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INTRODUCTION

This report is based on the inspection and survey at Block B8 University Tun Hussein
Onn Malaysia. The survey is done to see the type of column, wall, slab, beam, roof and stair. We
also take some picture as a proof for the surveys. The study conducted is to learn and analyses
the construction used for the build is building. The construction method that compliment with the
building is then being find and explain in the content.
Building is used as a noun as "...that which is built; a structure, edifice... The distinction
between a building and a non-building structure is not always clear but is sometimes determined
if the structure has walls or by its size or use. The Oxford English Dictionary includes that
structure may be used for a large or imposing building.
Construction is a very general term meaning the art and science to form material or
immaterial objects, systems or organizations, and comes from Latin constructionem (from
com-"together" and struere "to pile up") and Old French construction. Construction is used as a
verb: the act of building, and a noun: how a building was built, the nature of its structure.
Construction is often used as a synonym with building in its verb tense. As a noun,
Russell Sturgis distinguished between architecture as being artistic structure, where a building is
unadorned and can be "...poor...commonplace, ugly, insufficient, or otherwise of small
importance; " and the use of the word construction as meaning built using scientific principles in
a highly skillful way
Construction method is type of plant that are likely to be used on-site during the
construction phases.

SLAB CONSTRUCTION

There are two type of distinct type of concrete floor which is slab on grade and structural
slab. The slab on grade is a floor poured directly on prepared subgrade to provide a clean and
durable surface for the building occupants. The durability of the concrete strength and finish, but
the strength of the slab depends on the strength of the supporting subgrade. The structural slab,
which must span between supporting walls, column, or beam, must be able to support its own
dead weight and the superimposed load that it was designed to carry. Thus, its strength depends
solely on the concrete strength and the amount of reinforcing steel that has been used.

Based on the survey we are able to see that these two type of slab is used in the block E7.
But mostly the floor area are consist of the slab on grade since the building is just one floor
building. But there still had a structural slab which is located in the middle of the building
whereas the maintenance room is located. And we find out that to produce a good concrete slab
consist of several step which is;

1. Backfill all ditches and trenches under the floor with material similar to the surrounding
subgrade, ensure the similarity to the surrounding subgrade, ensuring similar density and
moisture content. Uniform compaction with some type of mechanical equipment is most
important. (Flat-Plate vibratory compactor)
2. Isolate all column from the floor slab by boxing them with square wood or metal forms or
with round fiberboard forms. Form should be set to the level of the top of the slab.
3. Isolate the wall from the slab by fastening strips of asphalt-impregnated fiberboard/ other
joint material not more than in. (12mm) thick around the walls, level with top of the
slab.
4. Prepare any changes in the slab thickness, as at doorways, to be as gradual as possible,
and at slopes of not more than 1 in 10.
5. Use template with legs equal to the slab thickness to check the grade.

6. Provide vapor-diffusion barrier should water vapor migrate through the slab be a concern.
7. Place the reinforcement (mesh or rod) as specified in plans.
8. Set screed strips at the same elevation at convenient intervals throughout the area to be
concrete. ( or T-bat screed)
9. Oil the screed strips.
10. Place the concrete as close to its final position as possible. Consolidate with an internal
vibrator, especially at corners, walls, and bulkheads.
11. Straightedge the concrete to the level of the screed strips.
12. Smooth the surface with a long-handled float or a Darby to remove the high and low
spots. Cover with damp burlap until ready for the next operation.
13. Float the surface with hand or mechanical floats as soon as the concrete supports the
weight of a worker.
14. If specified, apply metallic aggregate hardener.
15. Trowel to hard, dense surface with hand or power trowels.
16. Cure by covering with (a) waterproof curing paper, (b) two coats of curing compound, (c)
burlap kept moist at all times, or (d) a layer of damp sand.
17. Remove the form around column and attach joint material to the vertical faces of the slab
and the base of the columns. Fill with concrete, edge, and finish.
18. Provide control joints to a depth of at least one-fifth the slab thickness with a power saw
every 20 to 25 ft (6 to 8m) in both direction.
19. Caulk the joint with mastic joint filler.
20. Cure for at least 7 days before allowing regular traffic on the floor.

Block B8 Slab picture.


We only able to take picture outside the building since during the survey, there are classes
in the theater room.

BEAM CONSTRUCTION

While the beam in block B8 consist of several type of beam. Beam are a horizontal
member of structure, carrying transverse loads. Beam is rectangular in cross-section that carry
the floor slab or the roof slab. Its transfer all the loads including its self-weight to the column or
wall. Beam normally consist of several type which is fixed beam, continues beam, simply
supported beam and cantilever beam. In block B8 we assume that it consist of two type of beam,
which is continuous and simply supported beam. Normally ground beam sometimes are casted
together with the slab. Based on this we find that the floor beam is not attached to the foundation
slab. Which mean the beam is not cast together with the slab. Which simply said that they casted
the beams before they cast the slab. That why the picture show that we can observe the
conditions of the building. Beside UTHM before had the history of settlement near that place
where the slab settle down work which somehow can saw the crack. While the upper beam
which support the stair is cast together with the slab because it is not possible to cast the beam
then the slab later.
There are two type method of concrete beam in manufacture. One of that is by commonly
construction or we call in-situ method and other once is by new technology that is pre-cast
concrete beam. Both of that is different method between in-situ and pre-cast. We assume that in
block B8 the construction of beam are using the in-situ method. The construction concrete beam
is started by fixing the reinforcement bar of the beam. Alternately, formwork is prepared first.
Then the reinforcement is completely assembled on top of the formwork and is later lowered into
its final position inside the forms. If there a joint of two crossing beam and column at the ground
level. We must make sure that the reinforcement clear each other and adequate space must
remain proper consolidate of concrete. Then fix the wooden formwork for the concrete beam and
pour the concrete. After that dry it up and remove the formwork.

Block B8 Beam picture.