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05

SHPP/GTZ

NOTICE

The earlier version of these hydropower Design Aids had been prepared to provide a basis for microhydropower consultants to undertake calculations and prepare drawings as per the requirements of

Alternative Energy promotion Centre (AEPC) of the Government of Nepal. The tools in this version

(version 2006.05) were amended to fulfill the minimum requirements of standard micro and mini

hydropower project feasibility studies. It is expected that the use of these Design Aids will result in a

standard methodology for calculating and presenting MHP designs.

This manual and any examples contained herein are provided as is and are subject to change without

notice. Small Hydropower Promotion Project (SHPP/GTZ) shall not be liable for any errors or for

incidental or consequential damages in connection with the furnishing, performance, or use of this manual

or the examples herein.

Small Hydropower Promotion Project (SHPP/GTZ). All rights reserved.

All rights are reserved to the programs and drawings that are included in the MHP Design Aids.

Reproduction, adaptation or translation of those programs and drawings without prior written permission of

SHPP/GTZ is also prohibited.

Micro-hydropower Design Aids (v 2006.05) is a shareware and can also be downloaded from

www.entec.com.np . Permission is granted to any individual or institution to use, copy, or redistribute the

MHP Design Aids so long as it is not sold for profit. Reproduction, adaptation or translation of those

programs and drawings without prior written permission of SHPP/GTZ is prohibited.

Published by:

Small Hydropower Promotion Project (SHPP/GTZ)

Pulchowk, Lalitpur, Nepal

PO Box 1457, Kathmandu, Nepal

Tel: 977 1 5009067/8/9

Fax: 977 1 5521425

Web: http://www.entec.com.np

Email: shp@gtz.org.np

Author:

Engineering Advisor

SHPP/GTZ

Printed by:

Hisi Offset Printing Press,

Jamal, Kathmandu, Nepal

This Edition:

May 2006

First Edition

1000 copies

Price:

: NRs. 300 (for Nepal and SAARC countries)

: US$ 15 (for other countries)

Page: ii

SHPP/GTZ

PREFACE

This set of hydropower design tools is an updated version of Micro-hydropower Design Aids which was

prepared by Small Hydropower Promotion Project (SHPP/GTZ) during its collaboration with Alternative

Energy Promotion Centre (AEPC/ESAP) from 2002 to 2004. It is a complete set of tools consisting of

typical AutoCad drawings, typical Microsoft Excel spreadsheets and a users manual. An electronic

version of earlier tools was officially distributed by AEPC/ESAP for using up to feasibility study levels of its

subsidized micro-hydropower schemes up to 100kW.

German Development Cooperation (GTZ) has been cooperating with the Kingdom of Nepal for more than

four decades. During this period its bilateral Technical Cooperation covered a broad range of sectors

including agriculture, livestock, rural development, forestry, energy, credit, industry, vocational training,

urban development, education and health. Small Hydropower Promotion Project was established in 1999

as its bilateral Technical Cooperation on energy sector. Since then this project has been providing

technical and logistic services to small hydropower stakeholders within Nepal through Entec AG of

Switzerland as an implementing consultant of this project.

Since its establishment in 1999, SHPP/GTZ has been providing its services to hydropower stakeholders.

Although its main mandate is to provide technical and logistic supports to small hydropower projects in

Nepal within the range of 100kW to 10MW, SHPP/GTZ has also been backstopping hydropower project

below 100kW. The overwhelming positive feedbacks from micro and small hydropower stakeholders on

these tools and continuous update and distribution of these tools are the examples of its concern on the

holistic approach of sectorial development of hydropower in Nepal. This version of the design aids

includes three additional spreadsheets and enhanced utilities especially useful for mini hydropower project

component designs. Since these tools were verified with real project studies, I personally found them very

useful for the stated design works.

Irrespective of the sizes and locations, all hydropower schemes have a common feature using potential

energy of water for generating electricity. Therefore, use of all the tools except the spreadsheet on

hydrology can also be used for micro and mini hydropower projects outside Nepal. Moreover, some

spreadsheets and drawings can also be small and even large hydropower project designs. These tools

have also been used in some small hydropower projects in Vietnam and micro hydropower projects in

Afghanistan.

I would like to thank Entec AG, Switzerland and German Development Cooperation, Nepal for their

support to make this publication happen. My special thank goes to Mr. Pushpa Chitrakar, Engineering

Advisor of SHPP/GTZ, for his devotion of making such a useful complete set of utility package for micro

and mini hydropower project designs. I would also like to extend my sincere thanks to AEPC/ESAP for

their contributions to the development of these Design Aids. The contribution of all SHPP/GTZ team

members for their continuous support on the development of these design aids is highly appreciated.

I do hope that this Micro-hydropower Design Aids would fill the gap that has been felt by all the micro and

mini hydropower stakeholders and will be able to contribute to the hydropower sector.

Sridhar Devkota

Project Manager

SHPP/GTZ

Page: iii

SHPP/GTZ

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

Thanks for using the Micro-hydropower Design Aids (version 2006.05). Micro-hydropower

Design Aids is a complete set of tools consisting of typical AutoCad drawings, typical Microsoft

Excel spreadsheets (a workbook) and a users manual (this manual) recommended for use in the

feasibility study of micro and mini hydropower schemes. Although these tools were mainly

prepared based on the prudent practices of Nepali micro and mini hydropower scheme designs,

it is expected that the use of these Design Aids helps enhancing the overall quality of hydropower

sector within Nepal and abroad. All spreadsheets except Hydrology can also be used for mini

and small hydropower projects outside Nepal. However, the title of these tools in this version is

not changed.

Why I Prepared the Design Aids

I approached this project with one goal in mind. To write a one-step Micro-hydropower Design

Aids that would appeal to all Nepali micro-hydropower stakeholders. That is a fairly ambitious

goal. But based on the feedback I received from all the stakeholders, I think I have been

successful. In addition to updating the existing tools for use in mini, micro and small hydropower

projects, spreadsheets for calculating anchor block calculation and design, machine foundation

design, loan payback cash flow, etc, are added in this version. These additional tools are

especially useful for mini and small hydropower projects. Interactive diagrams to most of the

spreadsheets are added in this version.

Microsoft Excel is the present market leader, by a long shot, and it is truly the best spreadsheet

available. Excel lets you do things with formulas and macros (Visual Basic for Application) that

are impossible with other spreadsheets. Similarly, Autodesk AutoCad has been the best and

suitable tool for creating digital drawings. Since most of the hydropower stakeholders are familiar

with these application software, I have prepared these tools on these application software

platforms.

Although the above mentioned software are popular amongst all the micro-hydropower

stakeholders, it is a safe bet that only about five percent of Excel and AutoCad users in Nepali

hydropower sector really understand how to get the most out of these software. With the help of

these Design Aids, I attempt to illustrate the fascinating features of these software (especially

Excel) and nudge you into that elite group.

I have noticed that there are very few complete technical tools and books related to micro and

small hydropower design available in the market. A single set of tools for all the calculations is

not yet available. Moreover, the outcome of most of these tools are not adequately tested and

verified. Most of the good software have none or only poorly illustrated manuals. The combined

outcome may produce poor quality feasibility studies which lead to improper implementation

decision. To overcome these dangers, I have prepared the Design Aids along with this manual.

Electronic version of the Design Aids (an Excel workbook), 15 AutoCad drawings and this

manual in Acrobat PDF format are presented on the attached CD ROM.

This set of Design Aids (v 2006.05) is a shareware. It would not have been possible for me to

write this Design Aids package without the encouragement from German Development

Cooperation, Nepal; Entec AG, Switzerland and of course, Mr. Sridhar Devkota, the Project

Manager, Small Hydropower Promotion Project. I would also like to thank my colleague Mr.

Girish Kharel for his tireless assistance and valued suggestions on composition and presentation.

Page: iv

SHPP/GTZ

The Design Aids are prepared for practicing technical designers who have basic knowledge of

hydropower, technical calculation skills and who are familiar with Excel and AutoCad. I attempt

to elaborate these Design Aids in such a way that the users will learn to use these Design Aids

quite comfortably. The calculations in the spreadsheets are intended to mimic manual

calculations as far as possible. Stepwise calculations are also presented in this manual.

What You Should Have

To make the best use of the Design Aids, you need a copy of Microsoft Excel (XP or later),

Autodesk AutoCad (2000 or later) and Adobe Acrobat Reader (5.0 or later). The latest version of

a free copy of Adobe Acrobat Reader can be downloaded from www.adobe.com. A downloaded

copy of Adobe Acrobat Reader is included in the bundled CD.

The minimum system requirements are:

Operating system

: Windows 98/2000/NT/XP

CPU

: 486/333MHz

RAM

: 128MB

Display

CD ROM

HD

: 10 MB (approximately)

There are many ways to organize these Design Aids materials, but I settled on a scheme that

divides them into three main parts.

Part I A: Micro-hydropower Drawings

The section of this part consists of fifteen typical drawings useful for project elements from intake

to transmission line. Since they are only typical drawings, additions of drawings and the level of

details may be amended to fulfill specific needs of a particular project. Special efforts were made

to maintain the level of consistency, compatibility and the extent of information in the drawings. It

is expected that the presented feasibility drawings by consultants are complete and appropriate

for micro hydropower plants and all the concerned stakeholders should be able to understand

and implement the presented content.

Part I B: Mini/Small-hydropower Drawings

Part I B consists of fifteen selected typical drawings of an actual feasibility study of a 1500kW

Lipin Small Hydropower Project, Sindhupalchowk District, Central Nepal. I used most of the

spreadsheets presented in the Design Aids for designing and detailing project elements of this

project. Hard copies and soft copies in Acrobat PDF format are presented in this version of

Design Aids. The difference between the levels of details of these drawings prepared for a

1500kW project and micro-hydropower projects up to 100kW are quite noticeable. Therefore, it

is obvious that higher levels of details with the help of more drawings are expected for larger

small hydropower projects.

Part II: Spreadsheets

This part consists of twenty-five typical spreadsheets covering all calculations recommended by

AEPC guidelines for subsidy approval of micro-hydropower schemes, Practical Action Nepal

(formerly ITDG, Nepal) guidelines and requirement recommended by small hydropower

designers. An earlier version the Design Aids prepared especially for micro-hydropower

Page: v

SHPP/GTZ

schemes had thirteen typical spreadsheets. Some additional spreadsheets have been presented

to cater mini and small hydropower design needs. These spreadsheets provide users to

estimate hydrological parameters; design civil, mechanical and electrical components and

analyze financial robustness of the perspective micro and mini hydropower schemes in Nepal.

Part III: Users Manual

This manual (also in Adobe Acrobat PDF format) illustrates aspects of using the presented

drawings and spreadsheets; and stepwise calculations covering all technical and non technical

(costing and financial) components of hydropower schemes.

Download and Reach Out

Electronic files included on the attached CD can also be downloaded from www.entec.com.np.

Updates will also be posted on this site. Preparation of the Design Aids is a continuous process.

I am always interested in getting feedback on these Design Aids. Therefore, valuable

suggestions and feedbacks are expected from all the stakeholders/users so that the overall

quality of the hydropower sector is enhanced. Any suggestion and feedback can directly be sent

to my email pushpa.chitrakar@gtz.org.np. Sharing of hydropower related information regarding

advanced options beyond this design aids is also expected.

Pushpa Chitrakar

Engineering Advisor

SHPP/GTZ

Page: vi

SHPP/GTZ

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Page No.

NOTICE

II

PREFACE

III

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

IV

TABLE OF CONTENTS

VII

1.

INTRODUCTION

1.1

GENERAL

1.2

1.3

1.4

1.5

1.6

1.6.1 Flow chart notations

1.6.2 Iterative Processes

1.6.3 Macro Security

1.6.4 Individual vs. linked spreadsheets

1.6.5 User specific inputs

1.6.6 Interpolated computations

1.6.7 Errors

1.6.8 Cell notes

1.6.9 Cell Text Conventions

1.6.10 Types of inputs

1.6.11 Pull Down menus and data validation

1.6.12 Design Aids Menus and Toolbars

1.6.13 Interactive Diagrams

5

5

6

6

7

7

7

7

7

8

8

9

10

11

1.7

INSTALLATION DIRECTORY

11

DISCHARGE MEASUREMENT

12

2.1

GENERAL

12

2.2

12

2.3

CALCULATION AT SITE

13

HYDROLOGY

15

3.1

GENERAL

15

3.2

HYDROLOGICAL DATA

15

3.3

16

3.4

18

3.5

GENERAL RECOMMENDATIONS

19

Page: vii

3.6

SHPP/GTZ

20

HEADWORKS

23

4.1

23

4.2

GENERAL RECOMMENDATIONS

4.2.1 Weir

4.2.2 Intake

4.2.3 Intake Trashrack

24

24

24

24

4.3

4.2.4 Side Intake calculations

4.2.5 Drop Intake calculations

24

26

29

HEADRACE/TAILRACE

32

5.1

GENERAL

32

5.2

GENERAL RECOMMENDATIONS

5.2.1 Canal

5.2.2 Pipe

32

32

32

5.3

5.3.1 Canal

5.3.2 Canal

5.3.3 Pipe

33

33

33

36

SETTLING BASINS

39

6.1

39

6.2

40

6.3

GENERAL RECOMMENDATIONS

6.3.1 Gravel Trap

6.3.2 Settling Basin

6.3.3 Forebay

40

40

41

41

6.4

6.4.1 Features of the spreadsheet

6.4.2 Vertical flushing pipe

6.4.3 Spillway at intake

6.4.4 Gate

42

42

43

43

43

47

7.1

GENERAL

47

7.2

GENERAL RECOMMENDATIONS

47

7.3

7.3.1 Program Briefing

7.3.2 Typical example of a penstock pipe

47

47

48

7.4

7.4.1 Program example

51

51

7.5

7.5.1 Program example

55

55

TURBINE SELECTION

59

Page: viii

10

11

12

13

14

SHPP/GTZ

8.1

GENERAL

59

8.2

GENERAL RECOMMENDATIONS

59

8.3

60

61

9.1

GENERAL

61

9.2

9.2.1 Single Phase versus Three Phase System

9.2.2 Induction versus Synchronous Generators

61

61

61

9.3

GENERAL RECOMMENDATIONS

9.3.1 Sizing and RPM of a Synchronous Generator:

9.3.2 Sizing and RPM of an Induction Generator:

62

62

63

9.4

9.4.1 Program Briefing

9.4.2 Typical example of a 3-phase 60kW synchronous generator

9.4.3 Typical example of a single phase 20kW induction generator

63

63

64

66

MACHINE FOUNDATION

68

10.1

68

10.2

EXAMPLE

68

72

11.1

72

11.2

GENERAL RECOMMENDATIONS

72

11.3

11.3.1 Program Briefing

72

72

77

12.1

GENERAL

77

12.2

77

12.3

12.3.1 Program Briefing

77

77

80

13.1

80

13.2

80

13.3

13.3.1 Program Briefing

13.3.2 Typical example of costing and financial analyses

80

80

81

UTILITIES

83

14.1

83

83

83

84

INTRODUCTION

14.1.1 Uniform depth of a rectangular or trapezoidal canal

14.1.2 Payment of loan for different periods (monthly, quarterly and yearly)

14.1.3 Power calculations

Page: ix

SHPP/GTZ

14.1.5 Voltage drops of transmission line.

14.1.6 Pipe friction factor.

15

85

85

86

REFERENCES

87

DRAWINGS

XVII

LIST OF FIGURES

Figure 1.1: A typical Micro Hydro Settling Basin Drawing .................................................................4

Figure 1.2: A typical Small Hydro Settling Basin Drawing .................................................................4

Figure 1.3: Iterative process .................................................................................................................6

Figure 1.4: Activation of iteration (Tools => Option =>Calculations..................................................6

Figure 1.5: Enabling macros and macro security ...............................................................................6

Figure 1.6: Cell formula incorporated in a cell note............................................................................7

Figure 1.7: A cell note presenting typical values of Mannings n for different surfaces ..................8

Figure 1.8: Colour coding of cell texts.................................................................................................8

Figure 1.9: Different categories of inputs. ...........................................................................................9

Figure 1.10: Different categories of inputs. .........................................................................................9

Figure 1.11: Design Aids Menu and Toolbar .....................................................................................10

Figure 1.12: Typical interactive diagram of Side Intake....................................................................11

Figure 2.1: Discharge calculations by salt dilution method .............................................................14

Figure 3.1: Hydrology..........................................................................................................................15

Figure 3.2: Hydrological Data and MHP .............................................................................................15

Figure 3.3: MIP Regions ......................................................................................................................16

Figure 3.4: MIP model .........................................................................................................................17

Figure 3.5: Need of interpolation for calculating mean monthly coefficient ...................................17

Figure 3.6: Effect of interpolation on mean monthly flows ..............................................................18

Figure 3.7: Hydest Model ....................................................................................................................19

Figure 3.8: Flow chart of Hydrology spreadsheet .............................................................................20

Figure 3.9: Typical example of a hydrological parameters calculation spreadsheet Hydrology22

Figure 4.1: Trashrack parameters ......................................................................................................25

Figure 4.2: Flow chart for trashrack calculations..............................................................................25

Figure 4.3: Side intake parameters ....................................................................................................26

Figure 4.4: Flow chart for side intake calculations ...........................................................................27

Figure 4.5: An example of side intake calculations ..........................................................................28

Figure 4.6: Parameters and flow chart of drop intake design ..........................................................29

Figure 4.7: An example of drop intake...............................................................................................31

Figure 5.1: Flow chart for canal design .............................................................................................34

Figure 5.2: An example of canal design.............................................................................................35

Figure 5.3: Illustrated canal type and their dimensions....................................................................36

Figure 5.4: Flow chart for pipe design ...............................................................................................37

Figure 5.5: An example of headrace pipe design..............................................................................38

Figure 6.1: Typical section of a settling basin...................................................................................39

Figure 6.2: An ideal setting basin.......................................................................................................40

Figure 6.3: Flushing pipe details ........................................................................................................43

Figure 6.4: Typical example of a settling basin (Settling basin, spilling and flushing). .................45

Figure 6.5: Typical example of a settling basin (Gate and rating curve). ........................................46

Figure 6.6: Typical example of a settling basin (forebay and dimensioning)..................................46

Figure 7.1: Flow diagram of penstock design ...................................................................................48

Figure 7.2: Input required for penstock and power calculations .....................................................49

Figure 7.3: Output of penstock and power calculation spreadsheet. ..............................................50

Page: x

SHPP/GTZ

Figure 7.5: Anchor Block Considered................................................................................................55

Figure 7.6: Anchor Block force diagram............................................................................................57

Figure 7.7: Anchor Block force diagram............................................................................................58

Figure 8.1: Pelton and Crossflow Turbines .......................................................................................59

Figure 8.2: A Typical turbine example. ..............................................................................................60

Figure 9.1: Electrical components of a 20kW 3-phase synchronous generator. ............................65

Figure 9.2: Electrical components of a 20kW 1-phase induction generator....................................67

Figure 10.1: Layout of MachineFoundation Spreadsheet.................................................................71

Figure 11.1: Flow chart of transmission and distribution line computation. ..................................73

Figure 11.2: Transmission line and load used for the example. ......................................................73

Figure 11.3: Typical example of a low voltage transmission line. ...................................................76

Figure 12.1: Flow chart of the load and benefits calculation spreadsheet......................................77

Figure 12.2: Load duration chart ........................................................................................................78

Figure 12.3: An example of load and benefits calculation................................................................79

Figure 13.1: Flow chart for Project costing and financial analyses. ................................................81

Figure 13.2: A typical example of project costing and financial analyses. .....................................82

Figure 14.1: A typical example of uniform depth calculation of a trapezoidal section...................83

Figure 14.2: A typical example EMI calculation.................................................................................84

Figure 14.3: Generated Schedule of EMI calculation ........................................................................84

Figure 14.4: A typical example of power calculation ........................................................................84

Figure 14.5: A typical example of spillway sizing .............................................................................85

Figure 14.6: A typical example of transmission line calculation......................................................85

Figure 14.7: A typical example of pipe friction calculation ..............................................................86

LIST OF TABLES

Table 1.1: Summary of Micro Hydropower Drawings ........................................................................3

Table 1.2: Summary of Small Hydropower Drawings ........................................................................3

Table 1.3: Summary of Spreadsheets ..................................................................................................5

Table 2.1: Input parameters for Salt Dilution Method .......................................................................12

Table 2.2: First set conductivity reading for Salt Dilution Method (Example).................................12

Table 2.3: Data Input (partial) .............................................................................................................13

Table 3.1: MIP regional monthly coefficients ....................................................................................16

Table 3.2: Standard normal variants for floods.................................................................................19

Table 4.1: Drop intake and upstream flow .........................................................................................29

Table 6.1: Settling diameter, trap efficiency and gross head ...........................................................41

Table 7.1: Summary of penstock thickness and corresponding maximum permissible static head

.......................................................................................................................................................50

Table 7.2: Summary of forces.............................................................................................................53

Table 8.1: Turbine specifications .......................................................................................................59

Table 8.2: Turbine type vs. ns .............................................................................................................59

Table 9.1: Selection of Generator Type.............................................................................................62

Table 9.2: Generator rating factors ....................................................................................................62

Table 11.1: ASCR specifications ........................................................................................................72

Table 11.2: Rated current and voltage drop calculation ...................................................................72

Table 13.1: Per kilowatt subsidy and cost ceiling as per AEPC.......................................................80

Page: xi

SHPP/GTZ

Drawing Name

01 General Layout

02A Side Intake Plan

02B Side Intake Sections

03 Drop Intake Plan

04 Headrace

05A Gravel Trap

05B Settling Basin

06 Headrace Canal

07 Forebay

08 Penstock Alignment

09 Anchor & Saddle Blocks

10 Powerhouse

11 Machine foundation

12 Transmission

13 Single line diagram

Page

.................................... D-ii

.................................... D-iii

.................................... D-iv

.................................... D-v

.................................... D-vi

....................................... D-vii

..................................... D-viii

.................................... D-ix

.................................... D-x

.................................... D-xi

........................................ D-xii

........................................ D-xiii

........................................ D-xiv

........................................ D-xv

........................................ D-xvi

Drawing no

7.D.np.5133/01/

10A01

10A02

10A03

20A01

20A02

20A03

20A04

20A05

30A01

40A10

40A11

40A12

50A02

60A04

70A01

Page

Title / Remarks

Project Location, District Map & Catchment Area

Project Layout, sheet 1 of 2, Plan

Project Layout, sheet 2 of 2, Profiles

Weir, Intake and Gravel Trap, sheet 1 of 3, plan and sections

Weir, Intake and Gravel Trap, sheet 2 of 3, plan and sections

Weir, Intake and Gravel Trap, sheet 3 of 3, plan and sections

Settling Basin, sheet 1 of 2, plan and sections

Settling Basin, sheet 2 of 2, plan and sections

Plan and Profile and Typical Sections/Similar for penstock alignment

Anchor Blocks, sheet 1 of 2

Anchor Blocks, sheet 2 of 2

Saddle Support

Powerhouse Plan and Sections

Geological Mapping, sheet 4 of 4

Single line diagram

Page: xii

D-xviii

D-xix

D-xx

D-xxi

D-xxii

D-xxiii

D-xxiv

D-xxv

D-xxvi

D-xxvii

D-xxviii

D-xxix

D-xxx

D-xxxi

D-xxxii

1.

SHPP/GTZ

INTRODUCTION

1.1 GENERAL

This set of Micro-hydropower1 Design Aids is a complete set of feasibility level hydropower design

tools consisting of typical AutoCad drawings, typical Microsoft Excel spreadsheets and a users

manual recommended for micro and mini hydropower schemes. An earlier digital version of the set

was published as a part the publication of Alternative Energy promotion Centre (AEPC) of The

Government of Nepal2 (ISBN 99933-705-5-X) and has officially been recommended for its

subsidized micro-hydropower schemes in Nepal up to 100kW.

The micro-hydropower Design Aids were prepared to provide a basis for consultants to undertake

calculations and prepare drawings as per the requirements set aside by the procedural guidelines of

AEPC-the Government of Nepal. Since most of the stakeholders are familiar with Autodesk AutoCad

(2000 or later) and Microsoft Excel (XP or later) application software, the Design Aids were prepared

based on these software to make them simple and user friendly. During the preparation of these

Design Aids, special efforts were made so that the skills and knowledge of practicing stakeholders

such as consultants, manufacturers and inspectors are further enhanced by this Design Aids.

This design aids are updated version of the previous design aids and suitable for designing mini and

small hydropower schemes. Update, addition and publication of the design aids are the symbols of

Small Hydropower Promotion Project(SHPP/GTZ)3 SHPPs continuous assistance and support to the

Nepali hydropower sector.

The Design Aids consist of a set of fifteen typical drawings, a workbook with twenty-five typical

spreadsheets and a users manual for procedural guidance. This set of design aids also covers all

aspects recommended by AEPC guidelines for its subsidized micro-hydropower schemes. The

Design Aids provide users to estimate hydrological parameters; design civil, mechanical and

electrical components and analyze financial robustness of the prospective micro hydropower

schemes in Nepal. Procedural guidelines, detailed step by step calculations and guidelines for using

the presented spreadsheets are presented in this users manual. A copy of this manual in Acrobat

PDF file format is included in the bundled CD. The Design Aids are distributed in template/read-only

formats so that the original copy is always preserved even when the users modify them.

The Design Aids were originally prepared for micro hydropower schemes up to 100kW. Since there

are many common approaches and features in all hydropower projects, these spreadsheets were

modified to suit mini and small hydropower design requirements as well. Spreadsheets on

Hydrology are intended for Nepali micro hydropower schemes only. Spreadsheets on Cost&Benefits

and FinancialAnalyses are intended to serve micro-hydropower schemes outside Nepal too (refer to

Table 1.2).

Preparation and use of the Design Aids is a continuous process. SHPP/GTZ has been continuously

enhancing the Design Aids and this update (version 2006.05) is the outcome of SHPPs efforts in

hydropower sector development in Nepal. Therefore, valuable suggestions and feedbacks are

expected from all the stakeholders/users so that the overall quality of the micro hydro sector is

enhanced. Any suggestion and feedback can directly be sent to pushpa.chitrakar@gtz.org.np .

In Nepal, hydropower projects up to 100kW are termed as micro hydropower projects. Projects within 100kW to 1000kW are termed as

mini hydropower projects. 1000kW to 10,,000kW are termed as small hydropower projects. Beyond this, they are termed as large

hydropower projects.

2

Alternative Energy Promotion Centre (AEPC) is a Nepal Government organization established to promote alternative sources of energy in

Nepali rural areas. MGSP of AEPC-ESAP is promoting Nepali micro-hydropower schemes up to 100kW.

3

Small Hydropower Promotion Project is a joint project of the Government of Nepal, Department of Energy Development (DoED) and

German Technical Cooperation (GTZ). Since its establishment in 1999, this project has been providing its services to sustainable

development of small hydropower projects in Nepal (100kW to 10MW) leading to public private participation and overall rural development.

It has also been providing technical support and backstopping to Nepali micro-hydropower stakeholders including AEPC. Entec AG of

Switzerland is the implementing consultant of this project.

Page: 1

SHPP/GTZ

The main objective of the Design Aids is to enhance the quality of the micro and mini hydropower

sector in Nepal. Use of these Design Aids helps fulfilling the main objective because:

1. The Design Aids function as a set of Time Saver Kit for precision and speed (e.g.

hydrological calculations based on exact flow measurement date, Q flood off-take, friction

factor of penstock pipes, etc.).

2. They provide relevant references to micro and mini hydro sector stakeholders for using and

upgrading their skills and creativities. Useful information is incorporated within the design

aids so that external references are minimized. Cell notes, tables, figures, etc., in the

spreadsheets and information in this manual are some of the examples that will greatly

reduce external references.

3. The depth of the study and presented reports by different consultants are uniform and their

data presentations are consistent and to the required depth.

4. The Design Aids serve as templates so that there is sufficient room for further creativity and

improvement and tailoring to include specific needs of particular projects.

5. In addition, the Design Aids are handy and user friendly. The user familiar AutoCad 2000

and MS Excel XP software platforms have been used to develop the Design Aids.

The Design Aids were prepared aiming to enhance the overall quality of the micro and mini hydro

sector. Reviews of following sources were carried out during the preparation of the Design Aids:

1. Review and assessment of more than 60 small hydropower projects which have been

assisted by SHPP/GTZ.

2. Review, assessment and appraisal of more than 300 preliminary feasibility, 200 feasibility

and 50 Peltric set feasibility study reports during the SHPP-AEPC collaboration.

3. Review of AEPC micro hydropower guidelines and standards for Peltric and microhydropower schemes. These guidelines and standards were updated by SHPP during SHPPAEPC collaboration.

4. Feedbacks from all stakeholders such as Independent power producers (IPPs), lending

agencies, in-house colleagues, AEPC, Consultants, Manufacturers and Installers.

5. Experience from other micro, small and large hydropower projects within Nepal and abroad.

6. Standard textbooks, guidelines and other standards.

As stated earlier, fifteen micro-hydropower related AutoCad drawings were prepared and

incorporated in the Design Aids. The presented drawings cover from intake to transmission line.

Since they are only typical drawings, additions of drawings and the level of details may be changed

to fulfill specific needs of a particular project. The level of consistency, compatibility and the extent of

information in the drawings are complete and appropriate for micro hydropower plants and all the

concerned stakeholders should be able to understand and implement the presented content. The

main features of the presented drawings are:

1. These drawings are recommended only for micro-hydro schemes.

2. Minimum required details such as plans and adequate cross sections are provided.

3. Recommended values of elements such as the minimum thickness of a stone masonry wall,

the longitudinal slope of a settling basin, etc, are presented in the drawings.

4. Standard line types and symbols are presented.

Page: 2

SHPP/GTZ

5. Basic drawing elements such as a title box with adequate information and controlling

signatories; scale; etc are presented.

6. All drawings with standard layouts for printing.

The dimensions and geometries of the presented drawings should be amended according to the

project details. A set of all the drawings are presented in the appendix. For an example, a typical

drawing of a settling basin is presented in Figure 1.1. The MHP drawings that are presented are

listed in Table 1.1.

A total of fifteen selected typical drawings of an actual feasibility study of a 1500kW Lipin Small

Hydropower Project, Sindhupalchowk District, Central Nepal are presented in appendix. The

difference between the levels of details of micro and small hydropower drawings are quite noticeable.

A typical settling basin drawing is presented in Figure 1.2. All the presented drawings listed in Table

1.2 are recommended for mini and small hydropower projects within 2000kW.

Table 1.1: Summary of Micro Hydropower Drawings

SN

1

01 General Layout

5

6

7

8

04 Headrace

05A Gravel Trap

05B Settling Basin

06 Headrace Canal

07 Forebay

10

11

08 Penstock Alignment

09

Anchor

&

Saddle

Blocks

10 Powerhouse

11 Machine foundation

12 Transmission

13 Single line diagram

12

13

14

15

Remarks

General layout of project components except the transmission and

distribution components.

A general plan of headworks including river training, trashrack, intake,

gravel trap and spillway.

A longitudinal section along water conveyance system from intake to

headrace, two cross sections of weir for temporary and permanent weirs

respectively and a cross section of a spillway.

A general plan, a cross section across a permanent weir and a cross

section of a drop intake.

A longitudinal headrace profile showing different levels along it.

A plan, a longitudinal section and two cross sections.

A plan, a longitudinal section and two cross sections.

Two cross sections for permanent lined canal and one for temporary

unlined canal.

A plan, a longitudinal section, two cross sections and penstock inlet

details.

A longitudinal section of penstock alignment.

Plans and sections of concave and convex anchor blocks and a saddle.

A plan and a section of a typical powerhouse.

A plan and three sections of a typical machine foundation.

A single line diagram if a transmission/distribution system.

A single line diagram showing different electrical components.

SN

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

13

14

15

Drawing no

7.D.np.5133/01/

10A01

10A02

10A03

20A01

20A02

20A03

20A04

20A05

30A01

40A10

40A11

40A12

50A02

60A04

70A01

Title / Remarks

Project Location, District Map & Catchment Area

Project Layout, sheet 1 of 2, Plan

Project Layout, sheet 2 of 2, Profiles

Weir, Intake and Gravel Trap, sheet 1 of 3, plan and sections

Weir, Intake and Gravel Trap, sheet 2 of 3, plan and sections

Weir, Intake and Gravel Trap, sheet 3 of 3, plan and sections

Settling Basin, sheet 1 of 2, plan and sections

Settling Basin, sheet 2 of 2, plan and sections

Plan and Profile and Typical Sections/Similar for penstock alignment

Anchor Blocks, sheet 1 of 2

Anchor Blocks, sheet 2 of 2

Saddle Support

Powerhouse Plan and Sections

Geological Mapping, sheet 4 of 4

Single line diagram

Page: 3

SHPP/GTZ

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SHPP/GTZ

As stated earlier, MS Excel XP has been used to develop the presented twenty-five spreadsheets.

General as well as special features of Excel XP have been utilized while developing the

spreadsheets. There are sixteen main spreadsheets each covering a tool required for covering

computations for an element of hydropower schemes. The Utility spreadsheets presented at the

end of the workbook covers minor calculations such as uniform depth of water in a canal, loan

payback calculations, etc. The list of the presented spreadsheets and their areas of coverage are

presented in Table 1.3.

Table 1.3: Summary of Spreadsheets

SN

1

2

Name

Discharge

Hydrology

Side Intake

4

6

Bottom Intake

Canal

7

5

Pipe

Settling Basin

Penstock

9

10

11

AnchorLoad

AnchorBlock

Turbine

12

Electrical

13

14

Machine

Foundation

Transmission

15

Load Benefit

16

Costing

Financial

Utilities

1724

&

Area of coverage

Chapter 2: Computation of river discharge from Salt dilution method.

Chapter 3: Hydrological parameters calculations based on MIP and

Hydest methods (Regression Methods)

Chapter 4: Design of side intakes including coarse trashrack, flood

discharge and spillways.

Chapter 4: Design of bottom intake including flood discharges.

Chapter 5: Design of user defined and optimum conveyance canals with

multiple profiles and sections.

Chapter 5: Design of mild steel/HDPE/PVC conveyance pipes.

Chapter 6: Design of settling basins, gravel traps and forebays with

spilling and flushing systems with spillways, cones and gates.

Chapter 7: Design of penstocks with fine trashrack, expansion joints and

power calculations.

Chapter 7: Calculations of forces on anchor blocks.

Chapter 7: Design of anchor block.

Chapter 8: Selection of turbines based on specific speed and gearing

ratios.

Chapter 9: Selection of electrical equipment such as different types of

generators, cable and other accessories sizing.

Chapter 10: Design of machine foundation.

Uses

Micro/small

Micro/ small

in Nepal

All sizes

estimation.

Chapter 12: Loads and benefit calculations for the first three years and

after the first three years of operation.

Chapter 13: Costing and financial analyses based on the project cost,

annual costs and benefits.

Chapter 14: Utilities such as uniform depth, loan payment calculations,

etc.

Micro/small

All sizes

All sizes

All sizes

All sizes

All sizes

All sizes (2D)

All sizes (2D)

Micro

Micro

Micro

Micro

Micro

All sizes

Design of anchor blocks and saddles are site and project specific. The presented anchor block

spreadsheets are based on two-dimensional calculations and are useful for penstock aligned in

straight lines without any horizontal deflection.

Background information and main features of the presented spreadsheets are:

1.6.1 Flow chart notations

Standard flow chart notations are used to describe program execution flows. Following notations are

mostly used:

Start and End

Input

Processing formulas and output

Processing and output from other sub routine

Page: 5

SHPP/GTZ

Conditional branching

Flow direction

1.6.2 Iterative Processes

The spreadsheets are designed to

save

tedious

and

long

iterative/repetitive processes required

for calculations.

Manual repetitive

processes are the main source error

generating and they are also time

consuming factors. A typical repetitive

process is presented in Figure 1.3.

Y =f(X): X=f`(Y)

Assume Xo

Is

Yes

End

e=<|Yn+1 Yn|

No

X=X+h

As shown in the figure, the initial assumed value

of X0 is amended until an acceptable error limit

is reached. By default, Excel does not activate

this features and generates Circular Reference

Error. The iterative features in Excel can be

activated by selecting Calculations tab (Tools>Options->Calculations>Tick Iteration (cycles &

h)) and checking the iteration box. The Excel

dialogue box with this features activated is

presented in Figure 1.4.

1.6.3 Macro Security

The spreadsheets contain Visual Basic for

Application (VBA) functions and procedures.

Because of the safety reasons against possible virus

threats, MS Excel disables such VBA functions and

procedures by default. Setting security level to

medium (Tools => Macros => Security => Medium)

and enabling the macros during the opening of the

Design Aids are required for the proper execution of

the Design Aids. Dialogue boxes for setting security

level to medium and enabling the macros are

presented in Figure 1.5.

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SHPP/GTZ

By default, common inputs such as the project name, etc., in all the spreadsheets are linked to the

first design spreadsheet Conductivity. The objective of linking such common inputs is to have

consistent input with minimal user effort. Some of the other processed data such as the design

discharge or flood discharge are also linked by default. However, the users may change these

values for specific calculations i.e., the spreadsheets can also be used as individual spreadsheets for

independent calculations that are not linked to a single project. It is recommended to save an extra

copy of the workbook before manipulating such linked cell so that the saved copy can be used as a

workbook with linked spreadsheets for a single project.

1.6.5 User specific inputs

Some parameters such as canal freeboards, width of a canal, factor of safety for a mild steel

penstock, etc., have their standard optimum values. By default, the standard optimum values are

computed or presented. However, users are allowed to enter non-standard specific values under

special circumstances.

1.6.6 Interpolated computations

Some of the parameters such as frictional coefficient of a bend, coefficient of gate discharge, etc.,

have standard proven values for standard conditions. In case the condition is of a non-standard

type, interpolated values with the help of curve fittings are estimated and used. The users are

cautioned to check the validity of such values whenever they encounter them.

1.6.7 Errors

Mainly three types of errors are known in the presented design aids. One of them is the NAME#

error which is caused by not executing custom functions and procedures because of the macro

security level set to high or very high level. In case such an error occurs, close the workbook,

activate the macro security level to medium and enable the macros when opening the workbook

again. Typical NAME# errors occur for the depth of water during flushing yfi (m) and d50f during

flushing (mm) in the settling basin spreadsheet.

VALUE# error is the other error that is generated by the malfunctioning of circular references. When

such an error occurs, select the error cell, press F2 and press Enter. Q intake Qf cumec in the side

intake spreadsheet is an example of such an error.

A REF# error in transmission line computation occurs due to the deletion of unnecessary rows in a

branch. In such an instance, copy the second cell from the second line of any branch.

1.6.8 Cell notes

Cell

notes

are

comments

attached to cells. They are useful

for providing, information related

to computational procedures.

Adequate cell notes are provided

in the presented spreadsheets so

that external references are

minimized.

Figure 1.6: Cell formula incorporated in a cell note.

For example, a cell note with a cell formula for calculating specific speed of a turbine is presented in

Figure 1.6. Similarly, the cell note in Figure 1.7 presents a basic table for selecting Mannings

coefficient of roughness of a canal. Other information such as mandatory requirements set by AEPC

for its subsidized micro hydropower projects are also presented. For hydropower projects that are

not subsidized by AEPC, these mandatory requirements may be amended.

Page: 7

SHPP/GTZ

Figure 1.7: A cell note presenting typical values of Mannings n for different surfaces

1.6.9 Cell Text Conventions

Three different colour codes are used to distinguish three different cell categories. A typical example

of colour coding of cells is presented in Figure

1.8. The colours and categories of these cells

are:

Blue cells: These cells represent

mandatory input cells. These cells are

project dependant cells and project

related actual inputs are expected in

these cells for correct outputs. The

mandatory input includes the name of

project, head, discharge, etc. Some of

these cells are linked.

Figure 1.8: Colour coding of cell texts

Red cells: These cells are optional input cells. Standard values are presented in these cells.

Values in this type of cells can be amended provided that there are adequate sufficient

grounds to do so. It is worth noting that care should be taken while changing these values.

Typical optional values / inputs are the density of sediment, sediment swelling factor,

temperature of water, etc.

Black cells: The black cells represent information and or output of the computations. For the

sake of protecting accidental and deliberate amendment or change leading to wrong outputs,

these cells are protected from editing.

1.6.10 Types of inputs

According to the nature of inputs, the inputs are further categorized into the following three groups:

Page: 8

SHPP/GTZ

1. User or project specific inputs: The input variables that totally depend on the user and or

the project are categorized as the user or project specific inputs. The programs do not restrict

on or validate the values of such inputs. The name and gross head of the project are some of

the examples that fall on this category. The velocity through orifice (Vo) in the example

presented in Figure 1.9 can have any value hence it is a user specific input.

2. Prescribed Input: Some of the inputs have some standard values for standard conditions.

The programs list using such values and give choices for the user to select. However, the

programs do not restrict on or

validate

such

variables.

These inputs are termed as

prescribed inputs.

For

example in Figure 1.9, with the

help of a pull-down menu,

Mannings coefficients for

different types of surfaces are

listed for selection. This will

greatly reduce the need for

referring external references.

However, any specific values

for specific need can be

entered into this type of cells.

Figure 1.9: Different categories of inputs.

3. Mandatory Input: Some inputs can only have

specific values and the programs need to validate

such values for proper computations. These values

are termed as mandatory inputs. Since Nepal is

divided into seven MIP regions, the value for a MIP

region can have an integer ranging from 1 to 7 only.

In the example presented in Figure 1.10, the MIP

region can have values from 1 to 7. In case the user

enters different values (for example 8 as presented in

the figure), the program generates an error

prompting for the correct input of 1 to 7. The proper

value between 1 and 7 can be entered after clicking

Retry button.

1.6.11 Pull Down menus and data validation

As demonstrated earlier, some input cells are equipped with pull down menus to facilitate the users

to input standard values related to the input cell. Cells related to pull down menus can have any user

specific values than the stated standard values if the data cells are not of mandatory type. In Figure

1.9, the pull down menu for Mannings roughness coefficient (n) in cell B42 is activated. Different

surface materials are listed in the pull down menu, stone masonry surface type is selected and the

corresponding standard value of the Mannings coefficient of roughness of 0.02 is substituted in the

corresponding cell. Since the value in this cell is not restricted, users can enter any values for this

cell.

Some inputs such as the name of the month, MIP hydrological region and dates in Hydrology

spreadsheet can have specific values in their respective cells. Since the outcome of the computation

will be erroneous if the input data does not match with the desired values, the spreadsheets are

designed to reject such an invalid value and flag an error message with suggestions. This example

is demonstrated in Figure 1.10.

Page: 9

SHPP/GTZ

A menu and a toolbar are added to the workbook to facilitate users access all the design tools

including online manual, drawings and feedback to the Design Aids. They are set to active only

when the workbook is active. The toolbar has to be dragged to either on top or side of the screen (as

presented in Figure 1.11) for convenience.

Page: 10

SHPP/GTZ

Most of the design spreadsheets are equipped with

dynamically linked interactive diagrams which change

according to the changes in the design parameters. A

typical example of an interactive diagram for a side

intake is presented in Figure 1.12.

Interactive

diagrams are provided for the following designs:

1. Side Intake.

Wall Geometry

Top =501.91

HFL =501.41

2. Bottom Intake.

3. Settling Basin.

4. Anchor Block.

Crest =500.66

6. Canal (utility)

HFL =500.49

NWL =500.56

NWL =500.45

Orif ic

=0.2x0.32

Canal =500

It is recommended to install the design aids under C:\Design Aids\ directory for the full functioning

of these tools. In case it is installed elsewhere, the external links for online manual and drawings will

not work. Run Install.bat on the root directory of the bundled CD for installing to the default

location. It is also recommended that the working copy of project specific spreadsheet be saved on

C:\Design Aids\Design Aids.

Page: 11

SHPP/GTZ

2 DISCHARGE MEASUREMENT

2.1 GENERAL

Almost all potential hydropower project sites in Nepal are located in remote areas where there is a

complete lack of hydrological information. For micro-hydropower projects in Nepal, MGSP guidelines

requires at least one set of discharge measurement at the proposed intake site to be carried out in

the dry season, between November and May. Regular (such as monthly measurements)

measurements during dry seasons are recommended for mini and small hydropower projects.

Bucket method for flow up to 10 l/s, weir method for a flow from 10 to 30 l/s and for flows larger than

30 l/s salt dilution method (conductivity meter method) are recommended by MGSP. This chapter

deals with spreadsheet calculations based on the salt dilution method.

Since the salt dilution method is quick (generally less than 10minutes per set of measurement),

easier to accomplish and reliable, its accuracy level is relatively higher (less than 7%) than other

methods. This is suitable for smaller fast flowing streams (up to 2000 l/s), easier for carrying the

instrument in remote places. Consultants have been using mainly this method even though AEPC

and other guidelines have proposed different methods for different flows at the river. In this method,

the change of conductivity levels of the stream due to pouring of known quantity of predefined diluted

salt (50-300gm per 100 l/s) are measured with a standardized conductivity meter (with known salt

constant, k) at a regular interval (e.g., 5 seconds). For more information, please refer to MGSP Flow

Verification Guidelines or Micro Hydro Design Manual (A Harvey) or other standard textbooks.

Hydrology spreadsheet presented in the Design Aids can handle up to four sets of data. The input

parameters required for the discharge calculation are presented in Table 2.1. Discharge

measurement carried out in a small river in Eastern Nepal with an average gradient of 10% is

considered as an example. The typical input parameters considered in the example are presented in

the adjacent column. The first set of field readings are presented in Table 2.2. Partial inputs of three

sets of reading are presented in Table 2.3.

Table 2.1: Input parameters for Salt Dilution Method

SN

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

Mai Khola

HANNA Instruments HI 933000

12-Jan-04

Iyoo Nun

o

1.8 at 15 C

o

15 C

5sec

400g, 1580g and 1795g

Presented in Table 2.2

Input parameters

River

Conductivity Meter

Date

Type of Salt

Conductivity Constant (m Siemens)

Water temp

Time Intervals (dt)

Weights of salt for sets 1 to 4 (M in g)

Readings (m & mbaseline) for sets 1 to 4

Table 2.2: First set conductivity reading for Salt Dilution Method (Example)

Water

Conductivity in

mS

5

25

34

32

30

28

26

10

26

35

32

29

28

26

15

27

35

32

29

27

26

20

28

35

31

29

27

26

25

29

35

31

29

27

26

Time(sec)

30

35

30

31

34

34

31

31

29

29

27

27

26

26

40

32

34

31

28

26

25

45

32

33

31

28

26

25

50

55

60

33

34

34

33

33

32

30

30

30

28

28

28

26

26

26

25

Total (mS) = Sm

Total readings (nr)

Sum

361

407

372

344

321

257

2062

70

Page: 12

SHPP/GTZ

Time

Reading 1

Reading 2

Reading 3

Reading 4

25

24

24

26

24

25

10

27

24

25

15

28

24

26

..

..

With these input parameters, discharge at the stream can be calculated by the following procedures:

Stream Flow,

Q = M x k/A

Where,

Q = flow in litre/sec

M = mass of dry salt in mg (i.e.10-6 kg)

k = salt constant in (mS)/(mg/litre)

A = effective area under the graph of conductivity versus time, after excluding

the area due to base conductivity. The units for the area under the graph

is sec x mS. The area is determined as follows:

Area (A) = (Sm nr x mbaseline) * dt

Weighted averages of the individual flows thus calculated are computed. A typical spreadsheet is

presented in Figure 2.1. The average estimated discharge will further be used by Medium Irrigation

Project Method (MIP) to calculate long term average monthly flows. The calculation procedures for

the first set of measurement (Set 1) are:

Area (A)

= (Sm nr x mbaseline) * dt

= (2062-70*25)*5

= 1560 sec x mS

Discharge (Q)

= M x k/A

= 400000*1.8/1560

= 461.54 l/s

= 461 l/s

Calculation of measured flows and plotting of graphs of the corresponding data are always

recommended at site for verification. This saves critical time of revisiting the intake site in case the

measured discharge is not within acceptable limits. It is recommended to carry out a number of

measurements until at least three consistent results (within 10%) are obtained. Procedural steps for

checking flow with the help of a scientific calculator (Casio Fx 78 or equivalent) are presented in this

section. This procedure uses inbuilt standard deviation functions.

INV MODE => starts standard deviation mode (STD)

INV SAC => standard deviation all memory clear

25x, 26x.=> input data (readings)

INV MODE exits STD MODE

1/x* (M)* (K)=Q => 1/x of 1560*400000*1.8=461.54 (Q in l/s)

Note Italic & Underlined letters are individual calculator keys

Page: 13

SHPP/GTZ

Small Hydropower Promotion Project (SHPP)/GTZ

Referances: 6,12,13,15,16

Date

24-May-2006

Revision

2006.05

Project

Developer

Consultant

Designed

Checked

Meter

Salt

Given k

Kankaimai Hydropower P Ltd

EPC Consult

Pushpa Chitrakar

HANNA Instruments (HI 933000)

1.8 Time intervals

Wt. of Salt

Nr of data

Baseline conductivity

Sum of readings

Effective Area

Discharge

11 deg C

5 sec

1.8000

1580 gm

1795 gm

91

106

24

24

3433

3997

6245

7265

455 l/s

445 l/s

Average Discharge

400 gm

70

25

2062

1560

462 l/s

454 l/s

80

70

Conductivity mS

60

Salt =1580gm, A eff =6245

Salt =1795gm, A eff =7265

Salt =0gm, A eff =0

50

40

30

20

10

0

Discharge

Measurement

by Conductiv

Iyoo

Noon,

Meter:

k=1.8,

Upper

Av

e.

Jogmai,

Discharge

Ilam = 453.89

l/s 400

0Instruments

50 (HI 933000),

100

150 ity

200

250

300

350

450

500

550

600

Time(sSalt

ec) =400gm, ASalt

eff =1560

=1580gm, ASalt

effSalt

=6245

=1795gm,

effeff

=7265

=0gmA

,A

=0

Date= 2006/5/24, 11deg C, HANNA Instruments (HI 933000), Iyoo Noon, k=1.8, Ave. Discharge = 453.89 l/s

Page: 14

SHPP/GTZ

3 HYDROLOGY

3.1 GENERAL

Hydrology is the science that deals with space-time characteristics of the quantity and quality of the

waters of the earth. It is the intricate relationship of water, earth and atmosphere.

Tools developed for estimating hydrological parameters for un-gauged catchment areas are mainly

based on regional correlations. The outputs of these tools are quite comparable to the actual

hydrological parameters for rivers having bigger catchment areas (100km2 or more).

Almost all potential micro and mini hydropower scheme

sites in Nepal have relatively small catchment areas and are

located in remote areas where there is a complete lack

small of hydrological information. It is recommended that at

least one set of actual measurement in dry season

(November-May) for estimating reasonably reliable long

term mean monthly flows. Long term mean monthly flows

are estimated by the use of a regional regression methods

called Medium Irrigation Project (MIP) method developed by

M. Mac Donald in 1990. For hydropower schemes having a

design discharge more than 100 l/s, flood hazards are

generally critical and flood flows should be calculated. Long

term mean monthly flows based on MIP method and flood

flows based on methodologies for estimating hydrologic

characteristics of engaged locations in Nepal, WECS/DHM

1990 Study (Hydest) are incorporated in Hydrology

spreadsheet. Brief introduction of these two methods are

presented in the subsequent sub-sections. It is worth noting

that MIP and HYDEST are only applicable for Nepal.

Atmosphere

Atmosphere

Hydrology

Water

Water

Earth

Earth

As presented in Figure 3.2, the hydrological data constitute of stream flow records, precipitation and

climatological data, topographical maps, groundwater data, evaporation and transpiration data, soil

maps and geologic maps. Large projects may need all the hydrological data. However, only the first

three data are sufficient for the estimation of MIP monthly flows and Hydest floods in micro and mini

hydropower projects.

Streamflow

Streamflow Records

Records

Precipitation

Precipitation and

and Climatological

Climatological Data

Data

Topographic

Topographic Maps

Maps

Groundwater

Groundwater Data

Data

Evaporation

Evaporation and

and Transpiration

Transpiration Data

Data

MHP

MHP

Hydrological

Hydrological Data

Data

Soil

Soil Maps

Maps

Geologic

Geologic Maps

Maps

Hydrological

Hydrological Data

Data

Figure 3.2: Hydrological Data and MHP

Page: 15

SHPP/GTZ

As stated earlier, this method is developed by M. Mac Donald in 1990. According to this method,

Nepal is divided into 7 regions. Based on wading measurements by the Department of Hydrology

and Meteorology, Government of Nepal, non-dimensional regional hydrographs were developed for

each region. The month of April was used for non-dimensionalizing. Seven sets of average monthly

coefficients for the seven regions for each month were prepared.

The seven regions are graphically shown in Figure 3.3 and the corresponding seven sets of mean

monthly coefficients are presented in Table 3.1. It is worth noting that these monthly coefficients

have to be interpolated to get the actual monthly coefficients if the flow measurement is not on the

15th of the measured month.

Table 3.1: MIP regional monthly coefficients

Month

January

February

March

April

May

June

July

August

September

October

November

December

1

2.40

1.80

1.30

1.00

2.60

6.00

14.50

25.00

16.50

8.00

4.10

3.10

2

2.24

1.70

1.33

1.00

1.21

7.27

18.18

27.27

20.91

9.09

3.94

3.03

3

2.71

1.88

1.38

1.00

1.88

3.13

13.54

25.00

20.83

10.42

5.00

3.75

Regions

4

2.59

1.88

1.38

1.00

2.19

3.75

6.89

27.27

20.91

6.89

5.00

3.44

5

2.42

1.82

1.36

1.00

0.91

2.73

11.21

13.94

10.00

6.52

4.55

3.33

6

2.03

1.62

1.27

1.00

2.57

6.08

24.32

33.78

27.03

6.08

3.38

2.57

7

3.30

2.20

1.40

1.00

3.50

6.00

14.00

35.00

24.00

12.00

7.50

5.00

Figure 3.4 represents a flow chart of the MIP model for calculating mean monthly flows based on a

set of low flow measurement. As shown in the figure, this model takes low flow measurement, its

date and MIP region number as inputs and processes them for estimating mean monthly flows for

that point on the catchment area. As stated earlier, the actual measurement date plays an important

role in computing more realistic mean monthly flows. This critical factor is often ignored by microhydropower Consultants resulting in highly unlikely flow estimation.

Page: 16

SHPP/GTZ

INPUT

INPUT

Low

Low flow

flow measurement

measurement

OUTPUT

OUTPUT

MIP

MIP

Measurement

Measurement date

date

MIP

MIP region

region number

number

Mean

Mean monthly

monthly flows

flows

These mean monthly flows are calculated as:

Mean Coeff. for this month by interpolation if the date is not on 15th

April coeff = 1/coeff this month (interpolated)

April flow = April coeff * Q

Monthly flows = April flow * coeffs (Qi = QApril * Ci)

Q measured =54 l/s

2

1.9

1.8

1.7

1.6

1.5

1.4

1.3

1.2

1.1

1

60, 1.88

45, 1.44

0, 1.38

15, 1.19

30, 1

0

March 15

April 15 Q corr

15

April 1

45.38

Days

If measured on

Q calculated

30

45

April 15

54.00

April 30

37.50

60

May 15

The importance of considering actual date of measurement and the need of calculating actual mean

monthly flows are further explained in Figure 3.5. The measured flow is 54 l/s and the project lies in

region 3. The corrected flows for April are 45.38 l/s, 54 l/s and 37.5l /s corresponding to the

measurement dates as April 1, 15 and 30 respectively. This important factor is incorporated in the

spreadsheet.

The fact that the mean monthly coefficient calculation plays a major role in AEPC acceptance criteria

is illustrated further by the following example.

Measured flow (m3/s):

MIP region (1 -7):

Area of basin below 3000m elevation A3000 (km2):

Turbine discharge (m3/s):

Water losses due to evaporation/flushing (%):

1

3

65

1.173

15%

Page: 17

SHPP/GTZ

Figure 3.6 is the graphical representation of the outcome of the MIP method. Interpolated MIP flows

corresponding to the measurement dates of April 1, 15 and 30 are presented. The design flow

exceeds 11 months and fulfills AEPC criteria if it is measured on April 15th. However, the design flow

exceeds only 10 months and does not meet AEPC criteria if it is measured on either 1st or 30th of

April.

E rro rs G e ne rate d b y u sin g mid mo nthly flow s

30

1 -A pr

25

1 5 -A p r

Discharge (m 3/s)

3 0 -A p r

Q dive rted

20

15

10

0

1

10

11

12

M ONTH

The WECS/DHM (Hydest) Method, which is also known as Methodologies for estimating hydrologic

characteristics of un-gauged locations in Nepal, was developed by WECS/DHM in 1990. Long term

flow records of DHM stations (33 for floods and 44 for low flows) were used to derive various

hydrological parameters such as the monsoon wetness index (June-September precipitation in mm).

The entire country is considered as a single homogenous region. This method generally estimates

reliable results if the basin area is more than 100 km2 or if the project does not lie within Siwalik or

Tarai regions.

Annual, 20-year and 100-year floods based on Hydest method are presented in the spreadsheet. It is

recommended to use instantaneous floods of 20-year return period while designing Nepali micro

hydro intake structures. In case of mini and small hydropower projects, it is recommended that the

headworks structures should be able to bypass 100-year instantaneous flood.

The catchment area below 3000 m contour line is used for the estimation of floods of various return

periods. 3000m elevation is believed to be the upper elevation that is influenced by the monsoon

precipitation. This method has to be used with caution for catchments having significant areas above

snowline. The 2-year and 100-year flood can be calculated using the following equations:

Q2 daily = 0.8154 x (A3000 +1) 0.9527

Q2 inst = 1.8767 x (A3000 +1)0.8783

Q100 daily =4.144 x (A3000 +1)0.8448

Q100 inst = 14.630 x (A3000 +1)0.7343

Page: 18

SHPP/GTZ

Flood peak discharge, QF, for any other return periods can be calculated using:

QF = e

(lnQ

2 + Ss

lnQF

Where, S is the standard normal variant for the chosen return period, from Table 3.2, and

slnQF =

Q100

Q2

ln

2.326

Return period (T) (yrs)

2

5

10

20

50

100

0

0.842

1.282

1.645

2.054

2.326

As shown in Figure 3.7, the Hydest method requires different catchment areas and monsoon

wetness index as inputs to estimate hydrological parameters such as the mean monthly flows,

floods, low flows and flow duration curve.

OUTPUT

INPUT

Total

Total catchment

catchment area

area (MMF

(MMF && FDC)

FDC)

Area

Area below

below 5000m

5000m (LF)

(LF)

Area

Area below 3000m

3000m (FF)

(FF)

*Monsoon

*Monsoon wetness

wetness index

index (MMF

(MMF && FDC)

FDC)

Monsoon

Monsoon wetness

wetness index=(Jun-Sept)

index=(Jun-Sept) mm

mm

Hydest

*Mean monthly

monthly flows

flows

Flood

Flood flows (2-100

(2-100 yrs)

yrs)

Low

Low flows(1,7,30

flows(1,7,30 && monthly)

monthly)

Flow

Flow duration (0-100%)

(0-100%)

** Area

Area =>100km

=>100km22

General recommendations on estimating hydrological parameters for hydropower projects in Nepal

are summarised as:

1. Discharge measurement at the proposed intake site should be between November and May.

2. The recommended discharge measurement methods for different discharges are:

Method

Discharge (l/s)

Bucket collection

<10

Weir

10-30

Salt dilution

>30

3. Since MIP method utilizes actual measured flow data, mean monthly flows should be

computed by using this method. Alternatively, HYDEST method may be used for catchment

area equal to or more than 100 km2.

4. The design flow for AEPC subsidized micro hydropower projects should be available at least

11 months in a year (i.e., the probability of exceedance should be 11 months or more). The

Page: 19

SHPP/GTZ

design flow corresponding to the installed capacity (Qd) should not be more than 85% of the

11-month exceedance flow. Loses and environmental releases should also be considered if

it exceeds 15% of the 11-month exceedance. There is a provision of 10% tolerance on Qd

at the time of commissioning a scheme.

5. The design flow for other projects should be based on the prudent practices of the

stakeholders and project optimization. For example for a small hydropower project with an

installed capacity of more than 1MW, the design flows should not exceed 65% probability of

exceedance. For projects less than or equal to 1MW, the design flows are estimated by

optimizing project installed capacities.

6. Construction of flood wall against annual flood is recommended if the design flow exceeds

100 l/s.

As per the standards and guidelines, the presented spreadsheet is designed to compute MIP mean

monthly flows and exceedance of the design flow, Hydest floods and design discharges for different

components of a hydropower scheme. For simplicity, the program considers 30 days a month for all

the months. The flow chart for the proposed hydrological calculations is presented in Figure 3.8.

Start

Project name, location,

river, Qd, % losses

No

Is

A 3000

Given?

Q measured,

date measured,

MIP region from

the attached map

MIP

Q monthly

Q designed

& MGSP

Q diverted

Q losses

Q release

Q available

Q exceedance

Monthly

Hydrograph Q

Yes

Hydest

Flood flows

A 3000

End

A typical example of the spreadsheet including inputs and outputs are presented in Figure 3.9. The

considered project is 55kW Chhotya Khola Micro-Hydropower Project in Dhading. The information

required for computations such as the MIP regions and the corresponding coefficients are presented

in the spreadsheet. The project lies in MIP region 3. The measured discharge of 80 l/s on March 23

shows that the project is proposed to utilize a small stream. Although the floods are not critical to the

project, they are calculated for sizing floodwall and other structures. The design discharge of 80 l/s

has a probability of exceedance of 10 months only and hence does not qualify AEPC acceptance

criteria. For AEPC to qualify this project, the turbine design discharge should not exceed 73.389 l/s.

The detailed calculations are:

MIP mean flows:

Corrected coefficient and mid month discharges (Kc December) for Region 3:

th

th

Since the measured date of March 23 lies in between March 15 and April 15 ,

K March

= 1.38

K April

= 1.00

Kc March

Q March

Page: 20

SHPP/GTZ

Q April

Q May

Other mean monthly discharges are calculated similar to the discharge calculation for the month of

May.

The 2-year and 100-year floods are:

Q2 daily

Q2 inst

= 1.8767 x (A3000)

Q100 daily

0.7343

0.9527

0.8783

0.8448

= 0.8154 * (1.5+1)

0.9527

0.8783

= 1.8767 x (1.5+1)

0.8448

0.7343

= 14.630 x (1.5+1)

= 1.952 m /s

3

= 4.197 m /s

3

= 8.987 m /s

3

= 28.669 m /s

Peak discharges for other return periods are calculated by using these formulas:

s l nQF =

Q100

Q2

ln

QF = e

(lnQ

2 + Ss

lnQF

2.326

3

Q20 inst

Qturbine

= 85% of the 11 month flow exceedance from the MIP flow if the designed flow is

higher or the design flow.

= 73.389 l/s (since the design flow is higher and has 10 months exceedance only)

Qdiverted

Qlosses

Qrelease

Qrequired at river

A hydrograph including the design flow, exceedance of the proposed design flow and the flow

acceptable for AEPC is presented in Figure 3.9.

Page: 21

SHPP/GTZ

Small Hydropower Promotion Project (SHPP)/GTZ

Referances:2,2,4, 6,12,13,15,16

Date

Revision

Project:

Developer

Consultant

Designed

Checked

EPC Consult

Pushpa Chitrakar

24-May-2006

2006.05

INPUT

River name :

Location :

Measured flow for MIP method l/s:

Month and day of flow measurement:

MIP region (1 -7) :

Area of basin below 3000m elevation A3000 km2 :

Turbine discharge Qd l/s:

Water losses due to evaporation/flushing/seepage % of Qd :

Downstream water release due to environmental reasons % of Q lowest :

Chhyota Khola

Barand, Sertung VDC 2, Dhading

80

March

23

3

1.5

80

5%

10%

OUTPUT

MIP monthly average discharge

Month

@ river

To plant

January

169.55

77.25

February

117.62

77.25

March

86.34

77.25

April

62.57

56.31

May

117.62

77.25

June

195.83

77.25

July

847.13

77.25

August

1564.13

77.25

September

1303.23

77.25

October

651.93

77.25

November

312.83

77.25

Return Period (yrs)

December

Annual av

Q exceedence (month)

Q turbine for 11m

234.62

471.950

2

20

100

Discharges (l/s)

Qturbine (Qd)

Q diverted Qd+Qlosses

Q losses 5% of Qd

Q release 10% of Qlow

Q min required @ river

77.25

75.506

Daily

Instantaneous

1.952

4.197

5.747

16.334

8.987

28.669

Designed As per MGSP

80.000

73.389

84.211

77.252

4.211

3.863

6.257

6.257

90.467

83.508

10

73.821

11

Long TermAverage Annual Hydrograph of Chhyota Khola river, Chhyota Khola MHP

1800

1600

MIPFlows

Q design =80 l/s with 10-month exceedence

1400

Discharge (l/s)

1200

1000

800

600

400

200

0

Jan

Feb

Mar

Apr

May

Jun

Jul

Aug

Sep

Oct

Nov

Dec

Months

Hydrology

Page: 22

SHPP/GTZ

4 HEADWORKS

4.1

Headworks

A headworks consists of all structural components required for safe withdrawal of desired water from

a source river into a canal/conduit. Intake, weir, protection works, etc., are the main structural

components. Indicators of an ideal headworks can be summarized as:

1. Withdrawal of desired flows (i.e., Qdiverted and spilling in case of flood).

2. Sediment bypass of diversion structure (Continued sediment transportation along the river).

3. Debris bypass (Continued debris bypass without any accumulation).

4. Hazard flood bypass with minimum detrimental effects.

5. Sediment control at intake by blocking/reducing sediment intake into the system.

6. Settling basin control (settling and flushing of finer sediments entered into the system through

intakes or open canals).

Intake

An intake can be defined as a structure that diverts water from river or other water course to a

conveyance system downstream of the intake. Side intake and bottom intake are the common types

of river intakes that are used in Nepali hydropower schemes.

Conveyance Intake is an intake which supplies water to a conveyance other than the pressure

conduit to the turbine. Power Intake is an intake which supplies water to the pressure conduit to the

turbine.

Side Intake

A structure built along a river bank and in front of a canal / conduit end for diverting the required

water safely is known as a side intake. Side intakes are simple, less expensive, easy to build and

maintain.

Bottom/Drop/Tyrolean/Trench Intake

A structure built across and beneath a river for capturing water from the bed of a river and drops it

directly in to a headrace is known as a bottom intake. They are mainly useful for areas having less

sediment movement, steeper gradient, and surplus flow for continual flushing. Inaccessibility of

trashrack throughout the monsoon season and exposure of the system to all the bed load even

though only a small part of the water is drawn are the common drawbacks of drop intakes.

Weir

A weir is a structure built across a river to raise the river water and store it for diverting a required

flow towards the intake.

Protection Works

Protection works are the river protection and river training works to safeguard the headworks against

floods, debris and sediments.

Trashrack

A trashrack is a structure placed at an intake mouth to prevent floating logs and boulders entering

into headrace. Coarse trashracks and fine trashracks are provided at the river intake and penstock

intake respectively.

Page: 23

4.2

SHPP/GTZ

GENERAL RECOMMENDATIONS

General recommendations and requirements for headworks components such as weirs, intakes and

trashracks are briefly outlines in this section.

4.2.1

Weir

Type: A weir can be either temporary or permanent in nature. A dry stone or gabion or mud

stone masonry can be termed as a temporary weir whereas a cement masonry or concrete

weir can be termed as a permanent weir.

Location: It is recommended that the weir should be 5m to 20m d/s of side intake. This will

assure that water is always available and there is no sediment deposition in front of the

intake. A narrow river width with boulders is preferable for weir location.

Height: The weir should be sufficiently high to create enough submergence and driving head.

Stability: Permanent weir should be stable against sinking, overturning and sliding even

during the designed floods.

4.2.2

Intake

Type: Side intakes are suitable for all types of river categories whereas the drop intake is

recommended for rivers having longitudinal slopes more than 10% with relatively less

sediment and excess flushing discharge. The side intake is generally is of rectangular orifice

type with a minimum submergence of 50mm. The side intake should be at:

o

Alternatively, on the outer side of the bend to minimize sediment problems and

maximise the assured supply of water.

By the side of rock outcrops or large boulders for stability and strength.

Capacity: According to the flushing requirement and tentative losses the intake has to be

oversized to allocate an excess flow of 10% to 20% (or Qdiverted).

A coarse trashrack should be provided to prevent big boulders and floating logs from

entering into the headrace system.

A gate/stop log should be provided to regulate flow (adjust/ close) during operation and

maintenance.

To optimize downstream canal and other structures, a spillway should be provided close to

the intake.

4.2.3

Intake Trashrack

The recommended intake coarse trashrack is made of vertical mild steel strips of 5mm*40mm to

5mm*75mm with a clear spacing not exceeding 75mm. The approach velocity should be less than

1.0m/s. For transportation by porters in remote areas, the weight of a piece of trashrack should not

exceed 60 kg. Placing of trashrack at 3V:1H is considered to be the optimum option considering the

combined effect of racking and hydraulic purposes.

4.3

There are two spreadsheets for designing intake structures, They are sideIntake and

BottomIntake for designing side and bottom intakes respectively. The first part of the side intake

calculates trashrack parameters while the second part of it calculates side intake parameters

including spillways for load rejection and flood discharge off-take. The second spreadsheet

calculates all the design parameters for a drop intake.

Page: 24

SHPP/GTZ

Since most of the program flow chart in this section is self explanatory, only critical points are

explained.

Figures 4.1 to 4.7 present the assumptions, flow charts and typical examples for calculating

trashrack parameters, side intake and drop intake dimensioning.

Start

K = (hf + hb)/(Vo^2/2g)

river, Trashrack coefficient kt

Bar thickness t mm

Clear spacing of bars b mm

Approach velocity Vo m/s

Angle of inclination from hor f deg

Ht of trashrack bot from river bed ht

Flow deviation b deg

Design Discharge Qd cumec

h friction = kt * (t/b)^(4/3) * (Vo^2/2/g) * sin f

h bend = Vo^2 /2/g * sin b

hl= hf + hb

Is

Yes

cleaning

K1=0.3

manual

No

K1

K1=0.8

MHP = 0.55

h submerged = hr ht, hr from intake cal

B = S/(h/sinf)

End

The trashrack coefficients for different cross section of the bars are presented in the pull down menu.

Typical bar thickness, clear spacing and approach velocity are suggested in the respective cell

notes.

According to the flow chart presented in Figure 4.2, the trashrack losses consist of frictional and bend

losses. The frictional losses depend on the geometry of trashrack such as the trashrack coefficient,

thickness and clear spacing of bars, inclination of the trashrack and the approach velocity. The bend

loss depends on the hydraulics of the approaching flow such as the approach velocity and its

deviated direction with respect to the normal of the trashrack surface.

Page: 25

SHPP/GTZ

The trashrack surface area coefficient K1 for automatic raking is 0.8 whereas it is 0.3 for manual

raking suggesting that the raking area for manual operation to recommended surface area is 3.33

times more than the theoretical area. Manual racking is recommended for Nepali micro and mini

hydropower. Since the consequence of temporary reduced trashrack area in micro and mini hydro is

not severe and the trashrack sites are generally accessible to operators all the year, the average of

automatic and manual racking coefficient of 0.55 (i.e., 80% more than the theoretical area) is

recommended for practical and economic reason.

Flood

ht

Typical side intake parameters considered in the spreadsheet are presented in Figure 4.3. The

procedures for designing a side intake parameters are presented in Figure 4.4. An example is

presented in Figure 4.5. The calculation processes for designing a typical side intake are also

presented in the following section.

4.2.4

Trashrack Design:

(4/3)

(4/3)

h friction

= kt * (t/b)

h bend

h total

A surface S

Width B

Normal condition:

Depth @ canal (hc) = h submergence + height of orifice + height of orifice sill from bottom of the canal

= 0.05+0.2+0.2 = 0.45m

2

= (Vo/c) /2/g

Page: 26

Start

Orifice

V coeff c, Vo, n,

d/s submergence hsub,

H from canal bed h bot,

height H

SHPP/GTZ

hc=hsub+H+hbot

dh = (Vo/c)^2 / 2g

hr = hc + dh

hw = hr+0.1

crest height above NW L)

Ls 100% =Qf/C/(2*h overtop)^1.5,

Ls=max(Ls1 =Qf/C/h overtop^1.5,

Ls2 =2*(Qf-Qd)/C/h overtop^1.5)

Ls1=>obstruction d/s=> h ot const

End

River

Crest length L

Qf flood

Spillway above NW L

Cd spillway

Freeboard h fb1

canal width d/s of orifice

Yes

Is

W c=W c

W c provided?

No

W c=2*hc

dhf = hrf -hcf

Qo = A * C * (2*g*dhf)^0.5

hcf = (Qo*n/2^(1/3)/SQRT(1/S))^(3/8)

Vof =c*SQRT(2*g*dhf)

A = Q/V, B = A /H

FB = FB if provided

Or else Min(300, 0.5*hc))

ycf = (Qf^2/L^2/g)^(1/3)

hrf = hw+yc

2

Flood:

2 2

1/3

2 2

1/3

Critical depth at crest (yc) = (Qf /L /g) = (10 /5 /9.81) = 0.742 m

Head at river (hf r)

Water depth at canal during flood is calculated by equating and iterating flow coming from orifice to that

of canal flow. Since this iterative process is tedious and erroneous, most of the micro-hydropower

consultants do not calculate it precisely. This iterative process is introduced in the presented

spreadsheet. In case this cell generates VALUE# error, select the cell, press F2 and press Enter. The

final canal depth is

(hcf)

= 0.490m

Q intake (Qf)

= 0.218 m /s

1.5

1.5

1.5

= 0.218/1.6/(2*0.125)

1.5

= 0.218/1.6/(0.125)

= 1.525 m

= 3.078 m

Care should be taken while designing spillway lengths. Ls for Gfm (d/s Obs & 100% hot -50) is only

applicable when full downstream obstruction for flood off-take is provided with the help of stop logs or

gates. Otherwise, the gradually varying water profile at the spillway has to be considered.

Page: 27

SHPP/GTZ

Spreadsheet developed by Mr. Pushpa Chitrakar, Engineering Advisor, SHPP/GTZ

24-May-2006

2006.05

Referances: 6,12,13,15,16

Date

Revision

Project

Developer

Consultant

Designed

Checked

Kankaimai Hydropower P Ltd

EPC Consult

Pushpa Chitrakar

Wall Geometry

Design

Flood Level

Coarse Trashrack

Min 100 thick & 1000 wide

walkway Rcc slab

Orifice (H*B)

Top =501.91

Normal

1

river level 3

.

Weir Crest

hbot

h r-hc

HFL =501.41

hc

Canal

LS

1:30

Fb

.

H

River bed

h cf

h sub

hr

h rf

Crest =500.66

Compacted earth/200mm

stone soling

HFL =500.49

NWL =500.56

NWL =500.45

Orific

=0.2x0.32

Canal =500

Trashrack calculations

Input

Output

Trashrack coeffieient kt 2.4 2.4

Bar thickness t mm

4.00

Clear spacing of bars b mm

25.00

Approach velocity Vo m/s

0.50

Angle of inclination from horizontal f deg

60.00

Flow deviation b deg

20.00

Design Discharge Qd cumec

0.077

Height of trashrack bottom from river bed ht

0.200

Canal invert level (m)

500.00

Headloss due to bends hb m

Headloss coeff K

Total headloss ht m

Surface area A surface m2

Vertical height h m

Trashrack width B m

0.0023

0.0044

0.5226

0.0067

0.3750

0.3647

0.8906

Input

Orifice

River

Velocity coeff of orifice c 0.8

Crest length L m

5.000

0.8

Velocity through orifice Vo m/s

1.2

Provided Q flood m3/s

10.000

Manning's coeff of roughness 0.02

Q flood m3/s (Q20 for MHP with Qd>100)

16.334

0.02

Downstream submergence depth hsub m

0.050

Used Q flood

10.000

Orifice height H m

0.200 Canal & Spillway

Height of orifice from canal bed h bot m

0.200

Spillway crest height above NWL m

0.050

Provided water depth in the river hr (m)

Spillway discharge coeff 1.6

1.6

Provided canal width (m)

0.500

Provided Freeboard h fb1 m

0.300

Output

Normal Condition

Canal witdth d/s of orifice

1/Slope of canal immediately d/s of orifice

Depth of water in canal hc m

Free board in canal h fb m

Area of orifice A m2

Width of orifice B m

Actual velocity through orifice Vo act m/s

Canal width Wc m

Water level difference dh m

Water depth in the river hr = hc + dh m

Height of weir (hw = hr+0.1) m

Spillway overtopping height h overtop m

Flood

0.500

Critical depth of water at crest yc m

1865

Flood head at river hf r = hw+yc m

0.450

Head difference dhf

0.300

Velocity through orifice Vof m/s

0.064

Q intake Qf cumec

0.321

Depth of water at canal (hc f) m

1.200

0.500 Spillway

0.115

Ls for Qf m (d/s Obs & 100% hot -50)

0.565

Length of spillway Ls1 for Qf m (d/s Obs)

0.665

Length of spillway Ls2 for Qf-Qd m

0.125

Designed spillway length Ls m

Page: 28

0.742

1.406

0.916

3.392

0.218

0.490

1.521

3.078

3.978

3.978

4.2.5

SHPP/GTZ

The example presented in Figure 4.7 follows the procedures presented in Figure 4.6. This example

is taken from a 4500kW Sarbari Small Hydropower Project, Kullu, India. Although the calculation

procedures for the drop intake are relatively straightforward and simple, it has more restrictions and

limitations regarding the stream geometry and operational conditions.

Based on the flow conditions and the slope of rack, flow immediately upstream of the rack may be

either critical or sub-critical. Critical depth at the entrance of the rack has to be considered if the rack

is steeper (more than 15o). For more details, please refer to EWI UNIDO Standard.

The main differences between considering critical flow and normal flow conditions are presented in

the Table 4.1. In the presented spreadsheet, critical depth of upstream flow of the intake is

calculated and presented if normal flow (sub-critical) is considered.

Start

River

River W idth (Br)

Head of u/s water (ho)

U/s water velocity (vo)

River gradient (i) degrees

hof, vof

Trashrack

Aspect ratio (L across river/B along river)

Design Discharge (Q)

Gradient (b) deg, Contraction coeff (m)

Witdth/diameter (t), Clearance (a)

d = t + a, he = ho = vo^2/2g

X = =0.00008*b^2 - 0.0097*b + 0.9992

c =0.6*a/d*(COSb)^1.5

Yc Considered?

Yes

No

h =2/3*c*he

Qo u/s = Br * ho * vo

Qof u/s = Br * hof * vof

End

h = *Yc

Qo u/s = v (9.81 * ho 3 * Br 2 )

Qof u/s = v (9.81 * hof 3 * Br 2 )

L =SQRT(3*Q/(2*c*m*L/B ratio*SQRT(2*9.81*h)))

L' = 120% of L, b = L/B ratio * L, A=L'*b

Qu u/s = Qo u/s Qdesign

h f = 2/3*c*(ho + vo f^2/2g)

Q in f= 2/3*c*m*b*L'*SQRT(2*9.81*h f)

Quf d/s = Qof u/s of intake -Q in f

Table 4.1: Drop intake and upstream flow

Parameters

Normal flow

Velocity head (h)

= 2/3 * c * he

3

Qo u/s of intake (m /s) normal

= Br * Ho * Vo

Qo u/s of intake (m3/s) flood

= Br * Ho f * Vo

= * Yc

= SQRT(9.81*ho 3*Br 2)

= SQRT(9.81*ho f 3*Br 2)

The calculations presented in Figure 4.7 are verified in the following section. In this example the flow

upstream of the intake is considered to be of critical.

Normal condition:

c/c distance of trashrack bars d (mm) = t + a = 60+30 = 90mm

Kappa (c)

(by curve fitting)

= 0.00008*36^2 - 0.0097*36 + 0.9992

= 0.749

= * of Yc = * 0.226

= 0.170 m

= 0.146

Page: 29

SHPP/GTZ

= SQRT(3*Q/(2*c*m*L/B ratio*SQRT(2*9.81*h)))

= SQRT(3*2.7/(2*c*0.85*3.546468*SQRT(2*9.81*.170)))

= 2.249 m

Length (L) m

= 1.819 m

= 7.975m

Area of intake (A) m

= L * b = 2.249 * 7.975

2

= 17.935 m

3

= 2.7 m /s

= Qo u/s Qd = 2.7-2.7

3

= 0 m /s

Qu d/s of intake (m /s)

= 7.975m

Flood:

h flood (hf) m

= 1.906 m

3

3

Qo in (off-take) (m /s)

3

= 325.497 m /s

= 2/3*c*m*b*L *SQRT(2*9.81*h flood)

= 2/3*0.146*0.85*7.975*2.249*SQRT(2*9.81*1.906)

3

= 7.318 m /s (this discharge can be reduced by introducing a throttling pipe

d/s of the intake)

= Qo u/s Qd = 315.497-7.318

3

= 318.178 m /s

Page: 30

SHPP/GTZ

Spreadsheet developed by Mr. Pushpa Chitrakar, Engineering Advisor, SHPP/GTZ

24-May-2006

2006.05

Sarbari SHP

Kullu, Himanchal Pradesh, India

Referances: 6,7,8,12,13

Date

Revision

Project

Developer

Consultant

Designed

Checked

Pushpa Chitrakar

Weir Geometry

HFL =501.91

NWL =500.23

Top =500

Trashrack

Top =498.68

Width =1.82

Input

20

River Width (Br) m =

8

ho flood m =

3.000

Head/Critical Depth of u/s water (ho)m =

0.226

vo flood m/s =

4

Upstream water velocity (vo) m/s =

1.494

Design Discharge (Qd), m3/s =

2.7

River gradient (i) degrees =

9.462

Trashrack witdth/diameter (t) mm =

60

Trashrack gradient (b) deg =

36

Trashrack clearance (a) mm =

30

Contraction coeff (m) =

0.85

Invert level of crest (masl)

500

Aspect ratio (Length across the river/Breadth along the river) = 3.546468

Output

c/c distance of trash rack bars d mm =

Total head (he) m =

kappa (c) =

velocity head (h) m =

Correction factor ( c) =

Length of intake (L) m =

Length (L' ) m =

Intake length across the river (b) m =

Area of intake (A=L' *b) m2 =

90

0.340

0.749

0.170

0.146

2.249

1.819

7.975

17.935

Qu d/s of intake (m3/s) normal =

h d/s normal (m)

h flood u/s=

h d/s flood (m)

Qof u/s of intake = Br * hof * vof (m3/s) =

Q in flood m3/s =

Quf d/s of intake (m3/s) =

Page: 31

2.700

0.000

1.906

1.864

325.497

7.318

318.178

SHPP/GTZ

5 HEADRACE/TAILRACE

5.1

GENERAL

A headrace or a tailrace can be defined as a conveyance system that conveys designed discharge

from one point (e.g. intake) to another (e.g. forebay). Generally canal systems are used in all micro

hydropower schemes whereas pipe systems are used for specific e.g. difficult terrain. A canal can

be unlined (earthen) or lined (stone masonry or concrete). Rectangular and trapezoidal canal cross

sections are mostly used profiles. Pipes used in MHP can be of HDPE or mild steel and it can be

either open or buried.

Mild steel and glass reinforced pipe (GRP) headrace-cum-penstock pipes are getting popularity in

mini and small hydropower schemes in Nepal. Because of the easier sediment handling facility and

better financial parameters, a layout with headrace-cum-penstock pipe has been adopted in many

micro, mini and small hydropower projects in Nepal.

For computing head losses, Mannings equation is used for canal whereas Darcy-Weisbach equation

is used for pipe.

5.2

GENERAL RECOMMENDATIONS

General recommendations and requirements for designing canal and pipe headrace systems are

outlined here.

5.2.1

Canal

a) Capacity: The canal should be able to carry the design flow with adequate freeboard and

escapes to spill excess flow. A canal should generally be designed to carry 110 to 120 % of

the design discharge.

b) Velocity: Self cleaning but non erosive ( 0.3m/s).

c) Unlined canal: In stable ground for Q 30 l/s

d) Lined canal: For higher discharge and unstable ground. Canals with 1:4 stone masonry or

concrete are recommended. Care should be taken to minimize seepage loss and hence

minimize the subsequent landslides.

e) Sufficient spillways and escapes as required.

f)

g) Stability and Safety against rock fall, landslide & storm runoff. A catch drain running along

the conveyance canal is recommended for mini and small hydropower projects.

h) Optimum Canal Geometry: Rectangular or trapezoidal section for lined canal and trapezoidal

section for unlined canal are recommended. Unequal settlement of lined trapezoidal canal

should be prevented.

5.2.2

Pipe

b) Steel/Cast Iron: As pipe bridge at short crossings/landslides. They are also used for low

pressure headrace and headrace-cum-penstock alignments.

c) Pipe inlet with trashracks for a pipe length of more than 50m.

d) Minimum submergence depth of 1.5*v2/2g at upstream end.

e) Provision of air valves and wash outs where necessary.

Page: 32

SHPP/GTZ

5.3

5.3.1

Canal

Fine sand

=0.3-0.4

Sandy loam =0.4-0.6

Clayey loam =0.6-0.8

Clay

=0.8-2.0

Stone masonry =0.8-2.0

Concrete

= 1.0-3.0

b) Sectional profiles considered in the program are:

1) Semicircular (not popular because of the construction difficulty)

2) Rectangular

3) Triangular (not popular because it is not financially attractive)

4) Trapezoidal

c) Two parts of calculations for canals are provided for:

1) Evaluation of the design parameters based on user specified inputs.

2) Optimum canal parameters based on MHP Sourcebook by Allen R Iversin.

d) Two spreadsheets are included in the Design Aids for:

1) Canal calculations: Calculations procedures are presented in Figure 5.1 with the help

of a flow chart and a typical spreadsheet with an illustration is presented in Figure 5.2.

2) Pipe calculations: Pipe calculation flow chart is presented in Figure 5.4. The

calculation procedures are further illustrated in Figure 5.5.

5.3.2

Canal

Calculations for a rectangular stone masonry headrace canal for 185 l/s flow presented in Figure 5.2

(Intake Canal in second column) are briefly described in the following section. This example is taken

from a 750kW Sisne Small Hydropower Project, Palpa, Nepal.

Present Canal:

Area A m

= B+2*H*N

2/3

0.5

= 0.5+2*0.3*0 = 0.5m

2/3

0.5

Velocity V m/s

Headloss hl (m)

= 19.48mm (i.e., the canal can transport sediments of diameter 19.48mm

or less during its normal operation)

Optimum Canal:

Area A m

Page: 33

SHPP/GTZ

Depth Do (m)

velocity of 1m/s is less than 80% of Vc)

Headloss hl (m)

Critical dia of sediment d crit (mm) = 11000*r*S = 11000*0.136*0.0050 = 8.271mm (i.e., the canal

can tranport (self clean) sediments of diameter 8.271mm or less during its

normal operation)

Start

Project name, Reach name,

Design discharge (Qd)

Roughness coefficient (n)

Side slope (N)

Sectional profile

Canal length (L)

1/canal slope (1/S)

Canal depth/diameter (D)

Freeboard (FB)

Canal width (B)

Desired velocity (Vo)

Canal drop di (V) & hi(H)

Semicircular = PI()* D/2

Trapezoidal = B+2*D*sqrt(1+N^2)

Rectangular =2* D+B

Triangular = 2*D*sqrt(1+N^2)

r = A/P, Qc = A*r^(2/3)*S^0.5/n

FB=min(0.3,0.5*D)

V = Q/A, hl =S*L+di

hl =hl previous + hl (continuous)

d crit =11000*r*S

semicircular = PI()* D^2/4/2

Trapezoidal = (B+N*D)*D

Rectangular = D*B

Triangular = D*B/2

Ao = Qd/Vo,

T=B+2*D*N (trapezoidal) or =B

Vcrit = sqrt(9.81*Ao/T)

V desired=80% of Vcrit,

Semicircular = 0.4*SQRT(A)

Trapezoidal=0.5*SQRT(Sin(N)*A/(2-COS(N))

Rectangular/Traingular = 0.35*SQRT(A)))

Semicircular = 4*ro

Traingular = 2.8*ro

Rectangular/Trapezoidal = 2*ro

Ho = Do + FBo

Channel width Bo

Semicircular = 2*Do

Rectangular = 4*ro

Traingular = 5.7*ro

Trapezoidal = 4*ro/Sin(N)

hl =S*L+di

Hl =hl previous + hl

d crit =11000*r*S

End

Page: 34

SHPP/GTZ

Small Hydropower Promotion Project (SHPP)/GTZ

Referances: 6,12,13,15,16

Date

24-May-2006

Revision

2006.05

Project

Developer

Consultant

Designed

Checked

Gautam Buddha Hydropower P Ltd

EPC Consult

Pushpa Chitrakar

Input

Type and Name

Flow (m3/s)

Roughness coefficient (n)

Sectional Profile

Side slope N (1V:NHorizontal)

Main2

0.185

0.145

0.02

0.017

0.02

0.02

0.017

0.02

Rectangular

00

Trapezoidal

0.5

0.5

Main3

0.145

0.145

0.02

0.02

Semicircular

00

Triangular

0.5

0.5

20

40

150

120

77

200

30

72

0.300

0.525

0.300

0.300

Freeboard FB (m)

0.300

0.250

0.150

0.150

0.500

1.000

0.400

0.400

1.000

1.500

1.500

1.500

0.01299

0.00500

0.03333

0.01389

Channel Drops di m

Channel Drops Horizontal length hi m

Desired velocity Vo (m/s)

Output

Side slope d (degrees)

Canal slope S

Total depth H (m)

63.435

63.435

0.600

0.775

0.450

0.450

20.000

60.000

210.000

330.000

Area A m2

0.150

0.663

0.035

0.060

0.500

1.525

0.400

0.400

1.100

2.174

0.471

0.671

Chainage L (m)

Present canal

Calculated flow (m3/s) & remarks

Comment on freeboard

Velocity V m/s

Critical Velocity Vc m/s & Remarks

Headloss hl (m)

Total headloss Hl(m)

Critical dia of sediment d crit (mm)

0.136

0.305

0.075

0.089

0.226 high

1.249 high

0.057 low

0.071 low

ok

low

ok

ok

1.233

0.219

4.103

2.417

1.72 Ok

2.06 Ok

0.93 Not Ok

1.21 Not Ok

0.260

0.200

5.000

1.667

0.260

19.481

0.460

16.769

5.460

27.500

7.126

13.665

0.1850

0.6022

1.74 Ok

0.1505

0.301

0.150

0.451

0.602

0.0050

0.100

0.100

8.271

0.0967

0.7636

1.11 Not Ok

0.1180

0.236

0.263

0.498

0.528

0.0112

0.449

0.549

14.584

0.0967

0.9949

0.98 Not Ok

0.1244

0.497

0.150

0.647

0.995

0.0145

2.175

2.724

19.834

0.0967

0.4867

1.4 Not Ok

0.1088

0.218

0.150

0.368

0.487

0.0173

2.079

4.803

20.736

Optimum canal

Area Ao m2

Top Width T (m)

Critical Velocity Vc m/s & Remarks

Hydraulic Radius ro (m)

Channel Depth/diameter Do (m)

Freeboard Fbo (m)

Total depth Ho (m)

Channel Width Bo (m)

Canal Slope

Headloss hlo (m)

Total headloss Hlo(m)

Critical dia of sediment d crito (mm)

Page: 35

SHPP/GTZ

D = 0.6 & 0.451

d & F B (0.3 & 0.3)

&

(0.301& 0.1

5)

B = 1& 0.764

D = 0.775 & 0.498

d & F B (0.525 &

0.25)

&

(0.236 &

0.263)

D = 0.45 & 0.647

d & F B (0.3 & 0.1

5)

&

(0.497 & 0.1

5)

D = 0.45 & 0.368

5.3.3

Pipe

Calculations for a headrace pipe presented in Figure 5.5 are briefly described in the following

section. The trashrack calculations are similar to the trashrack calculations presented earlier in the

intake design, hence it is not presented in this section. Trashrack loss of 0.02m is taken in this

example. In this example, one 140m long HDPE pipe with 260mm internal diameter is considered

for a design flow of 160 l/s each.

Sizing of headrace pipe

Headloss

HDPE pipe roughness, k =0.06 mm

k 0.06 mm

=

= 0.000231

d 260 mm

1.2Q 1.2 x0.160

=

= 0.73846

d

0.260

From Moody chart (Appendix), f=0.0153. Based on an iterative method presented in Laymans

Guidebook on How to Develop a Small Hydro Site, European Small Hydropower Association (ESHA),

the presented spreadsheet calculates this friction factor and greatly speeds up the pipe selection

decision for consultants by iterating following equations:

Friction loss

= f

l V2

l

= 0.0826 * Q 2 * f 5

d 2g

d

140

= 3.82 m

0.265

Turbulent losses considering, K entrance for inward projecting pipe= 0.8, Kexit=1.0 and Kbends based

on the bending angles (see Table in the Appendix)

V 2

\ hturbulentlosses = (K entrance + K bends + K valve + K others + K exit )

2g

3.012

= (0.8 + 0.57 + 0 + 0 + 1) *

= 1.10m

2 x 9.81

Total head loss= 3.82 m + 0.02+1.10 m = 4.94 m

Page: 36

SHPP/GTZ

Water level difference between intake and storage reservoir is 7m and 95% of this head is

allowed for total headloss. Only 70.56% is estimated as the total headloss. Although the

exiting water has some residual head, it is recommended to provide some marginal residual

head for safety. The HDPE pipe does not need expansion joints and therefore not

calculated.

Start

Project

Name,

Location,

Life

Hydraulics

Qd, Hg, RL us,

%hl, Entrance,

Exit, R/d

Pipe

#, Material, Fabrication

If steel, Laying, Valve,

t, L, q(upto 10)

Exp Joint

Dimensions, Position

during installation

Hydraulics

hl(friction, turbulent)

Other criteria checking

Trashrack

Bar type,

t,b, Vo,

F, b,H

Exp Joint

Tmax, Tinst,

Tmin, Group

L (5)

Trashrack

hl, Surface Area,

Width, h submerge

End

Figure 5.4: Flow chart for pipe design

Page: 37

SHPP/GTZ

Small Hydropower Promotion Project (SHPP)/GTZ

Date

24-May-2006

Revision

2006.05

Project:

MHP in Jumla

Developer

Consultant

Designed

Checked

Location:

Jogmai

Pushpa Chitrakar

INPUT

Hydraulics:

Diversion flow Qd (m3/s)

Flow in each pipe Qi (m3/s)

Gross headHg (m)

15

0.160

1950.00

0.160

95.00%

7.000

Bending radius (r/d)

0.3

5

Headrace pipe

HDPE

Exit (Yes/No)

Yes

NA

NA

No of pipes

Bending angle 01

1.00

20.00

NA

Burried

Bending angle 02

Bending angle 03

Bending angle 04

Bending angle 05

4.00

6.00

20.00

282

260

NA

Bending angle 06

Bending angle 07

Bending angle 08

3.0

Bending angle 09

140.000

Bending angle 10

Pipe Material

Welded / Flat rolled if steel

Rolled if steel

Type if steel

Burried or exposed

Type of valve

Non standard ultimate tensile strength (UTS) N/mm2

Estimated pipe diameter d(mm)

Provided pipe diameter d(mm)

Min pipe thickness t (mm)

Provided pipe thickness t (mm)

Pipe Length L (m)

Trashrack

t

6.00

b

20.00

Vo

1.00

f

60.00

Q

0.160

H

3.00

Tmax (deg)

T installation

Tmin

40

20

50.00

100.00

150.00

200.00

250.00

hf

0.0213

hb

H coeff

0.4174

H

0.0213

S

0.8006

B

0.23

k

2.40

Flat

Expansion Joints

OUTPUT

Trashrack

Min Submergence

1.39

K inlet

0.80

K bend 05

K bend 10

K bend 01

K bend 02

K bend 03

K bend 04

0.16

0.13

0.13

0.16

K bend 06

K bend 07

K bend 08

K bend 09

K valve

K exit

K others

K Total

CGL=1.5v^2/2g

0.69

1.00

2.37

Hydraulics

0.053

0.07

3.01

0.06

0.00023

687032

Turbulent

0.0153

Hydraulic Radius R (m)

Velocity V (m/s)

Pipe Roughness ks (mm)

Relative Roughness ks/d

Reynolds Number Re = d V /Vk

Type of Flow

Friction Factor f

Expansion Joints (mm)

EJ number

D/S Invert Level (mAOD)

Is HL tot < HL available

Friction Losses hf (m)

Fitting Losses hfit (m)

Trashracks and intake loss (m)

Total Head Loss htot individual (m)

% of H.Loss of individual pipe

4

1950.000

1943.000

OKAY

3.82

1.10

0.02

4.94

70.56% Ok

dL theoretical

dL recommended

dL for expansion

dL for contraction

Page: 38

SHPP/GTZ

SETTLING BASINS

A settling basin traps sediment (gravel/sand/silt) from water and settles down in the basin for

periodical flushing back to natural rivers. Since sediment is detrimental to civil and mechanical

structures and elements, the specific size of specified percentage sediment has to be trapped,

settled, stored and flushed. This can only be achieved by reducing turbulence of the sediment

carrying water. The turbulence can be reduced by constructing settling basins along the conveyance

system. Since the settling basins are straight and have bigger flow areas, the transit velocity and

turbulence are significantly reduced allowing the desired sediments to settle. The sediment thus

settled has to be properly flushed back to the natural rivers.

Thus a settling basin:

1. Prevents blocking of headrace system assuring desired capacity of the system.

2. Prevents severe wearing of turbine runner and other parts.

3. Reduces the failure rate and O&M costs.

According to the location and function, a settling basin can be of following types:

1. Gravel Traps for settling particles of 2mm or bigger diameter.

2. Settling Basins for settling particles of 0.2mm or bigger diameter.

3. Forebays for settling similar to settling basin (optional) and smooth flow transition from open

flow to closed flow.

Micro hydro settling basins are generally made of stone masonry or concrete with spillways, flushing

gates, trashracks, other accessories as and when necessary. Most of the mini and small

hydropower settling basins are of concrete (M20 or higher). However, for functionality, all settling

basins should have following components:

1. Inlet Zone: An inlet zone upstream of the main settling zone is provided for gradual expansion

of cross section from turbulent flow to smooth/laminar flow..

2. Settling Zone: A settling zone is the main part of a settling basin for settling, deposition,

spilling flushing and trash removal.

3. Outlet Zone: An outlet zone facilitates gradual contraction of flow to normal condition.

A typical section of a settling basin with all the components (inlet, transition, settling and outlet zones)

and accessories (spillway, gate) is presented in Figure 6.1.

Page: 39

SHPP/GTZ

An ideal settling basin is a basin having a flow flowing in a straight line (no turbulence, no eddy

current). In practice, no single basin is ideal. For an ideal basin shown in figure 6.2:

H/W = L/V

Or, B *H /W = B*L/V

Or, Ax/W = As/V

Or, Q/W = As = Surface area (i.e., the surface area is directly proportional to the

discharge

and

inversely

proportional

to

the

settling

velocity/sediment

diameter/temperature).

Efficiency of a real basin is generally 50 % or less than that of an ideal basin. This is mainly because

of the following factors:

1. Presence of water turbulence in basin.

2. Imperfect flow distribution at entrance.

3. Flow convergence towards exit.

Vetters equation takes care of the factors stated above and hence recommended for use in

settling basin design. According to Vetters equation, trap efficiency (h) for a given discharge (Q),

surface area (As) and falling velocity of critical sediment diameter (w) is:

6.3.1

Gravel Trap

General recommendations and requirements for designing a gravel trap are outlined in the following

sections:

1. Location: Close to intake and safe.

2. Dimensions: Sufficient to settle and flush gravel passing through upstream coarse trashrack.

3. Spilling: Sufficient spillway/vertical flushing pipe.

4. Spilling and flushing: back to the river.

5. Material: 1:4 cement stone masonry with 12mm thick 1:2 cement plastering on the waterside

or structural concrete.

6. Recommended settling diameter and trap efficiency are 2mm and 90% respectively.

Page: 40

SHPP/GTZ

7. Sediment storage zone: Adequate storage for 12 hours minimum (flushing interval).

8. Drawdown: Drawdown discharge capacity should be at least 150% of the design discharge.

9. Aspect ratio (straight length to width ratio): 1.5 to 2 for micro-hydropower gravel trap. The

recommended aspect ratio of mini and small hydropower gravel trap is 4.

6.3.2

Settling Basin

1. Location: Close to gravel trap/Intake.

2. Dimensions: Sufficient to settle and flush the designed sediment size.

3. Spilling: Sufficient spillway/vertical flushing pipe (layout dependent).

4. Spilling and flushing: back to the river.

5. Material: 1:4 cement stone masonry with 12mm thick 1:2 plastering on the waterside or

structural concrete.

6. Recommended settling diameter (trap efficiency) and head are presented in Table 6.1

Table 6.1: Settling diameter, trap efficiency and gross head

Settling diameter (mm) Trap efficiency (%)

Micro Hydro

Mini/Small Hydro

0.3-0.5

90%

10m

10m

0.3

90%

10 to 100m

10 to 50m

0.2

90%

50 to 100m

0.2

95%

8. Drawdown: Drawdown discharge capacity should be at least 150% of the design discharge.

9. Aspect ratio (straight length to width ratio): 4 to 10.

6.3.3

Forebay

1. Dimensions and functions: Similar to settling basin if upstream system is of open type or the

forebay functions as a combined settling basin cum forebay.

2. Submergence: Sufficient to prevent vortex (i.e. 1.5 * v2/2g).

3. Active Storage: At least 15 sec * Qd. Active storage capacity should be based on closing

time of turbines.

4. Freeboard: 300mm or half the water depth whichever is less.

5. Drawdown: A drain pipe/Gate.

6. Spilling capacity: Minimum of spilling Qd during load rejection.

7. Fine Trashrack:

a. At the entrance of the penstock

b. Inclination: 3V:1H

c. Bars: Placed along vertical direction for ease of racking.

Page: 41

SHPP/GTZ

d. Clearance: 0.5 * nozzle diameter in case of Pelton or half the distance between

runner blade in case of Crossflow/Francis.

e. Velocity: 0.6 to 1 m/s

f.

6.4.1

The spreadsheet is designed to cater for all types of settling basins and with all possible spilling and

flushing mechanisms. Some of the main features are listed below:

1. A single spreadsheet for:

a. Gravel Trap

b. Settling Basin (Desilting)

c. Forebay-cum-Settling Basin

2. Settling of sediment using:

a. Ideal settling equation

b. Vetters equation

3. Flushing of deposited sediment during:

a. Normal operational

b. Drawn-down condition

4. Sediment flushing with:

a. Vertical flushing pipe

b. Gate

c. Combination of both

5. Spilling of excess flow due to:

a. Incoming flood

b. Load rejection

6. Spilling of excess flow with

a. Spillway

b. Vertical flushing pipe

c. Combination of both

7. Drawdown / Dewatering with:

a. Vertical flushing pipe

b. Gate

8. Rating curve for the gate: According to Norwegian Rules and Regulations of Dam

Construction, a gate rating curve for the designed parameters is computed. According to this

manual, the flow through gate is of free flow type until the gate opening is two third of the

water depth behind the gate. Beyond this level (i.e., the gate opening higher than 2/3 of the

water depth behind the gate), the flow through gate is a pressure flow.

9. Multiple basins

10. Combination of approach canal / pipe options

Page: 42

SHPP/GTZ

Vertical flushing pipes (used in micro hydropower projects) are used for spilling of excess water and

flushing of the basin. The diameter of vertical flushing pipe is estimated based on the critical

parameter of these two functions.

1. Overflow: Acts as a sharp crested weir.

diameter d1 is:

Qf =p*d1*Cw*hf 2/3 for Cw = 1.6

d1 = Qf/(1.6*p*hf2/3)

1.5*Qd =C*A*(hb+fflush) 0.5: A=p*d212/4: C=2.76 for L=<6m

d21=(6*Qd/( p *C *( hb+fflush)0.5 )0.5 @ full

d22=(4*Qd/( p *C *( fflush)0.5 )0.5 @ empty

3. Design diameter: Maximum of above (d1, d21,d22)

6.4.3 Spillway at intake

Length of a spillway is the function of spilling discharge, freeboard and downstream obstruction. In

case there is not downstream obstruction such as a gate the cross section area of flow is of a

triangular shape. For a downstream obstructed condition, the flow is rectangular in section across

the spillway. According the conditions, the spillway length is calculated as:

hovertop = 50% of (FB spillway crest height above NWL)

Ls1 =Qf/C/hovertop1.5: for downstream obstruction and constant h overtop.

Ls2 =2*Abs(Qf-Qd)/C/ hovertop 1.5) for no downstream obstruction and average h overtop.

Ls3=Qf/C/(2* hovertop -0.05)1.5: for downstream obstruction and constant h overtop (100%0.05).

6.4.4

Gate

Lifting force F(kg)=W buoyant + 1000*m*Asub*hcg

Page: 43

SHPP/GTZ

dh<2/3*h1 :=> Pressure flow (as a gate): Q=C*L*(H11.5-H21.5)

dh=>2/3*h1 :=> Open flow (as a spillway ): Q=C*L*H11.5

Enter the maximum gate opening in the lowest gate opening cell and press the Calculate

Gate Rating Curve button for computing rating curve.

An example of a settling basin design is presented in figure 6.6. The procedures for designing the

settling basin are briefly described in the following section.

Sizing of settling basin

1. Settling of sediment using:

a. Vetters equation

Surface area of basin = -(Qtotal)/w*LN(1-neff) Asi = -(0.455)/.035* LN(1-neff)

2

= 25 m

Max section width for hydraulic flushing = 4.83*Q^0.5 = 4.83*.455^0.5

= 3.258m

Provided Width B

= 2.5m

Length of basin L

= Asi/B = 25/2.5

= 10m, which is 4 times the width hence, satisfies the requirement.

= 0.241m/s

Water depth Hi

V = (Qtotal)*(Flushing intensity in sec)*Concentration max in kg/Bulk Sed.

3

Density in kg/m /Sed Swelling factor

= (Qtotal)*(FI*3600)*Cmax/G*S = 0.455*(8*3600)*2/2.6*1.5

3

= 15.12m

Sediment depth Hs

Length of an Ideal Basin= Maximum of (4xB and Q/B/w) = MAX(4*2.5, 0.455/2.5/0.035)

= MAX(10, 5.2)

= 10 m

2. Spilling of excess flow due to load rejection: A combination of a 0.3m diameter vertical pipe

and spillway of 1.0m length is used.

H overtopping

= h ot =(Q1/(1.9*PI()*n1*d1+Cd*Ls))^(2/3)

= (0.455/(1.9*pi()*1*.3+1.6*1))^(2/3)

= 0.262 m

Q pipe

3

= 0.240 m /s

Q spillway

3

= 0.215 m /s

3. Flushing of deposited sediment through the flushing pipe: The pipe diameter will be the biggest

of :

a. For incoming flow and draw down:

D1 = (Qflushing%*4*Qi/(PI()*Cd*SQRT(h NWL+h flush)))^0.5

Page: 44

SHPP/GTZ

= (100%*4*0.455/(pi()**2.76*SQRT(1.36+1.7)))^0.5

= 0.35m

b. For incoming flow only:

D2

=(4*Qi/(PI()*Cd*SQRT(hflush)))^0.5

= (4*0.455/(pi()**2.76*SQRT(1.7)))^0.5

= 0.4m

Small Hydropower Promotion Project (SHPP)/GTZ

Date

24-May-2006

Revision

Project:

Location:

2006.05

Jogmai

Developer

Consultant

Designed

Checked

Kankaimai Hydropower P Ltd

EPC Consult

Pushpa Chitrakar

Pushpa Chitrakar

Q flood

Manning's number M (m1/3/s) 1/n=

Design discharge Qdesign (m3/s) =

50.000

0.421

Volume of sediment storage V (m3) =

Sediment depth Hs (m) = V/Asi

1.50

15.12

0.63

Total discharge Qbasins (m3/s) =

Particles to settle d (mm) =

Trapping efficiency n (%) =

water temperature t (oC) =

Fall velocity w at 15 deg C (m/s) =

Sediment concentration Cmax (kg/m3) =

Flushing Frequency FI (hours) =

Surface area / basin Asi (m2) 85 % =

Basin transit velocity Vt (m/s) =

Bulk Sed density G (kg/m3) =

0.034

Canal

0.455

0.300

85%

15

0.037

2

8

24.000

0.241

2600

Outlet approach conveyance Canal/Pipe =

Water level at inlet NWL (m) =

h flush below the base slab (L<6m)

Number of basins N

Spillway crest height above NWL m

Spillway discharge coeff

Provided Freeboard h fb1 m

Discharge coeff for pipe as orifice (2.76 if L <6 m)

Drawdown discharge % of design discharge

50.00

Pipe

1950.00

1.70

1.00

0.05

1.60

0.30

2.76

1.00

Max section width for hydraulic flushing B (m) =

Width used B (m) =

Inlet canal width /canal diameter Bc1 (m) =

0.455

3.258

2.500

1.000

Outlet canal width /canal diameter Bc2 (m) =

Water depth of outlet canal hc2 (m) =

Provided Length of the basin Lact (m)=

0.50

0.50

0.30

Aspect ratio (4<=AR<=10)

Min. water depth Hi (m) =

X-sectional area / basin Ai (m2) =

Wetted perimeter / basin Pi (m) =

Hydraulic radius Ri (m) =

Normal WL @ basin h b m =

Straight inlet transition length at 1:5 (m) =

Straight approach canal length (m) =

10.000

4.000

0.755

1.888

4.010

0.471

1.385

3.750

10.000

Head over outlet weir h overtop (m) =

0.23

Approach inlet velocity vi1 (m/s) =

0.91

Approach outlet velocity vi2 (m/s) =

3.03

1/Energy gradient during operation So =

15763.86

d 50 during operation (mm) =

0.33

Depth of water during flushing yfi (m) =

0.12

d 50f during flushing (mm) =

49.32

Length of an Ideal Basin (m) =

10.00

Vertical Flushing pipe

Diameter for flood d1 m =

Spillway

Freeboard m

Spillway overtopping height h overtop m

Spillway length for Qf (flood and non operational)

Combination of vertical flushing pipe and spillway

Vertical flushing pipe diameter d1 m

No of vertical flushing pipe

Spillway length used (m)

Flood and Under Operation (Qf- Qd)

H overtopping

Discharge passing through vertical pipe

Discharge passing over spillway

0.300

0.125

0.30

1.00

1.00

Spillway length for Qd (load rejection & u/s flood bypass)

Spillway length for Qd (d/s obstruction & full hovertop-50)

6.43

6.43

3.18

Flood discharge passing through vertical pipe

Spillway length for the remaining discharge m

1.00

H overtopping

Discharge passing through vertical pipe

Discharge passing over spillway

0.262

0.240

0.215

Figure 6.4: Typical example of a settling basin (Settling basin, spilling and flushing).

Page: 45

SHPP/GTZ

In the second case, the depth of water during flushing (yfi) may be added to h flush for higher

precision. This is not considered here. The recommended minimum diameter of the flushing pipe

diameter is 0.4 m. Use of flushing pipe should be restricted to micro-hydropower projects. For

larger projects, use of gates is recommended.

The gate curve in the example presented in Figure 6.5 includes the gate dimensions, forces and

the rating curve. The rating curve of the gate versus different gate opening can be computed by

entering allowable gate opening at the lowest input cell and clicking Calculate Gate Rating Curve

button.

Flushing pipe and orifice diameter

d for incoming flow and draw down m

d for incoming flow only (empty state) m

d for incoming flow only (empty state & with y flushing) m

Gate

Opening

Hg

0.000

0.033

0.067

0.100

0.133

0.167

0.200

0.233

0.267

0.300

0.333

0.367

0.400

0.433

0.467

0.500

0.35

0.40

0.39

Gate

Buoyance weight of the gate W kgf

Gate Opening B, (m)

Gate Opening H (m)

Submerged area of th gate A m2

Water surface to cg of submerged area h m

Coeff of static friction mu

Lifting force F kgf

H. of water (H1)

300.00

1.00

0.50

0.50

1.11

0.90

799.50

1.36

Relative

Discharge

Gate Openinig One basin

Hg/H1

Q

0.000

0.000

0.025

0.127

0.049

0.249

0.074

0.366

0.098

0.479

0.123

0.591

0.147

0.700

0.172

0.807

0.196

0.912

0.221

1.016

0.245

1.117

0.270

1.216

0.294

1.312

0.319

1.406

0.343

1.497

0.368

1.586

Figure 6.5: Typical example of a settling basin (Gate and rating curve).

The last part the spreadsheet can be used if the considered basin is a settling basin cum forebay.

The basic penstock inlet geometry is computed in this section. An example is presented in Figure

6.6.

1.800

0.367

0.400

0.433

0.467

0.500

1.600

1.400

Av. H ot =0.125m

Water depth 0.76m

0.265

0.289

0.313

0.337

0.361

1.230

1.328

1.423

1.516

1.606

1.200

1.000

Penstock diameter m

Penstock velocity m/s

Submergence depth of penstock pipe m

Height of pipe above the base slab m

Min. pond depth m

Effective thickness of penstock mm

FS for air vent (5 burried, 10 exposed)

Young's modulus of elasticity E N/mm2

Penstock inlet gate (Yes/No)

Air vent diameter mm

0.800

0.600

0.400

0.200

Width 2.5m

0.000

half of Gr expansion

0.500

1.000

Width 2.5m

Flushing cone/spillway O

L =10

Spillway

0.500

Sediment depth 0.63m

0.300

Slope 1:50

Page: 46

0.41

3.45

0.91

0.30

1.62

3

10

200000

No

Nominal

SHPP/GTZ

7.1

GENERAL

A penstock pipe conveys water from free flow state (at a settling basin or a forebay) to pressure flow

state to the powerhouse and converts the potential energy of the flow at the settling basin or forebay

to kinetic energy at the turbine.

7.2

GENERAL RECOMMENDATIONS

1. Material: Mild steel (exposed and buried) and HDPE/GRP (buried) pipes should be used as

penstock pipes. For mild steel pipes, flanged connections are recommended for low head (up to

60m) micro-hydropower projects. In other cases, site welding is recommended. A combination

of HDPE/GRP and mild steel can also be used.

2. For exposed (i.e., above ground) mild steel penstock alignment, a minimum clearance of 300 mm

between the pipe and the ground should be provided for ease of maintenance and minimising

corrosion effects.

3. GRP/HDPE pipes should be buried to a minimum depth of 1 m. Similarly, if mild steel penstock

pipes have to be buried, a minimum of 1 m burial depth should be maintained and corrosion

protection measures such as high quality bituminous/epoxy paints should be applied. Due to

higher risks of leakage, flange connected penstocks are not recommended to be buried.

4. The recommended initial trial internal diameter (D) can be calculated as:

D = 41 x Q 0.38 mm

Where, Q = Design flow in l/s

5. Total penstock headloss should not be more than 10% of the penstock gross head.

6. Anchor / Thrust blocks at every horizontal and vertical bend are recommended. For micro

hydropower projects, these blocks are also recommended for every 30m of straight pipe stretch.

7. Expansion joints should be placed immediately downstream of every anchor block for exposed

mild steel penstock.

8. Instead of providing an expansion joint immediately upstream of turbine, a mechanical coupling is

recommended for ease of maintenance and reduced force transmitted to the turbine casing.

7.3

The design procedure of a penstock pipe is similar to that of a headrace pipe. In this spreadsheet,

the penstock is checked for surge / water hammer head propagated due to various closures of the

system. Sudden closure of one jet is considered as the maximum surge in case Pelton turbines are

used.

Both the installed capacities based on the AEPC criteria and actual cumulative efficiency of the

electro-mechanical are presented. The installed capacity based on the given cumulative efficiency

should be used in case it is provided by manufacturers.

Since a provision of maximum of ten bends is generally sufficient for a typical micro and mini

hydropower scheme, head losses due to ten bends are incorporated. However, users can add any

cumulative values of bend constants (k) if there are more than ten bends and other losses due to

turbulence in the K others cell.

Page: 47

SHPP/GTZ

calculation and minimum submergence criteria by Gordon and AEPC criteria are also included.

AEPC criterion of 150% of the velocity head is enough for micro and mini hydropower projects.

User specific factor of safety and ultimate tensile strength for mild steel penstock are allowed in the

spreadsheet in order to be able to use non standard values.

The friction factor calculation is based on the iteration procedures described in the Laymans

Guidebook on How to Develop a Small Hydro Site by European Small Hydropower Association

(ESHA).

Design and installation criteria of expansion joints are presented at the end of the spreadsheet.

Start

Project

Name,

Location,

Life

Hydraulics

Qd, Hg, RL us,

%hl, Entrance,

Exit, R/d

Exp Joint

Dimensions, Position

during installation

Pipe

#, Material, Fabrication

If steel,Laying, Valve,

t, L, q(upto 10)

Power

Pturbine,P MGSP,

P hnetPCU M

Trashrack

Bar type,

t,b, Vo,

F, b,H

Hydraulics

hl(friction, turbulent)

Other criteria checking

Exp Joint

Tmax, Tinst,

Tmin, Group

L (5)

Trashrack

hl, Surface Area,

Width, h submerge

End

Figure 7.1: Flow diagram of penstock design

7.3.2 Typical example of a penstock pipe

Figure 7.1 presents calculation procedures applied in the example presented in Figures 7.2 and 7.3.

The presented example is taken from the 500kW Jhakre Mini Hydropower Project, Dolakha. For the

given head of 180m and discharge of 450 l/s, three units of two-nozzle Pelton turbines are selected.

Since trashrack and pipe hydraulics are similar to headrace pipe presented earlier, the detailed

calculations are not presented in this section. The steel pipe thickness, expansion joints and power

calculations are presented in this section. It is assumed that the valve closing is of slow type. The

minimum factor of safety for penstock is chosen to be 2.5.

Pipe thickness:

It is worth noting that in reality the diameter of penstock pipe is optimized by calculating marginal

costs and benefit method. In this method, the incremental benefit of annual energy by increasing the

pipe diameters and corresponding increase of costs are plotted. The intersecting point represents

the cost of optimum diameter. Alternatively, net present values of these cash/cost flow can be

calculated and the net present value (NPV) of marginal benefit from energy gain should be higher

than that of the marginal cost of that diameter.

Lets consider 4mm thick 300mm diameter pipe, the wave velocity

a=

1440

2.1 x10 9 x d

1 +

E xt

1440

2.1 x 10 9 x 0.300

1+

200 x 10 9 x 6

1000

= 1071.454 m / s

Page: 48

SHPP/GTZ

hsurge

= a * V/(g*njet) = 1071.454*2.83/(9.81*6)

= 51.484m

htotal

= 231.484 m

t effective

= 6/(1.1*1.2) 1.0

= 3.55mm

S .F . =

teffective x S

5 x htotal x 103 x d

5 x 231.484 x 10 3 x 0.450

= 2.79 which does not exceed the allowable FS of 2.5, hence OK. This factor of

safety should be used for thinner penstock.

Spreadsheet developed by Mr. Pushpa Chitrakar, Engineering Advisor, SHPP/GTZ

Referances:2,4, 5,6,12,13,15,16

Date

Revision

Project:

Jhankre mini-hydropower

Himal Power Limited

BPC Hydroconsult

Pushpa Chitrakar

Pushpa Chitrakar

Developer

Consultant

Designed

Checked

Location:

10-Nov-2005

2005.10

Barand, Sertung VDC 2, Dhading

INPUT

General:

Jogmai I

Project:

Location:

Ilam

Hydraulics:

Diversion flow Qd (m3/s)

Flow in each pipe Qi (m3/s)

Gross head (from forebay) Hg (m)

Power:

Turbine type (CROSSFLOW/PELTON)

No of total jets (nj)

10

0.450

0.450

180.00

% head allowable headloss hlt (m)

Cumulative knowm efficiency (g,t,tr,others)

1213.90

16.00%

79.38%

Pelton

6

Valves (Sperical/Gate/Butterfly)

Taper (Yes/No)

Butterfly 0.3

Yes

Exit (Yes/No)

No

30.00

3

Steel

Welded

Rolled

IS

Exposed

Entrance Type

Entrance with gate and air-vent (Yes/No)

Bending radius (r/d) (1/2/3/5/1.5)

Bending angle 05

Closure time T sec

Number of units

Penstock pipe:

Pipe Material (STEEL/HDPE/PVC)

Welded / Flat rolled if steel

Rolled if steel

Type if steel (UNGRAGED/IS)

Burried or exposed

No of pipes

Bending angle 01(degrees)

Bending angle 02

Bending angle 03

Bending angle 04

Penstock diameter d=>d estd, d act (mm)

Pipe Length L (m)

Trashrack

k

t

Flat

2.40

6.00

Expansion Joints

No

1.5

1.00

Bending angle 06

2.00

Bending angle 07

11.00

Bending angle 08

4.00

Bending angle 09

11.00

Bending angle 10

450 Pipe thickness t=>t min, t act (mm)

3.0

Roughness coefficient (ks)

418

550.000

b

20.00

Vo

1.00

f

71.56

Tmax (deg)

T installation

Tmin

40

20

10.00

15.00

b

0.00

Q

0.450

25.00

14.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

6.0

0.060

H

0.70

20.00

2.5

0.5

No

0.45

22

Sharp cornered

30.00

Page: 49

SHPP/GTZ

OUTPUT

Trashrack

hf

hb

H coeff

0.0233

0.0000

0.4572

0.0233

2.0555

2.79

K inlet

K Total

K bend 01

K bend 02

K bend 03

K bend 04

Min Submergence

1.84

CGL=1.5v^2/2g

0.61

2.06

0.50

K bend 05

0.24

K bend 10

0.00

0.18

0.21

0.19

0.21

K bend 06

K bend 07

K bend 08

K bend 09

0.22

0.00

0.00

0.00

K valve

K taper

K exit

K others

0.30

0.00

0.00

0.00

Hydraulics

0.159

1213.90

0.11

2.83

0.060

1.333E-04

1116427

Turbulent

0.0138

Is HLtot < HL available

Friction Losses hf (m)

Fitting Losses hfit (m)

Trashracks and intake loss (m)

Total Head Loss htot individual (m)

% of H.Loss of individual pipe

1033.90

OKAY

6.87

0.84

0.02

7.73

4.3% Ok

Thickness

200000

410

6.000

231.48

Diameter (mm)

450.000

t effective (mm)

3.55

172.268

4.71

1071.454

Comment on thickness

NA, No gate

Pipe Area A (m )

Hydraulic Radius R (m)

Velocity V (m/s)

Pipe Roughness ks (mm)

Relative Roughness ks/d

Reynolds Number Re = d V /Vk

Type of Flow

Friction Factor f

Factor of Safety

2

Critical time Tc (sec) *2 = Closing time T

1.03 Ok

2.79

Hsurge for one jet closure of Pelton(m)

Hsurge for instanteneous closure of all unit closure of Pelton (m)

Lengths (max & actual) of the specified pipe (m) & Ok 613.998

0.00000

51.484

308.907

550.000

Air vent diameter d vent (mm)

H total capacity of the specified pipe (m)

H static capacity of the specified pipe (m)

Ok

67.45

258.42

206.94

Power

Turbine efficiency as per MGSP

Available shaft power(kW)

Reqd.'Turbine Capacity (+10%) (kW)

75.00%

570.36

627.39

Electrical Power based on Hnet (kW)

Power for known cumulative eff (kW)

397.31

456.29

603.67

EJ number

dL theoretical

dL recommended

dL for expansion

dL for contraction

1

4

9

5

4

2

2

4

6

9

11

13

17

22

7

10

12

6

8

10

1.2E-05

5

13

26

14

12

Based on the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) recommendations, the allowable

minimum thickness is 3.00 mm. Therefore, optimum penstock thickness can vary from 3mm to 6mm.

The summary of the penstock thickness corresponding to static head is presented in Table 7.1. The

static heads for different thickness of pipes are calculated by applying different thickness of the pipe

and noting the thickness and the corresponding to the calculated values of H static capacity of the

specified pipe (m) cell.

static head

Penstock thickness (mm)

Static Head (m)

3

40

4

86

5

132

6

180

Page: 50

7.4

SHPP/GTZ

An anchor block is a gravity retaining structure placed at every sharp change along the penstock

pipe and is designed to retain penstock pipe movement in all directions. It should be stable against

overturning, sliding and sinking/bearing. Although the design of anchor blocks and saddles are site

and user specific and the rules of thumb are valid for micro-hydropower schemes, care should be

taken while using these rules of thumbs even for micro-hydropower projects. The spreadsheet

AnchorLoads is useful for calculating static and dynamic forces on an anchor block. In case the

penstock pipes upstream and downstream of an anchor block are not on a single plane (i.e., 3

dimensional forces), the resultant forces act on three dimensions and the block has to be stable in all

three dimensions. Calculation and design of anchor blocks for three dimensions is a complex

process and beyond the scope of this book and most of micro and mini hydropower projects have

penstock in single planes, therefore, a spreadsheet useful for calculating forces in a single plane

parallel to longitudinal section of the anchor block is presented. Moreover, the designers are strongly

advised to align penstock in a single plane.

AEPC/ESAP does not have any mandatory procedures for designing anchor blocks. Therefore,

standard procedures for calculating forces on anchor blocks are considered in this spreadsheet. The

possible forces acting on anchor blocks are presented in the spreadsheet.

Since the calculation of anchor forces consists of single line formula calculations without many

conditions, the spreadsheet is designed to present simple definitions of these forces along with

sketches, their formulae and the calculated results. An example of 500kW Jhankre mini-hydropower

project anchor block presented in Civil Works Guidelines for Micro-Hydropower in Nepal has been

taken as an example. Some additional forces are added and some of the formulae based on

analytical method are used.

7.4.1

Program example

Input for the cited example are presented in Figure 7.4. Elevations are used to calculate vertical angles ( a

and b ) in case these angles are not entered as inputs. As always, care should be taken to verify inputs in

red colour.

Total head,

Static head h gross = forebay water level pipe centre line = 650.50 636.750 = 13.750m

htotal = h gross + hsurge = 13.750 m + 48 m = 108 m

Unit weight of pipe and water,

Wp = (d + t) t gsteel = x 0.454 x 0.004 x 77 = 0.448 kN/m

2

Ww = (d ) /4* gwater =

P(0.450) 2

4

2

1. Perpendicular component of weight of pipe and water acting perpendicular to the pipe centre line along

the anchor faces

F1u = W T L1u cos a = 2.008 * 2 * cos 13 = 3.913 kN

F1d = W T L1d cos b = 2.008 * 2 * cos 25 = 3.640 kN

The axial components of these forces can be calculated as:

F1u axial = - W T L1u sin a = 2.008 * 2 * sin 13 = - 0.903 kN

F1d axial = - W T L1d sin b = 2.008 * 2 * sin 25 = - 1.697 kN

2

2

2

FEMd = - W T L1d /8 = 2.008 * 2 /8 = - 2.677 kN-m

Page: 51

SHPP/GTZ

2. Axial frictional force of pipe on saddle supports transferred to anchor block considering f = 0.25 for steel

on steel (greased) saddle top.

Frictional force per support pier = f *W T*L2u cos a = 0.25*2.00 * 4 cos 13= 1.95 kN

Total frictional force for 8 piers (F2u ) = 1.95 x 8 = 15.653 kN

Note that F2d is zero since an expansion joint is located immediately downstream of the anchor block.

3. Hydrostatic pressure at bend due to the vector difference of static pressure and acting towards IP (F3)

and total force along the pipe (P). Since upstream and downstream penstock diameter are the same.

Pu (kN) = /4*d2*Ht*g = /4*.452*108*9.81 = 168.50

25 - 13

F3 = 2*P*sin((b-a)/2) = 2 x 168.50 x sin

= 35.227 kN

2

F4u = L4u = 0.448 x 30.894 x sin 13 = 3.112 kN

F4d = W pL4d sin b = 0.448 x 4.0 x sin 25 = 0.757 kN

5. Since expansion joints both upstream and downstream are provided, F5 = 0. Typical temperature ranges

are presented in the example. Since the temperatures (dt) are different for expansion and contraction, F5

for both the cases are presented.

6. Axial friction within expansion joint seal due to the movement against the circumferential pressure (F6)

can be calculated using either of the formulas:

F6 = 100 x d or F6 = *D*W*H*g*m

Since the second formula is based on analytical method, it is recommended to use it. H is the total head

at the considered expansion joint. For a seal width (W) of 0.16m and a friction factor (m) of 0.25, F6 is

F6u= *0.454*0.16*98.512*9.81*0.25 = 55.666 kN

F6d= *0.454*0.16*109.888*9.81*0.25 = 60.959 kN

7. Axial hydrostatic pressure on exposed end of pipe in expansion joint (F7):

F7=*(d + t)*t*H*g

F7u = * 0.454*0.004*98.512*9.81= 5.518 kN

F7d = * 0.454*0.004*109.888*9.81= 6.042 kN

8. Dynamic pressure at the bend due to the vector difference of momentum (F8):

P8 (kN) = F8 = Q*r *v= 0.45*1*2.829 = 1.273 kN

Q2 b - a

0.450 2 25 - 13

sin

sin

F8 = 2.5 d2 2 = 2.5

= 0.261 kN

0.450 2

2

9. No reducer is provided in this case. Therefore axial force on reduce (F9 = 0). In case there is a reducer,

total head at the specified reducer location is calculated for calculating F9.

10. Axial drag of flowing water (friction of flowing water) is generally not considered in micro and mini

hydropower scheme penstock design. Therefore F10 =0 is considered in this example.

11. Force due to soil pressure (F11):

2

g h

F11= soil 1 cos i x Ka x w

2

3

F11 =

cos i + cos2 i - cos2 f

=0.371

20 18

. 2

cos 13 x 0.371 x 2 = 23.455 kN

2

This force acts at 1/3 of the buried depth at upstream face of anchor block, which is (1/3 x 1.8) = 0.6 m.

Page: 52

SHPP/GTZ

Summary of forces are presented in Figure 7.4. The forces calculated above are further resolved in

mutually perpendicular directions to get the summary. A typical calculation is presented in Table 7.2.

Forces acting at the bend and the total forces for both the expansion and contraction are presented in the

table. The total forces will further be utilized in anchor block design. These forces are calculated for

vertical angles of a = 13, b = 25.

Forces (kN)

F1u = 3.90

F1d = 3.63

F2u = 15.6

F3 = 35.20

F4u = 2.97

F4d = 2.97

F5u = 0.000

F5d = 0.000

F6u = 45

F6d = 45

F7u = 5.70

F7d = 6.08

F8 = 0.26

X - component (kN) +

= - F1u sin a = - 0.880

= - F1d sin b = - 1.538

= F2u cos a = 15.252

Y- component (kN) +

= F1u cos a = 3.813

= F1d cos b = 3.299

= F2u sin a = 3.521

b + a

= 11.469

2

b + a

= - 33.308

2

= F3 sin

= - F3 cos

= F4u cos b = 0.686

= F5u cos a = 0.000

= - F5d cos b = 0.000

= F6u cos a = 54.239

= - F6d cos b = - 55.248

= F7u cos a = 5.377

= - F7d cos b = - 5.476

= F4u sin b = 0.320

= F5u sin a = 0.000

= - F5d sin b = 0.000

= F6u sin a = 12.522

= -F6d sin b = -25.763

= F7u sin a = 1.241

= - F7d sin b = - 2.553

= F8 sin

b + a

= 0.085

2

= - F8 cos

b + a

= - 0.247

2

F9u = 0.000

F9d = 0.000

F10u = 0.000

F10d = 0.000

F11 = 23.45

F12 = 354.64

= - F9d cos b = 0.000

= F10u cos a = 0.000

= - F10d cos b = 0.000

= F11 cos i = 22.853

0

= - F9d sin b = 0.000

= F10u sin a = 0.000

= - F10d sin b = 0.000

= F11 sin i = 5.276

= F12 = 354.640

SUM

(expansion)

H @ bend c = H total c F11H = -1.488 kN

V @ bend = V @ total c F11V = -17.015 kN

F6Hd ) = 21.366 kN

kN

SUM

(contraction)

Convex

Spreadsheet

(SHPP)/GT

by Mr P

Zushpa Chitrakar

Referances: 6,12,13,15,16

Date

Revision

Project

Developer

Consultant

Designed

Checked

24-May-2006

2006.05

Jhankre mini-hydropower

BPC Hydroconsult

Input

Particulars

Upstream

Pipe dimensions

Diameter (Di)

Thickness

Shaddle Spacing & number

Central

0.45

0.004

4.00

Vertical angles, a & b (deg)

Location of Expansion Joint

Output

Weight of pipe, Wp (kN/m)

Weight of water, Ww (kN/m)

Total weight, W (kN/m))

Velocity, v (m/s)

Vertical angles, a & b (rad)

0.45

0.004

4.00

34.000

40.000

13.0000

25.0000

Yes

Yes

0.448

1.560

2.008

2.829

0.226893

0.45

Mild Steel

Water

RCC

78.5

9.81

25

Anchor Block

Soil

636.750

Elevations

Downstream

0.448

1.560

2.008

2.829

0.436332

f

gs

22

200

30 0.5236

20

Heads (m)

Forebay WL

696.750

Tot.Transient Len

3277.753

Sumof Pipe Len (forebay to Anchor

1074.814

Block)

Total Surge Head

146.381

Static Head

60.000

Surge Head

48.00

Total (H)

108.000

Youngs Modulus of Elasticity (E2.1E

)

+11

Coefficient of Linear Expansion (12E-06

Page: 53

SHPP/GTZ

GENERAL FORCES

1. Perpendicular component of Wt of pipe and water act perpendicular to the pipe CL along the anchor faces

L'

a

FEMu

FEMd

F2

4.016

4.016

F1u (kN)=wu*lmu/2*COS(a):

F1d (kN)=wd*lmd/2*COS(b)

F1 perpendicular to pipe

3.913

3.640

F1 axial

-0.903

-1.697

Fixed end moment = wl^2/8 for proped cantilever FEM.

FEMu (kN-m)= Restoring moment:

FEMd (kN-m)= Overturning moment

FEM

2.677

F1 u

F1 d

-2.677

Steel to (HDPVC) to Steel (greased) (m)

F2 (kN)= m*w*L'*cos a

US Pipe Length, L' (m):

0.25

34.89

F2 (kN) =

3. Hydrostatic Pressure at Bend due to the vector difference of static pressure & acting towards IP

Pu (kN) = F3u =PI/4*dui^2*Ht*g

168.50

F3

168.50

F3 = 2*P*sin((b-a)/2)

pu

35.227

pd

F4u= wp*active armL*sin(a)

L'

F4

3.112

0.757

F4=w sin a

W

F5 (kN)=pi()*Dmean*t*E*a*Dt

Condition

Temp at oC

F5 expansion

+ Expansion, - Contraction

Tmax

Tinstallation

40

20

0.000

F5 contraction

Tmin

F5

4

0.000

0.000

F5

0.000

6. Axial friction within Expansion joint seal due to the movement against the circumferential pressure

F6=PI()*D*W*H*g*m

+ Expansion, - Contraction

52.150

61.69

46.442

48.20

Total (AH)

98.592

109.888

55.666

60.959

F6 (kN)

F6

F6

F6

Pipe Movement

F7=PI*D*t*H*g

F7

5.518

6.042

F7

F8 = 2.5*(Q^2/d^2)*sin((b-a)/2)

P8 (kN)

P8= mV =Q*r*Vi

1.273

F8

F9 (kN)

Fv

Q*r*Vo

F9

No

No

0.000

FH

Q*r* Vi

at bend (mv i -mvo )

F9=PI()*(Dupi^2-Ddni^2)/4*g*H

3.00

59.33

47.97

F8

1.273

0.261

Reducer:

Location & Diameter:

St. Head

Dyn. Head

- Q*r*Vo

Q*r* Vi

F7

0.40

4.00

61.69

48.08

F9

0.40

0.000

Page: 54

SHPP/GTZ

10 Axial drag of flowing Water (friction of flowing water) (not considered in MHP)

F10=g*PI()*Dupi^2/4*DH(Exp to block)

F10 (kN)

0.000 No

0.000 No

11 Axial (u/s slope) force due to soil pressure upstreamof the block

F11 =gs*hs^2/2*cos f*ka*B

F 11

ka= (cosi-sqrt(cosi^2-cosf^2))/(cosi+sqrt(cosi^2-cosf^2))

hs = soil depth = hu

F11

0.371

1.8

23.455 Yes

Width, B(m)

@ 1/3 of hs

0.6

F12 =gblock*Vol of block

Vol of block

F12

16.12

354.640 Yes

Expansion

2 Summation of total vertical forces SV (kN)

3 Summation of total moment forces SM (kN-m)

12

Contraction

@ bend

Total

@ bend

Total

26.997

49.851

-1.49

21.37

-36.454

323.462

-17.02

342.90

0.000

0.00

7.5

A design of one of the anchor blocks of 500kW Jhankre minihydropower project presented in Civil Works Guidelines for

Micro-Hydropower in Nepal has been taken as an example

for preparing the spreadsheet AnchorBlock. It is worth

noting that the slight differences in calculated output in the

guidelines are mainly due to the rounding off of processed

data for secondary processing. A typical sketch of the

considered anchor block is presented in Figure 7.5. Stepwise

calculations of the considered example are also presented in

this section. The inputs for the calculations are presented in

the input section of the spreadsheet presented in Figure 7.7.

Figure 7.5: Anchor Block Considered

The spreadsheet is also designed to accommodate forces due to the dead weight of anchor block and

upstream earth pressure. In case forces at the pipe bend calculated as per section 7.4 are used, dead

weight of anchor block and upstream earth pressure for a different anchor block (not similar to defined in

AnchorLoads) can be used in this spreadsheet.

7.5.1

Program example

Concrete Block

Centre of gravity of the block from the upstream face of the block taking the moment of mass.

{(3 x 2.25)3/2 + (1/2 x 3 x 1.05)1/3 x 3} x 2

= 1.405m

{(3 x 2.25 ) + (1 / 2 x 3 x 1.05)} x 2

\ the weight of the block WB acts 1.41 m from point O.

Concrete volume (V) = Block volume excluding volume of the pipe and water if any

1

2

2

3

. } x 2 - 1 x P x 0.458 /4 cos 13 - 2 x P x 0.458 /4 cos 25 = 16.191 m

= {(2.25 x 3) + 3 105

2

Page: 55

SHPP/GTZ

Soil

Ka =

F11=

cos i + cos2 i - cos2 f

=0.3715

2

20 18

. 2

g soilh1

cos i x Ka x w =

cos 13 x 0.3715 x 2 = 23.455 kN

2

2

This force acts at 1/3 of the buried depth at upstream face of anchor block from point O as shown in Figure

7.6, which is (1/3 x 1.8) = 0.6 m. Perpendicular components of this forces are:

F11X= F11 *cos i = 23.455*cos 13 = 22.853 kN

F11Y= F11 *sin i = 23.455*sin 13 = 5.276 kN

Overturning:

Expansion case

Sum of moments about point O with clockwise moments as positive:

M @ O = 30.327 x 2.15 + 22.853 x 0.6 + 356.199 x 1.405 16.215 x 1.0 = 563.303 kN-m

d=

M 563.303

= 1.632 m

=

V 345.26

e=

3

- 1.632 = 0.132 m

2

Lbase 3

= = 0.5 m

6

6

\ e < eallowable OK

eallowable =

Contraction case

Sum of moments about point O with clockwise moments as positive:

M @ O = -6.19 x 2.15 + 22.85 x 0.6 + 356.199 x 1.405 41.03 x 1.0 = 473.281 kN m

M 473.281

= 1.477 m

=

V 320.44

3

e=

- 1.477 = 0.023 m

2

d=

\ e < eallowable OK.

Since e < eallowable for both cases, the structure is safe against overturning.

Bearing capacity:

2

Note that for stiff clay allowable bearing pressure is 200 kN/m (Table 7.3).

Expansion case:

Pbase max =

V

A base

6e

1 +

L

base

345.26 6 0.132

2

1 +

= 72.681 N/m

3 2

3

Page: 56

Pbase min =

V

Abase

6e

1 Lbase

SHPP/GTZ

345.26 6 0.132

2

=

1 = 42.406 N/m

3

2

3

Contraction case:

320.44 6 0.023

2

1 +

= 55.866 N/m

3 2

3

Pbase max =

V

A base

6e

1 +

L

base

Pbase min =

V

Abase

6e

1 Lbase

320.44 6 0.023

2

=

1 = 50.947 N/m

3 2

3

\ the structure is safe against sinking.

Sliding:

Expansion case

H<mV

m = 0.5 for concrete/masonry on soil

53.18 kN < 0.5 x 345.26 kN

53.18 kN < 172.63 kN OK.

Contraction case

H<mV

16.66 kN < 0.5 x 320.44 kN

16.66 kN < 160.22 kN OK.

Since H < m V in both cases the structure is safe against sliding.

\The anchor block is stable.

Page: 57

SHPP/GTZ

Small Hydropower Promotion Project

(SHPP)/GT

Spreadsheet

by Mr Z

Pushpa Chitrakar

Referances: 6,12,13,15,16

Date

24-May-2006

2006.05

Project

Developer

Consultant

Designed

Checked

Jhankre mini-hydropower

BPC Hydroconsult

Input

Anchor

Upstreamdepth, Hu (m)

Downstreamdepth, Hd (m)

Width, W (m)

Length, L (m)

g anchor (kN/m3)

m

Penstock

Bend at (X), (m)

Bend at (Y), (m)

Diameter, d (m)

Upstreamangle, a (deg)

Upstreamangle, b (deg)

Output

3.3

2.25

2

3

22

0.5

Weight of block, Wb (kN)

Centre of gravity XX

3.5

3.0

Pipe CL

2.5

2.0

1

2.15

0.458

13

25

1.5

1.0

0.5

Lengt h X ( m) '

0.0

-0.5

Foundation

Upstreamdepth hfu (m)

Soil friction f, (deg)

g soil (kN/m3)

Bearing Capacity, SBC (kN/m2)

1.8

30

20

200

0.0

0.5

Contraction

SH (kN)

SV (kN)

1.0

1.5

2.0

2.5

Soil force

Acting at (m)

3.0

3.5

4.0

0.3715

F Pa

Yes

Forces with earthpressure & anchor

Expansion

SH (kN)

SV (kN)

16.191

356.199

1.405

Fx

23.455

0.6

22.853

Fy

5.276

Overturning

Net Forces

@ bend

SM@ O

53.180

30.327 d

345.260

-16.215 eccentricity e, Ok

e allowable

563.303 P max

1.632 P min

0.132

0.500

72.681 172.63

42.406 Ok

Ok

SM@ O

-6.19 d

-41.03 eccentricity e, Ok

473.281 P max

1.477 P min

0.023

55.866 160.22

50.947 Ok

Ok

16.66

320.44

Bearing

Sliding

Page: 58

SHPP/GTZ

8 TURBINE SELECTION

8.1

GENERAL

A turbine converts potential energy of water to rotational mechanical energy. Cross-flow and Pelton

turbines are the most commonly used turbines in Nepali micro hydropower plants. Pelton, Francis and

Turgo turbines are used in mini and small hydropower projects. The size and type of turbine for a

particular site depends on the net head and the design flow. Pelton turbines are suitable where the ratio of

head to flow is high. For Cross-flow and Francis turbines, this ratio is lower than that of the Pelton

turbines. Turgo turbines lie in between these two categories. It should be noted that for certain head and

flow ranges, both Pelton (multi-jet) and other turbines may be appropriate. In such cases, the designer

should consult with manufacturer and make a decision based on availability, efficiency and costs. On a

horizontal shaft Pelton turbine the maximum number of jets should be limited to 3 for ease of

manufacturing. The number of jets can be higher for vertical shaft Pelton turbines. However, these require

higher precision work in mounting the generator vertically on the turbine shaft and furthermore, in case of

varying rotational speeds (RPM of the turbine and the generator), the belt drive arrangements (including

those for mechanically coupled end uses) will be difficult.

8.2

GENERAL RECOMMENDATIONS

The recommended net heads for maximum rotational speed (rpm) and efficiencies for different turbines

and turbine specifications are presented in Table 8.1.

Table 8.1: Turbine specifications

Type

Net head (m)

Pelton

More than 10m

T12 Crossflow

up to 50m

T15 Crossflow

up to 80m

Max RPM

1500

900

1500

Efficiency (nt)

70 - 75%

60 - 78%

60 - 78%

The type of turbine can be determined by its specific speed given by the following equation:

Sp Speed (no gear) ns = Turbine rpm*(1.4*PkW/Nturbines)/Hn5/4

Sp Speed (gear) nsg = Sp Speed (no gear)* Turbine rpm / Generator rpm

Table 8.2: Turbine type vs. ns

Turbine types

Single Jet Pelton

Double Jet Pelton

Three Jet Pelton

Cross flow

ns Ranges

10 30

30 40

40 50

20 80

Page: 59

8.3

SHPP/GTZ

The Turbine spreadsheet is presented in Figure 8.2. The specific speeds (ns) with (gear ratio of 1:2) and

without gear are calculated as:

5/4

= 750*SQRT(1.4*67.89/1)/58^(5/4)

= 46 (Turgo/Crossflow/2-jet Pelton is suitable)

Sp Speed (gear) nsg = Sp Speed (no gear)* Turbine rpm / Generator rpm

= 46*1/2

= 23 (Single jet Pelton/Crossflow is suitable)

If ns exceeds the range given in Table 8.2, multiple units should be used. Specific speed of multijet Pelton turbines is computed by multiplying the specific speed of runner by the square root of the

number of the jets. The calculations show that for the given parameters, either a gearless

Crossflow/Turgo turbine or a Pelton/Crossflow with a gear ratio of 1:2 is recommended.

Turbine Selection

Small Hydropower Promotion Project (SHPP)/GTZ

Referances: 6,7,8,12,13

25-Apr-2006

2006.03

Date

Revision

/GTZ

Project

Developer

Consultant

Designed

Checked

Pushpa Chitrakar

Pushpa Chitrakar

Input

Discharge (l/s)

Gross head (m)

Hydraulic losses

Max turbine output kW

Turbine rpm

Cd

69 Gear ratio at generator

15.94% No of turbines/generators

67.89 Total number of jets if Pelton n

750 Specified turbine

0.96 Cu

Output

Net head m

No Gearing

Sp speed of runner rpm (no gearing)

Pelton (12-30) => (Ns 17-42)

Turgo (Ns 20-70) => (Ns 28-99)

Crossflow (Ns 20-80)

Fracis (Ns 80-400)

Propeller or Kaplan (Ns 340-1000)

1

2

1

2

Pelton

0.46

**

Turgo

Crossflow

**

**

1500

With Gearing

46 Sp speed of turbine

Pelton (12-30) => (Ns 17-42)

Turgo (Ns 20-70) => (Ns 28-99)

Crossflow (Ns 20-80)

Fracis (Ns 80-400)

Propeller or Kaplan (Ns 340-1000)

23

Pelton

**

Crossflow

**

**

Page: 60

SHPP/GTZ

9.1

GENERAL

A generator converts mechanical energy to electrical energy. There are two types of generators; namely,

synchronous and asynchronous (induction).

Generally, induction generators are inexpensive and appropriate for Nepali micro-hydro schemes up to

about 15kW. For micro-hydro schemes ranging from 10kW to 100kW, synchronous generators are

technically and economically more attractive. Both synchronous and asynchronous generators are

available in single and three phases. Brushless synchronous generators are recommended for mini and

small hydropower projects.

Load controllers are generally used as the governing system in Nepali micro hydro schemes. An

Electronic Load Controller (ELC) is used for controlling power output of a synchronous generator. To

control an induction generator, an Induction Generator Controller (IGC) is used. Brushless synchronous

generators with hydraulic controlling systems are recommended for mini and small hydropower projects.

9.2

Selection of generator size mainly depends up on the loads of a proposed site. Selection of generator

type depends on the size of the selected generator, nature of the proposed loads and costs and benefits

of the scheme. As stated earlier, a generator type can be either synchronous or induction of either single

or three phase. Some of the main features of all types of generator are outlined in the following sections:

9.2.1

Advantages of a Three - Phase System

Considerable saving of conductor and machine costs.

Cheaper above 5 kW.

Less weight by size ratio.

Advantage of a Single Phase System

Simple wiring.

Cheaper ELC.

No problem due to unbalanced load.

9.2.2

Induction Generators

Advantages of Induction Generators:

Easily available

Cheap, rugged and simple in construction

Minimum Maintenance

Drawbacks of Induction Generators:

Problem supplying large inductive loads.

Capacitor banks are generally not durable.

Poor voltage regulation compared to synchronous generators.

Synchronous Generators

Advantages of Synchronous Generators:

High quality electrical output.

Higher efficiency.

Can start larger motors.

Page: 61

SHPP/GTZ

The cost is higher than induction generator for small sizes.

Higher losses due to unbalanced load.

9.3

GENERAL RECOMMENDATIONS

Based on the major features, general guidelines for selection of phase and type of generator are prepared

and summarized in Table 9.1.

Table 9.1: Selection of Generator Type

Size of scheme

Up to 10 kW

Generator

Synchronous/Induction

Phase

10 to 15 kW

Synchronous/Induction

More than 15 kW

Synchronous

Three Phase

Three Phase

Maximum ambient temperature, powerhouse altitude, electronic load controller correction factor and

power factor of the proposed loads are the major factors affecting the size of a generator. De-rating

coefficients to allow for these factors are presented in the Table 9.2.

Table 9.2: Generator rating factors

Max. Ambient temperature in oC =>

Temperature Factor (A)

Altitudes

Altitude

Factor

(B)

20

1.10

25

1.08

30

1.06

35

1.03

40

1.00

45

0.96

50

0.92

55

0.88

1000

1250

1500

1750

2000

2250

2500

2750

3000

3250

3500

3750

4000

4250

4500

1.00

0.98

0.96

0.945

0.93

0.915

0.90

0.88

0.86

0.845

0.83

0.815

0.8

0.785

0.77

0.83

For light bulb loads (inductive) only

For mixed loads of tube lights and other inductive loads

1.0

0.8

The steps for selecting the size of a synchronous generator are as follows:

1

Installed Capacity in kW

Generator (kVA) = 1.3*----------------------------AxBxCxD

Where, A, B, C and D are correction factors from Table 9.2, and 1.3 is the 30% overrating factor

(recommended) to allow for:

i)

ii) Handling of starting current if large motors (> 10% of generator size) are supplied from the

generator.

iii) The generator running at full load when using an ELC.

3

120 f

P

Where,

Page: 62

SHPP/GTZ

P = number of poles of the generator (2, 4, 6, etc., in pairs). P for Nepali micro-hydropower

schemes is generally 4 so that the rotational speed is 1500 RPM.

9.3.2 Sizing and RPM of an Induction Generator:

The steps for selecting the size of an induction generator are as follows:

1

Installed Capacity in kW

Induction Generator (kW) = 1.3* ----------------------------------------AxB

It is worth noting that an induction generator is basically a motor used as a generator. Similar to

motor rating, the rating of an induction generato should be in kW. Therefore, ELC factor (C) and

the power factor (D) corrections are not applicable for an induction generator. Other factors are

applied similar to a sychronous generator. Generator voltage and current ratings should not

exceed 80% of the electrical motor rating.

2

120 f

(1 + s )

P

Where,

P and f are the same as for synchronous generator and

s is the slip of the generator,

s=

Ns - Nr

Ns

Where,

Ns is the synchronous speed, i.e. Ns( RPM ) =

120 f

P

Nr is the rated rotor speed of the induction motor and Ni always exceeds Ns while

acting as a generator.

9.4

In addition to calculating electrical parameters stated above, following electrical parameters are added to

the presented Electrical spreadsheet:

1

Sizing of electrical load controller (ELC) or induction generator controller (IGC) (equal to the

installed capacity).

Sizing of ballast (20% higher than the installed capacity). In case the installed capacity exceeds or

equal to 50kW, the ballast capacity of ELC-Extension is calculated as:

Ballast capacity of ELC extension (kW) = 60% * 1.2 * Pe (electrical power)

Fixed load = 40% * Pe (electrical power)

Sizing of MCCB/MCB.

Page: 63

SHPP/GTZ

Excitation capacitance for Delta connection C (F) = 1/(2*pi()*f*Xc*hm)

1000*Pe* sin (cos-1 (power factor))

Or, C (F) = ----------------------------------------------------3*V2*pf*2*pi()*f*hm

Where,

Xc () = V / Im

V (V) = Rated Voltage of the motor (V) (phase to phase voltage, 380/400/415)

Im (A) = Magnetizing Current = I rated at full load current (A) * sin (cos-1 (power factor))

I rated at full load current = Rated power (kW) * 1000/(V*pf)

hm = rated efficiency of motor at full load

For star connected capacitors, the excitation capacitance is three times that for the Delta

connection.

2. Sizing of MCCB/MCB (A) = 1.25*Pe * 1000/(V*pf)

Where,

1.25 = overrating factor by 25%.

Pe (kW)= Installed capacity

V (V) = Rated phase to neutral Voltage (V) (V*3 for 3-phase)

pf

= power factor if induction generator is used

3. Sizing of power cable (A) = 1.7*I

Where,

1.70

I (A)

V (V)

pf

= Current = Generator size/(V *pf if induction generator is used)

= Rated phase to neutral Voltage (V) (V*3 for 3-phase)

= power factor

Electrical component calculations for an example of a three-phase 60kW synchronous generator at an

altitude of 1500m are presented in Figure 9.1. The detailed step-by-step calculations are:

The size of synchronous generator:

Installed Capacity in kW

Generator kVA = 1.3*----------------------------AxB xCxD

= 1.3*60.04/(0.96*0.96*0.83*0.8)

= 127.70 kVA

The higher size available in the market of 45kVA is used.

Rotational speed ( N ) =

120 f

RPM =120*50/4

P

= 1500 rpm

Since Pe > 50kW, the ballast capacity of ELC extension (kW) = 60% * 1.2 * Pe + 40% * Pe

= 0.6*1.2*60.04 + 0.4*60.04

= 67.24 kW

I rated for Cable & MCCB at Generator side = 1000/ V rated * Generator size /1.732

= 1000 / 400*140/1.732

= 202.08 Amp

Page: 64

SHPP/GTZ

= 1.25*60.04*1000/(400*1.732*0.8)

= 135.40 Amp

Power cable inside the powerhouse

Rating current

= 303.12 Amp

2

For this current a 4-core copper armoured cable of ASCR 185mm is chosen.

Spreadsheet developed by Mr. Pushpa Chitrakar, Engineering Advisor, SHPP/GTZ

11-Nov-2005

2005.10

SMALL HYDROPOWER PROMOTION PR

Revision

OJECT/G

TZ

Project

Upper Jogmai, Ilam

Developer

Kankaimai Hydropower P Ltd

Consultant

EPC Consult

Designed

Pushpa Chitrakar

Checked

Pushpa Chitrakar

Referances: 6,7,8,12,13

Date

INPUT

3

Discharge (m /s)

Gross head (m)

Overall plant efficiency (%)

o

Temperature ( C)

Altitude (m)

ELC correction factor

Frequency of the system (Hz)

Capacity of used generator (kVA)

60.000 Safety factor of generator

50% Phase

0.8

1.3

3-phase 3

45 Type of Generator

1500 Over rating factor of MCCB

0.83 Over rating factor of cable

50 No. of poles

0 Rated rotor speed if induction generator N (rpm)

Delta

Synchronous

1

1.25

1.5

OUTPUT

Pe Electrical output (active power) (kW)

Generator

Temp.factor

Capacity (kVA)

Synchronous rotational speed Ns (rpm)

ELC capacity (kW)

60.04 Ok

127.70 Actual available capacity (kVA)

1500

0.96

140.00

Ballast capacity of ELC-Extention (kW)

72.04

67.24

Cable

Rating (A)

202.08

135.40

185

Page: 65

SHPP/GTZ

Figure 9.2 gives electrical equipment sizing of the previous project with a single phase induction generator

with a rotor speed of 1450rpm. Since the electrical output is more than 10kW, a reminder error is flagged

in the adjacent cell. The electrical components presented in Figure 9.2 are computed as:

The size of the asynchronous generator:

Installed Capacity in kW

Generator kW = 1.3*---------------------------------------- = 1.3*20/(0.96*0.96)

AxB

= 28.25 kW

The higher size available in the market of 30kW is used.

Rotational speed ( N ) =

120 f

=120*50/4

P

= 1500 rpm

Rotational speed of a generator = Ns*(1+(Ns-N)/Ns) = 1500*(1+(1500-1450)/1500)

= 1550 rpm

Excitation capacitance

-1

1000*Pe* sin (cos (power factor))

C (F) = ----------------------------------------------------2

3*V *pf*2*pi()*f*hm

-1

C (F) = ----------------------------------------------------2

3*400 *0.8*2*pi()*50*0.89

=123.16 F

I rated for Cable & MCCB at Generator side = 1000/ V rated * Generator size /pf

= 1000 / 220*30/0.8

= 170.45 Amp

MCCB/MCB (A)

= 142.05 Amp

Rating current

= 255.68 Amp

2

For this current a 2-core copper armoured cable of ASCR 185mm is chosen.

Page: 66

SHPP/GTZ

Spreadsheet developed by Mr. Pushpa Chitrakar, Engineering Advisor, SHPP/GTZ

11-Nov-2005

2005.10

SMALL HYDROPOWER PROMOTION PR

Revision

OJECT/G

TZ

Project

Upper Jogmai, Ilam

Developer

Kankaimai Hydropower P Ltd

Consultant

EPC Consult

Designed

Pushpa Chitrakar

Checked

Pushpa Chitrakar

Referances: 6,7,8,12,13

Date

INPUT

3

Discharge (m /s)

Gross head (m)

Overall plant efficiency (%)

o

Temperature ( C)

Altitude (m)

ELC correction factor

Frequency of the system (Hz)

Capacity of used generator (kW)

Capacitor configuration

50.968 Safety factor of generator

50% Phase

0.8

1.3

1-phase 1

45 Type of Generator

1500 Over rating factor of MCCB

0.83 Over rating factor of cable

50 No. of poles

0 Rated rotor speed if induction generator N (rpm)

Delta

Efficiency of motor at full load

Induction

2

1.25

1.5

4

1450

89%

OUTPUT

Pe Electrical output (active power) (kW)

Generator

Temp.factor

Capacity (kW)

Synchronous rotational speed Ns (rpm)

28.25 Actual available capacity (kW)

1500 Rotational speed of the generator (rpm)

0.96

30.00

1550

Excitation Capacitance (micro F)

24.00

123.16

Cable

Rating (A)

170.45

142.04

150

Page: 67

SHPP/GTZ

10 MACHINE FOUNDATION

10.1

A machine foundation of a hydropower scheme is a gravity structure designed to transfer hydraulic forces

from penstock, torque from rotating machines and gravity loads from generator, turbines and the

foundation itself. Similar to an anchor block, the machine foundation should be stable against overturning,

sliding and sinking/bearing. Standard dimensions can be referred to while dimensioning microhydropower machine foundation. It is strongly recommended to refer to suppliers while dimensioning mini

and small hydropower machine foundations.

A machine foundation of 500kW Jhakre Mini-hydropower project cited in Civil Works Guidelines for MicroHydropower in Nepal has been taken as an example in the spreadsheet MachineFoundation. A plan

and a section of the considered foundation are presented in Figure 10.1. These figures are part of the

presented spreadsheet and are interactive diagrams. The considered machine foundation is designed to

support a directly coupled Pelton turbine and a generator.

It is worth noting that the critical plane of a machine foundation depends on turbine axis and coupling

types. A turbine axis (shaft) is perpendicular to the incoming flow for Crossflow, Pelton and Spiral case

Francis turbines whereas it is parallel to the incoming flow for open flume Francis and other axial flow

turbines. Coupling type (direct or belt drive) also determine a critical plane (XX or YY as presented in the

spreadsheet) with respect to its stability. Stability along both these mutually perpendicular axes are

analysed in the presented spreadsheet. Stepwise calculations of the considered example are presented

in the following sections. For input to these stepwise calculations, refer to the input section of the

spreadsheet is presented in Figure 10.1.

10.2

EXAMPLE

General Calculations

htotal

= hgross + hsurge = 51 m + 50 m

= 101 m:

0.3 2

m 2 101 m 9.8 kN / m 3

4

= 70.036 kN

Weight of the three sections W1, W 2. W 3 as presented in Figure 10.1 are:

W1

= 0.4m 1.5m 2.5m 22kN/m3

=33.00 kN

W2

= 27.225 kN

W3

= 193.875 kN

Overturning:

Take sum of moments about point B (counter clockwise moments as positive):

0.4

0.45

2.35

SM@B = W 1 x

+ 0.45 + 2.35 + (W 2 + W T )

+ 2.35 + (W G + W3 )

- FH 1.8

2

2

2

Page: 68

SHPP/GTZ

= 282.455 kNm

Sum of vertical forces,

SV

= W 1+W 2+W 3+W T+W G = 33.00 + 27.225 + 193.875 + 2.94 + 3.43

= 260.477 kN

Equivalent distance at which SV acts from point B:

d=

M = 282.455 = 1.084 m

V 260.477

L Base

3.2

- d =

- 1.084 = 0.516 m

2

2

eccentricity,

eallowable =

e=

LBase 3.2

=

= 0.533 m

6

6

\The structure is safe against overturning.

Bearing pressure:

Pbase max =

Pbase min =

V 1 +

A base

6e

=

Lbase

V 1 -

A base

6e

L base

260.477 6 0.516

2

1 +

= 64.038 kN/m

3.2 2.5

3.2

260.477 6 0.516

2

=

1 = 1.081 kN/m

3.2

2.5

3.2

Since both pressures are within zero and 180 kN/m (max. allowed for soil) the structure is safe against

sinking.

Sliding:

Assume that the friction coefficient between block and soil, m = 0.5

SH = FH = 70.036 kN

m SV = 0.5 x 260.5 = 130.2 kN

Factor of safety against sliding:

=

m V

130.238

= 1.86 > 1.5 OK

70.036

Stability along YY is analysed in similar manner. It is worth noting that the machine foundation is not

stable (for the stated factor of safety) against overturning and bearing along YY axis and this is the real

critical case for the presented example in the guidelines. However, this critical case is not considered and

not illustrated in the guidelines. The mismatch between Photo 8.4 (the actual case) and Figures 8.2 to 8.4

is quite noticeable. The Pelton turbine axis in Photo 8.4 perpendicular to XX axis (longer) whereas it is

considered parallel to XX axis in the illustrated calculations.

Page: 69

SHPP/GTZ

Small Hydropower Promotion Project (SHPP)/GTZ Spreadsheet by Mr Pushpa Chitrakar

Referances: 6,12,13,15,16

Date

24-May-2006

2006.05

Jhankre mini-hydropower

Revision

Project

Developer

Consultant

Designed

Checked

BPC Hydroconsult

1.8

1.6

1.2

YY (m)

Height ZZ (m)

1.4

1.0

0.8

Turbine CL

Generator CL

0.6

0.4

0.2

0.0

W1

W2

W3

2.8

2.6

2.4

2.2

2.0

1.8

1.6

1.4

1.2

1.0

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

0.0

Turbine CL

Generator CL

XX (m)

XX (m)

INPUT

Gross head hg (m)

Surge head hs (m)

50.00

Foundation

0.150

Penstock

Foundation on

2

Friction coeff between block and soil m

Length L (m)

Bredth B (m)

Height H (m)

Material of foundation

Soil

Diameter dp (m)

0.300

180

Material

0.5

Centreline above PH floor hp (m)

3.2 Turbine Pit

2.5

Length of opening Lo (m)

1.5

Bredth of opening Bo (m)

Concrete

Height of opening Ho (m)

mild steel

0.300

0.450

0.500

1.000

22

0.500

Electro-mechanical

Weight of turbine Wt (kN) & cl position

Weight of generator Wg (kN) & cl position

2.943

3.434

XX (m)

0.625

2.025

YY (m)

1.250

1.250

Weight Wi

(kN)

70.036

LA along XX

1.800

LA along YY

33.000

27.225

193.875

3.000

2.575

1.175

282.455

260.477

1.25

1.25

1.25

199.530

260.477

OUTPUT

Forces

Force due to h total of 101 m, Fh (kN)

Foundation

W1

W2

W3

Sum of moments SM (kN-m)

Sum of vertical forces SM (kN)

Page: 70

SHPP/GTZ

Overturning

Equivalent distance at which SM acts from critical point

d (m)

Eccentricity e, (m)

Allowable eccentricity e all (m)

Comment on overturning moment

LA along XX

1.084

0.516

0.533

Ok

LA along YY

0.766

0.484

0.417

Not Ok

Bearing

Pressure at base

Pmax

Pmin

Comments on bearing

LA along XX

64.038

1.081

Ok

LA along YY

70.379

-5.260

Not Ok

LA along XX

1.860

Ok

LA along YY

1.860

Ok

Sliding

Factor of safety against sliding, FS sl

Comment of sliding

Page: 71

SHPP/GTZ

11.1

Power generated at a powerhouse is evacuated to load centres or grids with the help of transmission and

distribution lines. According to the Nepal Standards, 400/230V is the standard minimum voltage.

400/11000V system is used in micro-hydropower transmission system where as 11 kV/33 kV is used in

mini and small hydropower transmission system. 11 kV and 33 kV are also considered to be distribution

voltage by Nepal Electricity Authority (NEA). Use of standard voltages in micro hydropower projects is

recommended so that the power can be easily synchronized and evacuated to grid in future.

11.2

GENERAL RECOMMENDATIONS

AEPC MGSP/ESAP has formulated following guidelines regarding micro-hydropower transmission and

distribution systems:

1

Cable configuration and poles: Buried or suspended on wooden or steel or concrete poles.

Conductor: Aluminum conductor steel reinforced (ACSR) or Arial Bundled Cable (ABC)

ACSR

Code

number

1

2

3

4

5

6

Type of

ACSR

Squirrel

Gopher

Weasel

Rabbit

Otter

Dog

Resistance

Ohm/km

1.374

1.098

0.9116

0.5449

0.3434

0.2745

Current

rating max

Amps

76

85

95

135

185

205

Equivalent

Copper area

2

mm

13

16

20

30

50

65

Inductive

Reactance

Ohm/km

0.355

0.349

0.345

0.335

0.328

0.315

Sp.

Weight

(kg/km)

80

106

128

214

Sp. Cost

(Rs/km)

13000

14500

15500

25750

394

52000

Note: Sp. Costs are taken from the guidelines and are lower than the market price. It is recommended to refer to the actual market price in the

design.

11.3

1

The presented spreadsheet is designed to calculate transmission parameters for three phase

33kV, 11kV and 400V and single phase 230V transmission and distribution lines.

Balanced load is assumed, i.e., neutral conductor does not carry any current.

With a power factor of 0.8, the rated current and voltage drop are calculated as:

Table 11.2: Rated current and voltage drop calculation

Phase

3-phase

1-phase

Current (A)

Power*1000/(1.732*V* power factor)

Power*1000/(V*power factor)

Phase

Single to single phase or 3 to 3 phase

1.732*IA*Z*Lkm

2*IA*Z*Lkm

Vprevious - dV

Page: 72

SHPP/GTZ

Vprevious/1.732 - dV

Spreadsheet protection: Transmission line networks is project specific and does not match each

other. Therefore, this spreadsheet is not protected to match the transmission line networks of the

considered project.

Start

Project

Name,

Location,

Length of cables

Cost of cables

Length

of

neutral

cables

phase, Power at node, ASCR code,

Remarks for repeated lengths

Current

Resistance

Reactance

Impedance

Voltage drop

Voltage at node

End

Figure 11.1: Flow chart of transmission and distribution line computation.

The grid and load presented in Figure 11.2 are used for the calculations presented in Figure 11.3.

Transformer # 1

Legends

Node/Load (kW) at nodes

Reach length (m)/Phase/Load (kW)

Figure 11.2: Transmission line and load used for the example.

Page: 73

SHPP/GTZ

Reach: powerhouse to node A to B

The installed capacity of the considered scheme is 36kW. Out of this, a total of 16kW of power is

transmitted from the powerhouse to nodes A, B, C and D. The transmission line from the powerhouse to

node A is 400V three phase four wires type. Power from node A to other load centres are transmitted using

230V single phase two wire systems. Lengths and other information of these reaches are presented in

Figures 11.2 and 11.3.

Reach PH-A

By Trial and error to limit voltage drop at the end of last load centre, a dog is found to be suitable. For this

cable,

2

2

2

2

Z = (I + L ) = (0.275 + 0.315 ) = 0.418 Ohm /km

Current, I PH-A = Power*1000/(3*V* power factor) = 16*1000/(3*400*0.8) = 28.87 A

Voltage drop, dV = 3* I PH-A *Z*Lkm = 3* 28.87 *0.418 *0.300 = 6.3 V

dV% = dV/VPH = 6.3/400 *100 = 1.58%, which is within the limit of 10%. A relatively lower value is

recommended at this point because voltage drop at the end of either B or C or D has to be within 10%.

Voltage @ node A, VA = VPH dV = 400 6.3 = 393.70 V

Reach A-B

As stated, this is single phase line. By Trial and error to limit voltage drop at the end of last load centre, an

otter is found to be suitable. For this cable,

2

Voltage at A for single phase, VA1 = 393.70/3 = 227.30 V

Current, I A-B = Power*1000/(VA* power factor) = 5*1000/(227.30 *0.8) = 27.50 A

Voltage drop, dV = 2* I A-B *Z*Lkm = 2* 27.50 *0.640 *0.500 = 17.60 V

Voltage at B for single phase, VB = 227.30 - 17.60 = 209.70 V

dV% = dVtotal/VPH = (1-209.70 /230) *100 = 10.40%, which is slightly above the limit of 10%. Hence OK for

micro-hydropower project.

Calculations for other nodes C and D shall be calculated in similar manner. It is worth noting transmission

line from A to C and D are constructed by splitting lines from A and therefore the voltage at A for these

calculations should also be same (i.e., 227.30 V).

It should also be noted that standard voltage should be used at the outlet of the transformers. The voltage

at the outlet is standarised using tapping switch adjustment.

The length of neutral wire depends on the configure of the transmission line network and users choice of

type of the neutral wire. Therefore, the length and type of neutral wire is presented as an input parameter.

Transmission line calculations for mini and small hydropower project shall be calculated similar to the

calculations presented in Reach PH-A. Power from most of the mini and small hydropower projects in Nepal

are evacuated to load centres or grids. Since the tariff for these projects is fixed on energy basis, energy

losses while transmitting power to the load centres or grids should also be calculated and considered in the

financial analyses. Power losses is not included in this spreadsheet but included in the Voltage Drop

calculation under Utility. It is calculated using following equation:

Ploss = 3*(V1-V2)/2/1000*I*pf

Page: 74

SHPP/GTZ

Spreadsheet by Mr Pushpa Chitrakar

Referances:2,4, 6,12,13,15,16

SMALL HYDROPOWER PROMOTION PROJECT/GTZ

Project:

Developer

Consultant

Designed

Checked

20-Apr-2006

Date

Revision 2006.03

Kankaimai Hydropower P Ltd

EPC Consult

Pushpa Chitrakar

Pushpa Chitrakar

Cable Summary

Type

Squirrel

Gopher

Weasel

Rabbit

Otter

Dog

Total Cost(Rs)

Node name

Reach

name

Reach

Length

(km)

Length(km)

7.02

10.00

2.36

1.55

2.40

486080.00

Vrated @

node &

Rated Voltage

Reach

Power at

Current V @ prev d/s prev node Voltage Volt at node branch

Phase next node ACSR

(V)

drop (V)

(V)

% voltag drop

1,3,11

(kW)

node (V)

(A)

type

PH-A-B-C-D

PH

A

A

B

C

D

PHA

AB

AC

AD

0.300

0.500

0.090

0.090

3

3

1

1

1

16

5

5

6

400.00

28.87

27.50

29.80

33.50

400.00

393.70

393.70

393.70

393.70

400.00

400.00

227.30

227.30

227.30

6.30

17.60

3.40

3.90

400.00

393.70

209.70

223.90

223.40

1.58

10.40

2.65

2.87

PH-T1

PH

T1

PHT1

0.050

3

3

20 Otter

400.00

36.08

400.00

400.00

400.00

400.00

1.50

400.00

398.50

0.38

T1-T2

T1

T2

T1 T2

1.500

11

11

11000.00 11000.00

1.31 11000.00

11000.00

11000.00

4.70

11000.00

10995.30

0.04

T2-E

T2

T2 E

0.300

3

3

20 Dog

400.00

36.08

400.00

400.00

400.00

400.00

7.80

400.00

392.20

1.95

E-J ( r )

T2

J

T2 J

0.300

1

1

20 Dog

226.44

110.41

226.44

226.44

226.44

226.44

27.70

226.44

198.74

13.59

E-H (y)

E

F

F

H

EF

FH

0.300

0.400

1

1

1

6 Otter

5 Otter

226.44

33.12

28.80

226.44

217.04

217.04

226.44

226.44

217.04

9.40

10.90

226.44

217.04

206.14

5.64

16.01

E-G (b)

E

F

F

G

EF

FG

0.300

0.200

1

1

1

7 Rabbit

5 Rabbit

226.44

38.64

29.53

226.44

211.64

211.64

226.44

226.44

211.64

14.80

7.60

226.44

211.64

204.04

7.98

19.27

E-M ( r)

E

F

F

M

EF

FM

0.300

0.600

1

1

1

1 Squirrel

1 Squirrel

226.44

5.52

5.63

226.44

221.84

221.84

226.44

226.44

221.84

4.60

9.40

226.44

221.84

212.44

3.55

11.19

F-K (y)

F

K

FK

0.180

1

1

2 Squirrel

217.04

11.52

217.04

217.04

217.04

217.04

5.80

217.04

211.24

8.16

F-L(b)

F

L

FL

0.180

1

1

1 Squirrel

211.64

5.91

211.64

211.64

211.64

211.64

3.00

211.64

208.64

9.29

Dog

Rabbit

Rabbit

Rabbit

20 Squirrel

Page: 75

SHPP/GTZ

10

Squirrel

Gopher

Weasel

Rabbiit

Otter

Dog

0.90

1.00

0.18

0.18

0.15

4.50

0.90

0.60

0.60

0.80

0.60

0.40

0.60

1.20

0.36

0.36

Page: 76

SHPP/GTZ

12.1

GENERAL

By optimising the use of available energy by allocating it in different time slots, benefit from a micro hydro

scheme can be maximized. Based on the AEPC MGSP/ESAP guidelines, a spreadsheet on loads and

benefits is presented for concerned stakeholders to arrive to the most optimum pre-construction decision.

12.2

2. Minimum of 10% of total energy output as productive end use is mandatory.

3. Multipurpose scheme is preferable.

12.3

A flow chart of loads and benefits analyses used in the spreadsheet is presented in Figure 12.1. Based

on this flow chart, an example is presented in Figure 12.2. The main features and assumptions are:

1. In case the guidelines are similar to that set by AEPC, this spreadsheet can also be used to all

micro hydropower project. For the first three years of operation, one set of domestic and five

different end uses can be defined in five different time slots in the 24-hour load duration curve.

2. Probable business load after three years of operation can defined based on the AEPC

requirements.

3. Annual available energy, annual load, productive end use load factor and annual total income are

calculated and subsequently used in the financial analyses.

4. A load duration chart for the first three years of operation is presented at the end of the

spreadsheet. This chart is very helpful in planning and allocating different loads so that the

benefits are maximized.

Start

Project

Name,

Location,

Installed capacity,

present loads & tariff (24 hr, 5 slots)

Future EU load & tariff (1 time slot)

24 hr load

Load duration

Graph (decision making)

Annual energy

Yearly loads

EU factors

Yearly income

End

Figure 12.1: Flow chart of the load and benefits calculation spreadsheet.

Page: 77

SHPP/GTZ

Loads and benefits calculation in the presented spreadsheet are divided into two main parts. The first part

covers existing or committed business loads while the second part covers probable business load after this

period. This spreadsheet is prepared to mimic AEPC subsidy calculation format. A 96.1kW Gaddigadh

MHP, Doti is used as an example in the spreadsheet. The stepwise calculations for the first three years of

load and benefit calculations are presented.

Domestic Loads

Annual available energy, Ey = operating days * installed capacity * 24 = 330*96.1*24 = 761112 kWh

Load P (kW) =Beneficiary households (HH) *Average HH load /(1-loss)/1000

= 471 * 85 /(1-0.1)/1000 = 44.483 kW

Yearly load P y = operating days * daily load (D) = 330 * (5* 88 + 2*91.1) = 205326 kWh

Average daily operating hours = Py/ D /P = 205326/330/44.483 = 13.987 hours/day

Load factor = Py / Ey * 100 = 205326/761112*100 = 26.98%

Annual Income By =tariff * HH * load*12 = Rs 1*471*85*12 = Rs 480,420

Existing/ Committed business loads

Existing or committed business loads are calculated in similar manner. The calculated values are presented

in Figure 12.3. As presented in the figure, the annual end use and productive end use load factor are

117060 kW and 15.38% respectively. Similarly the total plant factor and annual income are 42.36% and Rs

916,050 respectively.

Since the committed end use is more than 10%, this project is recommended for implementation using

AEPC subsidy.

The presented load duration chart in Figure 12.2 suggests that the scheme is mainly dominated by domestic

load. Other end uses can be incorporated even at subsidized rate during 5:00 to 17:00 and 20:00 to 24:00

hours. The available power varies from zero to 96.1kW during these periods. In case the scheme has to

share water with other existing water utilities such as irrigation systems, this can be arranged during the

non-operating hours or during partial load hours. Thus, this load duration curve can also be used to

maximize benefits even at lower tariff during such hours.

Load Duration Chart for the first three years of operation of Gaddi

Gad Khola

2

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

19

20

21

22

23

24

140

120

100

80

60

40

20

0

0

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

19

20

21

22

Time (hrs)

Domestic

Agro-processing

Bakery

Saw Mill

Herbs Processing

Load 5

Load 6

Installed Capacity

Page: 78

23

SHPP/GTZ

Small Hydropower Promotion Project (SHPP)/GTZ

Date

Revision

Project:

20-Apr-2006

2006.03

Ladagada VDC, Doti

Location:

Developer

Consultant

Designed

Checked

Gaddi Gad Khola MHP

Perinial

Pushpa Chitrakar

Pushpa Chitrakar

INPUT

General

Power Output (kW)

Name of the Source

96.1

Gaddi Gad Khola

Beneficiary HH (nos.)

Plant's operating days

471

330

Domestic

Agro-processing

Bakery

Saw Mill

Herbs Processing

Load 5

Load 6

Operating Tariff

days/year

(Rs)

330

1.00

330

6.00

320

6.00

300

5.00

180

5.50

330

330

Domestic lighting

Average subscription/household (W/HH)

System loss

10%

time

5

load

88

440

Probable Business Load Expected after 3 years

Operating d/y Tariff (Rs)

Load

Metal Workshop

330

6.00

Photo Studio

320

6.00

Dairy Processing

320

6.00

Cold Store

310

6.00

Load 5

Load 6

time (hr)

Agro-processing

time (hr)

Bakery

time (hr)

Saw Mill

time (hr)

Herbs Processing

time (hr)

Load 5

15

time (hr)

Load 6

12

36

OUTPUT

Summary

Annual Available kWh

12

22.5

14

16

22

18

22

18

22

17

22

16

10

12

25

8

15

22

10

22

8

9

3

3

85

8

10

1

8

6

18

91.1

182.2

12

16

8

20

8

18

8

18

Yearly Energy Demand (Dy) kWh

Average Load Factor

36.00

761112

Productive end use load factor (%)

Total load plant factor

Annual total (domestic + end uses) Income (Rs)

117060

147680

15.38

19.40

42.36

50.40

916,050

1,099,770

End Use

Load

Operation Period

Yearly Load

Annual

(kW)

Hours/day Days/year

kWh

LF (%)

Income (Rs)

Domestic Lighting

44.483

13.987

330

205326

26.98

480,420

Existing/Committed Business Load

Agro-processing

22.5

4

330

29700

3.90

178200

Bakery

9

6

320

17280

2.27

103680

Saw Mill

10

2

300

6000

0.79

30000

Herbs Processing

25

5

180

22500

2.96

123750

Load 5

15

6

330

29700

3.90

Load 6

12

3

330

11880

1.56

Total

117060

15.38

435,630

Total Annual Income from sales of electricity

916,050

Probable Business Load after 3 years

Metal Workshop

10

Photo Studio

1

Dairy Processing

8

Cold Store

6

Load 5

Load 6

Total additional annual income after 3 years

Productive End Use (%)

19.40

4

12

10

10

330

320

320

310

13200

3840

25600

18600

1.73

0.50

3.36

2.44

61240

8.05

20

79200

23040

153600

111600

183,720

Page: 79

1037

378578

49.97%

SHPP/GTZ

13.1

As per the guidelines and standards set aside by AEPC, this spreadsheet tests financial viability of a

micro-hydro scheme for the subsidy approval. The base of the robustness of the project is mainly its

financial sustainability during its life span of 15 years. Positive Net Present Value (NPV) of project cost

(equity) and benefit streams based on based on 4% of discount rate is expected for subsidy approval.

13.2

1. 15 years as the economic life span of the project for calculating financial parameters.

2. Total cost of the project including subsidy should be limited to

Table 13.1: Per kilowatt subsidy and cost ceiling as per AEPC

Walking distance from nearest road

head

less than 2 days walking distance

2-5 days walking distance

more than 5 days walking distance

Subsidy

70000

78750

91500

Ceiling

170000

178750

191500

13.3

The spreadsheet presented requires the total costs including financing of the project and annual costs and

benefits as inputs to calculate the financial parameters such as the net present value and cost per kilowatt.

The flow chart on which the spreadsheet is based is presented in Figure 13.1. Annual cash flows for the

stated planning horizon is presented and used to calculate different financial parameters.

Present values of costs and benefit streams are calculated to estimate NPV of the scheme. The total

capitalized cost of the project includes subsidy based on accessibility of the project site, loans from

banking and other lending agencies, cash and kind equities and other sources such as donations, etc.

Investment costs are presented in Figure 13.2. Costs required for the operation and maintenance of the

project is calculated. Revenues with and without probable business loads are calculated (Refer to

Chapter 11 for business loads).

NPVs of the project on total investment, total cost excluding subsidy and equity only are calculated and

compared. As stated earlier, the minimum criteria for subsidy approval is to have positive NPV for equity

only consideration without probable business loads. Cost per kilowatt to be within the specified limits is

another criteria for the subsidy approval.

The subsidy policy came into effect because of the fact that implementation of micro-hydropower projects

in Nepal is not financially feasible and sustainable without subsidies. Moreover, soft loans and relatively

lower discount rate are applied to make them more sustainable. It is worth noting that the only loans and

cash equity are considered as investments in the financial analyses. The loans shall be paid back within

the stated payback periods.

Page: 80

SHPP/GTZ

Start

Sources of investment

Payback of loan

Discount factor

Breakdown of investment cost

Annual operating cost

Project

Name,

Location,

Cost per kW

Subsidy per HH

Cash flows

End

Figure 13.1: Flow chart for Project costing and financial analyses.

13.3.2 Typical example of costing and financial analyses

A typical example of costing and financial analyses of a micro-hydro scheme based on projected cash flow

is presented in Figure 13.2. Since the economic life span of mini and small hydropower is more than 15

years, use of the spreadsheet should be limited to micro-hydropower projects only. However, financial

analyses of mini and small hydropower projects can be carried out using the stepwise calculations

presented in the subsequent section.

Financial Analyses

Project costs and benefit related are presented in Figure 13.2. The summary of costs and benefits are:

Total project cost P = Rs 12,734,865

Total loan L = Rs 1,890,044

Cash equity = Rs 1,200,000

Operation and maintenance cost = Rs 305,004

Annual installment of bank loan (annuity)

L i (1 + i ) n

(1 + i ) n - 1

= Rs 303,364

(1 + 3%) 7 - 1

Alternatively, an Excel built-in function PMT (interest rate, payback year, loan) can also be used to calculate

the annual installment. If the installment mode is other than annual (such as monthly and quarterly), it is

recommended to use Loan Payment module of the presented Utility spreadsheet.

Based on the projected annual cash flows (CFs), NPV of the project can be calculated by using following

equation.

NPV = CF0 +

CFn

CF1

CF2

+

+ ............. +

1

2

(1 + i )

(1 + i )

(1 + i ) n

=

t =0

CFt

(1 + i ) t

Page: 81

SHPP/GTZ

An alternative equivalent Excel built-in function NPV(Discount Factor, Cash Flows)*(1+Discount Factor) is

used in this spreadsheet. NPV of equity without probable business load is,

NPV equity = NPV(Discount Factor, Cash Flows)*(1+Discount Factor)

= NPV(4%, -1200000, 307682, ., 611046,)*(1+4%) = Rs. 3,773,038 OK since it is positive.

Cost per kilowatt = Total Project Cost / Project Size = 12,734,865/96.1 = Rs 132,517/kW OK since it is

within the limit Rs 191,500/kW for projects located with an access of five days or more of walking distance.

Based on above results, the project is financially viable for subsidy approval.

parameters for different cases are calculated in similar manner.

Small Hydropower Promotion Project (SHPP)/GTZ

Date

23-Apr-2006

Revision

2006.03

Project

Developer

Consultant

Designed

Checked

Kankaimai Hydropower P Ltd

EPC Consult

Pushpa Chitrakar

Pushpa Chitrakar

INPUT

Project size (kW):

96.10

Total Project Cost (Rs.)

12,734,865

Subsidy/kW

Total subsidy

more than

5 days walking distance

91500 Rs/kW x 96.1 =

8793150

Interest rate i (%)

Payback period n (yr)

Plant life N (yr)

15

Discount Rate I (%)

4%

Investment Cost (Rs)

Mechanical components

Electrical component

Civil component

Spare parts & tools

Transport.

Bank loan

1,890,044

3%

7

Other loan

8,516,715

999,040 Installation

2,061,717 Commissioning

1,363,497 VAT

57,550 Contingencies

3,178,800 Others

Kind equity

851,671

Others

O & M (Rs)

Salary

Spares

Maintenance

Office expenses

Miscellaneous

Others

232,500

623,611

Cost Summary

Project cost (Rs)

Annual Operation, Maintenance and other Costs (Rs)

Annual Income without probable business loads (Rs)

Annual Income with probable business loads (Rs)

Annual installment for Bank loan

Annual installment for other loan

NPV on equity without probable business load (Rs)+ve

NPV equity with probable business load (Rs)+ve

Cost/Kw =>>Ok

Subsidy/HH

Cash equity

1,200,000

305,004

114000

171,000

20,004

NPV

Probable Business Load

Without

With

Total investment cost

-3,543,677

-2,010,846

Total Inv Cost-Subsidy

5,249,473

6,782,304

Equity

3,773,038

5,305,869

12,734,865

305,004

916050

1099770

303364

NA

3,773,038

5,305,869

132,517

18,669

Without Probable Business Loads

Year

Equity

O & Mcosts

Loan repayment

Income

1,200,000

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

13

14

15

305,004

305,004

305,004

305,004

305,004

305,004

305,004

305,004

305,004

305,004

305,004

305,004

305,004

305,004

305,004

303,364

303,364

303,364

303,364

303,364

303,364

303,364

916,050

916,050

916,050

916,050

916,050

916,050

916,050

916,050

916,050

916,050

916,050

916,050

916,050

916,050

916,050

Cash flow

-1,200,000

307,682

307,682

307,682

307,682

307,682

307,682

307,682

611,046

611,046

611,046

611,046

611,046

611,046

611,046

611,046

Income

916,050

916,050

916,050

1,099,770

1,099,770

1,099,770

1,099,770

1,099,770

1,099,770

1,099,770

1,099,770

1,099,770

1,099,770

1,099,770

1,099,770

Page: 82

Cash flow

-1,200,000

307,682

307,682

307,682

491,402

491,402

491,402

491,402

794,766

794,766

794,766

794,766

794,766

794,766

794,766

794,766

14

14.1

SHPP/GTZ

UTILITIES

INTRODUCTION

In this spreadsheet tools for independent calculations are presented. These tools are especially helpful in

case quick and handy independent computations are required. Some of the presented tools are:

14.1.1 Uniform depth of a rectangular or trapezoidal canal

Calculation of uniform depths of an open channel is an iterative process. Mannings equation is used for

calculating uniform depth. VBA for Excel is used for this iterative process. A typical calculation for a

trapezoidal section is presented in Figure 14.1.

Small Hydropower Promotion Project (SHPP)/GTZ

Date

01-May-2006

Revision

2006.05

1,000

50.0000

300

Freeboard, FB (m)

0.2

0.3

Unlined fissured/disintegrated rock/tough hardpen cut

1.000

Z= 0.50

1.572

0.572

Uniform Depth (Y-m)

Wall

T = 1572 mm

14.1.2 Payment of loan for different periods (monthly, quarterly and yearly)

The tool presented in Figure 14.2 is useful for calculating equal installment payback (EMI) for a given loan

at a specific interest rate and terms. Three modes namely monthly, quarterly and yearly payments are

available in this tool.

Page: 83

SHPP/GTZ

Payment of a loan

Small Hydropower Promotion Project (SHPP)/GTZ Spreadsheet by Mr Pushpa Chitrakar

Date

01-May-2006

Revision

2006.05

1

Payback

Loan amount (NRs) :

2006

10

Yearly Payment

331,721.20

Back to Utilities

Generate Schedule

A full payment schedule can also be generated by clicking Generate Schedule button. A typical schedule

is presented in Figure 14.3.

Month

Pmt No.

Pmt

Principal

Interest

Balance

Feb-06

Feb-07

Feb-08

Feb-09

Feb-10

Feb-11

Feb-12

Feb-13

Feb-14

Feb-15

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

Rs 331,721

Rs 331,721

Rs 331,721

Rs 331,721

Rs 331,721

Rs 331,721

Rs 331,721

Rs 331,721

Rs 331,721

Rs 331,721

Rs 97,721

Rs 110,425

Rs 124,780

Rs 141,002

Rs 159,332

Rs 180,045

Rs 203,451

Rs 229,899

Rs 259,786

Rs 293,559

Rs 234,000

Rs 221,296

Rs 206,941

Rs 190,720

Rs 172,389

Rs 151,676

Rs 128,270

Rs 101,822

Rs 71,935

Rs 38,163

Rs 1,702,279

Rs 1,591,854

Rs 1,467,074

Rs 1,326,072

Rs 1,166,740

Rs 986,695

Rs 783,244

Rs 553,345

Rs 293,559

(Rs 0)

14.1.3 Power calculations

This tool is useful for calculating power based on AEPC guidelines for subsidy criteria and actual power

based on known cumulative efficiency. A typical example is presented in Figure 14.4 below:

Small Hydropower Promotion Project (SHPP)/GTZ Spreadsheet by Mr Pushpa Chitrakar

Date

01-May-2006

Revision

2006.05

Discharge (l/s):

Cumulative efficiency including head loss (n%)

120

80.00%

300.00

282.53

176.58

Page: 84

SHPP/GTZ

The spillway sizing tool is useful for calculating spillway lengths for different spillway shapes with different

downstream conditions (downstream obstructed or free). As presented in Figure 14.5, this tool calculates

actual spillway length required for critical conditions of load rejection and off-take flood.

Small Hydropower Promotion Project (SHPP)/GTZ Spreadsheet by Mr Pushpa Chitrakar

Date

15-Apr-2006

Revision

2006.03

2,000

500

300

1.5

1.5

8.11

17.21

14.1.5 Voltage drops of transmission line.

This tool calculates voltage drop, percentage voltage drop and voltage at a lower end of a transmission

line segment for a given power. A typical example is presented in Figure 14.6.

Voltage Drop

Small Hydropower Promotion Project (SHPP)/GTZ Spreadsheet by Mr Pushpa Chitrakar

Date

01-May-2006

Revision

2006.05

1.000

230

Power, P (kW)

ASCR type

20

Dog

6.00

Current, I (A)

108.70

Impedence, Z (/km)

0.4178

151.34

3.42

78.66

%Voltage drop

39.49

Page: 85

SHPP/GTZ

This tool is useful for calculating friction factor. Manual friction factor calculation involves a long and

tedious process and can easily go wrong. The tool presented in Figure 14.7 also calculates head losses

in metres and percentage and net head for given inputs.

Small Hydropower Promotion Project (SHPP)/GTZ Spreadsheet by Mr Pushpa Chitrakar

Upper Jogmai, Ilam

Date

01-May-2006

Stone masonry canal

2006.05

Revision

Discharge (m3/s)

Gross head (m)

Pipe roughness ks (mm)

Pipe diameter (mm)

Pipe Length (m)

Turbulent headloss factor (K)

Friction factor f

Headloss hl (m)

Headloss hl (%)

Net Head (m)

0.500 Flow

63 Velocity, v(m/s)

0.010 Reynold's nr, (R )

500.00 Laminar Flow

2.546479089

1116876.794

5.73027E-05

9.170E+00

9.170E+00

Transitional

Flow

&

Turbulent

Flow

0.011893135

0.0119

1.282

2.03

61.718

100

1.50

Page: 86

SHPP/GTZ

15 REFERENCES

1. Mini-Grid Support Programme, Alternative Energy Promotion Centre, Kathmandu, Nepal (2002),

Peltric Standards

2. Mini-Grid Support Programme, Alternative Energy Promotion Centre, Kathmandu, Nepal (2003),

Preliminary Feasibility Studies of Prospective Micro-hydro Projects

3. Mini-Grid Support Programme, Alternative Energy Promotion Centre , Kathmandu, Nepal(2001),

Technical Details and Cost Estimate

4. Mini-Grid Support Programme, Alternative Energy Promotion Centre , Kathmandu, Nepal(2003),

Guidelines for Detailed Feasibility Study of Micro-Hydro Projects

5. European Small Hydropower Association (1998), Layman's Guidebook on How to Develop a Small

Hydro Site

6. BPC Hydroconsult, Intermediate Technology Development Group (ITDG), Kathmandu, Nepal

(2002), Civil Works Guidelines for Micro-Hydropower in Nepal.

7. United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO), Report on Standardization of Civil

Works for Small Hydropower Plants

8. GTZ/Department of Energy Development, Energy Division, Papua New Guinea, Micro Hydropower

Training Modules (1994), Modules 1-7, 10, 13, 14 & 18B.

9. American Society of Civil Engineer (ASCE), Sediment Transportation.

10. KB Raina & SK Bhattacharya, New Age International (P) Ltd (1999), Electrical Design Estimating

and Costing.

11. Badri Ram & DN Vishwakarma, Tata McGraw-Hill Publishing Company Limited, New Delhi 1995,

Power System Protection and Switchgear, 1995.

12. Adam Harvey et.al. (1993), Micro-Hydro Design Manual, A guide to small-scale water power

schemes, Intermediate Technology Publications, ISBN 1 85339 103 4.

13. Allen R. Inversin (1986), Micro-Hydropower Sourcebook, A Practical Guide to Design and

Implementation in Developing Countries, NRECA International Foundation, 1800 Massachusetts

Avenue N. W., Washington, DC 20036.

14. Helmut Lauterjung/Gangolf Schmidt (1989), Planning of Intake Structures, GATE/GTZ, Vieweg.

15. HMG of Nepal, Ministry of Water Resources, Water and Energy Commission Secretariat,

Department of Hydrology and Meteorology, Methodologies for estimating hydrologic characteristics

of un-gauged locations in Nepal (1990).

16. HMG/N, Medium Irrigation Project, Design Manuals, 1982

17. His Majesty's Government of Nepal, Ministry of Water Resources, Department of Irrigation,

Planning and Design Strengthening Project (PDSP), United Nations Development Programme

(NEP/85/013) / World Bank, Design Manuals for Irrigation Projects in Nepal, 1990.

18. ITECO, DEH/SATA Salleri Chialsa Small Hydel Project (1983), Technical Report.

Page: 87

SHPP/GTZ

19. P.N. Khanna (1996), Indian Practical Civil Engineer's Handbook, 15th Edition, Engineer's

Publishers, Post Box 725, New Delhi - 110001.

20. ITDG, Electrical Guideline For Micro-Hydro Electric Installation.

21. REDP, REDP Publications, Environment Management Guidelines, 1997

22. ITDG, IT Nepal Publications, Financial Guidelines for Micro-hydro Projects, 1997

23. IT Nepal Publications, Management Guidelines For Isolated MH Plant In Nepal, 1999.

24. ITDG/ESAP, Guidelines relating to quality improvement of MH plants, 1999

25. ICIMOD, Manual for Survey and Layout Design of Private Micro Hydropower Plants.

26. Norwegian Water Resources and Energy Administration, The Norwegian Regulations for Planning,

Construction and Operation of Dams, Norwegian University Press, Oslo, Norway, 1994.

27. Various Consultants, AEPC subsidized Nepali micro-hydropower (up to 100kW) Pre-feasibility and

Feasibility Study Reports (about 400 projects), 2002-2004.

28. Various Consultants, SHPP/GTZ assisted Nepali small hydropower (up to 10MW) study reports at

various levels (about 65 projects), 2001-2006.

29. Small Hydro Engineers Consultants P Ltd, Detailed Project Report (DPR) of 5MW Soldan Small

Hydropower Project, Himachal Pradesh, India, 2001.

30. Small Hydro Engineers Consultants P Ltd, Detailed Project Report (DPR) of 4.5MW Sarbari Small

Hydropower Project, Himachal Pradesh, India, 2001.

31. Entec AG, Switzerland, 240 kW Dewata Tea State Mini Hydropower Scheme Feasibility Study,

West Java, Indonesia, 2000.

32. Entec AG, Switzerland, 585 kW Jegu Village Mini Hydropower Plant Feasibility Study, East Java,

Indonesia, 2000.

33. Son Vu Energy Development Joint Stock Company, 3.2MW Nhap A Hydropower Project Final

Feasibility Report, Hoa Binh, Vietnam, 2005.

34. Hanoi Construction Company, 3MW Sao Va Hydropower Project Feasibility Report, Nghe An

Province, Vietnam, 2005.

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DRAWINGS

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Introduction:

Small Hydropower Promotion Project (SHPP/GTZ) was established in 1999 as a joint project of the

Ministry of Water Resources and German Development Cooperation. It provides technical and

logistic supports to hydropower projects in Nepal within the range of 100kW to 10MW.

Objectives:

The objective of the project is to establish a market for small hydro power development,

rehabilitation and operation which will in turn facilitate the expansion of rural electrification and

leads to associated economic activities and rural development.

Activities:

1. Strengthening of Policy Frame Work

SHPP provides input to the formulation of hydropower and other related policies, acts and

regulations.

2. Technical and logistic support from desk studies to operation of small hydropower schemes on:

Performance and optimization studies incorporating efficient technologies

Review of projects including financial analysis, hydrological studies, environmental

protection, civil works , metal works, electro-mechanical works, transmission lines, etc.

Preparation of model contracts on civil construction, mechanical works, etc.

Technical supports to under-construction small hydropower projects.

Operation, repair, maintenance and rehabilitation

3. Capacity building of stakeholders

Conducting seminars, workshops and forums for professionals and stakeholders in SHP.

Facilitating Nepali developers to participate in seminars, workshops and forums organized by

others.

4. Facilitating Investment

SHP facilitate on building up of financial set ups of small hydropower projects. It also helps

share relevant information among developers and other stakeholders.

5. Assistance and advice to

SHPP provides assistance and advice to Independent Power Producers (IPPs) on the maximum

use of electricity by increasing load factors and utilizing off-peak hours of isolated plants to

increase revenue streams. It also assist prospectus leases on assessing inventories and

requires repair & maintenance statements of NEA schemes

Approaches:

In order to overcome the entrepreneur's hesitation and / or inability to engage in the small

hydropower sector, the project offers a common platform for public and private stakeholders. The

platform allows them to make each other aware of their specific constraints as well as their mutual

interest in developing a partnership for satisfying the uncovered electricity demand of the rural

areas. In this way, the project seeks to have the barriers to private sector's involvement in the

small hydropower field reduced or eliminated. The projects also works directly with the developers

assisting them to acquire services they require to implement and operate successful projects.

Institutional Framework:

The project has an Advisory Committee which has the representation from Ministry of Water

Resources (MoWR), Department of Electricity (DoED) and German Technical Cooperation (GTZ).

The committee meets, as and when required, to discuss and approve policies and directives for the

execution of plans and programs.

The implementing consultants of Small Hydropower Promotion Project are ENTEC, Switzerland

and Winrock International, Nepal.

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