s = 0.075

m2

7) 3/4 flap deflection


=45
For Single Engine range, (0.15 to 0.2)
The below is average of above range,

s = 0.175 m2

Since

de =

df
2

= 2.84/2 =1.42 m

8) Undercarriage

su =1.1sengine
=1.11.583
=1.741 m2

RESULT:
The wetted area details are,
S.No

Component

s (m2)

Fuselage

6.335

Wing

7.161

Horizontal tail

0.500

Vertical tail

0.111

Engine

1.583

1/4 flap

0.075

3/4 flap

0.175

Undercarriage

1.741

Exp.No:8

Date:06.03.2014

DRAG POLAR

CDt =CDO +K(CL )2


Where,
1

K=
1

=0.73.0
=0.055

1.At SEA LEVEL, (h=0)


Where,

=1.225 kg/m3
a = (RT) ^0.5 = (1.4287288.16) ^0.5 =340.268 m/s.

CL =

2
^2

S.No

227345.139.81
1.22577.03129.4^2

V
(m/s)

= 0.3395

CL

CDT =( + (CL)2

129.4

0.34

0.0475

258.8

0.085

0.0311

388.2

0.038

0.0302

0.0212

0.0301

0.014

0.0300

4
5

517.6
647

2. At Altitude, (h=18.0 km)

T=281.66 K,

=0.12165 kg/m3
a = (RT) ^0.5 = (1.4287281.66) ^0.5 =336.40 m/s

CL =

S.No

2
^2

227345.139.8
0.1216577.03129.4^2

V
(m/s)

CL

= 3.42

CDT =( + (CL)2

129.4

3.42

1.8032

258.8

0.85

0.1395

388.2

0.38

0.0519

517.6

0.21

0.0367

647

0.136

0.0328

0.03025

co efficient of drag

0.0302
0.03015
0.0301
Series1

0.03005
0.03
0.02995
0

0.01

0.02

0.03

0.04

co efficient of lift

0.06

co efficient of drag

0.05
0.04
0.03
Series1

0.02
0.01
0
0

0.1

0.2
co efficient of lift

0.3

0.4

RESULT: The graph drawn b/w lift coefficient and drag coefficient for different stages of aircraft.
And the variation of trend was observed.

Exp.No:9

Date: 20.03.2014
CALCULATION OF DRAG

Aerodynamic forces that split into two forces: Lift force or lift, and Drag force or drag. A prerequisite to aircraft performance analysis is the ability to calculate the aircraft drag at various flight
conditions. Drag force is the summation of all forces that resist against aircraft motion.

The drag coefficient is non-dimensional parameter, but it takes into account every aerodynamic
configuration of the aircraft including, wing, tail, fuselage and landing gear. This coefficient has two
main parts. The first part is referred to as lift-related drag coefficient or induced drag coefficient (CDi)
and the second part is called zero-lift drag coefficient (CDo).

Calculation of CDo

The CDoof an aircraft is simply the summation of CDoof all contributing components.

CDof, CDow, CDoht, CDovt, CDoLG, CDoN, CDoS, CDoHLD, are respectively representing
fuselage, wing, horizontal tail, vertical tail, landing gear, nacelle, strut, high lift device (such as
flap).
CDoOTHERS is components such as antenna, pitot tube, wire, and wiper

Fuselage
The zero-lift drag coefficient of fuselage is given by the following equation:

where, Cf is skin friction coefficient and is non-dimensional number. It is determined based on the
Prandtl relationship as follows:

(for turbulent and laminar flow)

Where is the air density, V is aircraft true airspeed, is air viscosity, and L is the length of the
component in the direction of flight. For the fuselage, L it the fuselage length. The second
parameter (fLD) is a function of length to diameter ratio

The third parameter (fM) is a function of Mach number (M).

The last two parameters Swetf and S, where are respectively the wetted area of the fuselage and
the wing reference area.

Wing, Horizontal Tail, and Vertical Tail

In these equations, Cfw, Cfht, Cfvt are similar to what we defined for fuselage. The only difference
is that the equivalent value of L in Reynolds number) for wing, horizontal tail, and vertical tail are
their mean aerodynamic chord (MAC).

High lift devices

The fis the flap deflection in degrees (usually less than 50 degrees).

Landing gear

Engine (cooling drag)

where P is the engine power (hp), T is the air temperature (K), is the relative density of the air,
V is the aircraft velocity (m/sec), and S is the wing reference area (m2). Th parameter Ke is a
coefficient that depends on the type of engine. It varies between 1 and 3.
Overall CDo

whereKc is a correction factor and depends on several factors such as the type, year of fabrication
and configuration of the aircraft.

Sl.No.
1
2
3
4
5
6

No.

Component

Aircraft type
Passenger
Agriculture
Cargo
Single engine piston
General Aviation
Fighter

Kc
1.1
1.5
1.2
1.3
1.2
1.1

CDo of
component

Percent from
total CDo (%)

Wing

0.0053

23.4

Fuselage

0.0063

27.8

Wing tip tank

0.0021

9.3

Nacelle

0.0012

5.3

Engine strut

0.0003

1.3

Horizontal tail

0.0016

7.1

Vertical tail

0.0011

4.8

Other components

0.0046

20.4

Total CDo

0.0226

100

No.
1
2
3
4
5
6
8

Aircraft type
Subsonic jet
Large turboprop
Twin-engine piton prop
Small GA with
retractable landing gear

CDo
0.014-0.02
0.018-0.024
0.022-0.028
0.02-0.03

E
0.75-0.85
0.8-0.85
0.75-0.8
0.75-0.8

Small GA with fixed


landing gear
Agricultural

0.025-0.04

0.65-0.8

0.06-0.065

0.65-0.75

Supersonic jet

0.02-0.04

0.6-0.8

Typical values of CDoand e


for several aircraft

For our wing, k=

without crop duster


=0.1516

1.At SEA LEVEL, (h=0)


Where,
T=288.16 K,

=1.225 kg/m3
a = (RT) ^0.5 = (1.4287288.16) ^0.5 =340.268 m/s.

CL =

S.No

2
^2

V
(m/s)

227345.139.81
1.22577.03129.4^2

= 0.3395

CL

CDo

CDT =( + (CL)2

129.4

0.34

0.03

0.0475

D=(( CDT
W)/ CL)
(N)
37.48

258.8

0.085

0.03

0.0311

98.15

388.2

0.038

0.03

0.0302

213.19

517.6

0.0212

0.03

0.0301

380.87

647

0.014

0.03

0.0300

596.12

2. At Altitude, (h=18.0 km)

T=281.66 K,

=0.12165 kg/m3
a = (RT) ^0.5 = (1.4287281.66) ^0.5 =336.40 m/s

CL =

S.No

2
^2

V
(m/s)

227345.139.8
0.1216577.03129.4^2

CL

CDo

= 3.42

CDT =( + (CL)2

D=(( CDT
W)/ CL)
(kN)

129.4

3.42

0.03

1.8032

141.44

258.8

0.85

0.03

0.1395

44.03

388.2

0.38

0.03

0.0519

36.64

517.6

0.21

0.03

0.0367

46.88

647

0.136

0.03

0.0328

64.70

GRAPH BETWEEN VELOCITY & DRAG:

160
140
120

drag(N)

100
80
60
40
20
0
0

100

200

300

400

500

600

700

500

600

700

velocity(m/s)

700
600

drag(N)

500
400
300
200
100
0
0

100

200

300

400

velocity(m/s)

RESULT:
From the above tables and graphs, drag and velocity at different altitudes are obtained.

Exp.No:10

Date:27.03.2014

THRUST REQUIRED CALCULATION

Thrust available, from the engine selection calculation, F = 160.95 KN


Freq = F 1.15
For sea level,

Freq = F [(20 h) / (20+h)] 1.15


= 160.95 [(20-0) / (20+0)] 1.15
= 160.95 KN
For h = 3 km,
Freq = 160.65 [(20- 3) / (20+3)] 1.15
=113.69 KN
For h=6 km,
Freq = 160.65 [20-6) / (20+6)] 1.15
=78.98 KN
For h=9 km,
Freq = 160.95 [(20 9) / (20+9)] 1.15
= 52.79 KN.
For h=12 km,
Freq = 160.95 [(20-12) / (20+ 12) ] 1.15
= 32.68 KN.
For h=15 km,
Freq= 160.95 (( 20-15) / (20 +15))1.15 = 17.17 KN
For h = 18 km,
Freq = 160.95 ( (20-18) / (20+18) )1.15
= 5.45 KN
S.NO

ALTITUDE
(Km)

THRUST or POWER
( KN )

160.95

113.69

78.98

52.79

12

32.68

15

17.17

18

5.45

RESULT:
Thus the thrust required for multirole fighter aircraft has been
calculated.
h = 0 km,

Freq = 160.95 KN

h = 18 km, Freq = 5.45 KN


Exp no. 11

Date : 27.03.14
RATE OF CLIMB CALCULATION

Rate of climb is defined as the aircraft speed in the vertical axis or the vertical component of the
aircraft airspeed. Hence rate of climb is about how fast an aircraft gains height.
Jet aircraft:
In general, the Rate of Climb (ROC) is defined as the ratio between excess power and the aircraft
weight

Prop-driven Aircraft:
The available power is the engine power times the propulsive efficiency.

1. At SEA LEVEL (h=0)


S.No

V(m/s)

RATE OF

(KN)

(KN)

CLIMB (m/s)

129.4

160.95

37.48

59.56

258.8

160.95

98.15

60.59

388.2

160.95

213.19

-75.60

517.6

160.95

380.87

-424.34

647

160.95

596.12

-1049.58

2. At h= 18 km.
S.No

V(m/s)

RATE OF

(KN)

(KN)

CLIMB (m/s)

129.4

5.45

141.44

-65.55

258.8

5.45

44.03

-37.22

388.2

5.45

36.64

-45.136

517.2

5.45

46.88

-79.88

647

5.45

64.70

-142.90

1.At h=0km

200
0
0

200

400

600

800

R/C(m/s)

-200
-400
Series1

-600
-800
-1000

-1200

2. At h=18km

Velocity(m/s)

0
-20

200

400

600

800

R/C(m/s)

-40
-60
-80

Series1

-100
-120
-140

-160

Velocity(m/s)

RESULT:
From the above analysis, two graphs rate of climb Vs velocity for different altitudes and rate of
climb Vs altitude drawn and the trend in rate of climb was observed.

TOP VIEW, SIDE VIEW, FRONT VIEW (CAD DRAWING)

REFERENCE
TEXTS:
1. Theory of wing section by IRA H.ABBOT and ALBERT E.VON DOENHOFF.
2. Aircraft performance and design by JOHN D.ANDERSON JR
3. Aircraft design: A conceptual Approach by DANIEL P.RAYMER
4. Aircraft design by THOMAS CORK
5. Aircraft design by MOHAMMAD SADRAEY
6. Aircraft design by JOHN ROSKAM.
7. JANES All the World Aircrafts