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Version 2006.

05

Micro-hydropower Design Aids Manual (v 2006.05)

SHPP/GTZ

NOTICE
The earlier version of these hydropower Design Aids had been prepared to provide a basis for microhydropower consultants to undertake calculations and prepare drawings as per the requirements of
Alternative Energy promotion Centre (AEPC) of the Government of Nepal. The tools in this version
(version 2006.05) were amended to fulfill the minimum requirements of standard micro and mini
hydropower project feasibility studies. It is expected that the use of these Design Aids will result in a
standard methodology for calculating and presenting MHP designs.
This manual and any examples contained herein are provided as is and are subject to change without
notice. Small Hydropower Promotion Project (SHPP/GTZ) shall not be liable for any errors or for
incidental or consequential damages in connection with the furnishing, performance, or use of this manual
or the examples herein.
Small Hydropower Promotion Project (SHPP/GTZ). All rights reserved.
All rights are reserved to the programs and drawings that are included in the MHP Design Aids.
Reproduction, adaptation or translation of those programs and drawings without prior written permission of
SHPP/GTZ is also prohibited.
Micro-hydropower Design Aids (v 2006.05) is a shareware and can also be downloaded from
www.entec.com.np . Permission is granted to any individual or institution to use, copy, or redistribute the
MHP Design Aids so long as it is not sold for profit. Reproduction, adaptation or translation of those
programs and drawings without prior written permission of SHPP/GTZ is prohibited.

Published by:
Small Hydropower Promotion Project (SHPP/GTZ)
Pulchowk, Lalitpur, Nepal
PO Box 1457, Kathmandu, Nepal
Tel: 977 1 5009067/8/9
Fax: 977 1 5521425
Web: http://www.entec.com.np
Email: shp@gtz.org.np
Author:

Mr. Pushpa Chitrakar


Engineering Advisor
SHPP/GTZ
Printed by:
Hisi Offset Printing Press,
Jamal, Kathmandu, Nepal
This Edition:
May 2006
First Edition
1000 copies
Price:
: NRs. 300 (for Nepal and SAARC countries)
: US$ 15 (for other countries)

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Micro-hydropower Design Aids Manual (v 2006.05)

SHPP/GTZ

PREFACE
This set of hydropower design tools is an updated version of Micro-hydropower Design Aids which was
prepared by Small Hydropower Promotion Project (SHPP/GTZ) during its collaboration with Alternative
Energy Promotion Centre (AEPC/ESAP) from 2002 to 2004. It is a complete set of tools consisting of
typical AutoCad drawings, typical Microsoft Excel spreadsheets and a users manual. An electronic
version of earlier tools was officially distributed by AEPC/ESAP for using up to feasibility study levels of its
subsidized micro-hydropower schemes up to 100kW.
German Development Cooperation (GTZ) has been cooperating with the Kingdom of Nepal for more than
four decades. During this period its bilateral Technical Cooperation covered a broad range of sectors
including agriculture, livestock, rural development, forestry, energy, credit, industry, vocational training,
urban development, education and health. Small Hydropower Promotion Project was established in 1999
as its bilateral Technical Cooperation on energy sector. Since then this project has been providing
technical and logistic services to small hydropower stakeholders within Nepal through Entec AG of
Switzerland as an implementing consultant of this project.
Since its establishment in 1999, SHPP/GTZ has been providing its services to hydropower stakeholders.
Although its main mandate is to provide technical and logistic supports to small hydropower projects in
Nepal within the range of 100kW to 10MW, SHPP/GTZ has also been backstopping hydropower project
below 100kW. The overwhelming positive feedbacks from micro and small hydropower stakeholders on
these tools and continuous update and distribution of these tools are the examples of its concern on the
holistic approach of sectorial development of hydropower in Nepal. This version of the design aids
includes three additional spreadsheets and enhanced utilities especially useful for mini hydropower project
component designs. Since these tools were verified with real project studies, I personally found them very
useful for the stated design works.
Irrespective of the sizes and locations, all hydropower schemes have a common feature using potential
energy of water for generating electricity. Therefore, use of all the tools except the spreadsheet on
hydrology can also be used for micro and mini hydropower projects outside Nepal. Moreover, some
spreadsheets and drawings can also be small and even large hydropower project designs. These tools
have also been used in some small hydropower projects in Vietnam and micro hydropower projects in
Afghanistan.
I would like to thank Entec AG, Switzerland and German Development Cooperation, Nepal for their
support to make this publication happen. My special thank goes to Mr. Pushpa Chitrakar, Engineering
Advisor of SHPP/GTZ, for his devotion of making such a useful complete set of utility package for micro
and mini hydropower project designs. I would also like to extend my sincere thanks to AEPC/ESAP for
their contributions to the development of these Design Aids. The contribution of all SHPP/GTZ team
members for their continuous support on the development of these design aids is highly appreciated.
I do hope that this Micro-hydropower Design Aids would fill the gap that has been felt by all the micro and
mini hydropower stakeholders and will be able to contribute to the hydropower sector.

Sridhar Devkota
Project Manager
SHPP/GTZ

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
Thanks for using the Micro-hydropower Design Aids (version 2006.05). Micro-hydropower
Design Aids is a complete set of tools consisting of typical AutoCad drawings, typical Microsoft
Excel spreadsheets (a workbook) and a users manual (this manual) recommended for use in the
feasibility study of micro and mini hydropower schemes. Although these tools were mainly
prepared based on the prudent practices of Nepali micro and mini hydropower scheme designs,
it is expected that the use of these Design Aids helps enhancing the overall quality of hydropower
sector within Nepal and abroad. All spreadsheets except Hydrology can also be used for mini
and small hydropower projects outside Nepal. However, the title of these tools in this version is
not changed.
Why I Prepared the Design Aids
I approached this project with one goal in mind. To write a one-step Micro-hydropower Design
Aids that would appeal to all Nepali micro-hydropower stakeholders. That is a fairly ambitious
goal. But based on the feedback I received from all the stakeholders, I think I have been
successful. In addition to updating the existing tools for use in mini, micro and small hydropower
projects, spreadsheets for calculating anchor block calculation and design, machine foundation
design, loan payback cash flow, etc, are added in this version. These additional tools are
especially useful for mini and small hydropower projects. Interactive diagrams to most of the
spreadsheets are added in this version.
Microsoft Excel is the present market leader, by a long shot, and it is truly the best spreadsheet
available. Excel lets you do things with formulas and macros (Visual Basic for Application) that
are impossible with other spreadsheets. Similarly, Autodesk AutoCad has been the best and
suitable tool for creating digital drawings. Since most of the hydropower stakeholders are familiar
with these application software, I have prepared these tools on these application software
platforms.
Although the above mentioned software are popular amongst all the micro-hydropower
stakeholders, it is a safe bet that only about five percent of Excel and AutoCad users in Nepali
hydropower sector really understand how to get the most out of these software. With the help of
these Design Aids, I attempt to illustrate the fascinating features of these software (especially
Excel) and nudge you into that elite group.
I have noticed that there are very few complete technical tools and books related to micro and
small hydropower design available in the market. A single set of tools for all the calculations is
not yet available. Moreover, the outcome of most of these tools are not adequately tested and
verified. Most of the good software have none or only poorly illustrated manuals. The combined
outcome may produce poor quality feasibility studies which lead to improper implementation
decision. To overcome these dangers, I have prepared the Design Aids along with this manual.
Electronic version of the Design Aids (an Excel workbook), 15 AutoCad drawings and this
manual in Acrobat PDF format are presented on the attached CD ROM.
This set of Design Aids (v 2006.05) is a shareware. It would not have been possible for me to
write this Design Aids package without the encouragement from German Development
Cooperation, Nepal; Entec AG, Switzerland and of course, Mr. Sridhar Devkota, the Project
Manager, Small Hydropower Promotion Project. I would also like to thank my colleague Mr.
Girish Kharel for his tireless assistance and valued suggestions on composition and presentation.
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What You Should Know


The Design Aids are prepared for practicing technical designers who have basic knowledge of
hydropower, technical calculation skills and who are familiar with Excel and AutoCad. I attempt
to elaborate these Design Aids in such a way that the users will learn to use these Design Aids
quite comfortably. The calculations in the spreadsheets are intended to mimic manual
calculations as far as possible. Stepwise calculations are also presented in this manual.
What You Should Have
To make the best use of the Design Aids, you need a copy of Microsoft Excel (XP or later),
Autodesk AutoCad (2000 or later) and Adobe Acrobat Reader (5.0 or later). The latest version of
a free copy of Adobe Acrobat Reader can be downloaded from www.adobe.com. A downloaded
copy of Adobe Acrobat Reader is included in the bundled CD.
The minimum system requirements are:
Operating system

: Windows 98/2000/NT/XP

CPU

: 486/333MHz

RAM

: 128MB

Display

: 640 x 480 pixels, 256 colours

CD ROM

: Double-speed (for installation only)

HD

: 10 MB (approximately)

How These Design Aids Are Organized


There are many ways to organize these Design Aids materials, but I settled on a scheme that
divides them into three main parts.
Part I A: Micro-hydropower Drawings
The section of this part consists of fifteen typical drawings useful for project elements from intake
to transmission line. Since they are only typical drawings, additions of drawings and the level of
details may be amended to fulfill specific needs of a particular project. Special efforts were made
to maintain the level of consistency, compatibility and the extent of information in the drawings. It
is expected that the presented feasibility drawings by consultants are complete and appropriate
for micro hydropower plants and all the concerned stakeholders should be able to understand
and implement the presented content.
Part I B: Mini/Small-hydropower Drawings
Part I B consists of fifteen selected typical drawings of an actual feasibility study of a 1500kW
Lipin Small Hydropower Project, Sindhupalchowk District, Central Nepal. I used most of the
spreadsheets presented in the Design Aids for designing and detailing project elements of this
project. Hard copies and soft copies in Acrobat PDF format are presented in this version of
Design Aids. The difference between the levels of details of these drawings prepared for a
1500kW project and micro-hydropower projects up to 100kW are quite noticeable. Therefore, it
is obvious that higher levels of details with the help of more drawings are expected for larger
small hydropower projects.
Part II: Spreadsheets
This part consists of twenty-five typical spreadsheets covering all calculations recommended by
AEPC guidelines for subsidy approval of micro-hydropower schemes, Practical Action Nepal
(formerly ITDG, Nepal) guidelines and requirement recommended by small hydropower
designers. An earlier version the Design Aids prepared especially for micro-hydropower
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schemes had thirteen typical spreadsheets. Some additional spreadsheets have been presented
to cater mini and small hydropower design needs. These spreadsheets provide users to
estimate hydrological parameters; design civil, mechanical and electrical components and
analyze financial robustness of the perspective micro and mini hydropower schemes in Nepal.
Part III: Users Manual
This manual (also in Adobe Acrobat PDF format) illustrates aspects of using the presented
drawings and spreadsheets; and stepwise calculations covering all technical and non technical
(costing and financial) components of hydropower schemes.
Download and Reach Out
Electronic files included on the attached CD can also be downloaded from www.entec.com.np.
Updates will also be posted on this site. Preparation of the Design Aids is a continuous process.
I am always interested in getting feedback on these Design Aids. Therefore, valuable
suggestions and feedbacks are expected from all the stakeholders/users so that the overall
quality of the hydropower sector is enhanced. Any suggestion and feedback can directly be sent
to my email pushpa.chitrakar@gtz.org.np. Sharing of hydropower related information regarding
advanced options beyond this design aids is also expected.
Pushpa Chitrakar
Engineering Advisor
SHPP/GTZ

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TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page No.

NOTICE

II

PREFACE

III

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

IV

TABLE OF CONTENTS

VII

1.

INTRODUCTION

1.1

GENERAL

1.2

OBJECTIVES OF THE DESIGN AIDS

1.3

SOURCES OF THE DESIGN AIDS

1.4

DESIGN AIDS: TYPICAL MICRO-HYDRO DRAWINGS

1.5

DESIGN AIDS: TYPICAL MINI/SMALL HYDRO DRAWINGS

1.6

DESIGN AIDS: SPREADSHEETS


1.6.1 Flow chart notations
1.6.2 Iterative Processes
1.6.3 Macro Security
1.6.4 Individual vs. linked spreadsheets
1.6.5 User specific inputs
1.6.6 Interpolated computations
1.6.7 Errors
1.6.8 Cell notes
1.6.9 Cell Text Conventions
1.6.10 Types of inputs
1.6.11 Pull Down menus and data validation
1.6.12 Design Aids Menus and Toolbars
1.6.13 Interactive Diagrams

5
5
6
6
7
7
7
7
7
8
8
9
10
11

1.7

INSTALLATION DIRECTORY

11

DISCHARGE MEASUREMENT

12

2.1

GENERAL

12

2.2

PROGRAM BRIEFING & EXAMPLES

12

2.3

CALCULATION AT SITE

13

HYDROLOGY

15

3.1

GENERAL

15

3.2

HYDROLOGICAL DATA

15

3.3

MEDIUM IRRIGATION PROJECT (MIP) METHOD: MEAN MONTHLY FLOWS

16

3.4

WECS/DHM (HYDEST) METHOD: FLOOD FLOWS

18

3.5

GENERAL RECOMMENDATIONS

19
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3.6

SHPP/GTZ

PROGRAM BRIEFING & EXAMPLES

20

HEADWORKS

23

4.1

INTRODUCTION AND DEFINITIONS

23

4.2

GENERAL RECOMMENDATIONS
4.2.1 Weir
4.2.2 Intake
4.2.3 Intake Trashrack

24
24
24
24

4.3

PROGRAM BRIEFINGS AND EXAMPLES


4.2.4 Side Intake calculations
4.2.5 Drop Intake calculations

24
26
29

HEADRACE/TAILRACE

32

5.1

GENERAL

32

5.2

GENERAL RECOMMENDATIONS
5.2.1 Canal
5.2.2 Pipe

32
32
32

5.3

PROGRAM BRIEFING AND EXAMPLES


5.3.1 Canal
5.3.2 Canal
5.3.3 Pipe

33
33
33
36

SETTLING BASINS

39

6.1

SEDIMENT SETTLING BASINS

39

6.2

SETTLING BASIN THEORY

40

6.3

GENERAL RECOMMENDATIONS
6.3.1 Gravel Trap
6.3.2 Settling Basin
6.3.3 Forebay

40
40
41
41

6.4

PROGRAM BRIEFING AND EXAMPLES


6.4.1 Features of the spreadsheet
6.4.2 Vertical flushing pipe
6.4.3 Spillway at intake
6.4.4 Gate

42
42
43
43
43

PENSTOCK AND POWER CALCULATIONS

47

7.1

GENERAL

47

7.2

GENERAL RECOMMENDATIONS

47

7.3

PROGRAM BRIEFING AND EXAMPLE


7.3.1 Program Briefing
7.3.2 Typical example of a penstock pipe

47
47
48

7.4

FORCES ON ANCHOR BLOCKS


7.4.1 Program example

51
51

7.5

ANCHOR BLOCK DESIGN


7.5.1 Program example

55
55

TURBINE SELECTION

59
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10

11

12

13

14

SHPP/GTZ

8.1

GENERAL

59

8.2

GENERAL RECOMMENDATIONS

59

8.3

PROGRAM BRIEFING AND EXAMPLE

60

ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT SELECTION

61

9.1

GENERAL

61

9.2

SELECTION OF GENERATOR SIZE AND TYPE


9.2.1 Single Phase versus Three Phase System
9.2.2 Induction versus Synchronous Generators

61
61
61

9.3

GENERAL RECOMMENDATIONS
9.3.1 Sizing and RPM of a Synchronous Generator:
9.3.2 Sizing and RPM of an Induction Generator:

62
62
63

9.4

PROGRAM BRIEFING AND EXAMPLES


9.4.1 Program Briefing
9.4.2 Typical example of a 3-phase 60kW synchronous generator
9.4.3 Typical example of a single phase 20kW induction generator

63
63
64
66

MACHINE FOUNDATION

68

10.1

INTRODUCTION AND DEFINITIONS

68

10.2

EXAMPLE

68

TRANSMISSION AND DISTRIBUTION

72

11.1

INTRODUCTION AND DEFINITIONS

72

11.2

GENERAL RECOMMENDATIONS

72

11.3

PROGRAM BRIEFING AND EXAMPLES


11.3.1 Program Briefing

72
72

LOADS AND BENEFITS

77

12.1

GENERAL

77

12.2

GENERAL RECOMMENDATIONS / AEPC GUIDELINES

77

12.3

PROGRAM BRIEFING AND EXAMPLE


12.3.1 Program Briefing

77
77

COSTING AND FINANCIAL ANALYSES

80

13.1

INTRODUCTION AND DEFINITIONS

80

13.2

GENERAL RECOMMENDATIONS / AEPC GUIDELINES

80

13.3

PROGRAM BRIEFING AND EXAMPLE


13.3.1 Program Briefing
13.3.2 Typical example of costing and financial analyses

80
80
81

UTILITIES

83

14.1

83
83
83
84

INTRODUCTION
14.1.1 Uniform depth of a rectangular or trapezoidal canal
14.1.2 Payment of loan for different periods (monthly, quarterly and yearly)
14.1.3 Power calculations
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14.1.4 Spillway sizing.


14.1.5 Voltage drops of transmission line.
14.1.6 Pipe friction factor.

15

85
85
86

REFERENCES

87

DRAWINGS

TYPICAL MICROHYDROPOWER DRAWINGS

TYPICAL DRAWINGS OF 1500KW LIPIN SMALL HYDROPOWER PROJECT

XVII

LIST OF FIGURES
Figure 1.1: A typical Micro Hydro Settling Basin Drawing .................................................................4
Figure 1.2: A typical Small Hydro Settling Basin Drawing .................................................................4
Figure 1.3: Iterative process .................................................................................................................6
Figure 1.4: Activation of iteration (Tools => Option =>Calculations..................................................6
Figure 1.5: Enabling macros and macro security ...............................................................................6
Figure 1.6: Cell formula incorporated in a cell note............................................................................7
Figure 1.7: A cell note presenting typical values of Mannings n for different surfaces ..................8
Figure 1.8: Colour coding of cell texts.................................................................................................8
Figure 1.9: Different categories of inputs. ...........................................................................................9
Figure 1.10: Different categories of inputs. .........................................................................................9
Figure 1.11: Design Aids Menu and Toolbar .....................................................................................10
Figure 1.12: Typical interactive diagram of Side Intake....................................................................11
Figure 2.1: Discharge calculations by salt dilution method .............................................................14
Figure 3.1: Hydrology..........................................................................................................................15
Figure 3.2: Hydrological Data and MHP .............................................................................................15
Figure 3.3: MIP Regions ......................................................................................................................16
Figure 3.4: MIP model .........................................................................................................................17
Figure 3.5: Need of interpolation for calculating mean monthly coefficient ...................................17
Figure 3.6: Effect of interpolation on mean monthly flows ..............................................................18
Figure 3.7: Hydest Model ....................................................................................................................19
Figure 3.8: Flow chart of Hydrology spreadsheet .............................................................................20
Figure 3.9: Typical example of a hydrological parameters calculation spreadsheet Hydrology22
Figure 4.1: Trashrack parameters ......................................................................................................25
Figure 4.2: Flow chart for trashrack calculations..............................................................................25
Figure 4.3: Side intake parameters ....................................................................................................26
Figure 4.4: Flow chart for side intake calculations ...........................................................................27
Figure 4.5: An example of side intake calculations ..........................................................................28
Figure 4.6: Parameters and flow chart of drop intake design ..........................................................29
Figure 4.7: An example of drop intake...............................................................................................31
Figure 5.1: Flow chart for canal design .............................................................................................34
Figure 5.2: An example of canal design.............................................................................................35
Figure 5.3: Illustrated canal type and their dimensions....................................................................36
Figure 5.4: Flow chart for pipe design ...............................................................................................37
Figure 5.5: An example of headrace pipe design..............................................................................38
Figure 6.1: Typical section of a settling basin...................................................................................39
Figure 6.2: An ideal setting basin.......................................................................................................40
Figure 6.3: Flushing pipe details ........................................................................................................43
Figure 6.4: Typical example of a settling basin (Settling basin, spilling and flushing). .................45
Figure 6.5: Typical example of a settling basin (Gate and rating curve). ........................................46
Figure 6.6: Typical example of a settling basin (forebay and dimensioning)..................................46
Figure 7.1: Flow diagram of penstock design ...................................................................................48
Figure 7.2: Input required for penstock and power calculations .....................................................49
Figure 7.3: Output of penstock and power calculation spreadsheet. ..............................................50
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Figure 7.4: Output of anchor block force calculation spreadsheet..................................................55


Figure 7.5: Anchor Block Considered................................................................................................55
Figure 7.6: Anchor Block force diagram............................................................................................57
Figure 7.7: Anchor Block force diagram............................................................................................58
Figure 8.1: Pelton and Crossflow Turbines .......................................................................................59
Figure 8.2: A Typical turbine example. ..............................................................................................60
Figure 9.1: Electrical components of a 20kW 3-phase synchronous generator. ............................65
Figure 9.2: Electrical components of a 20kW 1-phase induction generator....................................67
Figure 10.1: Layout of MachineFoundation Spreadsheet.................................................................71
Figure 11.1: Flow chart of transmission and distribution line computation. ..................................73
Figure 11.2: Transmission line and load used for the example. ......................................................73
Figure 11.3: Typical example of a low voltage transmission line. ...................................................76
Figure 12.1: Flow chart of the load and benefits calculation spreadsheet......................................77
Figure 12.2: Load duration chart ........................................................................................................78
Figure 12.3: An example of load and benefits calculation................................................................79
Figure 13.1: Flow chart for Project costing and financial analyses. ................................................81
Figure 13.2: A typical example of project costing and financial analyses. .....................................82
Figure 14.1: A typical example of uniform depth calculation of a trapezoidal section...................83
Figure 14.2: A typical example EMI calculation.................................................................................84
Figure 14.3: Generated Schedule of EMI calculation ........................................................................84
Figure 14.4: A typical example of power calculation ........................................................................84
Figure 14.5: A typical example of spillway sizing .............................................................................85
Figure 14.6: A typical example of transmission line calculation......................................................85
Figure 14.7: A typical example of pipe friction calculation ..............................................................86

LIST OF TABLES
Table 1.1: Summary of Micro Hydropower Drawings ........................................................................3
Table 1.2: Summary of Small Hydropower Drawings ........................................................................3
Table 1.3: Summary of Spreadsheets ..................................................................................................5
Table 2.1: Input parameters for Salt Dilution Method .......................................................................12
Table 2.2: First set conductivity reading for Salt Dilution Method (Example).................................12
Table 2.3: Data Input (partial) .............................................................................................................13
Table 3.1: MIP regional monthly coefficients ....................................................................................16
Table 3.2: Standard normal variants for floods.................................................................................19
Table 4.1: Drop intake and upstream flow .........................................................................................29
Table 6.1: Settling diameter, trap efficiency and gross head ...........................................................41
Table 7.1: Summary of penstock thickness and corresponding maximum permissible static head
.......................................................................................................................................................50
Table 7.2: Summary of forces.............................................................................................................53
Table 8.1: Turbine specifications .......................................................................................................59
Table 8.2: Turbine type vs. ns .............................................................................................................59
Table 9.1: Selection of Generator Type.............................................................................................62
Table 9.2: Generator rating factors ....................................................................................................62
Table 11.1: ASCR specifications ........................................................................................................72
Table 11.2: Rated current and voltage drop calculation ...................................................................72
Table 13.1: Per kilowatt subsidy and cost ceiling as per AEPC.......................................................80

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LIST OF MICRO-HYDROPOWER DRAWINGS


Drawing Name
01 General Layout
02A Side Intake Plan
02B Side Intake Sections
03 Drop Intake Plan
04 Headrace
05A Gravel Trap
05B Settling Basin
06 Headrace Canal
07 Forebay
08 Penstock Alignment
09 Anchor & Saddle Blocks
10 Powerhouse
11 Machine foundation
12 Transmission
13 Single line diagram

Page
.................................... D-ii
.................................... D-iii
.................................... D-iv
.................................... D-v
.................................... D-vi
....................................... D-vii
..................................... D-viii
.................................... D-ix
.................................... D-x
.................................... D-xi
........................................ D-xii
........................................ D-xiii
........................................ D-xiv
........................................ D-xv
........................................ D-xvi

LIST OF SMALL-HYDROPOWER DRAWINGS


Drawing no
7.D.np.5133/01/
10A01
10A02
10A03
20A01
20A02
20A03
20A04
20A05
30A01
40A10
40A11
40A12
50A02
60A04
70A01

Page
Title / Remarks
Project Location, District Map & Catchment Area
Project Layout, sheet 1 of 2, Plan
Project Layout, sheet 2 of 2, Profiles
Weir, Intake and Gravel Trap, sheet 1 of 3, plan and sections
Weir, Intake and Gravel Trap, sheet 2 of 3, plan and sections
Weir, Intake and Gravel Trap, sheet 3 of 3, plan and sections
Settling Basin, sheet 1 of 2, plan and sections
Settling Basin, sheet 2 of 2, plan and sections
Plan and Profile and Typical Sections/Similar for penstock alignment
Anchor Blocks, sheet 1 of 2
Anchor Blocks, sheet 2 of 2
Saddle Support
Powerhouse Plan and Sections
Geological Mapping, sheet 4 of 4
Single line diagram

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D-xviii
D-xix
D-xx
D-xxi
D-xxii
D-xxiii
D-xxiv
D-xxv
D-xxvi
D-xxvii
D-xxviii
D-xxix
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Micro-hydropower Design Aids Manual (v 2006.05)

1.

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INTRODUCTION

1.1 GENERAL
This set of Micro-hydropower1 Design Aids is a complete set of feasibility level hydropower design
tools consisting of typical AutoCad drawings, typical Microsoft Excel spreadsheets and a users
manual recommended for micro and mini hydropower schemes. An earlier digital version of the set
was published as a part the publication of Alternative Energy promotion Centre (AEPC) of The
Government of Nepal2 (ISBN 99933-705-5-X) and has officially been recommended for its
subsidized micro-hydropower schemes in Nepal up to 100kW.
The micro-hydropower Design Aids were prepared to provide a basis for consultants to undertake
calculations and prepare drawings as per the requirements set aside by the procedural guidelines of
AEPC-the Government of Nepal. Since most of the stakeholders are familiar with Autodesk AutoCad
(2000 or later) and Microsoft Excel (XP or later) application software, the Design Aids were prepared
based on these software to make them simple and user friendly. During the preparation of these
Design Aids, special efforts were made so that the skills and knowledge of practicing stakeholders
such as consultants, manufacturers and inspectors are further enhanced by this Design Aids.
This design aids are updated version of the previous design aids and suitable for designing mini and
small hydropower schemes. Update, addition and publication of the design aids are the symbols of
Small Hydropower Promotion Project(SHPP/GTZ)3 SHPPs continuous assistance and support to the
Nepali hydropower sector.
The Design Aids consist of a set of fifteen typical drawings, a workbook with twenty-five typical
spreadsheets and a users manual for procedural guidance. This set of design aids also covers all
aspects recommended by AEPC guidelines for its subsidized micro-hydropower schemes. The
Design Aids provide users to estimate hydrological parameters; design civil, mechanical and
electrical components and analyze financial robustness of the prospective micro hydropower
schemes in Nepal. Procedural guidelines, detailed step by step calculations and guidelines for using
the presented spreadsheets are presented in this users manual. A copy of this manual in Acrobat
PDF file format is included in the bundled CD. The Design Aids are distributed in template/read-only
formats so that the original copy is always preserved even when the users modify them.
The Design Aids were originally prepared for micro hydropower schemes up to 100kW. Since there
are many common approaches and features in all hydropower projects, these spreadsheets were
modified to suit mini and small hydropower design requirements as well. Spreadsheets on
Hydrology are intended for Nepali micro hydropower schemes only. Spreadsheets on Cost&Benefits
and FinancialAnalyses are intended to serve micro-hydropower schemes outside Nepal too (refer to
Table 1.2).
Preparation and use of the Design Aids is a continuous process. SHPP/GTZ has been continuously
enhancing the Design Aids and this update (version 2006.05) is the outcome of SHPPs efforts in
hydropower sector development in Nepal. Therefore, valuable suggestions and feedbacks are
expected from all the stakeholders/users so that the overall quality of the micro hydro sector is
enhanced. Any suggestion and feedback can directly be sent to pushpa.chitrakar@gtz.org.np .

In Nepal, hydropower projects up to 100kW are termed as micro hydropower projects. Projects within 100kW to 1000kW are termed as
mini hydropower projects. 1000kW to 10,,000kW are termed as small hydropower projects. Beyond this, they are termed as large
hydropower projects.
2

Alternative Energy Promotion Centre (AEPC) is a Nepal Government organization established to promote alternative sources of energy in
Nepali rural areas. MGSP of AEPC-ESAP is promoting Nepali micro-hydropower schemes up to 100kW.
3

Small Hydropower Promotion Project is a joint project of the Government of Nepal, Department of Energy Development (DoED) and
German Technical Cooperation (GTZ). Since its establishment in 1999, this project has been providing its services to sustainable
development of small hydropower projects in Nepal (100kW to 10MW) leading to public private participation and overall rural development.
It has also been providing technical support and backstopping to Nepali micro-hydropower stakeholders including AEPC. Entec AG of
Switzerland is the implementing consultant of this project.

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1.2 OBJECTIVES OF THE DESIGN AIDS


The main objective of the Design Aids is to enhance the quality of the micro and mini hydropower
sector in Nepal. Use of these Design Aids helps fulfilling the main objective because:
1. The Design Aids function as a set of Time Saver Kit for precision and speed (e.g.
hydrological calculations based on exact flow measurement date, Q flood off-take, friction
factor of penstock pipes, etc.).
2. They provide relevant references to micro and mini hydro sector stakeholders for using and
upgrading their skills and creativities. Useful information is incorporated within the design
aids so that external references are minimized. Cell notes, tables, figures, etc., in the
spreadsheets and information in this manual are some of the examples that will greatly
reduce external references.
3. The depth of the study and presented reports by different consultants are uniform and their
data presentations are consistent and to the required depth.
4. The Design Aids serve as templates so that there is sufficient room for further creativity and
improvement and tailoring to include specific needs of particular projects.
5. In addition, the Design Aids are handy and user friendly. The user familiar AutoCad 2000
and MS Excel XP software platforms have been used to develop the Design Aids.

1.3 SOURCES OF THE DESIGN AIDS


The Design Aids were prepared aiming to enhance the overall quality of the micro and mini hydro
sector. Reviews of following sources were carried out during the preparation of the Design Aids:
1. Review and assessment of more than 60 small hydropower projects which have been
assisted by SHPP/GTZ.
2. Review, assessment and appraisal of more than 300 preliminary feasibility, 200 feasibility
and 50 Peltric set feasibility study reports during the SHPP-AEPC collaboration.
3. Review of AEPC micro hydropower guidelines and standards for Peltric and microhydropower schemes. These guidelines and standards were updated by SHPP during SHPPAEPC collaboration.
4. Feedbacks from all stakeholders such as Independent power producers (IPPs), lending
agencies, in-house colleagues, AEPC, Consultants, Manufacturers and Installers.
5. Experience from other micro, small and large hydropower projects within Nepal and abroad.
6. Standard textbooks, guidelines and other standards.

1.4 DESIGN AIDS: TYPICAL MICRO-HYDRO DRAWINGS


As stated earlier, fifteen micro-hydropower related AutoCad drawings were prepared and
incorporated in the Design Aids. The presented drawings cover from intake to transmission line.
Since they are only typical drawings, additions of drawings and the level of details may be changed
to fulfill specific needs of a particular project. The level of consistency, compatibility and the extent of
information in the drawings are complete and appropriate for micro hydropower plants and all the
concerned stakeholders should be able to understand and implement the presented content. The
main features of the presented drawings are:
1. These drawings are recommended only for micro-hydro schemes.
2. Minimum required details such as plans and adequate cross sections are provided.
3. Recommended values of elements such as the minimum thickness of a stone masonry wall,
the longitudinal slope of a settling basin, etc, are presented in the drawings.
4. Standard line types and symbols are presented.

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5. Basic drawing elements such as a title box with adequate information and controlling
signatories; scale; etc are presented.
6. All drawings with standard layouts for printing.
The dimensions and geometries of the presented drawings should be amended according to the
project details. A set of all the drawings are presented in the appendix. For an example, a typical
drawing of a settling basin is presented in Figure 1.1. The MHP drawings that are presented are
listed in Table 1.1.

1.5 DESIGN AIDS: TYPICAL MINI/SMALL HYDRO DRAWINGS


A total of fifteen selected typical drawings of an actual feasibility study of a 1500kW Lipin Small
Hydropower Project, Sindhupalchowk District, Central Nepal are presented in appendix. The
difference between the levels of details of micro and small hydropower drawings are quite noticeable.
A typical settling basin drawing is presented in Figure 1.2. All the presented drawings listed in Table
1.2 are recommended for mini and small hydropower projects within 2000kW.
Table 1.1: Summary of Micro Hydropower Drawings
SN
1

Drawing Name (*.dwg)


01 General Layout

02A Side Intake Plan

02B Side Intake Sections

03 Drop Intake Plan

5
6
7
8

04 Headrace
05A Gravel Trap
05B Settling Basin
06 Headrace Canal

07 Forebay

10
11

08 Penstock Alignment
09
Anchor
&
Saddle
Blocks
10 Powerhouse
11 Machine foundation
12 Transmission
13 Single line diagram

12
13
14
15

Remarks
General layout of project components except the transmission and
distribution components.
A general plan of headworks including river training, trashrack, intake,
gravel trap and spillway.
A longitudinal section along water conveyance system from intake to
headrace, two cross sections of weir for temporary and permanent weirs
respectively and a cross section of a spillway.
A general plan, a cross section across a permanent weir and a cross
section of a drop intake.
A longitudinal headrace profile showing different levels along it.
A plan, a longitudinal section and two cross sections.
A plan, a longitudinal section and two cross sections.
Two cross sections for permanent lined canal and one for temporary
unlined canal.
A plan, a longitudinal section, two cross sections and penstock inlet
details.
A longitudinal section of penstock alignment.
Plans and sections of concave and convex anchor blocks and a saddle.
A plan and a section of a typical powerhouse.
A plan and three sections of a typical machine foundation.
A single line diagram if a transmission/distribution system.
A single line diagram showing different electrical components.

Table 1.2: Summary of Small Hydropower Drawings


SN
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15

Drawing no
7.D.np.5133/01/
10A01
10A02
10A03
20A01
20A02
20A03
20A04
20A05
30A01
40A10
40A11
40A12
50A02
60A04
70A01

Title / Remarks
Project Location, District Map & Catchment Area
Project Layout, sheet 1 of 2, Plan
Project Layout, sheet 2 of 2, Profiles
Weir, Intake and Gravel Trap, sheet 1 of 3, plan and sections
Weir, Intake and Gravel Trap, sheet 2 of 3, plan and sections
Weir, Intake and Gravel Trap, sheet 3 of 3, plan and sections
Settling Basin, sheet 1 of 2, plan and sections
Settling Basin, sheet 2 of 2, plan and sections
Plan and Profile and Typical Sections/Similar for penstock alignment
Anchor Blocks, sheet 1 of 2
Anchor Blocks, sheet 2 of 2
Saddle Support
Powerhouse Plan and Sections
Geological Mapping, sheet 4 of 4
Single line diagram

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Figure 1.1: A typical Micro Hydro Settling Basin Drawing

Figure 1.2: A typical Small Hydro Settling Basin Drawing

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1.6 DESIGN AIDS: SPREADSHEETS


As stated earlier, MS Excel XP has been used to develop the presented twenty-five spreadsheets.
General as well as special features of Excel XP have been utilized while developing the
spreadsheets. There are sixteen main spreadsheets each covering a tool required for covering
computations for an element of hydropower schemes. The Utility spreadsheets presented at the
end of the workbook covers minor calculations such as uniform depth of water in a canal, loan
payback calculations, etc. The list of the presented spreadsheets and their areas of coverage are
presented in Table 1.3.
Table 1.3: Summary of Spreadsheets
SN
1
2

Name
Discharge
Hydrology

Side Intake

4
6

Bottom Intake
Canal

7
5

Pipe
Settling Basin

Penstock

9
10
11

AnchorLoad
AnchorBlock
Turbine

12

Electrical

13
14

Machine
Foundation
Transmission

15

Load Benefit

16

Costing
Financial
Utilities

1724

&

Area of coverage
Chapter 2: Computation of river discharge from Salt dilution method.
Chapter 3: Hydrological parameters calculations based on MIP and
Hydest methods (Regression Methods)
Chapter 4: Design of side intakes including coarse trashrack, flood
discharge and spillways.
Chapter 4: Design of bottom intake including flood discharges.
Chapter 5: Design of user defined and optimum conveyance canals with
multiple profiles and sections.
Chapter 5: Design of mild steel/HDPE/PVC conveyance pipes.
Chapter 6: Design of settling basins, gravel traps and forebays with
spilling and flushing systems with spillways, cones and gates.
Chapter 7: Design of penstocks with fine trashrack, expansion joints and
power calculations.
Chapter 7: Calculations of forces on anchor blocks.
Chapter 7: Design of anchor block.
Chapter 8: Selection of turbines based on specific speed and gearing
ratios.
Chapter 9: Selection of electrical equipment such as different types of
generators, cable and other accessories sizing.
Chapter 10: Design of machine foundation.

Uses
Micro/small
Micro/ small
in Nepal
All sizes

Chapter 11: Transmission / Distribution line calculations with cable


estimation.
Chapter 12: Loads and benefit calculations for the first three years and
after the first three years of operation.
Chapter 13: Costing and financial analyses based on the project cost,
annual costs and benefits.
Chapter 14: Utilities such as uniform depth, loan payment calculations,
etc.

Micro/small

All sizes
All sizes
All sizes
All sizes
All sizes
All sizes (2D)
All sizes (2D)
Micro
Micro
Micro

Micro
Micro
All sizes

Design of anchor blocks and saddles are site and project specific. The presented anchor block
spreadsheets are based on two-dimensional calculations and are useful for penstock aligned in
straight lines without any horizontal deflection.
Background information and main features of the presented spreadsheets are:
1.6.1 Flow chart notations
Standard flow chart notations are used to describe program execution flows. Following notations are
mostly used:
Start and End
Input
Processing formulas and output
Processing and output from other sub routine
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Conditional branching
Flow direction
1.6.2 Iterative Processes
The spreadsheets are designed to
save
tedious
and
long
iterative/repetitive processes required
for calculations.
Manual repetitive
processes are the main source error
generating and they are also time
consuming factors. A typical repetitive
process is presented in Figure 1.3.

Y =f(X): X=f`(Y)

Assume Xo

Is
Yes
End
e=<|Yn+1 Yn|
No
X=X+h

Figure 1.3: Iterative process


As shown in the figure, the initial assumed value
of X0 is amended until an acceptable error limit
is reached. By default, Excel does not activate
this features and generates Circular Reference
Error. The iterative features in Excel can be
activated by selecting Calculations tab (Tools>Options->Calculations>Tick Iteration (cycles &
h)) and checking the iteration box. The Excel
dialogue box with this features activated is
presented in Figure 1.4.

Figure 1.4: Activation of iteration (Tools => Option =>Calculations


1.6.3 Macro Security
The spreadsheets contain Visual Basic for
Application (VBA) functions and procedures.
Because of the safety reasons against possible virus
threats, MS Excel disables such VBA functions and
procedures by default. Setting security level to
medium (Tools => Macros => Security => Medium)
and enabling the macros during the opening of the
Design Aids are required for the proper execution of
the Design Aids. Dialogue boxes for setting security
level to medium and enabling the macros are
presented in Figure 1.5.

Figure 1.5: Enabling macros and macro security

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1.6.4 Individual vs. linked spreadsheets


By default, common inputs such as the project name, etc., in all the spreadsheets are linked to the
first design spreadsheet Conductivity. The objective of linking such common inputs is to have
consistent input with minimal user effort. Some of the other processed data such as the design
discharge or flood discharge are also linked by default. However, the users may change these
values for specific calculations i.e., the spreadsheets can also be used as individual spreadsheets for
independent calculations that are not linked to a single project. It is recommended to save an extra
copy of the workbook before manipulating such linked cell so that the saved copy can be used as a
workbook with linked spreadsheets for a single project.
1.6.5 User specific inputs
Some parameters such as canal freeboards, width of a canal, factor of safety for a mild steel
penstock, etc., have their standard optimum values. By default, the standard optimum values are
computed or presented. However, users are allowed to enter non-standard specific values under
special circumstances.
1.6.6 Interpolated computations
Some of the parameters such as frictional coefficient of a bend, coefficient of gate discharge, etc.,
have standard proven values for standard conditions. In case the condition is of a non-standard
type, interpolated values with the help of curve fittings are estimated and used. The users are
cautioned to check the validity of such values whenever they encounter them.
1.6.7 Errors
Mainly three types of errors are known in the presented design aids. One of them is the NAME#
error which is caused by not executing custom functions and procedures because of the macro
security level set to high or very high level. In case such an error occurs, close the workbook,
activate the macro security level to medium and enable the macros when opening the workbook
again. Typical NAME# errors occur for the depth of water during flushing yfi (m) and d50f during
flushing (mm) in the settling basin spreadsheet.
VALUE# error is the other error that is generated by the malfunctioning of circular references. When
such an error occurs, select the error cell, press F2 and press Enter. Q intake Qf cumec in the side
intake spreadsheet is an example of such an error.
A REF# error in transmission line computation occurs due to the deletion of unnecessary rows in a
branch. In such an instance, copy the second cell from the second line of any branch.
1.6.8 Cell notes
Cell
notes
are
comments
attached to cells. They are useful
for providing, information related
to computational procedures.
Adequate cell notes are provided
in the presented spreadsheets so
that external references are
minimized.
Figure 1.6: Cell formula incorporated in a cell note.
For example, a cell note with a cell formula for calculating specific speed of a turbine is presented in
Figure 1.6. Similarly, the cell note in Figure 1.7 presents a basic table for selecting Mannings
coefficient of roughness of a canal. Other information such as mandatory requirements set by AEPC
for its subsidized micro hydropower projects are also presented. For hydropower projects that are
not subsidized by AEPC, these mandatory requirements may be amended.

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Figure 1.7: A cell note presenting typical values of Mannings n for different surfaces
1.6.9 Cell Text Conventions
Three different colour codes are used to distinguish three different cell categories. A typical example
of colour coding of cells is presented in Figure
1.8. The colours and categories of these cells
are:
Blue cells: These cells represent
mandatory input cells. These cells are
project dependant cells and project
related actual inputs are expected in
these cells for correct outputs. The
mandatory input includes the name of
project, head, discharge, etc. Some of
these cells are linked.
Figure 1.8: Colour coding of cell texts
Red cells: These cells are optional input cells. Standard values are presented in these cells.
Values in this type of cells can be amended provided that there are adequate sufficient
grounds to do so. It is worth noting that care should be taken while changing these values.
Typical optional values / inputs are the density of sediment, sediment swelling factor,
temperature of water, etc.
Black cells: The black cells represent information and or output of the computations. For the
sake of protecting accidental and deliberate amendment or change leading to wrong outputs,
these cells are protected from editing.
1.6.10 Types of inputs
According to the nature of inputs, the inputs are further categorized into the following three groups:
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1. User or project specific inputs: The input variables that totally depend on the user and or
the project are categorized as the user or project specific inputs. The programs do not restrict
on or validate the values of such inputs. The name and gross head of the project are some of
the examples that fall on this category. The velocity through orifice (Vo) in the example
presented in Figure 1.9 can have any value hence it is a user specific input.
2. Prescribed Input: Some of the inputs have some standard values for standard conditions.
The programs list using such values and give choices for the user to select. However, the
programs do not restrict on or
validate
such
variables.
These inputs are termed as
prescribed inputs.
For
example in Figure 1.9, with the
help of a pull-down menu,
Mannings coefficients for
different types of surfaces are
listed for selection. This will
greatly reduce the need for
referring external references.
However, any specific values
for specific need can be
entered into this type of cells.
Figure 1.9: Different categories of inputs.
3. Mandatory Input: Some inputs can only have
specific values and the programs need to validate
such values for proper computations. These values
are termed as mandatory inputs. Since Nepal is
divided into seven MIP regions, the value for a MIP
region can have an integer ranging from 1 to 7 only.
In the example presented in Figure 1.10, the MIP
region can have values from 1 to 7. In case the user
enters different values (for example 8 as presented in
the figure), the program generates an error
prompting for the correct input of 1 to 7. The proper
value between 1 and 7 can be entered after clicking
Retry button.

Figure 1.10: Different categories of inputs.


1.6.11 Pull Down menus and data validation
As demonstrated earlier, some input cells are equipped with pull down menus to facilitate the users
to input standard values related to the input cell. Cells related to pull down menus can have any user
specific values than the stated standard values if the data cells are not of mandatory type. In Figure
1.9, the pull down menu for Mannings roughness coefficient (n) in cell B42 is activated. Different
surface materials are listed in the pull down menu, stone masonry surface type is selected and the
corresponding standard value of the Mannings coefficient of roughness of 0.02 is substituted in the
corresponding cell. Since the value in this cell is not restricted, users can enter any values for this
cell.
Some inputs such as the name of the month, MIP hydrological region and dates in Hydrology
spreadsheet can have specific values in their respective cells. Since the outcome of the computation
will be erroneous if the input data does not match with the desired values, the spreadsheets are
designed to reject such an invalid value and flag an error message with suggestions. This example
is demonstrated in Figure 1.10.

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1.6.12 Design Aids Menus and Toolbars


A menu and a toolbar are added to the workbook to facilitate users access all the design tools
including online manual, drawings and feedback to the Design Aids. They are set to active only
when the workbook is active. The toolbar has to be dragged to either on top or side of the screen (as
presented in Figure 1.11) for convenience.

Figure 1.11: Design Aids Menu and Toolbar

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1.6.13 Interactive Diagrams


Most of the design spreadsheets are equipped with
dynamically linked interactive diagrams which change
according to the changes in the design parameters. A
typical example of an interactive diagram for a side
intake is presented in Figure 1.12.
Interactive
diagrams are provided for the following designs:
1. Side Intake.

Wall Geometry

Top =501.91

HFL =501.41

2. Bottom Intake.
3. Settling Basin.
4. Anchor Block.

Crest =500.66

5. Machine Foundation and


6. Canal (utility)

HFL =500.49
NWL =500.56

NWL =500.45
Orif ic
=0.2x0.32

Canal =500

Figure 1.12: Typical interactive diagram of Side Intake

1.7 INSTALLATION DIRECTORY


It is recommended to install the design aids under C:\Design Aids\ directory for the full functioning
of these tools. In case it is installed elsewhere, the external links for online manual and drawings will
not work. Run Install.bat on the root directory of the bundled CD for installing to the default
location. It is also recommended that the working copy of project specific spreadsheet be saved on
C:\Design Aids\Design Aids.

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2 DISCHARGE MEASUREMENT
2.1 GENERAL
Almost all potential hydropower project sites in Nepal are located in remote areas where there is a
complete lack of hydrological information. For micro-hydropower projects in Nepal, MGSP guidelines
requires at least one set of discharge measurement at the proposed intake site to be carried out in
the dry season, between November and May. Regular (such as monthly measurements)
measurements during dry seasons are recommended for mini and small hydropower projects.
Bucket method for flow up to 10 l/s, weir method for a flow from 10 to 30 l/s and for flows larger than
30 l/s salt dilution method (conductivity meter method) are recommended by MGSP. This chapter
deals with spreadsheet calculations based on the salt dilution method.
Since the salt dilution method is quick (generally less than 10minutes per set of measurement),
easier to accomplish and reliable, its accuracy level is relatively higher (less than 7%) than other
methods. This is suitable for smaller fast flowing streams (up to 2000 l/s), easier for carrying the
instrument in remote places. Consultants have been using mainly this method even though AEPC
and other guidelines have proposed different methods for different flows at the river. In this method,
the change of conductivity levels of the stream due to pouring of known quantity of predefined diluted
salt (50-300gm per 100 l/s) are measured with a standardized conductivity meter (with known salt
constant, k) at a regular interval (e.g., 5 seconds). For more information, please refer to MGSP Flow
Verification Guidelines or Micro Hydro Design Manual (A Harvey) or other standard textbooks.

2.2 PROGRAM BRIEFING & EXAMPLES


Hydrology spreadsheet presented in the Design Aids can handle up to four sets of data. The input
parameters required for the discharge calculation are presented in Table 2.1. Discharge
measurement carried out in a small river in Eastern Nepal with an average gradient of 10% is
considered as an example. The typical input parameters considered in the example are presented in
the adjacent column. The first set of field readings are presented in Table 2.2. Partial inputs of three
sets of reading are presented in Table 2.3.
Table 2.1: Input parameters for Salt Dilution Method
SN
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9

Input for the cited (Example)


Mai Khola
HANNA Instruments HI 933000
12-Jan-04
Iyoo Nun
o
1.8 at 15 C
o
15 C
5sec
400g, 1580g and 1795g
Presented in Table 2.2

Input parameters
River
Conductivity Meter
Date
Type of Salt
Conductivity Constant (m Siemens)
Water temp
Time Intervals (dt)
Weights of salt for sets 1 to 4 (M in g)
Readings (m & mbaseline) for sets 1 to 4

Table 2.2: First set conductivity reading for Salt Dilution Method (Example)

Water
Conductivity in
mS

5
25
34
32
30
28
26

10
26
35
32
29
28
26

15
27
35
32
29
27
26

20
28
35
31
29
27
26

25
29
35
31
29
27
26

Time(sec)
30
35
30
31
34
34
31
31
29
29
27
27
26
26

40
32
34
31
28
26
25

45
32
33
31
28
26
25

50
55
60
33
34
34
33
33
32
30
30
30
28
28
28
26
26
26
25
Total (mS) = Sm
Total readings (nr)

Sum
361
407
372
344
321
257
2062
70

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Table 2.3: Data Input (partial)


Time

Reading 1

Reading 2

Reading 3

Reading 4

25

24

24

26

24

25

10

27

24

25

15

28

24

26

..

..

With these input parameters, discharge at the stream can be calculated by the following procedures:
Stream Flow,
Q = M x k/A
Where,
Q = flow in litre/sec
M = mass of dry salt in mg (i.e.10-6 kg)
k = salt constant in (mS)/(mg/litre)
A = effective area under the graph of conductivity versus time, after excluding
the area due to base conductivity. The units for the area under the graph
is sec x mS. The area is determined as follows:
Area (A) = (Sm nr x mbaseline) * dt
Weighted averages of the individual flows thus calculated are computed. A typical spreadsheet is
presented in Figure 2.1. The average estimated discharge will further be used by Medium Irrigation
Project Method (MIP) to calculate long term average monthly flows. The calculation procedures for
the first set of measurement (Set 1) are:
Area (A)

= (Sm nr x mbaseline) * dt
= (2062-70*25)*5
= 1560 sec x mS

Discharge (Q)

= M x k/A
= 400000*1.8/1560
= 461.54 l/s
= 461 l/s

2.3 CALCULATION AT SITE


Calculation of measured flows and plotting of graphs of the corresponding data are always
recommended at site for verification. This saves critical time of revisiting the intake site in case the
measured discharge is not within acceptable limits. It is recommended to carry out a number of
measurements until at least three consistent results (within 10%) are obtained. Procedural steps for
checking flow with the help of a scientific calculator (Casio Fx 78 or equivalent) are presented in this
section. This procedure uses inbuilt standard deviation functions.
INV MODE => starts standard deviation mode (STD)
INV SAC => standard deviation all memory clear
25x, 26x.=> input data (readings)

Sx-n* (xbase) = *(dt) = (Area) =>2062-70*25=*5=1560 => gives area (A)


INV MODE exits STD MODE
1/x* (M)* (K)=Q => 1/x of 1560*400000*1.8=461.54 (Q in l/s)
Note Italic & Underlined letters are individual calculator keys

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Discharge Measurement by Conductivity Meter


Small Hydropower Promotion Project (SHPP)/GTZ

Spreadsheet by Mr Pushpa Chitrakar

Referances: 6,12,13,15,16

Date

24-May-2006

SMALL HYDROPOWER PROMOTION PROJECT/GTZ

Revision

2006.05

Project
Developer
Consultant
Designed
Checked
Meter
Salt
Given k

Upper Jogmai, Ilam


Kankaimai Hydropower P Ltd
EPC Consult
Pushpa Chitrakar
HANNA Instruments (HI 933000)

Iyoo Noon Water temp:


1.8 Time intervals

Salt Const. (k)


Wt. of Salt
Nr of data
Baseline conductivity
Sum of readings
Effective Area
Discharge

11 deg C
5 sec

1.8000
1580 gm
1795 gm
91
106
24
24
3433
3997
6245
7265
455 l/s
445 l/s
Average Discharge

400 gm
70
25
2062
1560
462 l/s

454 l/s

Discharge Measurement by Conductivity Meter: Upper Jogmai, Ilam


80
70

Conductivity mS

60

Salt =400gm, A eff =1560


Salt =1580gm, A eff =6245
Salt =1795gm, A eff =7265
Salt =0gm, A eff =0

50
40
30
20
10
0

5/24, 11deg C, HANNA


Discharge
Measurement
by Conductiv
Iyoo
Noon,
Meter:
k=1.8,
Upper
Av
e.
Jogmai,
Discharge
Ilam = 453.89
l/s 400
0Instruments
50 (HI 933000),
100
150 ity
200
250
300
350

450
500
550
600
Time(sSalt
ec) =400gm, ASalt
eff =1560
=1580gm, ASalt
effSalt
=6245
=1795gm,
effeff
=7265
=0gmA
,A
=0
Date= 2006/5/24, 11deg C, HANNA Instruments (HI 933000), Iyoo Noon, k=1.8, Ave. Discharge = 453.89 l/s

Figure 2.1: Discharge calculations by salt dilution method

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3 HYDROLOGY
3.1 GENERAL
Hydrology is the science that deals with space-time characteristics of the quantity and quality of the
waters of the earth. It is the intricate relationship of water, earth and atmosphere.
Tools developed for estimating hydrological parameters for un-gauged catchment areas are mainly
based on regional correlations. The outputs of these tools are quite comparable to the actual
hydrological parameters for rivers having bigger catchment areas (100km2 or more).
Almost all potential micro and mini hydropower scheme
sites in Nepal have relatively small catchment areas and are
located in remote areas where there is a complete lack
small of hydrological information. It is recommended that at
least one set of actual measurement in dry season
(November-May) for estimating reasonably reliable long
term mean monthly flows. Long term mean monthly flows
are estimated by the use of a regional regression methods
called Medium Irrigation Project (MIP) method developed by
M. Mac Donald in 1990. For hydropower schemes having a
design discharge more than 100 l/s, flood hazards are
generally critical and flood flows should be calculated. Long
term mean monthly flows based on MIP method and flood
flows based on methodologies for estimating hydrologic
characteristics of engaged locations in Nepal, WECS/DHM
1990 Study (Hydest) are incorporated in Hydrology
spreadsheet. Brief introduction of these two methods are
presented in the subsequent sub-sections. It is worth noting
that MIP and HYDEST are only applicable for Nepal.

Atmosphere
Atmosphere

Hydrology

Water
Water

Earth
Earth

Figure 3.1: Hydrology

3.2 HYDROLOGICAL DATA


As presented in Figure 3.2, the hydrological data constitute of stream flow records, precipitation and
climatological data, topographical maps, groundwater data, evaporation and transpiration data, soil
maps and geologic maps. Large projects may need all the hydrological data. However, only the first
three data are sufficient for the estimation of MIP monthly flows and Hydest floods in micro and mini
hydropower projects.
Streamflow
Streamflow Records
Records
Precipitation
Precipitation and
and Climatological
Climatological Data
Data

Topographic
Topographic Maps
Maps
Groundwater
Groundwater Data
Data
Evaporation
Evaporation and
and Transpiration
Transpiration Data
Data

MHP
MHP

Hydrological
Hydrological Data
Data

Soil
Soil Maps
Maps

Geologic
Geologic Maps
Maps

Hydrological
Hydrological Data
Data
Figure 3.2: Hydrological Data and MHP
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3.3 MEDIUM IRRIGATION PROJECT (MIP) METHOD: MEAN MONTHLY FLOWS


As stated earlier, this method is developed by M. Mac Donald in 1990. According to this method,
Nepal is divided into 7 regions. Based on wading measurements by the Department of Hydrology
and Meteorology, Government of Nepal, non-dimensional regional hydrographs were developed for
each region. The month of April was used for non-dimensionalizing. Seven sets of average monthly
coefficients for the seven regions for each month were prepared.
The seven regions are graphically shown in Figure 3.3 and the corresponding seven sets of mean
monthly coefficients are presented in Table 3.1. It is worth noting that these monthly coefficients
have to be interpolated to get the actual monthly coefficients if the flow measurement is not on the
15th of the measured month.

Figure 3.3: MIP Regions


Table 3.1: MIP regional monthly coefficients
Month
January
February
March
April
May
June
July
August
September
October
November
December

1
2.40
1.80
1.30
1.00
2.60
6.00
14.50
25.00
16.50
8.00
4.10
3.10

2
2.24
1.70
1.33
1.00
1.21
7.27
18.18
27.27
20.91
9.09
3.94
3.03

3
2.71
1.88
1.38
1.00
1.88
3.13
13.54
25.00
20.83
10.42
5.00
3.75

Regions
4
2.59
1.88
1.38
1.00
2.19
3.75
6.89
27.27
20.91
6.89
5.00
3.44

5
2.42
1.82
1.36
1.00
0.91
2.73
11.21
13.94
10.00
6.52
4.55
3.33

6
2.03
1.62
1.27
1.00
2.57
6.08
24.32
33.78
27.03
6.08
3.38
2.57

7
3.30
2.20
1.40
1.00
3.50
6.00
14.00
35.00
24.00
12.00
7.50
5.00

Figure 3.4 represents a flow chart of the MIP model for calculating mean monthly flows based on a
set of low flow measurement. As shown in the figure, this model takes low flow measurement, its
date and MIP region number as inputs and processes them for estimating mean monthly flows for
that point on the catchment area. As stated earlier, the actual measurement date plays an important
role in computing more realistic mean monthly flows. This critical factor is often ignored by microhydropower Consultants resulting in highly unlikely flow estimation.
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INPUT
INPUT

Low
Low flow
flow measurement
measurement

OUTPUT
OUTPUT

MIP
MIP

Measurement
Measurement date
date
MIP
MIP region
region number
number

Mean
Mean monthly
monthly flows
flows

Figure 3.4: MIP model


These mean monthly flows are calculated as:
Mean Coeff. for this month by interpolation if the date is not on 15th
April coeff = 1/coeff this month (interpolated)
April flow = April coeff * Q
Monthly flows = April flow * coeffs (Qi = QApril * Ci)

Interpolation of April 1, 15 and 30 data


Q measured =54 l/s

2
1.9
1.8
1.7
1.6
1.5
1.4
1.3
1.2
1.1
1

60, 1.88

Q corr for mid month = Q measured * Average Coef f/Actual Coef f

45, 1.44

0, 1.38
15, 1.19
30, 1
0

March 15
April 15 Q corr

15
April 1
45.38

Days
If measured on
Q calculated

30

45

April 15
54.00

April 30
37.50

60
May 15

Figure 3.5: Need of interpolation for calculating mean monthly coefficient


The importance of considering actual date of measurement and the need of calculating actual mean
monthly flows are further explained in Figure 3.5. The measured flow is 54 l/s and the project lies in
region 3. The corrected flows for April are 45.38 l/s, 54 l/s and 37.5l /s corresponding to the
measurement dates as April 1, 15 and 30 respectively. This important factor is incorporated in the
spreadsheet.
The fact that the mean monthly coefficient calculation plays a major role in AEPC acceptance criteria
is illustrated further by the following example.
Measured flow (m3/s):
MIP region (1 -7):
Area of basin below 3000m elevation A3000 (km2):
Turbine discharge (m3/s):
Water losses due to evaporation/flushing (%):

1
3
65
1.173
15%

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Figure 3.6 is the graphical representation of the outcome of the MIP method. Interpolated MIP flows
corresponding to the measurement dates of April 1, 15 and 30 are presented. The design flow
exceeds 11 months and fulfills AEPC criteria if it is measured on April 15th. However, the design flow
exceeds only 10 months and does not meet AEPC criteria if it is measured on either 1st or 30th of
April.
E rro rs G e ne rate d b y u sin g mid mo nthly flow s
30

1 -A pr

25

1 5 -A p r

Discharge (m 3/s)

3 0 -A p r
Q dive rted

20

15

10

0
1

10

11

12

M ONTH

Figure 3.6: Effect of interpolation on mean monthly flows

3.4 WECS/DHM (HYDEST) METHOD: FLOOD FLOWS


The WECS/DHM (Hydest) Method, which is also known as Methodologies for estimating hydrologic
characteristics of un-gauged locations in Nepal, was developed by WECS/DHM in 1990. Long term
flow records of DHM stations (33 for floods and 44 for low flows) were used to derive various
hydrological parameters such as the monsoon wetness index (June-September precipitation in mm).
The entire country is considered as a single homogenous region. This method generally estimates
reliable results if the basin area is more than 100 km2 or if the project does not lie within Siwalik or
Tarai regions.
Annual, 20-year and 100-year floods based on Hydest method are presented in the spreadsheet. It is
recommended to use instantaneous floods of 20-year return period while designing Nepali micro
hydro intake structures. In case of mini and small hydropower projects, it is recommended that the
headworks structures should be able to bypass 100-year instantaneous flood.
The catchment area below 3000 m contour line is used for the estimation of floods of various return
periods. 3000m elevation is believed to be the upper elevation that is influenced by the monsoon
precipitation. This method has to be used with caution for catchments having significant areas above
snowline. The 2-year and 100-year flood can be calculated using the following equations:
Q2 daily = 0.8154 x (A3000 +1) 0.9527
Q2 inst = 1.8767 x (A3000 +1)0.8783
Q100 daily =4.144 x (A3000 +1)0.8448
Q100 inst = 14.630 x (A3000 +1)0.7343

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Flood peak discharge, QF, for any other return periods can be calculated using:
QF = e

(lnQ

2 + Ss

lnQF

Where, S is the standard normal variant for the chosen return period, from Table 3.2, and

slnQF =

Q100

Q2

ln

2.326

Table 3.2: Standard normal variants for floods


Return period (T) (yrs)
2
5
10
20
50
100

Standard normal variant (S)


0
0.842
1.282
1.645
2.054
2.326

As shown in Figure 3.7, the Hydest method requires different catchment areas and monsoon
wetness index as inputs to estimate hydrological parameters such as the mean monthly flows,
floods, low flows and flow duration curve.

OUTPUT

INPUT
Total
Total catchment
catchment area
area (MMF
(MMF && FDC)
FDC)

Area
Area below
below 5000m
5000m (LF)
(LF)
Area
Area below 3000m
3000m (FF)
(FF)
*Monsoon
*Monsoon wetness
wetness index
index (MMF
(MMF && FDC)
FDC)
Monsoon
Monsoon wetness
wetness index=(Jun-Sept)
index=(Jun-Sept) mm
mm

Hydest

*Mean monthly
monthly flows
flows
Flood
Flood flows (2-100
(2-100 yrs)
yrs)
Low
Low flows(1,7,30
flows(1,7,30 && monthly)
monthly)

Flow
Flow duration (0-100%)
(0-100%)
** Area
Area =>100km
=>100km22

Figure 3.7: Hydest Model

3.5 GENERAL RECOMMENDATIONS


General recommendations on estimating hydrological parameters for hydropower projects in Nepal
are summarised as:
1. Discharge measurement at the proposed intake site should be between November and May.
2. The recommended discharge measurement methods for different discharges are:
Method

Discharge (l/s)

Bucket collection

<10

Weir

10-30

Salt dilution

>30

3. Since MIP method utilizes actual measured flow data, mean monthly flows should be
computed by using this method. Alternatively, HYDEST method may be used for catchment
area equal to or more than 100 km2.
4. The design flow for AEPC subsidized micro hydropower projects should be available at least
11 months in a year (i.e., the probability of exceedance should be 11 months or more). The
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design flow corresponding to the installed capacity (Qd) should not be more than 85% of the
11-month exceedance flow. Loses and environmental releases should also be considered if
it exceeds 15% of the 11-month exceedance. There is a provision of 10% tolerance on Qd
at the time of commissioning a scheme.
5. The design flow for other projects should be based on the prudent practices of the
stakeholders and project optimization. For example for a small hydropower project with an
installed capacity of more than 1MW, the design flows should not exceed 65% probability of
exceedance. For projects less than or equal to 1MW, the design flows are estimated by
optimizing project installed capacities.
6. Construction of flood wall against annual flood is recommended if the design flow exceeds
100 l/s.

3.6 PROGRAM BRIEFING & EXAMPLES


As per the standards and guidelines, the presented spreadsheet is designed to compute MIP mean
monthly flows and exceedance of the design flow, Hydest floods and design discharges for different
components of a hydropower scheme. For simplicity, the program considers 30 days a month for all
the months. The flow chart for the proposed hydrological calculations is presented in Figure 3.8.
Start
Project name, location,
river, Qd, % losses

No

Is

A 3000
Given?

Q measured,
date measured,
MIP region from
the attached map

MIP
Q monthly

Q designed
& MGSP
Q diverted
Q losses
Q release
Q available
Q exceedance
Monthly
Hydrograph Q

Yes
Hydest
Flood flows

A 3000

End

Figure 3.8: Flow chart of Hydrology spreadsheet


A typical example of the spreadsheet including inputs and outputs are presented in Figure 3.9. The
considered project is 55kW Chhotya Khola Micro-Hydropower Project in Dhading. The information
required for computations such as the MIP regions and the corresponding coefficients are presented
in the spreadsheet. The project lies in MIP region 3. The measured discharge of 80 l/s on March 23
shows that the project is proposed to utilize a small stream. Although the floods are not critical to the
project, they are calculated for sizing floodwall and other structures. The design discharge of 80 l/s
has a probability of exceedance of 10 months only and hence does not qualify AEPC acceptance
criteria. For AEPC to qualify this project, the turbine design discharge should not exceed 73.389 l/s.
The detailed calculations are:
MIP mean flows:
Corrected coefficient and mid month discharges (Kc December) for Region 3:
th

th

Since the measured date of March 23 lies in between March 15 and April 15 ,
K March

= 1.38

K April

= 1.00

Kc March

= K March+ (K April -K March)*(Date -15)/30 = 1.38 + (1.00-1.38)*(23-15)/30 = 1.2787

Q March

= Q measured *K March /Kc April = 80 *1.38/1.2787 = 86.34 l/s

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Q April

= Q March /K March = 86.34/1.38 = 62.57 l/s

Q May

= Q April *K May = 62.57 * 1.88 = 117.62 l/s

Other mean monthly discharges are calculated similar to the discharge calculation for the month of
May.

Hydest flood flows:


The 2-year and 100-year floods are:
Q2 daily

= 0.8154 x (A3000 +1)

Q2 inst

= 1.8767 x (A3000)

Q100 daily

=4.144 x (A3000 +1)

Q100 inst = 14.630 x (A3000 +1)

0.7343

0.9527

0.8783

0.8448

= 0.8154 * (1.5+1)

0.9527

0.8783

= 1.8767 x (1.5+1)

0.8448

=4.144 x (1.5 +1)


0.7343

= 14.630 x (1.5+1)

= 1.952 m /s
3

= 4.197 m /s
3

= 8.987 m /s
3

= 28.669 m /s

Peak discharges for other return periods are calculated by using these formulas:

s l nQF =

Q100

Q2

ln

QF = e

(lnQ

2 + Ss

lnQF

2.326
3

Q20 daily = EXP(LN(1.952 )+ 1.645*(LN(8.987/1.952)/2.326)) = 5.747 m /s


Q20 inst

= EXP(LN(4.197 )+ 1.645*(LN(28.669/4.197)/2.326)) = 16.334 m /s

Different discharge calculations (as per AEPC criteria):


Qturbine

= 85% of the 11 month flow exceedance from the MIP flow if the designed flow is
higher or the design flow.
= 73.389 l/s (since the design flow is higher and has 10 months exceedance only)

Qdiverted

= Qturbine / (1-%losses) = 73.389 / (0.95) = 77.252 l/s

Qlosses

= Qdiverted -Qturbine = 77.252-73.389 = 3.863 l/s

Qrelease

= Qmin MIP *%release = 62.57 * 0.05 = 3.128 l/s

Qrequired at river

= Qdiverted + Qrelease = 77.252+3.128 = 80.380 l/s

A hydrograph including the design flow, exceedance of the proposed design flow and the flow
acceptable for AEPC is presented in Figure 3.9.

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SHPP/GTZ

HYDROLOGICAL CALCULATIONS FOR UNGAUGED MHP RIVERS


Small Hydropower Promotion Project (SHPP)/GTZ

Spreadsheet by Mr Pushpa Chitrakar

Referances:2,2,4, 6,12,13,15,16

Date

SMALL HYDROPOWER PROMOTION PROJECT/GTZ

Revision

Project:

Chhyota Khola MHP

Developer
Consultant
Designed
Checked

Kankai Hydropower P Ltd


EPC Consult
Pushpa Chitrakar

24-May-2006
2006.05

INPUT
River name :
Location :
Measured flow for MIP method l/s:
Month and day of flow measurement:
MIP region (1 -7) :
Area of basin below 3000m elevation A3000 km2 :
Turbine discharge Qd l/s:
Water losses due to evaporation/flushing/seepage % of Qd :
Downstream water release due to environmental reasons % of Q lowest :

Chhyota Khola
Barand, Sertung VDC 2, Dhading
80
March
23
3
1.5
80
5%
10%

OUTPUT
MIP monthly average discharge
Month
@ river
To plant
January
169.55
77.25
February
117.62
77.25
March
86.34
77.25
April
62.57
56.31
May
117.62
77.25
June
195.83
77.25
July
847.13
77.25
August
1564.13
77.25
September
1303.23
77.25
October
651.93
77.25
November
312.83
77.25

Hydest Flood Flows


Return Period (yrs)

December
Annual av

Q exceedence (month)
Q turbine for 11m

234.62
471.950

2
20
100
Discharges (l/s)
Qturbine (Qd)
Q diverted Qd+Qlosses
Q losses 5% of Qd
Q release 10% of Qlow
Q min required @ river

77.25
75.506

Flood Discharge (m3 /s)


Daily
Instantaneous
1.952
4.197
5.747
16.334
8.987
28.669
Designed As per MGSP
80.000
73.389
84.211
77.252
4.211
3.863
6.257
6.257
90.467
83.508
10
73.821

11

Long TermAverage Annual Hydrograph of Chhyota Khola river, Chhyota Khola MHP
1800
1600
MIPFlows
Q design =80 l/s with 10-month exceedence

1400
Discharge (l/s)

Q as per MGSP=73.389 l/s with 11-month exceedence

1200
1000
800
600
400
200
0
Jan

Feb

Mar

Apr

May

Jun

Jul

Aug

Sep

Oct

Nov

Dec

Months

Figure 3.9: Typical example of a hydrological parameters calculation spreadsheet


Hydrology
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4 HEADWORKS
4.1

INTRODUCTION AND DEFINITIONS

Headworks
A headworks consists of all structural components required for safe withdrawal of desired water from
a source river into a canal/conduit. Intake, weir, protection works, etc., are the main structural
components. Indicators of an ideal headworks can be summarized as:
1. Withdrawal of desired flows (i.e., Qdiverted and spilling in case of flood).
2. Sediment bypass of diversion structure (Continued sediment transportation along the river).
3. Debris bypass (Continued debris bypass without any accumulation).
4. Hazard flood bypass with minimum detrimental effects.
5. Sediment control at intake by blocking/reducing sediment intake into the system.
6. Settling basin control (settling and flushing of finer sediments entered into the system through
intakes or open canals).
Intake
An intake can be defined as a structure that diverts water from river or other water course to a
conveyance system downstream of the intake. Side intake and bottom intake are the common types
of river intakes that are used in Nepali hydropower schemes.
Conveyance Intake is an intake which supplies water to a conveyance other than the pressure
conduit to the turbine. Power Intake is an intake which supplies water to the pressure conduit to the
turbine.
Side Intake
A structure built along a river bank and in front of a canal / conduit end for diverting the required
water safely is known as a side intake. Side intakes are simple, less expensive, easy to build and
maintain.
Bottom/Drop/Tyrolean/Trench Intake
A structure built across and beneath a river for capturing water from the bed of a river and drops it
directly in to a headrace is known as a bottom intake. They are mainly useful for areas having less
sediment movement, steeper gradient, and surplus flow for continual flushing. Inaccessibility of
trashrack throughout the monsoon season and exposure of the system to all the bed load even
though only a small part of the water is drawn are the common drawbacks of drop intakes.
Weir
A weir is a structure built across a river to raise the river water and store it for diverting a required
flow towards the intake.
Protection Works
Protection works are the river protection and river training works to safeguard the headworks against
floods, debris and sediments.
Trashrack
A trashrack is a structure placed at an intake mouth to prevent floating logs and boulders entering
into headrace. Coarse trashracks and fine trashracks are provided at the river intake and penstock
intake respectively.

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4.2

SHPP/GTZ

GENERAL RECOMMENDATIONS

General recommendations and requirements for headworks components such as weirs, intakes and
trashracks are briefly outlines in this section.
4.2.1

Weir

Type: A weir can be either temporary or permanent in nature. A dry stone or gabion or mud
stone masonry can be termed as a temporary weir whereas a cement masonry or concrete
weir can be termed as a permanent weir.

Location: It is recommended that the weir should be 5m to 20m d/s of side intake. This will
assure that water is always available and there is no sediment deposition in front of the
intake. A narrow river width with boulders is preferable for weir location.

Height: The weir should be sufficiently high to create enough submergence and driving head.

Stability: Permanent weir should be stable against sinking, overturning and sliding even
during the designed floods.

4.2.2

Intake
Type: Side intakes are suitable for all types of river categories whereas the drop intake is
recommended for rivers having longitudinal slopes more than 10% with relatively less
sediment and excess flushing discharge. The side intake is generally is of rectangular orifice
type with a minimum submergence of 50mm. The side intake should be at:
o

Straight river u/s & d/s of the intake.

Alternatively, on the outer side of the bend to minimize sediment problems and
maximise the assured supply of water.

Relatively permanent river course.

By the side of rock outcrops or large boulders for stability and strength.

Capacity: According to the flushing requirement and tentative losses the intake has to be
oversized to allocate an excess flow of 10% to 20% (or Qdiverted).

A coarse trashrack should be provided to prevent big boulders and floating logs from
entering into the headrace system.

A gate/stop log should be provided to regulate flow (adjust/ close) during operation and
maintenance.

To optimize downstream canal and other structures, a spillway should be provided close to
the intake.

4.2.3

Intake Trashrack

The recommended intake coarse trashrack is made of vertical mild steel strips of 5mm*40mm to
5mm*75mm with a clear spacing not exceeding 75mm. The approach velocity should be less than
1.0m/s. For transportation by porters in remote areas, the weight of a piece of trashrack should not
exceed 60 kg. Placing of trashrack at 3V:1H is considered to be the optimum option considering the
combined effect of racking and hydraulic purposes.

4.3

PROGRAM BRIEFINGS AND EXAMPLES

There are two spreadsheets for designing intake structures, They are sideIntake and
BottomIntake for designing side and bottom intakes respectively. The first part of the side intake
calculates trashrack parameters while the second part of it calculates side intake parameters
including spillways for load rejection and flood discharge off-take. The second spreadsheet
calculates all the design parameters for a drop intake.

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Since most of the program flow chart in this section is self explanatory, only critical points are
explained.
Figures 4.1 to 4.7 present the assumptions, flow charts and typical examples for calculating
trashrack parameters, side intake and drop intake dimensioning.

Figure 4.1: Trashrack parameters


Start

K = (hf + hb)/(Vo^2/2g)

Project name, location,


river, Trashrack coefficient kt
Bar thickness t mm
Clear spacing of bars b mm
Approach velocity Vo m/s
Angle of inclination from hor f deg
Ht of trashrack bot from river bed ht
Flow deviation b deg
Design Discharge Qd cumec
h friction = kt * (t/b)^(4/3) * (Vo^2/2/g) * sin f
h bend = Vo^2 /2/g * sin b
hl= hf + hb

Is
Yes
cleaning
K1=0.3
manual
No
K1

K1=0.8
MHP = 0.55

A surface= 1/K1 * (t+b)/b * Q/Vo * 1/sin f


h submerged = hr ht, hr from intake cal

B = S/(h/sinf)
End

Figure 4.2: Flow chart for trashrack calculations


The trashrack coefficients for different cross section of the bars are presented in the pull down menu.
Typical bar thickness, clear spacing and approach velocity are suggested in the respective cell
notes.
According to the flow chart presented in Figure 4.2, the trashrack losses consist of frictional and bend
losses. The frictional losses depend on the geometry of trashrack such as the trashrack coefficient,
thickness and clear spacing of bars, inclination of the trashrack and the approach velocity. The bend
loss depends on the hydraulics of the approaching flow such as the approach velocity and its
deviated direction with respect to the normal of the trashrack surface.

Page: 25

Micro-hydropower Design Aids Manual (v 2006.05)

SHPP/GTZ

The trashrack surface area coefficient K1 for automatic raking is 0.8 whereas it is 0.3 for manual
raking suggesting that the raking area for manual operation to recommended surface area is 3.33
times more than the theoretical area. Manual racking is recommended for Nepali micro and mini
hydropower. Since the consequence of temporary reduced trashrack area in micro and mini hydro is
not severe and the trashrack sites are generally accessible to operators all the year, the average of
automatic and manual racking coefficient of 0.55 (i.e., 80% more than the theoretical area) is
recommended for practical and economic reason.

Flood

ht

Figure 4.3: Side intake parameters


Typical side intake parameters considered in the spreadsheet are presented in Figure 4.3. The
procedures for designing a side intake parameters are presented in Figure 4.4. An example is
presented in Figure 4.5. The calculation processes for designing a typical side intake are also
presented in the following section.
4.2.4

Side Intake calculations


Trashrack Design:
(4/3)

* (Vo /2g)* sin f = 2.4*(4/25)

(4/3)

h friction

= kt * (t/b)

h bend

= (Vo /2g)* sin b = (0. 5 /2/9.81)* sin 20 = 0.0044m

h total

= h friction + h bend = 0.00232 + 0.0044 = 0.0067m

A surface S

= 1/k1*(t+b)/b * Q/Vo * 1/ sin f = 1/0.55*(4+25)/25*0.077*1/ sin 60 = 0.3763 m

Width B

= S/(h/ sin f) = 0.3763/(.3/ sin 60 ) = 1.09 m

* (0. 5 /2/9.81)* sin 60 = 0.0023m

Normal condition:
Depth @ canal (hc) = h submergence + height of orifice + height of orifice sill from bottom of the canal
= 0.05+0.2+0.2 = 0.45m
2

Driving head (dh)

= (Vo/c) /2/g

= (1.2/0.8) /2/9.81 = 0.115 m

Head at river (hr)

= hc+dh (this value can be provided) = 0.45+0.115 = 0.565

Height of weir (hw) = hr +0.1 = 0.565+0.1 = 0.665 m

Page: 26

Micro-hydropower Design Aids Manual (v 2006.05)

Start

Orifice
V coeff c, Vo, n,
d/s submergence hsub,
H from canal bed h bot,
height H

SHPP/GTZ

hc=hsub+H+hbot
dh = (Vo/c)^2 / 2g
hr = hc + dh
hw = hr+0.1

h overtop = 50% (FB - spillway


crest height above NW L)
Ls 100% =Qf/C/(2*h overtop)^1.5,
Ls=max(Ls1 =Qf/C/h overtop^1.5,
Ls2 =2*(Qf-Qd)/C/h overtop^1.5)
Ls1=>obstruction d/s=> h ot const

End

River
Crest length L
Qf flood

Canal & Spillway


Spillway above NW L
Cd spillway
Freeboard h fb1
canal width d/s of orifice

Yes
Is
W c=W c
W c provided?
No
W c=2*hc

Circular references (flood):


dhf = hrf -hcf
Qo = A * C * (2*g*dhf)^0.5
hcf = (Qo*n/2^(1/3)/SQRT(1/S))^(3/8)
Vof =c*SQRT(2*g*dhf)

1/S = 1/{Q * n * P^2/3 /A^5/3 }^2


A = Q/V, B = A /H
FB = FB if provided
Or else Min(300, 0.5*hc))

ycf = (Qf^2/L^2/g)^(1/3)
hrf = hw+yc

Figure 4.4: Flow chart for side intake calculations


2

Orifice area (A)

= Q/V = 0.77/1.2 = 0.064 m

Orifice width (B)

= A/H = 0.064/.2 = 0.322 m

Flood:
2 2
1/3
2 2
1/3
Critical depth at crest (yc) = (Qf /L /g) = (10 /5 /9.81) = 0.742 m
Head at river (hf r)

= hw+yc = 0.665+0.742 = 1.407 m

Water depth at canal during flood is calculated by equating and iterating flow coming from orifice to that
of canal flow. Since this iterative process is tedious and erroneous, most of the micro-hydropower
consultants do not calculate it precisely. This iterative process is introduced in the presented
spreadsheet. In case this cell generates VALUE# error, select the cell, press F2 and press Enter. The
final canal depth is
(hcf)

= 0.490m

Q intake (Qf)

= 0.218 m /s

Spillway overtopping height (h overtop) = 50%(Free board h nwl) = 0.5*(.3-.05) = 0.125 m


1.5

Spillway length 100% (Ls for Qf) = Qf/C/(2*h ot)


1.5

Spillway length 50% = Qf/C/(h ot)

1.5

= 0.218/1.6/(2*0.125)
1.5

= 0.218/1.6/(0.125)

= 1.525 m

= 3.078 m

Care should be taken while designing spillway lengths. Ls for Gfm (d/s Obs & 100% hot -50) is only
applicable when full downstream obstruction for flood off-take is provided with the help of stop logs or
gates. Otherwise, the gradually varying water profile at the spillway has to be considered.

Page: 27

Micro-hydropower Design Aids Manual (v 2006.05)

SHPP/GTZ

Design of Orifice Side Intake


Spreadsheet developed by Mr. Pushpa Chitrakar, Engineering Advisor, SHPP/GTZ

24-May-2006
2006.05

Referances: 6,12,13,15,16

Date

SMALL HYDROPOWER PROMOTION PROJECT/GTZ

Revision

Project
Developer
Consultant
Designed
Checked

Chhyota Khola MHP


Kankaimai Hydropower P Ltd
EPC Consult
Pushpa Chitrakar
Wall Geometry

Design
Flood Level

Coarse Trashrack
Min 100 thick & 1000 wide
walkway Rcc slab

Orifice (H*B)

Top =501.91

Normal
1
river level 3
.

Weir Crest

Gravel Flushing Gate

hbot

h r-hc

HFL =501.41

hc

Canal

LS

Gravel trap (if needed)


1:30

Fb

.
H

River bed

h cf

h sub

hr

h rf

Crest =500.66

Compacted earth/200mm
stone soling

HFL =500.49
NWL =500.56

NWL =500.45
Orific
=0.2x0.32

Canal =500

Trashrack calculations
Input

Output
Trashrack coeffieient kt 2.4 2.4
Bar thickness t mm
4.00
Clear spacing of bars b mm
25.00
Approach velocity Vo m/s
0.50
Angle of inclination from horizontal f deg
60.00
Flow deviation b deg
20.00
Design Discharge Qd cumec
0.077
Height of trashrack bottom from river bed ht
0.200
Canal invert level (m)
500.00

Headloss due to friction hf m


Headloss due to bends hb m
Headloss coeff K
Total headloss ht m
Surface area A surface m2
Vertical height h m
Trashrack width B m

0.0023
0.0044
0.5226
0.0067
0.3750
0.3647
0.8906

Orifice Calculations for (B = 2H or provided) rectangular canal downstreamof orifice


Input
Orifice

River
Velocity coeff of orifice c 0.8
Crest length L m
5.000
0.8
Velocity through orifice Vo m/s
1.2
Provided Q flood m3/s
10.000
Manning's coeff of roughness 0.02
Q flood m3/s (Q20 for MHP with Qd>100)
16.334
0.02
Downstream submergence depth hsub m
0.050
Used Q flood
10.000
Orifice height H m
0.200 Canal & Spillway
Height of orifice from canal bed h bot m
0.200
Spillway crest height above NWL m
0.050
Provided water depth in the river hr (m)
Spillway discharge coeff 1.6
1.6
Provided canal width (m)
0.500
Provided Freeboard h fb1 m
0.300

Output
Normal Condition
Canal witdth d/s of orifice
1/Slope of canal immediately d/s of orifice
Depth of water in canal hc m
Free board in canal h fb m
Area of orifice A m2
Width of orifice B m
Actual velocity through orifice Vo act m/s
Canal width Wc m
Water level difference dh m
Water depth in the river hr = hc + dh m
Height of weir (hw = hr+0.1) m
Spillway overtopping height h overtop m

Flood
0.500
Critical depth of water at crest yc m
1865
Flood head at river hf r = hw+yc m
0.450
Head difference dhf
0.300
Velocity through orifice Vof m/s
0.064
Q intake Qf cumec
0.321
Depth of water at canal (hc f) m
1.200
0.500 Spillway
0.115
Ls for Qf m (d/s Obs & 100% hot -50)
0.565
Length of spillway Ls1 for Qf m (d/s Obs)
0.665
Length of spillway Ls2 for Qf-Qd m
0.125
Designed spillway length Ls m

Figure 4.5: An example of side intake calculations


Page: 28

0.742
1.406
0.916
3.392
0.218
0.490

1.521
3.078
3.978
3.978

Micro-hydropower Design Aids Manual (v 2006.05)

4.2.5

SHPP/GTZ

Drop Intake calculations

The example presented in Figure 4.7 follows the procedures presented in Figure 4.6. This example
is taken from a 4500kW Sarbari Small Hydropower Project, Kullu, India. Although the calculation
procedures for the drop intake are relatively straightforward and simple, it has more restrictions and
limitations regarding the stream geometry and operational conditions.
Based on the flow conditions and the slope of rack, flow immediately upstream of the rack may be
either critical or sub-critical. Critical depth at the entrance of the rack has to be considered if the rack
is steeper (more than 15o). For more details, please refer to EWI UNIDO Standard.
The main differences between considering critical flow and normal flow conditions are presented in
the Table 4.1. In the presented spreadsheet, critical depth of upstream flow of the intake is
calculated and presented if normal flow (sub-critical) is considered.
Start

River
River W idth (Br)
Head of u/s water (ho)
U/s water velocity (vo)
River gradient (i) degrees
hof, vof

Trashrack
Aspect ratio (L across river/B along river)
Design Discharge (Q)
Gradient (b) deg, Contraction coeff (m)
Witdth/diameter (t), Clearance (a)
d = t + a, he = ho = vo^2/2g
X = =0.00008*b^2 - 0.0097*b + 0.9992
c =0.6*a/d*(COSb)^1.5
Yc Considered?

Yes

No
h =2/3*c*he
Qo u/s = Br * ho * vo
Qof u/s = Br * hof * vof

End

h = *Yc
Qo u/s = v (9.81 * ho 3 * Br 2 )
Qof u/s = v (9.81 * hof 3 * Br 2 )

L =SQRT(3*Q/(2*c*m*L/B ratio*SQRT(2*9.81*h)))
L' = 120% of L, b = L/B ratio * L, A=L'*b
Qu u/s = Qo u/s Qdesign
h f = 2/3*c*(ho + vo f^2/2g)
Q in f= 2/3*c*m*b*L'*SQRT(2*9.81*h f)
Quf d/s = Qof u/s of intake -Q in f

Figure 4.6: Parameters and flow chart of drop intake design


Table 4.1: Drop intake and upstream flow
Parameters
Normal flow
Velocity head (h)
= 2/3 * c * he
3
Qo u/s of intake (m /s) normal
= Br * Ho * Vo
Qo u/s of intake (m3/s) flood
= Br * Ho f * Vo

Critical Depth considered


= * Yc
= SQRT(9.81*ho 3*Br 2)
= SQRT(9.81*ho f 3*Br 2)

The calculations presented in Figure 4.7 are verified in the following section. In this example the flow
upstream of the intake is considered to be of critical.
Normal condition:
c/c distance of trashrack bars d (mm) = t + a = 60+30 = 90mm
Kappa (c)

= 0.00008*b^2 - 0.0097*b + 0.9992


(by curve fitting)
= 0.00008*36^2 - 0.0097*36 + 0.9992
= 0.749

Velocity head (h) m

= * of Yc = * 0.226
= 0.170 m

Correction factor (c)

= 0.6*a/d*(COSb)^1.5 = 0.6*30/90*(Cos 36)^1.5


= 0.146
Page: 29

Micro-hydropower Design Aids Manual (v 2006.05)

SHPP/GTZ

Length of Intake (L) m

= SQRT(3*Q/(2*c*m*L/B ratio*SQRT(2*9.81*h)))
= SQRT(3*2.7/(2*c*0.85*3.546468*SQRT(2*9.81*.170)))
= 2.249 m

Length (L) m

= L*COS(b) = 2.249*cos (36)


= 1.819 m

Intake length across the river (b) m = L/B ration * L = 3.546468*2.249


= 7.975m
Area of intake (A) m

= L * b = 2.249 * 7.975
2
= 17.935 m

= SQRT(9.81*ho *Br ) = SQRT(9.81*.226 *8 )


3
= 2.7 m /s

= Qo u/s Qd = 2.7-2.7
3
= 0 m /s

Qo u/s of intake (m /s)


Qu d/s of intake (m /s)

Intake length across the river (b) m = L/B ration * L = 3.546468*2.249


= 7.975m
Flood:
h flood (hf) m

= 2/3*c*(ho flood+vo flood^2/2g) = 2/3*0.749*(3+4^2/2/9.81)


= 1.906 m
3

Qo u/s of intake (m /s)


3

Qo in (off-take) (m /s)

Qu d/s of intake (m /s)

= SQRT(9.81*hof *Br ) = SQRT(9.81*1.906 *20 )


3
= 325.497 m /s
= 2/3*c*m*b*L *SQRT(2*9.81*h flood)
= 2/3*0.146*0.85*7.975*2.249*SQRT(2*9.81*1.906)
3
= 7.318 m /s (this discharge can be reduced by introducing a throttling pipe
d/s of the intake)
= Qo u/s Qd = 315.497-7.318
3
= 318.178 m /s

Page: 30

Micro-hydropower Design Aids Manual (v 2006.05)

SHPP/GTZ

Design of Bottom/Drop Intake


Spreadsheet developed by Mr. Pushpa Chitrakar, Engineering Advisor, SHPP/GTZ

24-May-2006
2006.05
Sarbari SHP
Kullu, Himanchal Pradesh, India

Referances: 6,7,8,12,13

Date

SMALL HYDROPOWER PROMOTION PROJECT/GTZ

Revision

Project
Developer
Consultant
Designed
Checked

Pushpa Chitrakar

Weir Geometry
HFL =501.91

NWL =500.23
Top =500

Trashrack

Top =498.68

Width =1.82

Input

Critical Depth Considered

River Width flood (Brf) m =


20
River Width (Br) m =
8
ho flood m =
3.000
Head/Critical Depth of u/s water (ho)m =
0.226
vo flood m/s =
4
Upstream water velocity (vo) m/s =
1.494
Design Discharge (Qd), m3/s =
2.7
River gradient (i) degrees =
9.462
Trashrack witdth/diameter (t) mm =
60
Trashrack gradient (b) deg =
36
Trashrack clearance (a) mm =
30
Contraction coeff (m) =
0.85
Invert level of crest (masl)
500
Aspect ratio (Length across the river/Breadth along the river) = 3.546468

Output
c/c distance of trash rack bars d mm =
Total head (he) m =
kappa (c) =
velocity head (h) m =
Correction factor ( c) =
Length of intake (L) m =
Length (L' ) m =
Intake length across the river (b) m =
Area of intake (A=L' *b) m2 =

90
0.340
0.749
0.170
0.146
2.249
1.819
7.975
17.935

Qo u/s of intake (m3/s) normal =


Qu d/s of intake (m3/s) normal =
h d/s normal (m)
h flood u/s=
h d/s flood (m)
Qof u/s of intake = Br * hof * vof (m3/s) =
Q in flood m3/s =
Quf d/s of intake (m3/s) =

Figure 4.7: An example of drop intake

Page: 31

2.700
0.000
1.906
1.864
325.497
7.318
318.178

Micro-hydropower Design Aids Manual (v 2006.05)

SHPP/GTZ

5 HEADRACE/TAILRACE
5.1

GENERAL

A headrace or a tailrace can be defined as a conveyance system that conveys designed discharge
from one point (e.g. intake) to another (e.g. forebay). Generally canal systems are used in all micro
hydropower schemes whereas pipe systems are used for specific e.g. difficult terrain. A canal can
be unlined (earthen) or lined (stone masonry or concrete). Rectangular and trapezoidal canal cross
sections are mostly used profiles. Pipes used in MHP can be of HDPE or mild steel and it can be
either open or buried.
Mild steel and glass reinforced pipe (GRP) headrace-cum-penstock pipes are getting popularity in
mini and small hydropower schemes in Nepal. Because of the easier sediment handling facility and
better financial parameters, a layout with headrace-cum-penstock pipe has been adopted in many
micro, mini and small hydropower projects in Nepal.
For computing head losses, Mannings equation is used for canal whereas Darcy-Weisbach equation
is used for pipe.

5.2

GENERAL RECOMMENDATIONS

General recommendations and requirements for designing canal and pipe headrace systems are
outlined here.
5.2.1

Canal

a) Capacity: The canal should be able to carry the design flow with adequate freeboard and
escapes to spill excess flow. A canal should generally be designed to carry 110 to 120 % of
the design discharge.
b) Velocity: Self cleaning but non erosive ( 0.3m/s).
c) Unlined canal: In stable ground for Q 30 l/s
d) Lined canal: For higher discharge and unstable ground. Canals with 1:4 stone masonry or
concrete are recommended. Care should be taken to minimize seepage loss and hence
minimize the subsequent landslides.
e) Sufficient spillways and escapes as required.
f)

Freeboard: Minimum of 300mm or half of water depth.

g) Stability and Safety against rock fall, landslide & storm runoff. A catch drain running along
the conveyance canal is recommended for mini and small hydropower projects.
h) Optimum Canal Geometry: Rectangular or trapezoidal section for lined canal and trapezoidal
section for unlined canal are recommended. Unequal settlement of lined trapezoidal canal
should be prevented.
5.2.2

Pipe

a) PVC/HDPE/GRP: Buried at least 1m into ground.


b) Steel/Cast Iron: As pipe bridge at short crossings/landslides. They are also used for low
pressure headrace and headrace-cum-penstock alignments.
c) Pipe inlet with trashracks for a pipe length of more than 50m.
d) Minimum submergence depth of 1.5*v2/2g at upstream end.
e) Provision of air valves and wash outs where necessary.

Page: 32

Micro-hydropower Design Aids Manual (v 2006.05)

SHPP/GTZ

5.3

PROGRAM BRIEFING AND EXAMPLES

5.3.1

Canal

a) Permissible erosion free velocities for different soil conditions:


Fine sand
=0.3-0.4
Sandy loam =0.4-0.6
Clayey loam =0.6-0.8
Clay
=0.8-2.0
Stone masonry =0.8-2.0
Concrete
= 1.0-3.0
b) Sectional profiles considered in the program are:
1) Semicircular (not popular because of the construction difficulty)
2) Rectangular
3) Triangular (not popular because it is not financially attractive)
4) Trapezoidal
c) Two parts of calculations for canals are provided for:
1) Evaluation of the design parameters based on user specified inputs.
2) Optimum canal parameters based on MHP Sourcebook by Allen R Iversin.
d) Two spreadsheets are included in the Design Aids for:
1) Canal calculations: Calculations procedures are presented in Figure 5.1 with the help
of a flow chart and a typical spreadsheet with an illustration is presented in Figure 5.2.
2) Pipe calculations: Pipe calculation flow chart is presented in Figure 5.4. The
calculation procedures are further illustrated in Figure 5.5.
5.3.2

Canal

Calculations for a rectangular stone masonry headrace canal for 185 l/s flow presented in Figure 5.2
(Intake Canal in second column) are briefly described in the following section. This example is taken
from a 750kW Sisne Small Hydropower Project, Palpa, Nepal.
Present Canal:
Area A m

= D*B = 0.3*0.5 = 0.15 m

Top Width T (m)

= B+2*H*N

Wetted Perimeter (m)

= 2*D+B = 2*0.3+.5 = 1.1m

Hydraulic Radius r (m)

= A/P = 0.15/1.1 = 0.136 m

2/3

0.5

= 0.5+2*0.3*0 = 0.5m

2/3

0.5

Calculated flow (m /s)

= A*r *S /n = 0.15*0.136 *0.01299 /n = 0.226 m /s

Critical Velocity Vc m/s

= sqrt(A*g/T) = sqrt(0.15*9.81/.5) = 1.72 m/s

Velocity V m/s

= Q/A = 0.185/0.15 = 1.233 m (Okay since it is less than 80% of Vc)

Headloss hl (m)

= S*L + di (drops) = 0.01299*20+0 = 0.260m

Critical dia of sediment d crit (mm) = 11000*r*S = 11000*0.136*0.01299


= 19.48mm (i.e., the canal can transport sediments of diameter 19.48mm
or less during its normal operation)
Optimum Canal:
Area A m

Hydraulic Radius ro (m)

= Q/v desired = 0.185/1 = 0.185 m

= 0.35*SQRT(A) = 0.35*SQRT(0.185) = 0.1505 m

Page: 33

Micro-hydropower Design Aids Manual (v 2006.05)

SHPP/GTZ

Depth Do (m)

= 2*ro = 2*0.1505 = 0.301m

Top Width Bo (m)

= 4*ro = 4*0.1505 = 0.602m

Critical Velocity Vc m/s

= sqrt(A*g/T) = sqrt(0.185*9.81/.602) = 1.74 m/s (Okay since the desired


velocity of 1m/s is less than 80% of Vc)

Headloss hl (m)

= S*L + di (drops) = 0.0050*20+0 = 0.100m

Critical dia of sediment d crit (mm) = 11000*r*S = 11000*0.136*0.0050 = 8.271mm (i.e., the canal
can tranport (self clean) sediments of diameter 8.271mm or less during its
normal operation)

Start
Project name, Reach name,
Design discharge (Qd)
Roughness coefficient (n)
Side slope (N)
Sectional profile
Canal length (L)
1/canal slope (1/S)
Canal depth/diameter (D)
Freeboard (FB)
Canal width (B)
Desired velocity (Vo)
Canal drop di (V) & hi(H)

W etted perimeter (P)


Semicircular = PI()* D/2
Trapezoidal = B+2*D*sqrt(1+N^2)
Rectangular =2* D+B
Triangular = 2*D*sqrt(1+N^2)

r = A/P, Qc = A*r^(2/3)*S^0.5/n
FB=min(0.3,0.5*D)
V = Q/A, hl =S*L+di
hl =hl previous + hl (continuous)
d crit =11000*r*S

Flow area (A)


semicircular = PI()* D^2/4/2
Trapezoidal = (B+N*D)*D
Rectangular = D*B
Triangular = D*B/2
Ao = Qd/Vo,
T=B+2*D*N (trapezoidal) or =B
Vcrit = sqrt(9.81*Ao/T)
V desired=80% of Vcrit,

ro for optimum canal

Semicircular = 0.4*SQRT(A)
Trapezoidal=0.5*SQRT(Sin(N)*A/(2-COS(N))
Rectangular/Traingular = 0.35*SQRT(A)))

Depth Do for optimum canal


Semicircular = 4*ro
Traingular = 2.8*ro
Rectangular/Trapezoidal = 2*ro

Ho = Do + FBo
Channel width Bo

Semicircular = 2*Do
Rectangular = 4*ro
Traingular = 5.7*ro
Trapezoidal = 4*ro/Sin(N)

hl =S*L+di
Hl =hl previous + hl
d crit =11000*r*S

End

Figure 5.1: Flow chart for canal design

Page: 34

Micro-hydropower Design Aids Manual (v 2006.05)

SHPP/GTZ

Canal Design: Proposed design and optimum canal sections


Small Hydropower Promotion Project (SHPP)/GTZ

Spreadsheet by Mr Pushpa Chitrakar

Referances: 6,12,13,15,16

Date

24-May-2006

SMALL HYDROPOWER PROMOTION PROJECT/GTZ

Revision

2006.05

Project
Developer
Consultant
Designed
Checked

Sisne Small Hydropower Project


Gautam Buddha Hydropower P Ltd
EPC Consult
Pushpa Chitrakar

Input
Type and Name
Flow (m3/s)
Roughness coefficient (n)
Sectional Profile
Side slope N (1V:NHorizontal)

Intake Canal Tailrace


Main2
0.185
0.145
0.02
0.017
0.02
0.02
0.017
0.02
Rectangular
00

Trapezoidal
0.5
0.5

Main3
0.145

0.145
0.02
0.02

Semicircular
00

Triangular
0.5
0.5

Length of the canal (m)

20

40

150

120

1/Canal slope (s)

77

200

30

72

Channel Depth/diameter D (m)

0.300

0.525

0.300

0.300

Freeboard FB (m)

0.300

0.250

0.150

0.150

Channel Width (B) m

0.500

1.000

0.400

0.400

1.000

1.500

1.500

1.500

0.01299

0.00500

0.03333

0.01389

Channel Drops di m
Channel Drops Horizontal length hi m
Desired velocity Vo (m/s)

Output
Side slope d (degrees)
Canal slope S
Total depth H (m)

63.435

63.435

0.600

0.775

0.450

0.450

20.000

60.000

210.000

330.000

Area A m2

0.150

0.663

0.035

0.060

Top Width T (m)

0.500

1.525

0.400

0.400

Wetted Perimeter P (m)

1.100

2.174

0.471

0.671

Chainage L (m)

Present canal

Hydraulic Radius r (m)


Calculated flow (m3/s) & remarks
Comment on freeboard
Velocity V m/s
Critical Velocity Vc m/s & Remarks
Headloss hl (m)
Total headloss Hl(m)
Critical dia of sediment d crit (mm)

0.136

0.305

0.075

0.089

0.226 high

1.249 high

0.057 low

0.071 low

ok

low

ok

ok

1.233

0.219

4.103

2.417

1.72 Ok

2.06 Ok

0.93 Not Ok

1.21 Not Ok

0.260

0.200

5.000

1.667

0.260
19.481

0.460
16.769

5.460
27.500

7.126
13.665

0.1850
0.6022
1.74 Ok
0.1505
0.301
0.150
0.451
0.602
0.0050
0.100
0.100
8.271

0.0967
0.7636
1.11 Not Ok
0.1180
0.236
0.263
0.498
0.528
0.0112
0.449
0.549
14.584

0.0967
0.9949
0.98 Not Ok
0.1244
0.497
0.150
0.647
0.995
0.0145
2.175
2.724
19.834

0.0967
0.4867
1.4 Not Ok
0.1088
0.218
0.150
0.368
0.487
0.0173
2.079
4.803
20.736

Optimum canal
Area Ao m2
Top Width T (m)
Critical Velocity Vc m/s & Remarks
Hydraulic Radius ro (m)
Channel Depth/diameter Do (m)
Freeboard Fbo (m)
Total depth Ho (m)
Channel Width Bo (m)
Canal Slope
Headloss hlo (m)
Total headloss Hlo(m)
Critical dia of sediment d crito (mm)

Figure 5.2: An example of canal design.


Page: 35

Micro-hydropower Design Aids Manual (v 2006.05)

SHPP/GTZ

B = 0.5 & 0.602


D = 0.6 & 0.451
d & F B (0.3 & 0.3)
&
(0.301& 0.1
5)
B = 1& 0.764
D = 0.775 & 0.498
d & F B (0.525 &
0.25)
&
(0.236 &
0.263)

B = 0.4 & 0.995


D = 0.45 & 0.647
d & F B (0.3 & 0.1
5)
&
(0.497 & 0.1
5)

B = 0.4 & 0.487


D = 0.45 & 0.368

Figure 5.3: Illustrated canal type and their dimensions.


5.3.3

Pipe

Calculations for a headrace pipe presented in Figure 5.5 are briefly described in the following
section. The trashrack calculations are similar to the trashrack calculations presented earlier in the
intake design, hence it is not presented in this section. Trashrack loss of 0.02m is taken in this
example. In this example, one 140m long HDPE pipe with 260mm internal diameter is considered
for a design flow of 160 l/s each.
Sizing of headrace pipe
Headloss
HDPE pipe roughness, k =0.06 mm

k 0.06 mm
=
= 0.000231
d 260 mm
1.2Q 1.2 x0.160
=
= 0.73846
d
0.260
From Moody chart (Appendix), f=0.0153. Based on an iterative method presented in Laymans
Guidebook on How to Develop a Small Hydro Site, European Small Hydropower Association (ESHA),
the presented spreadsheet calculates this friction factor and greatly speeds up the pipe selection
decision for consultants by iterating following equations:

Friction loss

= f

l V2
l
= 0.0826 * Q 2 * f 5
d 2g
d

hwall loss = 0.0826 * 0.160 2 * 0.0153 *

140
= 3.82 m
0.265

Turbulent losses considering, K entrance for inward projecting pipe= 0.8, Kexit=1.0 and Kbends based
on the bending angles (see Table in the Appendix)

V 2
\ hturbulentlosses = (K entrance + K bends + K valve + K others + K exit )
2g
3.012
= (0.8 + 0.57 + 0 + 0 + 1) *
= 1.10m
2 x 9.81
Total head loss= 3.82 m + 0.02+1.10 m = 4.94 m
Page: 36

Micro-hydropower Design Aids Manual (v 2006.05)

SHPP/GTZ

Water level difference between intake and storage reservoir is 7m and 95% of this head is
allowed for total headloss. Only 70.56% is estimated as the total headloss. Although the
exiting water has some residual head, it is recommended to provide some marginal residual
head for safety. The HDPE pipe does not need expansion joints and therefore not
calculated.

Start
Project
Name,
Location,
Life

Hydraulics
Qd, Hg, RL us,
%hl, Entrance,
Exit, R/d

Pipe
#, Material, Fabrication
If steel, Laying, Valve,
t, L, q(upto 10)

Exp Joint
Dimensions, Position
during installation

Hydraulics
hl(friction, turbulent)
Other criteria checking

Trashrack
Bar type,
t,b, Vo,
F, b,H

Exp Joint
Tmax, Tinst,
Tmin, Group
L (5)

Trashrack
hl, Surface Area,
Width, h submerge

End
Figure 5.4: Flow chart for pipe design

Page: 37

Micro-hydropower Design Aids Manual (v 2006.05)

SHPP/GTZ

HEADRACE PIPE CALCULATIONS


Small Hydropower Promotion Project (SHPP)/GTZ

Spreadsheet by Mr Pushpa Chitrakar

Referances: 2,4, 6,12,13,15,16

Date

24-May-2006

SMALL HYDROPOWER PROMOTION PROJECT/GTZ

Revision

2006.05

Project:

MHP in Jumla

Developer
Consultant
Designed
Checked

Location:

Jogmai

Pushpa Chitrakar

INPUT

Hydraulics:
Diversion flow Qd (m3/s)
Flow in each pipe Qi (m3/s)
Gross headHg (m)

Economic life (years)

15

0.160

U/S Invert Level (m)

1950.00

0.160

% head available or headloss hlt (m)

95.00%

7.000

Entrance Type Inward project0.8


Bending radius (r/d)
0.3
5

Headrace pipe
HDPE

Exit (Yes/No)

Yes

NA
NA

No of pipes
Bending angle 01

1.00
20.00

NA
Burried

Bending angle 02
Bending angle 03
Bending angle 04
Bending angle 05

4.00
6.00
20.00

282
260
NA

Bending angle 06
Bending angle 07
Bending angle 08

3.0

Bending angle 09

140.000

Bending angle 10

Pipe Material
Welded / Flat rolled if steel
Rolled if steel
Type if steel
Burried or exposed
Type of valve
Non standard ultimate tensile strength (UTS) N/mm2
Estimated pipe diameter d(mm)
Provided pipe diameter d(mm)
Min pipe thickness t (mm)
Provided pipe thickness t (mm)
Pipe Length L (m)
Trashrack
t
6.00

b
20.00

Vo
1.00

f
60.00

Q
0.160

H
3.00

Tmax (deg)

T installation

Tmin

1st Pipe length(m)

2nd Pipe L (m)

3rd Pipe L (m)

4th Pipe L (m)

5th Pipe L (m)

40

20

50.00

100.00

150.00

200.00

250.00

hf
0.0213

hb

H coeff
0.4174

H
0.0213

S
0.8006

B
0.23

k
2.40

Flat

Expansion Joints

OUTPUT
Trashrack
Min Submergence

1.39

Turbulent loss coefficients


K inlet

0.80

K bend 05

K bend 10

K bend 01
K bend 02
K bend 03
K bend 04

0.16
0.13
0.13
0.16

K bend 06
K bend 07
K bend 08
K bend 09

K valve
K exit
K others
K Total

CGL=1.5v^2/2g

0.69

1.00
2.37

Hydraulics
0.053
0.07
3.01
0.06
0.00023
687032
Turbulent
0.0153

Pipe Area A (m2)


Hydraulic Radius R (m)
Velocity V (m/s)
Pipe Roughness ks (mm)
Relative Roughness ks/d
Reynolds Number Re = d V /Vk
Type of Flow
Friction Factor f
Expansion Joints (mm)
EJ number

U/S Invert Level (mAOD)


D/S Invert Level (mAOD)
Is HL tot < HL available
Friction Losses hf (m)
Fitting Losses hfit (m)
Trashracks and intake loss (m)
Total Head Loss htot individual (m)
% of H.Loss of individual pipe
4

1950.000
1943.000
OKAY
3.82
1.10
0.02
4.94
70.56% Ok

dL theoretical
dL recommended
dL for expansion
dL for contraction

Figure 5.5: An example of headrace pipe design

Page: 38

Micro-hydropower Design Aids Manual (v 2006.05)

SHPP/GTZ

SETTLING BASINS

6.1 SEDIMENT SETTLING BASINS


A settling basin traps sediment (gravel/sand/silt) from water and settles down in the basin for
periodical flushing back to natural rivers. Since sediment is detrimental to civil and mechanical
structures and elements, the specific size of specified percentage sediment has to be trapped,
settled, stored and flushed. This can only be achieved by reducing turbulence of the sediment
carrying water. The turbulence can be reduced by constructing settling basins along the conveyance
system. Since the settling basins are straight and have bigger flow areas, the transit velocity and
turbulence are significantly reduced allowing the desired sediments to settle. The sediment thus
settled has to be properly flushed back to the natural rivers.
Thus a settling basin:
1. Prevents blocking of headrace system assuring desired capacity of the system.
2. Prevents severe wearing of turbine runner and other parts.
3. Reduces the failure rate and O&M costs.
According to the location and function, a settling basin can be of following types:
1. Gravel Traps for settling particles of 2mm or bigger diameter.
2. Settling Basins for settling particles of 0.2mm or bigger diameter.
3. Forebays for settling similar to settling basin (optional) and smooth flow transition from open
flow to closed flow.
Micro hydro settling basins are generally made of stone masonry or concrete with spillways, flushing
gates, trashracks, other accessories as and when necessary. Most of the mini and small
hydropower settling basins are of concrete (M20 or higher). However, for functionality, all settling
basins should have following components:
1. Inlet Zone: An inlet zone upstream of the main settling zone is provided for gradual expansion
of cross section from turbulent flow to smooth/laminar flow..
2. Settling Zone: A settling zone is the main part of a settling basin for settling, deposition,
spilling flushing and trash removal.
3. Outlet Zone: An outlet zone facilitates gradual contraction of flow to normal condition.
A typical section of a settling basin with all the components (inlet, transition, settling and outlet zones)
and accessories (spillway, gate) is presented in Figure 6.1.

Figure 6.1: Typical section of a settling basin

Page: 39

Micro-hydropower Design Aids Manual (v 2006.05)

SHPP/GTZ

6.2 SETTLING BASIN THEORY


An ideal settling basin is a basin having a flow flowing in a straight line (no turbulence, no eddy
current). In practice, no single basin is ideal. For an ideal basin shown in figure 6.2:
H/W = L/V
Or, B *H /W = B*L/V
Or, Ax/W = As/V
Or, Q/W = As = Surface area (i.e., the surface area is directly proportional to the
discharge
and
inversely
proportional
to
the
settling
velocity/sediment
diameter/temperature).

Figure 6.2: An ideal setting basin


Efficiency of a real basin is generally 50 % or less than that of an ideal basin. This is mainly because
of the following factors:
1. Presence of water turbulence in basin.
2. Imperfect flow distribution at entrance.
3. Flow convergence towards exit.
Vetters equation takes care of the factors stated above and hence recommended for use in
settling basin design. According to Vetters equation, trap efficiency (h) for a given discharge (Q),
surface area (As) and falling velocity of critical sediment diameter (w) is:

6.3 GENERAL RECOMMENDATIONS


6.3.1

Gravel Trap

General recommendations and requirements for designing a gravel trap are outlined in the following
sections:
1. Location: Close to intake and safe.
2. Dimensions: Sufficient to settle and flush gravel passing through upstream coarse trashrack.
3. Spilling: Sufficient spillway/vertical flushing pipe.
4. Spilling and flushing: back to the river.
5. Material: 1:4 cement stone masonry with 12mm thick 1:2 cement plastering on the waterside
or structural concrete.
6. Recommended settling diameter and trap efficiency are 2mm and 90% respectively.

Page: 40

Micro-hydropower Design Aids Manual (v 2006.05)

SHPP/GTZ

7. Sediment storage zone: Adequate storage for 12 hours minimum (flushing interval).
8. Drawdown: Drawdown discharge capacity should be at least 150% of the design discharge.
9. Aspect ratio (straight length to width ratio): 1.5 to 2 for micro-hydropower gravel trap. The
recommended aspect ratio of mini and small hydropower gravel trap is 4.
6.3.2

Settling Basin

General recommendations for designing a settling basin are outlined below:


1. Location: Close to gravel trap/Intake.
2. Dimensions: Sufficient to settle and flush the designed sediment size.
3. Spilling: Sufficient spillway/vertical flushing pipe (layout dependent).
4. Spilling and flushing: back to the river.
5. Material: 1:4 cement stone masonry with 12mm thick 1:2 plastering on the waterside or
structural concrete.
6. Recommended settling diameter (trap efficiency) and head are presented in Table 6.1
Table 6.1: Settling diameter, trap efficiency and gross head
Settling diameter (mm) Trap efficiency (%)

Gross Head (m)


Micro Hydro

Mini/Small Hydro

0.3-0.5

90%

10m

10m

0.3

90%

10 to 100m

10 to 50m

0.2

90%

More than 100m

50 to 100m

0.2

95%

More than 100m

7. Sediment storage zone: Adequate storage for 12 hours (flushing interval)


8. Drawdown: Drawdown discharge capacity should be at least 150% of the design discharge.
9. Aspect ratio (straight length to width ratio): 4 to 10.
6.3.3

Forebay

Following criteria have been outlined for designing a forebay:


1. Dimensions and functions: Similar to settling basin if upstream system is of open type or the
forebay functions as a combined settling basin cum forebay.
2. Submergence: Sufficient to prevent vortex (i.e. 1.5 * v2/2g).
3. Active Storage: At least 15 sec * Qd. Active storage capacity should be based on closing
time of turbines.
4. Freeboard: 300mm or half the water depth whichever is less.
5. Drawdown: A drain pipe/Gate.
6. Spilling capacity: Minimum of spilling Qd during load rejection.
7. Fine Trashrack:
a. At the entrance of the penstock
b. Inclination: 3V:1H
c. Bars: Placed along vertical direction for ease of racking.

Page: 41

Micro-hydropower Design Aids Manual (v 2006.05)

SHPP/GTZ

d. Clearance: 0.5 * nozzle diameter in case of Pelton or half the distance between
runner blade in case of Crossflow/Francis.
e. Velocity: 0.6 to 1 m/s
f.

Weight: =< 60kg (porter load) for transportation by porters.

6.4 PROGRAM BRIEFING AND EXAMPLES


6.4.1

Features of the spreadsheet

The spreadsheet is designed to cater for all types of settling basins and with all possible spilling and
flushing mechanisms. Some of the main features are listed below:
1. A single spreadsheet for:
a. Gravel Trap
b. Settling Basin (Desilting)
c. Forebay-cum-Settling Basin
2. Settling of sediment using:
a. Ideal settling equation
b. Vetters equation
3. Flushing of deposited sediment during:
a. Normal operational
b. Drawn-down condition
4. Sediment flushing with:
a. Vertical flushing pipe
b. Gate
c. Combination of both
5. Spilling of excess flow due to:
a. Incoming flood
b. Load rejection
6. Spilling of excess flow with
a. Spillway
b. Vertical flushing pipe
c. Combination of both
7. Drawdown / Dewatering with:
a. Vertical flushing pipe
b. Gate
8. Rating curve for the gate: According to Norwegian Rules and Regulations of Dam
Construction, a gate rating curve for the designed parameters is computed. According to this
manual, the flow through gate is of free flow type until the gate opening is two third of the
water depth behind the gate. Beyond this level (i.e., the gate opening higher than 2/3 of the
water depth behind the gate), the flow through gate is a pressure flow.
9. Multiple basins
10. Combination of approach canal / pipe options

Page: 42

Micro-hydropower Design Aids Manual (v 2006.05)

SHPP/GTZ

6.4.2 Vertical flushing pipe


Vertical flushing pipes (used in micro hydropower projects) are used for spilling of excess water and
flushing of the basin. The diameter of vertical flushing pipe is estimated based on the critical
parameter of these two functions.
1. Overflow: Acts as a sharp crested weir.
diameter d1 is:
Qf =p*d1*Cw*hf 2/3 for Cw = 1.6
d1 = Qf/(1.6*p*hf2/3)

Discharge through the flushing pipe having a

2. Drawdown / Dewatering through the vertical flushing pipe:


1.5*Qd =C*A*(hb+fflush) 0.5: A=p*d212/4: C=2.76 for L=<6m
d21=(6*Qd/( p *C *( hb+fflush)0.5 )0.5 @ full
d22=(4*Qd/( p *C *( fflush)0.5 )0.5 @ empty
3. Design diameter: Maximum of above (d1, d21,d22)

Figure 6.3: Flushing pipe details


6.4.3 Spillway at intake
Length of a spillway is the function of spilling discharge, freeboard and downstream obstruction. In
case there is not downstream obstruction such as a gate the cross section area of flow is of a
triangular shape. For a downstream obstructed condition, the flow is rectangular in section across
the spillway. According the conditions, the spillway length is calculated as:
hovertop = 50% of (FB spillway crest height above NWL)
Ls1 =Qf/C/hovertop1.5: for downstream obstruction and constant h overtop.
Ls2 =2*Abs(Qf-Qd)/C/ hovertop 1.5) for no downstream obstruction and average h overtop.
Ls3=Qf/C/(2* hovertop -0.05)1.5: for downstream obstruction and constant h overtop (100%0.05).
6.4.4

Gate
Lifting force F(kg)=W buoyant + 1000*m*Asub*hcg
Page: 43

Micro-hydropower Design Aids Manual (v 2006.05)

SHPP/GTZ

Gate opening dh=h1-h2


dh<2/3*h1 :=> Pressure flow (as a gate): Q=C*L*(H11.5-H21.5)
dh=>2/3*h1 :=> Open flow (as a spillway ): Q=C*L*H11.5
Enter the maximum gate opening in the lowest gate opening cell and press the Calculate
Gate Rating Curve button for computing rating curve.
An example of a settling basin design is presented in figure 6.6. The procedures for designing the
settling basin are briefly described in the following section.
Sizing of settling basin
1. Settling of sediment using:
a. Vetters equation
Surface area of basin = -(Qtotal)/w*LN(1-neff) Asi = -(0.455)/.035* LN(1-neff)
2
= 25 m
Max section width for hydraulic flushing = 4.83*Q^0.5 = 4.83*.455^0.5
= 3.258m
Provided Width B

= 2.5m

Length of basin L

= Asi/B = 25/2.5
= 10m, which is 4 times the width hence, satisfies the requirement.

Basin transit velocity vt = 0.44* sqrt(d) = 0.44*sqrt(0.2)


= 0.241m/s
Water depth Hi

= Qi/B/vt = 0.455/2.5/0.241 = 0.755m

Sediment storage volume assuming 100% trap efficiency (conservative side)


V = (Qtotal)*(Flushing intensity in sec)*Concentration max in kg/Bulk Sed.
3
Density in kg/m /Sed Swelling factor
= (Qtotal)*(FI*3600)*Cmax/G*S = 0.455*(8*3600)*2/2.6*1.5
3
= 15.12m
Sediment depth Hs

= V/Asi = 15.12/25 = 0.6m

b. Ideal settling equation


Length of an Ideal Basin= Maximum of (4xB and Q/B/w) = MAX(4*2.5, 0.455/2.5/0.035)
= MAX(10, 5.2)
= 10 m
2. Spilling of excess flow due to load rejection: A combination of a 0.3m diameter vertical pipe
and spillway of 1.0m length is used.
H overtopping

= h ot =(Q1/(1.9*PI()*n1*d1+Cd*Ls))^(2/3)
= (0.455/(1.9*pi()*1*.3+1.6*1))^(2/3)
= 0.262 m

Q pipe

= 1.9*PI()*n1*d1*h ot ^1.5 = 1.9*pi()*1*.3*0.262^1.5


3
= 0.240 m /s

Q spillway

= Cd*Ls*h ot ^1.5 = 1.6*1*0.262^1.5


3
= 0.215 m /s

3. Flushing of deposited sediment through the flushing pipe: The pipe diameter will be the biggest
of :
a. For incoming flow and draw down:
D1 = (Qflushing%*4*Qi/(PI()*Cd*SQRT(h NWL+h flush)))^0.5

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Micro-hydropower Design Aids Manual (v 2006.05)

SHPP/GTZ

= (100%*4*0.455/(pi()**2.76*SQRT(1.36+1.7)))^0.5
= 0.35m
b. For incoming flow only:
D2
=(4*Qi/(PI()*Cd*SQRT(hflush)))^0.5
= (4*0.455/(pi()**2.76*SQRT(1.7)))^0.5
= 0.4m

Settling Basin Design


Small Hydropower Promotion Project (SHPP)/GTZ

Spreadsheet by Mr Pushpa Chitrakar

Referances: 2,4, 6,9,12,13,15,16

Date

24-May-2006

SMALL HYDROPOWER PROMOTION PROJECT/GTZ

Revision

Project:

Location:

2006.05
Jogmai

Developer
Consultant
Designed
Checked

Upper Jogmai SHP


Kankaimai Hydropower P Ltd
EPC Consult
Pushpa Chitrakar
Pushpa Chitrakar
Q flood
Manning's number M (m1/3/s) 1/n=
Design discharge Qdesign (m3/s) =

50.000
0.421

Sediment swelling factor S =


Volume of sediment storage V (m3) =
Sediment depth Hs (m) = V/Asi

1.50
15.12
0.63

Flushing discharge Qf lush (m3/s) =


Total discharge Qbasins (m3/s) =
Particles to settle d (mm) =
Trapping efficiency n (%) =
water temperature t (oC) =
Fall velocity w at 15 deg C (m/s) =
Sediment concentration Cmax (kg/m3) =
Flushing Frequency FI (hours) =
Surface area / basin Asi (m2) 85 % =
Basin transit velocity Vt (m/s) =
Bulk Sed density G (kg/m3) =

0.034

Inlet approach conveyance Canal/Pipe =

Canal

0.455
0.300
85%
15
0.037
2
8
24.000
0.241
2600

1/Bottom slope of SB Sf (1:50 to 1:20) =


Outlet approach conveyance Canal/Pipe =
Water level at inlet NWL (m) =
h flush below the base slab (L<6m)
Number of basins N
Spillway crest height above NWL m
Spillway discharge coeff
Provided Freeboard h fb1 m
Discharge coeff for pipe as orifice (2.76 if L <6 m)
Drawdown discharge % of design discharge

50.00
Pipe
1950.00
1.70
1.00
0.05
1.60
0.30
2.76
1.00

Discharge per basin Qbasin (m3/s) =


Max section width for hydraulic flushing B (m) =
Width used B (m) =
Inlet canal width /canal diameter Bc1 (m) =

0.455
3.258
2.500
1.000

Water depth of inlet canal hc1 (m) =


Outlet canal width /canal diameter Bc2 (m) =
Water depth of outlet canal hc2 (m) =
Provided Length of the basin Lact (m)=

0.50
0.50
0.30

Length of basin L (m) (Idel L = 9.6) =


Aspect ratio (4<=AR<=10)
Min. water depth Hi (m) =
X-sectional area / basin Ai (m2) =
Wetted perimeter / basin Pi (m) =
Hydraulic radius Ri (m) =
Normal WL @ basin h b m =
Straight inlet transition length at 1:5 (m) =
Straight approach canal length (m) =

10.000
4.000
0.755
1.888
4.010
0.471
1.385
3.750
10.000

Pipe does not need a straight approach! ***


Head over outlet weir h overtop (m) =
0.23
Approach inlet velocity vi1 (m/s) =
0.91
Approach outlet velocity vi2 (m/s) =
3.03
1/Energy gradient during operation So =
15763.86
d 50 during operation (mm) =
0.33
Depth of water during flushing yfi (m) =
0.12
d 50f during flushing (mm) =
49.32
Length of an Ideal Basin (m) =
10.00

Spilling of excess water


Vertical Flushing pipe
Diameter for flood d1 m =

Diameter for load rejection (u/s flood bypass) d1 m = 2 x 0.43

Spillway
Freeboard m
Spillway overtopping height h overtop m
Spillway length for Qf (flood and non operational)
Combination of vertical flushing pipe and spillway
Vertical flushing pipe diameter d1 m
No of vertical flushing pipe
Spillway length used (m)
Flood and Under Operation (Qf- Qd)
H overtopping
Discharge passing through vertical pipe
Discharge passing over spillway

0.300
0.125

0.30
1.00
1.00

Spillway length for Qd (under operation)


Spillway length for Qd (load rejection & u/s flood bypass)
Spillway length for Qd (d/s obstruction & full hovertop-50)

6.43
6.43
3.18

Flood and non operational (Qf)


Flood discharge passing through vertical pipe
Spillway length for the remaining discharge m

1.00

Load Rejection (Qd)


H overtopping
Discharge passing through vertical pipe
Discharge passing over spillway

0.262
0.240
0.215

Figure 6.4: Typical example of a settling basin (Settling basin, spilling and flushing).

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Micro-hydropower Design Aids Manual (v 2006.05)

SHPP/GTZ

In the second case, the depth of water during flushing (yfi) may be added to h flush for higher
precision. This is not considered here. The recommended minimum diameter of the flushing pipe
diameter is 0.4 m. Use of flushing pipe should be restricted to micro-hydropower projects. For
larger projects, use of gates is recommended.
The gate curve in the example presented in Figure 6.5 includes the gate dimensions, forces and
the rating curve. The rating curve of the gate versus different gate opening can be computed by
entering allowable gate opening at the lowest input cell and clicking Calculate Gate Rating Curve
button.

Calculate Gate Rating Curves

Flushing of water and sediment


Flushing pipe and orifice diameter
d for incoming flow and draw down m
d for incoming flow only (empty state) m
d for incoming flow only (empty state & with y flushing) m

Gate
Opening
Hg
0.000
0.033
0.067
0.100
0.133
0.167
0.200
0.233
0.267
0.300
0.333
0.367
0.400
0.433
0.467
0.500

0.35
0.40
0.39

Gate
Buoyance weight of the gate W kgf
Gate Opening B, (m)
Gate Opening H (m)
Submerged area of th gate A m2
Water surface to cg of submerged area h m
Coeff of static friction mu
Lifting force F kgf
H. of water (H1)

300.00
1.00
0.50
0.50
1.11
0.90
799.50
1.36

Relative
Discharge
Gate Openinig One basin
Hg/H1
Q
0.000
0.000
0.025
0.127
0.049
0.249
0.074
0.366
0.098
0.479
0.123
0.591
0.147
0.700
0.172
0.807
0.196
0.912
0.221
1.016
0.245
1.117
0.270
1.216
0.294
1.312
0.319
1.406
0.343
1.497
0.368
1.586

Figure 6.5: Typical example of a settling basin (Gate and rating curve).
The last part the spreadsheet can be used if the considered basin is a settling basin cum forebay.
The basic penstock inlet geometry is computed in this section. An example is presented in Figure
6.6.

1.800

0.367
0.400
0.433
0.467
0.500

Designed Cross Section

1.600
1.400

Av. H ot =0.125m
Water depth 0.76m

0.265
0.289
0.313
0.337
0.361

1.230
1.328
1.423
1.516
1.606

1.200

Forebay cum settling basin (one basin)

1.000

Penstock diameter m
Penstock velocity m/s
Submergence depth of penstock pipe m
Height of pipe above the base slab m
Min. pond depth m
Effective thickness of penstock mm
FS for air vent (5 burried, 10 exposed)
Young's modulus of elasticity E N/mm2
Penstock inlet gate (Yes/No)
Air vent diameter mm

0.800

Sediment depth 0.63m

0.600
0.400
0.200

Width 2.5m

0.000

Gradual Expansion of 1:5

half of Gr expansion

0.500
1.000

Width 2.5m

Flushing cone/spillway O

L =10

Gradual Expansion 1 in 10 (1:2 for MHP)

Spillway

0.500

Water depth 0.76m


Sediment depth 0.63m

0.300

Slope 1:50

Figure 6.6: Typical example of a settling basin (forebay and dimensioning).

Page: 46

0.41
3.45
0.91
0.30
1.62
3
10
200000
No
Nominal

Micro-hydropower Design Aids Manual (v 2006.05)

SHPP/GTZ

7 PENSTOCK AND POWER CALCULATIONS


7.1

GENERAL

A penstock pipe conveys water from free flow state (at a settling basin or a forebay) to pressure flow
state to the powerhouse and converts the potential energy of the flow at the settling basin or forebay
to kinetic energy at the turbine.

7.2

GENERAL RECOMMENDATIONS

1. Material: Mild steel (exposed and buried) and HDPE/GRP (buried) pipes should be used as
penstock pipes. For mild steel pipes, flanged connections are recommended for low head (up to
60m) micro-hydropower projects. In other cases, site welding is recommended. A combination
of HDPE/GRP and mild steel can also be used.
2. For exposed (i.e., above ground) mild steel penstock alignment, a minimum clearance of 300 mm
between the pipe and the ground should be provided for ease of maintenance and minimising
corrosion effects.
3. GRP/HDPE pipes should be buried to a minimum depth of 1 m. Similarly, if mild steel penstock
pipes have to be buried, a minimum of 1 m burial depth should be maintained and corrosion
protection measures such as high quality bituminous/epoxy paints should be applied. Due to
higher risks of leakage, flange connected penstocks are not recommended to be buried.
4. The recommended initial trial internal diameter (D) can be calculated as:
D = 41 x Q 0.38 mm
Where, Q = Design flow in l/s
5. Total penstock headloss should not be more than 10% of the penstock gross head.
6. Anchor / Thrust blocks at every horizontal and vertical bend are recommended. For micro
hydropower projects, these blocks are also recommended for every 30m of straight pipe stretch.
7. Expansion joints should be placed immediately downstream of every anchor block for exposed
mild steel penstock.
8. Instead of providing an expansion joint immediately upstream of turbine, a mechanical coupling is
recommended for ease of maintenance and reduced force transmitted to the turbine casing.

7.3

PROGRAM BRIEFING AND EXAMPLE

7.3.1 Program Briefing


The design procedure of a penstock pipe is similar to that of a headrace pipe. In this spreadsheet,
the penstock is checked for surge / water hammer head propagated due to various closures of the
system. Sudden closure of one jet is considered as the maximum surge in case Pelton turbines are
used.
Both the installed capacities based on the AEPC criteria and actual cumulative efficiency of the
electro-mechanical are presented. The installed capacity based on the given cumulative efficiency
should be used in case it is provided by manufacturers.
Since a provision of maximum of ten bends is generally sufficient for a typical micro and mini
hydropower scheme, head losses due to ten bends are incorporated. However, users can add any
cumulative values of bend constants (k) if there are more than ten bends and other losses due to
turbulence in the K others cell.

Page: 47

Micro-hydropower Design Aids Manual (v 2006.05)

SHPP/GTZ

A fine trashrack is always recommended upstream of penstock inlet. Therefore, a trashrack


calculation and minimum submergence criteria by Gordon and AEPC criteria are also included.
AEPC criterion of 150% of the velocity head is enough for micro and mini hydropower projects.
User specific factor of safety and ultimate tensile strength for mild steel penstock are allowed in the
spreadsheet in order to be able to use non standard values.
The friction factor calculation is based on the iteration procedures described in the Laymans
Guidebook on How to Develop a Small Hydro Site by European Small Hydropower Association
(ESHA).
Design and installation criteria of expansion joints are presented at the end of the spreadsheet.

Start
Project
Name,
Location,
Life

Hydraulics
Qd, Hg, RL us,
%hl, Entrance,
Exit, R/d

Exp Joint
Dimensions, Position
during installation

Pipe
#, Material, Fabrication
If steel,Laying, Valve,
t, L, q(upto 10)

Power
Pturbine,P MGSP,
P hnetPCU M

Trashrack
Bar type,
t,b, Vo,
F, b,H

Hydraulics
hl(friction, turbulent)
Other criteria checking

Exp Joint
Tmax, Tinst,
Tmin, Group
L (5)

Trashrack
hl, Surface Area,
Width, h submerge

End
Figure 7.1: Flow diagram of penstock design
7.3.2 Typical example of a penstock pipe
Figure 7.1 presents calculation procedures applied in the example presented in Figures 7.2 and 7.3.
The presented example is taken from the 500kW Jhakre Mini Hydropower Project, Dolakha. For the
given head of 180m and discharge of 450 l/s, three units of two-nozzle Pelton turbines are selected.
Since trashrack and pipe hydraulics are similar to headrace pipe presented earlier, the detailed
calculations are not presented in this section. The steel pipe thickness, expansion joints and power
calculations are presented in this section. It is assumed that the valve closing is of slow type. The
minimum factor of safety for penstock is chosen to be 2.5.
Pipe thickness:
It is worth noting that in reality the diameter of penstock pipe is optimized by calculating marginal
costs and benefit method. In this method, the incremental benefit of annual energy by increasing the
pipe diameters and corresponding increase of costs are plotted. The intersecting point represents
the cost of optimum diameter. Alternatively, net present values of these cash/cost flow can be
calculated and the net present value (NPV) of marginal benefit from energy gain should be higher
than that of the marginal cost of that diameter.
Lets consider 4mm thick 300mm diameter pipe, the wave velocity

a=

1440
2.1 x10 9 x d

1 +
E xt

1440

2.1 x 10 9 x 0.300

1+
200 x 10 9 x 6

1000

= 1071.454 m / s

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Micro-hydropower Design Aids Manual (v 2006.05)

SHPP/GTZ

hsurge

= a * V/(g*njet) = 1071.454*2.83/(9.81*6)
= 51.484m

htotal

= hgross + hsurge = 180+51.484


= 231.484 m

t effective

= t/(welding factor*rolling) thickness for corrosion taken as Life span/10


= 6/(1.1*1.2) 1.0
= 3.55mm

Factor of safety (allowable FS = 3.0)

S .F . =

teffective x S
5 x htotal x 103 x d

(3.55 1000) x 410 x10 6


5 x 231.484 x 10 3 x 0.450

= 2.79 which does not exceed the allowable FS of 2.5, hence OK. This factor of
safety should be used for thinner penstock.

PENSTOCK AND POWER CALCULATIONS


Spreadsheet developed by Mr. Pushpa Chitrakar, Engineering Advisor, SHPP/GTZ
Referances:2,4, 5,6,12,13,15,16

Date

SMALL HYDROPOWER PROMOTION PROJECT/GTZ

Revision

Project:

Jhankre mini-hydropower
Himal Power Limited
BPC Hydroconsult
Pushpa Chitrakar
Pushpa Chitrakar

Developer
Consultant
Designed
Checked

Location:

10-Nov-2005

2005.10
Barand, Sertung VDC 2, Dhading

INPUT
General:
Jogmai I
Project:
Location:
Ilam
Hydraulics:
Diversion flow Qd (m3/s)
Flow in each pipe Qi (m3/s)
Gross head (from forebay) Hg (m)
Power:
Turbine type (CROSSFLOW/PELTON)
No of total jets (nj)

Economic life (years)

10

0.450
0.450
180.00

WL @ forebay or U/S Invert Level (m)


% head allowable headloss hlt (m)
Cumulative knowm efficiency (g,t,tr,others)

1213.90
16.00%
79.38%

Pelton
6

Valves (Sperical/Gate/Butterfly)
Taper (Yes/No)

Butterfly 0.3

Yes

Exit (Yes/No)

No

30.00
3

Non standard ult. tensile strength (UTS) N/mm2

Steel
Welded
Rolled
IS
Exposed

Safety factor for lower pipes (0 for default)


Entrance Type
Entrance with gate and air-vent (Yes/No)
Bending radius (r/d) (1/2/3/5/1.5)
Bending angle 05

Direct Coupling (Yes/No)


Closure time T sec
Number of units
Penstock pipe:
Pipe Material (STEEL/HDPE/PVC)
Welded / Flat rolled if steel
Rolled if steel
Type if steel (UNGRAGED/IS)
Burried or exposed
No of pipes
Bending angle 01(degrees)
Bending angle 02
Bending angle 03
Bending angle 04
Penstock diameter d=>d estd, d act (mm)
Pipe Length L (m)
Trashrack
k
t
Flat
2.40
6.00
Expansion Joints

No

1.5

1.00
Bending angle 06
2.00
Bending angle 07
11.00
Bending angle 08
4.00
Bending angle 09
11.00
Bending angle 10
450 Pipe thickness t=>t min, t act (mm)
3.0
Roughness coefficient (ks)

418
550.000
b
20.00

Vo
1.00

f
71.56

Tmax (deg)

T installation

Tmin

1st Pipe length(m)

2nd Pipe L (m)

40

20

10.00

15.00

b
0.00

Q
0.450

25.00

14.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
6.0
0.060
H
0.70

3rd Pipe L (m) 4th Pipe L (m)

20.00

2.5
0.5
No
0.45
22

Sharp cornered

5th Pipe L (m)

30.00

Figure 7.2: Input required for penstock and power calculations

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Micro-hydropower Design Aids Manual (v 2006.05)

SHPP/GTZ

OUTPUT
Trashrack
hf

hb

H coeff

0.0233

0.0000

0.4572

0.0233

2.0555

2.79

Turbulent loss coefficients


K inlet

K Total

K bend 01
K bend 02
K bend 03
K bend 04

Min Submergence

1.84

CGL=1.5v^2/2g

0.61

2.06
0.50

K bend 05

0.24

K bend 10

0.00

0.18
0.21
0.19
0.21

K bend 06
K bend 07
K bend 08
K bend 09

0.22
0.00
0.00
0.00

K valve
K taper
K exit
K others

0.30
0.00
0.00
0.00

Hydraulics
0.159

U/S Invert Level (mAOD)

1213.90

0.11
2.83
0.060
1.333E-04
1116427
Turbulent
0.0138

D/S Invert Level (mAOD)


Is HLtot < HL available
Friction Losses hf (m)
Fitting Losses hfit (m)
Trashracks and intake loss (m)
Total Head Loss htot individual (m)
% of H.Loss of individual pipe

1033.90
OKAY
6.87
0.84
0.02
7.73
4.3% Ok

Young's modulus of elasticity E N/mm


Thickness

200000

Ultimate tensile strength (UTS) N/mm2

410

6.000

H total for one jet closure of Pelton(m)

231.48

Diameter (mm)

450.000

t effective (mm)

3.55

Net Head (m)

172.268

Minimum t effictive for negative pressure (mm)

4.71

1071.454

Comment on thickness

NA, No gate

Pipe Area A (m )
Hydraulic Radius R (m)
Velocity V (m/s)
Pipe Roughness ks (mm)
Relative Roughness ks/d
Reynolds Number Re = d V /Vk
Type of Flow
Friction Factor f
Factor of Safety
2

Wave Velocity a (m/s)


Critical time Tc (sec) *2 = Closing time T

1.03 Ok

Safety Factor (S)

2.79

K if crossflow turbine Kcf


Hsurge for one jet closure of Pelton(m)
Hsurge for instanteneous closure of all unit closure of Pelton (m)
Lengths (max & actual) of the specified pipe (m) & Ok 613.998

0.00000
51.484
308.907
550.000

Check on Safety Factor


Air vent diameter d vent (mm)
H total capacity of the specified pipe (m)
H static capacity of the specified pipe (m)

Ok
67.45
258.42
206.94

Power
Turbine efficiency as per MGSP
Available shaft power(kW)
Reqd.'Turbine Capacity (+10%) (kW)

75.00%
570.36
627.39

Electrical Power as per MGSP GL (kW)


Electrical Power based on Hnet (kW)
Power for known cumulative eff (kW)

397.31
456.29
603.67

Expansion Joints (mm)


EJ number
dL theoretical
dL recommended
dL for expansion
dL for contraction

1
4
9
5
4

Coeff of linear expansion /deg C


2
2
4
6
9
11
13
17
22
7
10
12
6
8
10

1.2E-05
5
13
26
14
12

Figure 7.3: Output of penstock and power calculation spreadsheet.


Based on the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) recommendations, the allowable
minimum thickness is 3.00 mm. Therefore, optimum penstock thickness can vary from 3mm to 6mm.
The summary of the penstock thickness corresponding to static head is presented in Table 7.1. The
static heads for different thickness of pipes are calculated by applying different thickness of the pipe
and noting the thickness and the corresponding to the calculated values of H static capacity of the
specified pipe (m) cell.

Table 7.1: Summary of penstock thickness and corresponding maximum permissible


static head
Penstock thickness (mm)
Static Head (m)
3
40
4
86
5
132
6
180

Page: 50

Micro-hydropower Design Aids Manual (v 2006.05)

7.4

SHPP/GTZ

FORCES ON ANCHOR BLOCKS

An anchor block is a gravity retaining structure placed at every sharp change along the penstock
pipe and is designed to retain penstock pipe movement in all directions. It should be stable against
overturning, sliding and sinking/bearing. Although the design of anchor blocks and saddles are site
and user specific and the rules of thumb are valid for micro-hydropower schemes, care should be
taken while using these rules of thumbs even for micro-hydropower projects. The spreadsheet
AnchorLoads is useful for calculating static and dynamic forces on an anchor block. In case the
penstock pipes upstream and downstream of an anchor block are not on a single plane (i.e., 3
dimensional forces), the resultant forces act on three dimensions and the block has to be stable in all
three dimensions. Calculation and design of anchor blocks for three dimensions is a complex
process and beyond the scope of this book and most of micro and mini hydropower projects have
penstock in single planes, therefore, a spreadsheet useful for calculating forces in a single plane
parallel to longitudinal section of the anchor block is presented. Moreover, the designers are strongly
advised to align penstock in a single plane.
AEPC/ESAP does not have any mandatory procedures for designing anchor blocks. Therefore,
standard procedures for calculating forces on anchor blocks are considered in this spreadsheet. The
possible forces acting on anchor blocks are presented in the spreadsheet.
Since the calculation of anchor forces consists of single line formula calculations without many
conditions, the spreadsheet is designed to present simple definitions of these forces along with
sketches, their formulae and the calculated results. An example of 500kW Jhankre mini-hydropower
project anchor block presented in Civil Works Guidelines for Micro-Hydropower in Nepal has been
taken as an example. Some additional forces are added and some of the formulae based on
analytical method are used.
7.4.1

Program example

Input for the cited example are presented in Figure 7.4. Elevations are used to calculate vertical angles ( a
and b ) in case these angles are not entered as inputs. As always, care should be taken to verify inputs in
red colour.
Total head,
Static head h gross = forebay water level pipe centre line = 650.50 636.750 = 13.750m
htotal = h gross + hsurge = 13.750 m + 48 m = 108 m
Unit weight of pipe and water,
Wp = (d + t) t gsteel = x 0.454 x 0.004 x 77 = 0.448 kN/m
2

Ww = (d ) /4* gwater =

P(0.450) 2
4

9.8 = 1.560 kN/m

Total weight per unit length WT=W p+W w = 2.008 kN/m


2

Velocity, v = Q/A = 4*Q/(*d ) = 4*0.45/(*.45 ) = 2.829 m/s


1. Perpendicular component of weight of pipe and water acting perpendicular to the pipe centre line along
the anchor faces
F1u = W T L1u cos a = 2.008 * 2 * cos 13 = 3.913 kN
F1d = W T L1d cos b = 2.008 * 2 * cos 25 = 3.640 kN
The axial components of these forces can be calculated as:
F1u axial = - W T L1u sin a = 2.008 * 2 * sin 13 = - 0.903 kN
F1d axial = - W T L1d sin b = 2.008 * 2 * sin 25 = - 1.697 kN
2

FEMu = W T L1u /8 = 2.008 * 2 /8 = 2.677 kN-m


2
2
FEMd = - W T L1d /8 = 2.008 * 2 /8 = - 2.677 kN-m
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2. Axial frictional force of pipe on saddle supports transferred to anchor block considering f = 0.25 for steel
on steel (greased) saddle top.
Frictional force per support pier = f *W T*L2u cos a = 0.25*2.00 * 4 cos 13= 1.95 kN
Total frictional force for 8 piers (F2u ) = 1.95 x 8 = 15.653 kN
Note that F2d is zero since an expansion joint is located immediately downstream of the anchor block.
3. Hydrostatic pressure at bend due to the vector difference of static pressure and acting towards IP (F3)
and total force along the pipe (P). Since upstream and downstream penstock diameter are the same.
Pu (kN) = /4*d2*Ht*g = /4*.452*108*9.81 = 168.50
25 - 13
F3 = 2*P*sin((b-a)/2) = 2 x 168.50 x sin
= 35.227 kN
2

4. Component of weight of pipe along the pipe (L4u = 34.89 4 = 30.894)


F4u = L4u = 0.448 x 30.894 x sin 13 = 3.112 kN
F4d = W pL4d sin b = 0.448 x 4.0 x sin 25 = 0.757 kN
5. Since expansion joints both upstream and downstream are provided, F5 = 0. Typical temperature ranges
are presented in the example. Since the temperatures (dt) are different for expansion and contraction, F5
for both the cases are presented.
6. Axial friction within expansion joint seal due to the movement against the circumferential pressure (F6)
can be calculated using either of the formulas:
F6 = 100 x d or F6 = *D*W*H*g*m
Since the second formula is based on analytical method, it is recommended to use it. H is the total head
at the considered expansion joint. For a seal width (W) of 0.16m and a friction factor (m) of 0.25, F6 is
F6u= *0.454*0.16*98.512*9.81*0.25 = 55.666 kN
F6d= *0.454*0.16*109.888*9.81*0.25 = 60.959 kN
7. Axial hydrostatic pressure on exposed end of pipe in expansion joint (F7):
F7=*(d + t)*t*H*g
F7u = * 0.454*0.004*98.512*9.81= 5.518 kN
F7d = * 0.454*0.004*109.888*9.81= 6.042 kN
8. Dynamic pressure at the bend due to the vector difference of momentum (F8):
P8 (kN) = F8 = Q*r *v= 0.45*1*2.829 = 1.273 kN
Q2 b - a
0.450 2 25 - 13

sin
sin
F8 = 2.5 d2 2 = 2.5
= 0.261 kN
0.450 2
2

9. No reducer is provided in this case. Therefore axial force on reduce (F9 = 0). In case there is a reducer,
total head at the specified reducer location is calculated for calculating F9.
10. Axial drag of flowing water (friction of flowing water) is generally not considered in micro and mini
hydropower scheme penstock design. Therefore F10 =0 is considered in this example.
11. Force due to soil pressure (F11):
2
g h
F11= soil 1 cos i x Ka x w
2
3

For gsoil = 20 kN/m , f = 30 and Ka =


F11 =

cos i - cos2 i - cos2 f


cos i + cos2 i - cos2 f

=0.371

20 18
. 2
cos 13 x 0.371 x 2 = 23.455 kN
2

This force acts at 1/3 of the buried depth at upstream face of anchor block, which is (1/3 x 1.8) = 0.6 m.

Page: 52

Micro-hydropower Design Aids Manual (v 2006.05)

SHPP/GTZ

Summary of forces are presented in Figure 7.4. The forces calculated above are further resolved in
mutually perpendicular directions to get the summary. A typical calculation is presented in Table 7.2.
Forces acting at the bend and the total forces for both the expansion and contraction are presented in the
table. The total forces will further be utilized in anchor block design. These forces are calculated for
vertical angles of a = 13, b = 25.

Table 7.2: Summary of forces


Forces (kN)
F1u = 3.90
F1d = 3.63
F2u = 15.6
F3 = 35.20

F4u = 2.97
F4d = 2.97
F5u = 0.000
F5d = 0.000
F6u = 45
F6d = 45
F7u = 5.70
F7d = 6.08
F8 = 0.26

X - component (kN) +
= - F1u sin a = - 0.880
= - F1d sin b = - 1.538
= F2u cos a = 15.252

Y- component (kN) +
= F1u cos a = 3.813
= F1d cos b = 3.299
= F2u sin a = 3.521

b + a
= 11.469
2

b + a

= - 33.308
2

= F3 sin

= - F3 cos

= F4u cos a = 3.033


= F4u cos b = 0.686
= F5u cos a = 0.000
= - F5d cos b = 0.000
= F6u cos a = 54.239
= - F6d cos b = - 55.248
= F7u cos a = 5.377
= - F7d cos b = - 5.476

= F4u sin a = 0.700


= F4u sin b = 0.320
= F5u sin a = 0.000
= - F5d sin b = 0.000
= F6u sin a = 12.522
= -F6d sin b = -25.763
= F7u sin a = 1.241
= - F7d sin b = - 2.553

= F8 sin

b + a

= 0.085
2

= - F8 cos

b + a

= - 0.247
2

F9u = 0.000
F9d = 0.000
F10u = 0.000
F10d = 0.000
F11 = 23.45
F12 = 354.64

= F9u cos a = 0.000


= - F9d cos b = 0.000
= F10u cos a = 0.000
= - F10d cos b = 0.000
= F11 cos i = 22.853
0

= F9u sin a = 0.000


= - F9d sin b = 0.000
= F10u sin a = 0.000
= - F10d sin b = 0.000
= F11 sin i = 5.276
= F12 = 354.640

SUM
(expansion)

H @ bend exp = H total exp - F11H = 26.997 kN

V @ bend exp = V total exp - F11V - F12V = -36.454 kN

H total exp = 49.851 kN


H @ bend c = H total c F11H = -1.488 kN

V total exp = 323.460 kN


V @ bend = V @ total c F11V = -17.015 kN

H total c = H @ bend expansion 2(F2H +F6Hu+


F6Hd ) = 21.366 kN

V total c = V @ bend contraction 2(F2V +F6Vu+ F6Vd)=342.901


kN

SUM
(contraction)

Forces on Anchor Block

Block # & type

Convex

Small Hydropower Promotion Project


Spreadsheet
(SHPP)/GT
by Mr P
Zushpa Chitrakar
Referances: 6,12,13,15,16

Date

SMALL HYDROPOWER PROMOTION PROJECT/GTZ

Revision

Project
Developer
Consultant

Designed
Checked

24-May-2006

2006.05

Jhankre mini-hydropower
BPC Hydroconsult

Input
Particulars

Upstream

Pipe dimensions
Diameter (Di)
Thickness
Shaddle Spacing & number

Central

0.45
0.004
4.00

Horizontal Distance (m)


Vertical angles, a & b (deg)
Location of Expansion Joint

Output
Weight of pipe, Wp (kN/m)
Weight of water, Ww (kN/m)
Total weight, W (kN/m))
Velocity, v (m/s)
Vertical angles, a & b (rad)

0.45
0.004
4.00

34.000

40.000

13.0000

25.0000

Yes

Yes

0.448
1.560
2.008
2.829
0.226893

Design Discharge, Q (m3/s)

0.45

Unit Weights (kN/m3)


Mild Steel
Water
RCC

78.5
9.81
25

Anchor Block
Soil

636.750

Elevations

D/S Expansion Joint :

Downstream

0.448
1.560
2.008
2.829
0.436332

Bearing capacity (kN/m2)


f
gs

22
200
30 0.5236
20

Heads (m)
Forebay WL
696.750
Tot.Transient Len
3277.753
Sumof Pipe Len (forebay to Anchor
1074.814
Block)
Total Surge Head
146.381
Static Head
60.000
Surge Head
48.00
Total (H)
108.000
Youngs Modulus of Elasticity (E2.1E
)
+11
Coefficient of Linear Expansion (12E-06

Page: 53

Micro-hydropower Design Aids Manual (v 2006.05)

SHPP/GTZ

GENERAL FORCES
1. Perpendicular component of Wt of pipe and water act perpendicular to the pipe CL along the anchor faces
L'
a
FEMu

FEMd

F2

F1=dead weight of half of anchor saddle pipe perp to pipe


4.016
4.016
F1u (kN)=wu*lmu/2*COS(a):
F1d (kN)=wd*lmd/2*COS(b)
F1 perpendicular to pipe
3.913
3.640
F1 axial
-0.903
-1.697
Fixed end moment = wl^2/8 for proped cantilever FEM.
FEMu (kN-m)= Restoring moment:
FEMd (kN-m)= Overturning moment
FEM

2.677

F1 u

F1 d

-2.677

2. Axial frictional force of pipe on saddle supports transferred to anchor


Steel to (HDPVC) to Steel (greased) (m)

F2 (kN)= m*w*L'*cos a
US Pipe Length, L' (m):

0.25

34.89

F2 (kN) =

15.653 +ve for expansion

3. Hydrostatic Pressure at Bend due to the vector difference of static pressure & acting towards IP
Pu (kN) = F3u =PI/4*dui^2*Ht*g

168.50

Pd (kN) = F3d =PI/4*ddi^2*Ht*g

F3

168.50

F3 = 2*P*sin((b-a)/2)

pu

35.227

pd

4. Component of weight of pipe (wp) along the pipe


F4u= wp*active armL*sin(a)

L'

F4d= wp*active armL*sin(b)

F4

3.112

0.757

F4=w sin a
W

5. Thermally (expansion/contraction) induced axial force ( if no EJ provided)


F5 (kN)=pi()*Dmean*t*E*a*Dt
Condition
Temp at oC

F5 expansion

+ Expansion, - Contraction
Tmax
Tinstallation
40
20
0.000

F5 contraction

Tmin

F5

4
0.000

0.000

F5

0.000

6. Axial friction within Expansion joint seal due to the movement against the circumferential pressure
F6=PI()*D*W*H*g*m

+ Expansion, - Contraction

m for rubber packing

0.25 Seal width, W(m) 0.16

Static Pressure at Exp, Ps (m)

52.150

61.69

Dynamic Pressure at Exp, Pd (m)

46.442

48.20

Total (AH)

98.592

109.888

55.666

60.959

F6 (kN)

F6

F6

F6

Pipe Movement

7. Axial hydrostatic pressure on exposed end of pipe in Expansion Joint


F7=PI*D*t*H*g

F7

5.518

6.042

F7

8. Dynamic pressure at the bend due to the vector difference of momentum


F8 = 2.5*(Q^2/d^2)*sin((b-a)/2)

P8 (kN)

P8= mV =Q*r*Vi
1.273

F8

F9 (kN)

Fv

Q*r*Vo

F9

No

No

0.000

FH
Q*r* Vi

Vector difference of momentum


at bend (mv i -mvo )

F9=PI()*(Dupi^2-Ddni^2)/4*g*H
3.00
59.33
47.97

F8

1.273
0.261

9. Axial (small diameter) force on Reducer


Reducer:
Location & Diameter:
St. Head
Dyn. Head

- Q*r*Vo

Q*r* Vi

F7

0.40

4.00
61.69
48.08

F9

0.40

0.000

Page: 54

Micro-hydropower Design Aids Manual (v 2006.05)

SHPP/GTZ

10 Axial drag of flowing Water (friction of flowing water) (not considered in MHP)
F10=g*PI()*Dupi^2/4*DH(Exp to block)
F10 (kN)

0.000 No

0.000 No

11 Axial (u/s slope) force due to soil pressure upstreamof the block
F11 =gs*hs^2/2*cos f*ka*B

F 11

ka= (cosi-sqrt(cosi^2-cosf^2))/(cosi+sqrt(cosi^2-cosf^2))

hs = soil depth = hu
F11

0.371

1.8
23.455 Yes

Width, B(m)
@ 1/3 of hs

0.6

12 Vertical force due to the weight of the block


F12 =gblock*Vol of block
Vol of block
F12

16.12

354.640 Yes

SUMMARY OF CRITICAL FORCES

Expansion

1 Summation of total horizontal forces SH(kN)


2 Summation of total vertical forces SV (kN)
3 Summation of total moment forces SM (kN-m)

12

Contraction

@ bend

Total

@ bend

Total

26.997

49.851

-1.49

21.37

-36.454

323.462

-17.02

342.90

0.000

0.00

Figure 7.4: Output of anchor block force calculation spreadsheet.

7.5

ANCHOR BLOCK DESIGN

A design of one of the anchor blocks of 500kW Jhankre minihydropower project presented in Civil Works Guidelines for
Micro-Hydropower in Nepal has been taken as an example
for preparing the spreadsheet AnchorBlock. It is worth
noting that the slight differences in calculated output in the
guidelines are mainly due to the rounding off of processed
data for secondary processing. A typical sketch of the
considered anchor block is presented in Figure 7.5. Stepwise
calculations of the considered example are also presented in
this section. The inputs for the calculations are presented in
the input section of the spreadsheet presented in Figure 7.7.
Figure 7.5: Anchor Block Considered
The spreadsheet is also designed to accommodate forces due to the dead weight of anchor block and
upstream earth pressure. In case forces at the pipe bend calculated as per section 7.4 are used, dead
weight of anchor block and upstream earth pressure for a different anchor block (not similar to defined in
AnchorLoads) can be used in this spreadsheet.
7.5.1

Program example
Concrete Block
Centre of gravity of the block from the upstream face of the block taking the moment of mass.
{(3 x 2.25)3/2 + (1/2 x 3 x 1.05)1/3 x 3} x 2
= 1.405m
{(3 x 2.25 ) + (1 / 2 x 3 x 1.05)} x 2
\ the weight of the block WB acts 1.41 m from point O.
Concrete volume (V) = Block volume excluding volume of the pipe and water if any
1

2
2
3
. } x 2 - 1 x P x 0.458 /4 cos 13 - 2 x P x 0.458 /4 cos 25 = 16.191 m
= {(2.25 x 3) + 3 105
2

Unit weight of concrete, (gconcrete)= 22 kN /m

Weight of block, W B = 16.12 x 22 = 356.199 kN

Page: 55

Micro-hydropower Design Aids Manual (v 2006.05)

SHPP/GTZ

Soil
Ka =

F11=

cos i - cos2 i - cos2 f


cos i + cos2 i - cos2 f

=0.3715

2
20 18
. 2
g soilh1
cos i x Ka x w =
cos 13 x 0.3715 x 2 = 23.455 kN
2
2

This force acts at 1/3 of the buried depth at upstream face of anchor block from point O as shown in Figure
7.6, which is (1/3 x 1.8) = 0.6 m. Perpendicular components of this forces are:
F11X= F11 *cos i = 23.455*cos 13 = 22.853 kN
F11Y= F11 *sin i = 23.455*sin 13 = 5.276 kN

Stability (refer to Figure 7.6)


Overturning:
Expansion case
Sum of moments about point O with clockwise moments as positive:
M @ O = 30.327 x 2.15 + 22.853 x 0.6 + 356.199 x 1.405 16.215 x 1.0 = 563.303 kN-m
d=

M 563.303
= 1.632 m

=
V 345.26

e=

3
- 1.632 = 0.132 m
2

Lbase 3
= = 0.5 m
6
6
\ e < eallowable OK
eallowable =

Contraction case
Sum of moments about point O with clockwise moments as positive:
M @ O = -6.19 x 2.15 + 22.85 x 0.6 + 356.199 x 1.405 41.03 x 1.0 = 473.281 kN m

M 473.281
= 1.477 m

=
V 320.44
3
e=
- 1.477 = 0.023 m
2

d=

Recall that eallowable = 0.5


\ e < eallowable OK.
Since e < eallowable for both cases, the structure is safe against overturning.
Bearing capacity:
2
Note that for stiff clay allowable bearing pressure is 200 kN/m (Table 7.3).
Expansion case:
Pbase max =

V
A base

6e
1 +

L
base

345.26 6 0.132
2
1 +
= 72.681 N/m
3 2
3

Page: 56

Micro-hydropower Design Aids Manual (v 2006.05)

Pbase min =

V
Abase

6e
1 Lbase

SHPP/GTZ

345.26 6 0.132
2
=
1 = 42.406 N/m
3

2
3

Contraction case:

320.44 6 0.023
2
1 +
= 55.866 N/m
3 2
3

Pbase max =

V
A base

6e
1 +

L
base

Pbase min =

V
Abase

6e
1 Lbase

320.44 6 0.023
2
=
1 = 50.947 N/m
3 2
3

In both cases Pbase < Pallowable = 200 kN/m .


\ the structure is safe against sinking.
Sliding:
Expansion case
H<mV
m = 0.5 for concrete/masonry on soil
53.18 kN < 0.5 x 345.26 kN
53.18 kN < 172.63 kN OK.
Contraction case
H<mV
16.66 kN < 0.5 x 320.44 kN
16.66 kN < 160.22 kN OK.
Since H < m V in both cases the structure is safe against sliding.
\The anchor block is stable.

Figure 7.6: Anchor Block force diagram


Page: 57

Micro-hydropower Design Aids Manual (v 2006.05)

SHPP/GTZ

Anchor Block Stability


Small Hydropower Promotion Project
(SHPP)/GT
Spreadsheet
by Mr Z
Pushpa Chitrakar
Referances: 6,12,13,15,16

Date

24-May-2006

2006.05

SMALL HYDROPOWER PROMOTION PROJECT/GTZ Revision

Project
Developer
Consultant
Designed
Checked

Jhankre mini-hydropower
BPC Hydroconsult

Input
Anchor
Upstreamdepth, Hu (m)
Downstreamdepth, Hd (m)
Width, W (m)
Length, L (m)
g anchor (kN/m3)
m
Penstock
Bend at (X), (m)
Bend at (Y), (m)
Diameter, d (m)
Upstreamangle, a (deg)
Upstreamangle, b (deg)

Output
3.3
2.25
2
3
22
0.5

Concrete volume of Anchor Block


Weight of block, Wb (kN)
Centre of gravity XX
3.5

Anchor Block Section

3.0
Pipe CL

2.5
2.0

1
2.15
0.458
13
25

1.5
1.0
0.5
Lengt h X ( m) '
0.0
-0.5

Foundation
Upstreamdepth hfu (m)
Soil friction f, (deg)
g soil (kN/m3)
Bearing Capacity, SBC (kN/m2)

1.8
30
20
200

0.0

0.5

Contraction
SH (kN)
SV (kN)

1.0

1.5

2.0

Active earth pressure coeff, Ka

2.5

Soil force
Acting at (m)

3.0

3.5

4.0

0.3715
F Pa

Forces (with soil pressure and block weight)


Yes
Forces with earthpressure & anchor
Expansion
SH (kN)
SV (kN)

16.191
356.199
1.405

Fx
23.455
0.6

22.853

Fy
5.276

Overturning
Net Forces
@ bend
SM@ O
53.180
30.327 d
345.260
-16.215 eccentricity e, Ok
e allowable

563.303 P max
1.632 P min
0.132
0.500

72.681 172.63
42.406 Ok
Ok

SM@ O
-6.19 d
-41.03 eccentricity e, Ok

473.281 P max
1.477 P min
0.023

55.866 160.22
50.947 Ok
Ok

16.66
320.44

Bearing

Sliding

Figure 7.7: Anchor Block force diagram

Page: 58

Micro-hydropower Design Aids Manual (v 2006.05)

SHPP/GTZ

8 TURBINE SELECTION
8.1

GENERAL

A turbine converts potential energy of water to rotational mechanical energy. Cross-flow and Pelton
turbines are the most commonly used turbines in Nepali micro hydropower plants. Pelton, Francis and
Turgo turbines are used in mini and small hydropower projects. The size and type of turbine for a
particular site depends on the net head and the design flow. Pelton turbines are suitable where the ratio of
head to flow is high. For Cross-flow and Francis turbines, this ratio is lower than that of the Pelton
turbines. Turgo turbines lie in between these two categories. It should be noted that for certain head and
flow ranges, both Pelton (multi-jet) and other turbines may be appropriate. In such cases, the designer
should consult with manufacturer and make a decision based on availability, efficiency and costs. On a
horizontal shaft Pelton turbine the maximum number of jets should be limited to 3 for ease of
manufacturing. The number of jets can be higher for vertical shaft Pelton turbines. However, these require
higher precision work in mounting the generator vertically on the turbine shaft and furthermore, in case of
varying rotational speeds (RPM of the turbine and the generator), the belt drive arrangements (including
those for mechanically coupled end uses) will be difficult.

Figure 8.1: Pelton and Crossflow Turbines

8.2

GENERAL RECOMMENDATIONS

The recommended net heads for maximum rotational speed (rpm) and efficiencies for different turbines
and turbine specifications are presented in Table 8.1.
Table 8.1: Turbine specifications
Type
Net head (m)
Pelton
More than 10m
T12 Crossflow
up to 50m
T15 Crossflow
up to 80m

Max RPM
1500
900
1500

Efficiency (nt)
70 - 75%
60 - 78%
60 - 78%

The type of turbine can be determined by its specific speed given by the following equation:
Sp Speed (no gear) ns = Turbine rpm*(1.4*PkW/Nturbines)/Hn5/4
Sp Speed (gear) nsg = Sp Speed (no gear)* Turbine rpm / Generator rpm
Table 8.2: Turbine type vs. ns
Turbine types
Single Jet Pelton
Double Jet Pelton
Three Jet Pelton
Cross flow

ns Ranges
10 30
30 40
40 50
20 80
Page: 59

Micro-hydropower Design Aids Manual (v 2006.05)

8.3

SHPP/GTZ

PROGRAM BRIEFING AND EXAMPLE

The Turbine spreadsheet is presented in Figure 8.2. The specific speeds (ns) with (gear ratio of 1:2) and
without gear are calculated as:
5/4

Sp Speed (no gear) ns = Turbine rpm*(1.4*PkW/Nturbines)/Hn


= 750*SQRT(1.4*67.89/1)/58^(5/4)
= 46 (Turgo/Crossflow/2-jet Pelton is suitable)
Sp Speed (gear) nsg = Sp Speed (no gear)* Turbine rpm / Generator rpm
= 46*1/2
= 23 (Single jet Pelton/Crossflow is suitable)

If ns exceeds the range given in Table 8.2, multiple units should be used. Specific speed of multijet Pelton turbines is computed by multiplying the specific speed of runner by the square root of the
number of the jets. The calculations show that for the given parameters, either a gearless
Crossflow/Turgo turbine or a Pelton/Crossflow with a gear ratio of 1:2 is recommended.

Turbine Selection
Small Hydropower Promotion Project (SHPP)/GTZ

Spreadsheet by Mr Pushpa Chitrakar

Referances: 6,7,8,12,13

25-Apr-2006
2006.03

Date

SMALL HYDROPOWER PROMOTION PROJECT


Revision
/GTZ

Project
Developer
Consultant
Designed
Checked

Pushpa Chitrakar
Pushpa Chitrakar

Input
Discharge (l/s)
Gross head (m)
Hydraulic losses
Max turbine output kW
Turbine rpm
Cd

150 Gear ratio at turbine


69 Gear ratio at generator
15.94% No of turbines/generators
67.89 Total number of jets if Pelton n
750 Specified turbine
0.96 Cu

Output
Net head m
No Gearing
Sp speed of runner rpm (no gearing)
Pelton (12-30) => (Ns 17-42)
Turgo (Ns 20-70) => (Ns 28-99)
Crossflow (Ns 20-80)
Fracis (Ns 80-400)
Propeller or Kaplan (Ns 340-1000)

1
2
1
2
Pelton
0.46

58.001 Generator with gearing rpm

**
Turgo
Crossflow
**
**

1500

With Gearing
46 Sp speed of turbine
Pelton (12-30) => (Ns 17-42)
Turgo (Ns 20-70) => (Ns 28-99)
Crossflow (Ns 20-80)
Fracis (Ns 80-400)
Propeller or Kaplan (Ns 340-1000)

23
Pelton
**
Crossflow
**
**

Figure 8.2: A Typical turbine example.

Page: 60

Micro-hydropower Design Aids Manual (v 2006.05)

SHPP/GTZ

9 ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT SELECTION


9.1

GENERAL

A generator converts mechanical energy to electrical energy. There are two types of generators; namely,
synchronous and asynchronous (induction).
Generally, induction generators are inexpensive and appropriate for Nepali micro-hydro schemes up to
about 15kW. For micro-hydro schemes ranging from 10kW to 100kW, synchronous generators are
technically and economically more attractive. Both synchronous and asynchronous generators are
available in single and three phases. Brushless synchronous generators are recommended for mini and
small hydropower projects.
Load controllers are generally used as the governing system in Nepali micro hydro schemes. An
Electronic Load Controller (ELC) is used for controlling power output of a synchronous generator. To
control an induction generator, an Induction Generator Controller (IGC) is used. Brushless synchronous
generators with hydraulic controlling systems are recommended for mini and small hydropower projects.

9.2

SELECTION OF GENERATOR SIZE AND TYPE

Selection of generator size mainly depends up on the loads of a proposed site. Selection of generator
type depends on the size of the selected generator, nature of the proposed loads and costs and benefits
of the scheme. As stated earlier, a generator type can be either synchronous or induction of either single
or three phase. Some of the main features of all types of generator are outlined in the following sections:
9.2.1

Single Phase versus Three Phase System


Advantages of a Three - Phase System
Considerable saving of conductor and machine costs.
Cheaper above 5 kW.
Less weight by size ratio.
Advantage of a Single Phase System
Simple wiring.
Cheaper ELC.
No problem due to unbalanced load.

9.2.2

Induction versus Synchronous Generators


Induction Generators
Advantages of Induction Generators:
Easily available
Cheap, rugged and simple in construction
Minimum Maintenance
Drawbacks of Induction Generators:
Problem supplying large inductive loads.
Capacitor banks are generally not durable.
Poor voltage regulation compared to synchronous generators.
Synchronous Generators
Advantages of Synchronous Generators:
High quality electrical output.
Higher efficiency.
Can start larger motors.

Page: 61

Micro-hydropower Design Aids Manual (v 2006.05)

SHPP/GTZ

Drawbacks of Synchronous Generators:


The cost is higher than induction generator for small sizes.
Higher losses due to unbalanced load.

9.3

GENERAL RECOMMENDATIONS

Based on the major features, general guidelines for selection of phase and type of generator are prepared
and summarized in Table 9.1.
Table 9.1: Selection of Generator Type
Size of scheme
Up to 10 kW
Generator
Synchronous/Induction
Phase

10 to 15 kW
Synchronous/Induction

More than 15 kW
Synchronous

Three Phase

Three Phase

Single or Three Phase

Maximum ambient temperature, powerhouse altitude, electronic load controller correction factor and
power factor of the proposed loads are the major factors affecting the size of a generator. De-rating
coefficients to allow for these factors are presented in the Table 9.2.
Table 9.2: Generator rating factors
Max. Ambient temperature in oC =>
Temperature Factor (A)
Altitudes
Altitude
Factor
(B)

20
1.10

25
1.08

30
1.06

35
1.03

40
1.00

45
0.96

50
0.92

55
0.88

1000

1250

1500

1750

2000

2250

2500

2750

3000

3250

3500

3750

4000

4250

4500

1.00

0.98

0.96

0.945

0.93

0.915

0.90

0.88

0.86

0.845

0.83

0.815

0.8

0.785

0.77

ELC Correction Factor (C)

0.83
For light bulb loads (inductive) only
For mixed loads of tube lights and other inductive loads

Power Factor (D)

1.0
0.8

9.3.1 Sizing and RPM of a Synchronous Generator:


The steps for selecting the size of a synchronous generator are as follows:
1

Power factor of 0.8.

The size of synchronous generator (kVA):


Installed Capacity in kW
Generator (kVA) = 1.3*----------------------------AxBxCxD
Where, A, B, C and D are correction factors from Table 9.2, and 1.3 is the 30% overrating factor
(recommended) to allow for:
i)

Unexpected higher power from turbine.

ii) Handling of starting current if large motors (> 10% of generator size) are supplied from the
generator.
iii) The generator running at full load when using an ELC.
3

The synchronous rotational speed per minute:

Rotational speed ( N )( rpm) =

120 f
P

Where,
Page: 62

Micro-hydropower Design Aids Manual (v 2006.05)

SHPP/GTZ

f = frequency of the system in Hertz (Hz) (50 Hz in Asia and Europe)


P = number of poles of the generator (2, 4, 6, etc., in pairs). P for Nepali micro-hydropower
schemes is generally 4 so that the rotational speed is 1500 RPM.
9.3.2 Sizing and RPM of an Induction Generator:
The steps for selecting the size of an induction generator are as follows:
1

The size of an induction generator (kW):


Installed Capacity in kW
Induction Generator (kW) = 1.3* ----------------------------------------AxB

It is worth noting that an induction generator is basically a motor used as a generator. Similar to
motor rating, the rating of an induction generato should be in kW. Therefore, ELC factor (C) and
the power factor (D) corrections are not applicable for an induction generator. Other factors are
applied similar to a sychronous generator. Generator voltage and current ratings should not
exceed 80% of the electrical motor rating.
2

The rotational speed of an induction generator:

Rotational speed ( Ni )( RPM ) =

120 f
(1 + s )
P

Where,
P and f are the same as for synchronous generator and
s is the slip of the generator,

s=

Ns - Nr
Ns

Where,
Ns is the synchronous speed, i.e. Ns( RPM ) =

120 f
P

Nr is the rated rotor speed of the induction motor and Ni always exceeds Ns while
acting as a generator.

9.4

PROGRAM BRIEFING AND EXAMPLES

9.4.1 Program Briefing


In addition to calculating electrical parameters stated above, following electrical parameters are added to
the presented Electrical spreadsheet:
1

Computation of excitation capacitance for an induction generator.

Sizing of electrical load controller (ELC) or induction generator controller (IGC) (equal to the
installed capacity).

Sizing of ballast (20% higher than the installed capacity). In case the installed capacity exceeds or
equal to 50kW, the ballast capacity of ELC-Extension is calculated as:
Ballast capacity of ELC extension (kW) = 60% * 1.2 * Pe (electrical power)
Fixed load = 40% * Pe (electrical power)

Sizing of MCCB/MCB.

Sizing of power cables.

Page: 63

Micro-hydropower Design Aids Manual (v 2006.05)

SHPP/GTZ

1. Sizing of excitation capacitance of an Induction Generator


Excitation capacitance for Delta connection C (F) = 1/(2*pi()*f*Xc*hm)
1000*Pe* sin (cos-1 (power factor))
Or, C (F) = ----------------------------------------------------3*V2*pf*2*pi()*f*hm
Where,
Xc () = V / Im
V (V) = Rated Voltage of the motor (V) (phase to phase voltage, 380/400/415)
Im (A) = Magnetizing Current = I rated at full load current (A) * sin (cos-1 (power factor))
I rated at full load current = Rated power (kW) * 1000/(V*pf)
hm = rated efficiency of motor at full load
For star connected capacitors, the excitation capacitance is three times that for the Delta
connection.
2. Sizing of MCCB/MCB (A) = 1.25*Pe * 1000/(V*pf)
Where,
1.25 = overrating factor by 25%.
Pe (kW)= Installed capacity
V (V) = Rated phase to neutral Voltage (V) (V*3 for 3-phase)
pf
= power factor if induction generator is used
3. Sizing of power cable (A) = 1.7*I
Where,
1.70
I (A)
V (V)
pf

= overrating factor by 70%.


= Current = Generator size/(V *pf if induction generator is used)
= Rated phase to neutral Voltage (V) (V*3 for 3-phase)
= power factor

9.4.2 Typical example of a 3-phase 60kW synchronous generator


Electrical component calculations for an example of a three-phase 60kW synchronous generator at an
altitude of 1500m are presented in Figure 9.1. The detailed step-by-step calculations are:
The size of synchronous generator:
Installed Capacity in kW
Generator kVA = 1.3*----------------------------AxB xCxD
= 1.3*60.04/(0.96*0.96*0.83*0.8)
= 127.70 kVA
The higher size available in the market of 45kVA is used.

Rotational speed ( N ) =

120 f
RPM =120*50/4
P

= 1500 rpm
Since Pe > 50kW, the ballast capacity of ELC extension (kW) = 60% * 1.2 * Pe + 40% * Pe
= 0.6*1.2*60.04 + 0.4*60.04
= 67.24 kW
I rated for Cable & MCCB at Generator side = 1000/ V rated * Generator size /1.732
= 1000 / 400*140/1.732
= 202.08 Amp
Page: 64

Micro-hydropower Design Aids Manual (v 2006.05)

SHPP/GTZ

Calculated size MCCB/MCB (A) = 1.25*Pe * 1000/(V*pf)


= 1.25*60.04*1000/(400*1.732*0.8)
= 135.40 Amp
Power cable inside the powerhouse
Rating current

= 1.5*I rated = 1.5*202.08


= 303.12 Amp
2

For this current a 4-core copper armoured cable of ASCR 185mm is chosen.

Selection of Electrical Equipment


Spreadsheet developed by Mr. Pushpa Chitrakar, Engineering Advisor, SHPP/GTZ

11-Nov-2005
2005.10
SMALL HYDROPOWER PROMOTION PR
Revision
OJECT/G
TZ
Project
Upper Jogmai, Ilam
Developer
Kankaimai Hydropower P Ltd
Consultant
EPC Consult
Designed
Pushpa Chitrakar
Checked
Pushpa Chitrakar
Referances: 6,7,8,12,13

Date

INPUT
3

Discharge (m /s)
Gross head (m)
Overall plant efficiency (%)
o

Temperature ( C)
Altitude (m)
ELC correction factor
Frequency of the system (Hz)
Capacity of used generator (kVA)

0.204 Power factor


60.000 Safety factor of generator
50% Phase

0.8
1.3
3-phase 3

45 Type of Generator
1500 Over rating factor of MCCB
0.83 Over rating factor of cable
50 No. of poles
0 Rated rotor speed if induction generator N (rpm)
Delta

Synchronous

1
1.25
1.5

OUTPUT
Pe Electrical output (active power) (kW)
Generator
Temp.factor
Capacity (kVA)
Synchronous rotational speed Ns (rpm)
ELC capacity (kW)

Rated Voltage (V)

60.04 Ok

0.96 Altitude factor


127.70 Actual available capacity (kVA)
1500

0.96
140.00

60.04 Calculated Ballast capacity 1.2*Pe (kW)


Ballast capacity of ELC-Extention (kW)

72.04
67.24

400 Irated for Cable & MCCB (A) at Generator side

Rating of MCCB (A)

108.32 Calculated size of MCCB (A)

Cable
Rating (A)

303.12 Size of 4-core cupper armoured cables

202.08
135.40

185

Figure 9.1: Electrical components of a 20kW 3-phase synchronous generator.

Page: 65

Micro-hydropower Design Aids Manual (v 2006.05)

SHPP/GTZ

9.4.3 Typical example of a single phase 20kW induction generator


Figure 9.2 gives electrical equipment sizing of the previous project with a single phase induction generator
with a rotor speed of 1450rpm. Since the electrical output is more than 10kW, a reminder error is flagged
in the adjacent cell. The electrical components presented in Figure 9.2 are computed as:
The size of the asynchronous generator:
Installed Capacity in kW
Generator kW = 1.3*---------------------------------------- = 1.3*20/(0.96*0.96)
AxB
= 28.25 kW
The higher size available in the market of 30kW is used.

Rotational speed ( N ) =

120 f
=120*50/4
P

= 1500 rpm
Rotational speed of a generator = Ns*(1+(Ns-N)/Ns) = 1500*(1+(1500-1450)/1500)
= 1550 rpm
Excitation capacitance
-1
1000*Pe* sin (cos (power factor))
C (F) = ----------------------------------------------------2
3*V *pf*2*pi()*f*hm
-1

1000*20* sin (cos (0.8))


C (F) = ----------------------------------------------------2
3*400 *0.8*2*pi()*50*0.89
=123.16 F
I rated for Cable & MCCB at Generator side = 1000/ V rated * Generator size /pf
= 1000 / 220*30/0.8
= 170.45 Amp
MCCB/MCB (A)

= 1.25*Pe * 1000/(V) = 1.25*20*1000/(220)


= 142.05 Amp

Power cable inside the powerhouse


Rating current

= 1.5*I rated = 1.5*170.45


= 255.68 Amp
2

For this current a 2-core copper armoured cable of ASCR 185mm is chosen.

Page: 66

Micro-hydropower Design Aids Manual (v 2006.05)

SHPP/GTZ

Selection of Electrical Equipment


Spreadsheet developed by Mr. Pushpa Chitrakar, Engineering Advisor, SHPP/GTZ

11-Nov-2005
2005.10
SMALL HYDROPOWER PROMOTION PR
Revision
OJECT/G
TZ
Project
Upper Jogmai, Ilam
Developer
Kankaimai Hydropower P Ltd
Consultant
EPC Consult
Designed
Pushpa Chitrakar
Checked
Pushpa Chitrakar
Referances: 6,7,8,12,13

Date

INPUT
3

Discharge (m /s)
Gross head (m)
Overall plant efficiency (%)
o

Temperature ( C)
Altitude (m)
ELC correction factor
Frequency of the system (Hz)
Capacity of used generator (kW)
Capacitor configuration

0.08 Power factor


50.968 Safety factor of generator
50% Phase

0.8
1.3
1-phase 1

45 Type of Generator
1500 Over rating factor of MCCB
0.83 Over rating factor of cable
50 No. of poles
0 Rated rotor speed if induction generator N (rpm)
Delta
Efficiency of motor at full load

Induction

2
1.25
1.5

4
1450
89%

OUTPUT
Pe Electrical output (active power) (kW)

20.00 Use of 3-phase generator is mandatory

Generator
Temp.factor
Capacity (kW)
Synchronous rotational speed Ns (rpm)

0.96 Altitude factor


28.25 Actual available capacity (kW)
1500 Rotational speed of the generator (rpm)

IGC capacity (kW)

Rated Voltage (V)

0.96
30.00
1550

20.00 Calculated Ballast capacity 1.2*Pe (kW)


Excitation Capacitance (micro F)

24.00
123.16

220 Irated for Cable & MCCB (A) at Generator side

Rating of MCCB (A)

113.64 Calculated size of MCCB (A)

Cable
Rating (A)

255.68 Size of 2-core cupper armoured cables

170.45
142.04

150

Figure 9.2: Electrical components of a 20kW 1-phase induction generator.

Page: 67

Micro-hydropower Design Aids Manual (v 2006.05)

SHPP/GTZ

10 MACHINE FOUNDATION
10.1

INTRODUCTION AND DEFINITIONS

A machine foundation of a hydropower scheme is a gravity structure designed to transfer hydraulic forces
from penstock, torque from rotating machines and gravity loads from generator, turbines and the
foundation itself. Similar to an anchor block, the machine foundation should be stable against overturning,
sliding and sinking/bearing. Standard dimensions can be referred to while dimensioning microhydropower machine foundation. It is strongly recommended to refer to suppliers while dimensioning mini
and small hydropower machine foundations.
A machine foundation of 500kW Jhakre Mini-hydropower project cited in Civil Works Guidelines for MicroHydropower in Nepal has been taken as an example in the spreadsheet MachineFoundation. A plan
and a section of the considered foundation are presented in Figure 10.1. These figures are part of the
presented spreadsheet and are interactive diagrams. The considered machine foundation is designed to
support a directly coupled Pelton turbine and a generator.
It is worth noting that the critical plane of a machine foundation depends on turbine axis and coupling
types. A turbine axis (shaft) is perpendicular to the incoming flow for Crossflow, Pelton and Spiral case
Francis turbines whereas it is parallel to the incoming flow for open flume Francis and other axial flow
turbines. Coupling type (direct or belt drive) also determine a critical plane (XX or YY as presented in the
spreadsheet) with respect to its stability. Stability along both these mutually perpendicular axes are
analysed in the presented spreadsheet. Stepwise calculations of the considered example are presented
in the following sections. For input to these stepwise calculations, refer to the input section of the
spreadsheet is presented in Figure 10.1.

10.2

EXAMPLE
General Calculations
htotal

= hgross + hsurge = 51 m + 50 m
= 101 m:

Force due to htotal , (FH)

= (Pipe area) x 101 m x unit weight of water =

0.3 2
m 2 101 m 9.8 kN / m 3
4

= 70.036 kN
Weight of the three sections W1, W 2. W 3 as presented in Figure 10.1 are:
W1
= 0.4m 1.5m 2.5m 22kN/m3
=33.00 kN
W2

= [(0.45 x 1.5 x 2.5)-(0.45 x 1 x 0.5)-(0.45 x 0.5 x 1)] x 22


= 27.225 kN

W3

= 2.35 x 1.5 x 2.5 x 22


= 193.875 kN

Overturning:
Take sum of moments about point B (counter clockwise moments as positive):
0.4

0.45

2.35
SM@B = W 1 x
+ 0.45 + 2.35 + (W 2 + W T )
+ 2.35 + (W G + W3 )
- FH 1.8
2
2

2
Page: 68

Micro-hydropower Design Aids Manual (v 2006.05)

SHPP/GTZ

= 33.00(3.0) + (27.225+2.94)(2.575) + (3.43+193.875)(1.175) 70.036 x 1.8


= 282.455 kNm
Sum of vertical forces,
SV
= W 1+W 2+W 3+W T+W G = 33.00 + 27.225 + 193.875 + 2.94 + 3.43
= 260.477 kN
Equivalent distance at which SV acts from point B:
d=

M = 282.455 = 1.084 m
V 260.477
L Base
3.2

- d =
- 1.084 = 0.516 m
2
2

eccentricity,

eallowable =

e=

LBase 3.2
=
= 0.533 m
6
6

Since e is less than eallowable , eccentricity is in the middle third.


\The structure is safe against overturning.
Bearing pressure:
Pbase max =

Pbase min =

V 1 +

A base

6e
=
Lbase

V 1 -

A base

6e
L base

260.477 6 0.516
2
1 +
= 64.038 kN/m
3.2 2.5
3.2

260.477 6 0.516
2
=
1 = 1.081 kN/m
3.2

2.5
3.2

Since both pressures are within zero and 180 kN/m (max. allowed for soil) the structure is safe against
sinking.
Sliding:
Assume that the friction coefficient between block and soil, m = 0.5
SH = FH = 70.036 kN
m SV = 0.5 x 260.5 = 130.2 kN
Factor of safety against sliding:
=

m V

130.238
= 1.86 > 1.5 OK
70.036

\ The structure is safe against sliding.

Stability along YY is analysed in similar manner. It is worth noting that the machine foundation is not
stable (for the stated factor of safety) against overturning and bearing along YY axis and this is the real
critical case for the presented example in the guidelines. However, this critical case is not considered and
not illustrated in the guidelines. The mismatch between Photo 8.4 (the actual case) and Figures 8.2 to 8.4
is quite noticeable. The Pelton turbine axis in Photo 8.4 perpendicular to XX axis (longer) whereas it is
considered parallel to XX axis in the illustrated calculations.
Page: 69

Micro-hydropower Design Aids Manual (v 2006.05)

SHPP/GTZ

Turbine and Generator Machine Foundation


Small Hydropower Promotion Project (SHPP)/GTZ Spreadsheet by Mr Pushpa Chitrakar
Referances: 6,12,13,15,16

Date

24-May-2006

2006.05
Jhankre mini-hydropower

SMALL HYDROPOWER PROMOTION PROJECT/GTZ


Revision

Project
Developer
Consultant
Designed
Checked

BPC Hydroconsult

Machine Foundation Plan

Machine Foundation Section

1.8
1.6

1.2

YY (m)

Height ZZ (m)

1.4

1.0
0.8

Turbine CL

Generator CL

0.6
0.4
0.2
0.0

W1

W2

W3

2.8
2.6
2.4
2.2
2.0
1.8
1.6
1.4
1.2
1.0
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
0.0

Turbine CL

Generator CL

XX (m)

XX (m)

INPUT
Gross head hg (m)
Surge head hs (m)

51.00 Design Discharge Qd (m3/s)


50.00

Foundation

0.150

Penstock
Foundation on
2

Allowable bearing capacity Pall (kN/m )


Friction coeff between block and soil m
Length L (m)
Bredth B (m)
Height H (m)
Material of foundation

Soil

Diameter dp (m)

0.300

180
Material
0.5
Centreline above PH floor hp (m)
3.2 Turbine Pit
2.5
Length of opening Lo (m)
1.5
Bredth of opening Bo (m)
Concrete
Height of opening Ho (m)

mild steel
0.300
0.450
0.500
1.000

Density of foundation (kM/m3)

22

Height of tailrace canal Htr (m)

0.500

Electro-mechanical
Weight of turbine Wt (kN) & cl position
Weight of generator Wg (kN) & cl position

2.943
3.434

XX (m)
0.625
2.025

YY (m)
1.250
1.250

Weight Wi
(kN)
70.036

Lever Arm LA (m)


LA along XX
1.800

LA along YY

33.000
27.225
193.875

3.000
2.575
1.175
282.455
260.477

1.25
1.25
1.25
199.530
260.477

OUTPUT
Forces
Force due to h total of 101 m, Fh (kN)
Foundation
W1
W2
W3
Sum of moments SM (kN-m)
Sum of vertical forces SM (kN)

Page: 70

Micro-hydropower Design Aids Manual (v 2006.05)

SHPP/GTZ

Overturning
Equivalent distance at which SM acts from critical point
d (m)
Eccentricity e, (m)
Allowable eccentricity e all (m)
Comment on overturning moment

LA along XX
1.084
0.516
0.533
Ok

LA along YY
0.766
0.484
0.417
Not Ok

Bearing
Pressure at base
Pmax
Pmin
Comments on bearing

LA along XX
64.038
1.081
Ok

LA along YY
70.379
-5.260
Not Ok

LA along XX
1.860
Ok

LA along YY
1.860
Ok

Sliding
Factor of safety against sliding, FS sl
Comment of sliding

Figure 10.1: Layout of MachineFoundation Spreadsheet.

Page: 71

Micro-hydropower Design Aids Manual (v 2006.05)

SHPP/GTZ

11 TRANSMISSION AND DISTRIBUTION


11.1

INTRODUCTION AND DEFINITIONS

Power generated at a powerhouse is evacuated to load centres or grids with the help of transmission and
distribution lines. According to the Nepal Standards, 400/230V is the standard minimum voltage.
400/11000V system is used in micro-hydropower transmission system where as 11 kV/33 kV is used in
mini and small hydropower transmission system. 11 kV and 33 kV are also considered to be distribution
voltage by Nepal Electricity Authority (NEA). Use of standard voltages in micro hydropower projects is
recommended so that the power can be easily synchronized and evacuated to grid in future.

11.2

GENERAL RECOMMENDATIONS

AEPC MGSP/ESAP has formulated following guidelines regarding micro-hydropower transmission and
distribution systems:
1

Cable configuration and poles: Buried or suspended on wooden or steel or concrete poles.

Permissible Voltage drop: 10% of nominal value at point of use.

Conductor: Aluminum conductor steel reinforced (ACSR) or Arial Bundled Cable (ABC)

The ASCR specifications are presented in Table 11.1.

Table 11.1: ASCR specifications


ACSR
Code
number
1
2
3
4
5
6

Type of
ACSR
Squirrel
Gopher
Weasel
Rabbit
Otter
Dog

Resistance
Ohm/km
1.374
1.098
0.9116
0.5449
0.3434
0.2745

Current
rating max
Amps
76
85
95
135
185
205

Equivalent
Copper area
2
mm
13
16
20
30
50
65

Inductive
Reactance
Ohm/km
0.355
0.349
0.345
0.335
0.328
0.315

Sp.
Weight
(kg/km)
80
106
128
214

Sp. Cost
(Rs/km)
13000
14500
15500
25750

394

52000

Note: Sp. Costs are taken from the guidelines and are lower than the market price. It is recommended to refer to the actual market price in the
design.

11.3

PROGRAM BRIEFING AND EXAMPLES

11.3.1 Program Briefing


1

The presented spreadsheet is designed to calculate transmission parameters for three phase
33kV, 11kV and 400V and single phase 230V transmission and distribution lines.

Balanced load is assumed, i.e., neutral conductor does not carry any current.

With a power factor of 0.8, the rated current and voltage drop are calculated as:
Table 11.2: Rated current and voltage drop calculation
Phase
3-phase
1-phase

Current (A)
Power*1000/(1.732*V* power factor)
Power*1000/(V*power factor)

Impedance (Z) = (Resistance2+Reactance2).

Voltage at node (Vi)


Phase
Single to single phase or 3 to 3 phase

Voltage drop (dV)


1.732*IA*Z*Lkm
2*IA*Z*Lkm

Voltage at node (Vi)


Vprevious - dV
Page: 72

Micro-hydropower Design Aids Manual (v 2006.05)

Three to single phase (400V to 230V)

SHPP/GTZ

Vprevious/1.732 - dV

Spreadsheet protection: Transmission line networks is project specific and does not match each
other. Therefore, this spreadsheet is not protected to match the transmission line networks of the
considered project.

Start
Project
Name,
Location,

Length of cables
Cost of cables

Length
of
neutral
cables

Node & reach names, reach lengths,


phase, Power at node, ASCR code,
Remarks for repeated lengths

Current
Resistance
Reactance
Impedance

Voltage drop
Voltage at node

End
Figure 11.1: Flow chart of transmission and distribution line computation.
The grid and load presented in Figure 11.2 are used for the calculations presented in Figure 11.3.

Transformer # 1

Legends
Node/Load (kW) at nodes
Reach length (m)/Phase/Load (kW)

Figure 11.2: Transmission line and load used for the example.
Page: 73

Micro-hydropower Design Aids Manual (v 2006.05)

SHPP/GTZ

Transmission line calculations


Reach: powerhouse to node A to B
The installed capacity of the considered scheme is 36kW. Out of this, a total of 16kW of power is
transmitted from the powerhouse to nodes A, B, C and D. The transmission line from the powerhouse to
node A is 400V three phase four wires type. Power from node A to other load centres are transmitted using
230V single phase two wire systems. Lengths and other information of these reaches are presented in
Figures 11.2 and 11.3.
Reach PH-A
By Trial and error to limit voltage drop at the end of last load centre, a dog is found to be suitable. For this
cable,
2
2
2
2
Z = (I + L ) = (0.275 + 0.315 ) = 0.418 Ohm /km
Current, I PH-A = Power*1000/(3*V* power factor) = 16*1000/(3*400*0.8) = 28.87 A
Voltage drop, dV = 3* I PH-A *Z*Lkm = 3* 28.87 *0.418 *0.300 = 6.3 V
dV% = dV/VPH = 6.3/400 *100 = 1.58%, which is within the limit of 10%. A relatively lower value is
recommended at this point because voltage drop at the end of either B or C or D has to be within 10%.
Voltage @ node A, VA = VPH dV = 400 6.3 = 393.70 V
Reach A-B
As stated, this is single phase line. By Trial and error to limit voltage drop at the end of last load centre, an
otter is found to be suitable. For this cable,
2

Z = (I + L ) = (0.545 + 0.335 ) = 0.640 Ohm /km


Voltage at A for single phase, VA1 = 393.70/3 = 227.30 V
Current, I A-B = Power*1000/(VA* power factor) = 5*1000/(227.30 *0.8) = 27.50 A
Voltage drop, dV = 2* I A-B *Z*Lkm = 2* 27.50 *0.640 *0.500 = 17.60 V
Voltage at B for single phase, VB = 227.30 - 17.60 = 209.70 V
dV% = dVtotal/VPH = (1-209.70 /230) *100 = 10.40%, which is slightly above the limit of 10%. Hence OK for
micro-hydropower project.
Calculations for other nodes C and D shall be calculated in similar manner. It is worth noting transmission
line from A to C and D are constructed by splitting lines from A and therefore the voltage at A for these
calculations should also be same (i.e., 227.30 V).
It should also be noted that standard voltage should be used at the outlet of the transformers. The voltage
at the outlet is standarised using tapping switch adjustment.
The length of neutral wire depends on the configure of the transmission line network and users choice of
type of the neutral wire. Therefore, the length and type of neutral wire is presented as an input parameter.
Transmission line calculations for mini and small hydropower project shall be calculated similar to the
calculations presented in Reach PH-A. Power from most of the mini and small hydropower projects in Nepal
are evacuated to load centres or grids. Since the tariff for these projects is fixed on energy basis, energy
losses while transmitting power to the load centres or grids should also be calculated and considered in the
financial analyses. Power losses is not included in this spreadsheet but included in the Voltage Drop
calculation under Utility. It is calculated using following equation:
Ploss = 3*(V1-V2)/2/1000*I*pf
Page: 74

Micro-hydropower Design Aids Manual (v 2006.05)

SHPP/GTZ

Transmission and Distribution System:

Small Hydropower Promotion Project (SHPP)/GTZ


Spreadsheet by Mr Pushpa Chitrakar
Referances:2,4, 6,12,13,15,16
SMALL HYDROPOWER PROMOTION PROJECT/GTZ

Project:
Developer
Consultant
Designed
Checked

20-Apr-2006
Date
Revision 2006.03

Upper Jogmai, Ilam


Kankaimai Hydropower P Ltd
EPC Consult
Pushpa Chitrakar
Pushpa Chitrakar

Cable Summary
Type
Squirrel
Gopher
Weasel
Rabbit
Otter
Dog
Total Cost(Rs)

Node name

Reach
name

Reach
Length
(km)

Length(km)
7.02
10.00
2.36
1.55
2.40
486080.00

Intermediate Calculation Length of neutral cables (km)


Vrated @
node &
Rated Voltage
Reach
Power at
Current V @ prev d/s prev node Voltage Volt at node branch
Phase next node ACSR
(V)
drop (V)
(V)
% voltag drop
1,3,11
(kW)
node (V)
(A)
type

PH-A-B-C-D
PH
A
A
B
C
D

PHA
AB
AC
AD

0.300
0.500
0.090
0.090

3
3
1
1
1

16
5
5
6

400.00
28.87
27.50
29.80
33.50

400.00
393.70
393.70
393.70
393.70

400.00
400.00
227.30
227.30
227.30

6.30
17.60
3.40
3.90

400.00
393.70
209.70
223.90
223.40

1.58
10.40
2.65
2.87

PH-T1
PH
T1

PHT1

0.050

3
3

20 Otter

400.00
36.08

400.00
400.00

400.00
400.00

1.50

400.00
398.50

0.38

T1-T2
T1
T2

T1 T2

1.500

11
11

11000.00 11000.00
1.31 11000.00

11000.00
11000.00

4.70

11000.00
10995.30

0.04

T2-E
T2

T2 E

0.300

3
3

20 Dog

400.00
36.08

400.00
400.00

400.00
400.00

7.80

400.00
392.20

1.95

E-J ( r )
T2
J

T2 J

0.300

1
1

20 Dog

226.44
110.41

226.44
226.44

226.44
226.44

27.70

226.44
198.74

13.59

E-H (y)
E
F
F
H

EF
FH

0.300
0.400

1
1
1

6 Otter
5 Otter

226.44
33.12
28.80

226.44
217.04
217.04

226.44
226.44
217.04

9.40
10.90

226.44
217.04
206.14

5.64
16.01

E-G (b)
E
F
F
G

EF
FG

0.300
0.200

1
1
1

7 Rabbit
5 Rabbit

226.44
38.64
29.53

226.44
211.64
211.64

226.44
226.44
211.64

14.80
7.60

226.44
211.64
204.04

7.98
19.27

E-M ( r)
E
F
F
M

EF
FM

0.300
0.600

1
1
1

1 Squirrel
1 Squirrel

226.44
5.52
5.63

226.44
221.84
221.84

226.44
226.44
221.84

4.60
9.40

226.44
221.84
212.44

3.55
11.19

F-K (y)
F
K

FK

0.180

1
1

2 Squirrel

217.04
11.52

217.04
217.04

217.04
217.04

5.80

217.04
211.24

8.16

F-L(b)
F
L

FL

0.180

1
1

1 Squirrel

211.64
5.91

211.64
211.64

211.64
211.64

3.00

211.64
208.64

9.29

Dog
Rabbit
Rabbit
Rabbit

20 Squirrel

Page: 75

Micro-hydropower Design Aids Manual (v 2006.05)

SHPP/GTZ

10

Squirrel

Gopher

Weasel

Rabbiit

Otter

Dog

0.90
1.00
0.18
0.18

0.15

4.50

0.90

0.60

0.60
0.80

0.60
0.40

0.60
1.20

0.36

0.36

Figure 11.3: Typical example of a low voltage transmission line.

Page: 76

Micro-hydropower Design Aids Manual (v 2006.05)

SHPP/GTZ

12 LOADS AND BENEFITS


12.1

GENERAL

By optimising the use of available energy by allocating it in different time slots, benefit from a micro hydro
scheme can be maximized. Based on the AEPC MGSP/ESAP guidelines, a spreadsheet on loads and
benefits is presented for concerned stakeholders to arrive to the most optimum pre-construction decision.

12.2

GENERAL RECOMMENDATIONS / AEPC GUIDELINES

1. Average subscription wattage should not exceed 120W per household.


2. Minimum of 10% of total energy output as productive end use is mandatory.
3. Multipurpose scheme is preferable.

12.3

PROGRAM BRIEFING AND EXAMPLE

12.3.1 Program Briefing


A flow chart of loads and benefits analyses used in the spreadsheet is presented in Figure 12.1. Based
on this flow chart, an example is presented in Figure 12.2. The main features and assumptions are:
1. In case the guidelines are similar to that set by AEPC, this spreadsheet can also be used to all
micro hydropower project. For the first three years of operation, one set of domestic and five
different end uses can be defined in five different time slots in the 24-hour load duration curve.
2. Probable business load after three years of operation can defined based on the AEPC
requirements.
3. Annual available energy, annual load, productive end use load factor and annual total income are
calculated and subsequently used in the financial analyses.
4. A load duration chart for the first three years of operation is presented at the end of the
spreadsheet. This chart is very helpful in planning and allocating different loads so that the
benefits are maximized.

Start
Project
Name,
Location,

Installed capacity,
present loads & tariff (24 hr, 5 slots)
Future EU load & tariff (1 time slot)

24 hr load
Load duration
Graph (decision making)

Annual energy
Yearly loads
EU factors
Yearly income

End

Figure 12.1: Flow chart of the load and benefits calculation spreadsheet.
Page: 77

Micro-hydropower Design Aids Manual (v 2006.05)

SHPP/GTZ

Loads and Benefits calculations


Loads and benefits calculation in the presented spreadsheet are divided into two main parts. The first part
covers existing or committed business loads while the second part covers probable business load after this
period. This spreadsheet is prepared to mimic AEPC subsidy calculation format. A 96.1kW Gaddigadh
MHP, Doti is used as an example in the spreadsheet. The stepwise calculations for the first three years of
load and benefit calculations are presented.
Domestic Loads
Annual available energy, Ey = operating days * installed capacity * 24 = 330*96.1*24 = 761112 kWh
Load P (kW) =Beneficiary households (HH) *Average HH load /(1-loss)/1000
= 471 * 85 /(1-0.1)/1000 = 44.483 kW
Yearly load P y = operating days * daily load (D) = 330 * (5* 88 + 2*91.1) = 205326 kWh
Average daily operating hours = Py/ D /P = 205326/330/44.483 = 13.987 hours/day
Load factor = Py / Ey * 100 = 205326/761112*100 = 26.98%
Annual Income By =tariff * HH * load*12 = Rs 1*471*85*12 = Rs 480,420
Existing/ Committed business loads
Existing or committed business loads are calculated in similar manner. The calculated values are presented
in Figure 12.3. As presented in the figure, the annual end use and productive end use load factor are
117060 kW and 15.38% respectively. Similarly the total plant factor and annual income are 42.36% and Rs
916,050 respectively.
Since the committed end use is more than 10%, this project is recommended for implementation using
AEPC subsidy.
The presented load duration chart in Figure 12.2 suggests that the scheme is mainly dominated by domestic
load. Other end uses can be incorporated even at subsidized rate during 5:00 to 17:00 and 20:00 to 24:00
hours. The available power varies from zero to 96.1kW during these periods. In case the scheme has to
share water with other existing water utilities such as irrigation systems, this can be arranged during the
non-operating hours or during partial load hours. Thus, this load duration curve can also be used to
maximize benefits even at lower tariff during such hours.

Load Duration Chart for the first three years of operation of Gaddi
Gad Khola
2

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

19

20

21

22

23

24

140

Installed Capacity & Load (kW)

120

100

80

60

40

20

0
0

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

19

20

21

22

Time (hrs)
Domestic

Agro-processing

Bakery

Saw Mill

Herbs Processing

Load 5

Load 6

Installed Capacity

Figure 12.2: Load duration chart


Page: 78

23

Micro-hydropower Design Aids Manual (v 2006.05)

SHPP/GTZ

LOADS AND BENEFITS


Small Hydropower Promotion Project (SHPP)/GTZ

Spreadsheet by Mr Pushpa Chitrakar

Referances: 1,2,3,4, 6,12,13,15,16

Date

SMALL HYDROPOWER PROMOTION PROJECT/GTZ

Revision

Project:

20-Apr-2006

2006.03
Ladagada VDC, Doti

Location:

Developer
Consultant
Designed
Checked

Gaddi Gad Khola


Gaddi Gad Khola MHP
Perinial
Pushpa Chitrakar
Pushpa Chitrakar

INPUT
General
Power Output (kW)
Name of the Source

96.1
Gaddi Gad Khola

Beneficiary HH (nos.)
Plant's operating days

471
330

Loads (kWh or W/m)


Domestic
Agro-processing
Bakery
Saw Mill
Herbs Processing
Load 5
Load 6

Operating Tariff
days/year
(Rs)
330
1.00
330
6.00
320
6.00
300
5.00
180
5.50
330
330

Domestic lighting
Average subscription/household (W/HH)
System loss
10%
time
5
load
88
440
Probable Business Load Expected after 3 years
Operating d/y Tariff (Rs)
Load
Metal Workshop
330
6.00
Photo Studio
320
6.00
Dairy Processing
320
6.00
Cold Store
310
6.00
Load 5
Load 6

Proposed end uses and operting hours


time (hr)
Agro-processing
time (hr)
Bakery
time (hr)
Saw Mill
time (hr)
Herbs Processing
time (hr)
Load 5
15
time (hr)
Load 6
12
36
OUTPUT
Summary
Annual Available kWh

12
22.5
14

16

22

18

22

18

22

17

22

16
10
12
25
8

15

22

10

22

8
9
3
3

85
8

10
1
8
6

18
91.1
182.2

From (hr) To (hr)


12
16
8
20
8
18
8
18

Daily Energy Demand (Dd) kWh


Yearly Energy Demand (Dy) kWh
Average Load Factor

36.00

761112

Yearly end use load (kWh)


Productive end use load factor (%)
Total load plant factor
Annual total (domestic + end uses) Income (Rs)

First 3 years After 3 years


117060
147680
15.38
19.40
42.36
50.40
916,050
1,099,770

End Use

Load
Operation Period
Yearly Load
Annual
(kW)
Hours/day Days/year
kWh
LF (%)
Income (Rs)
Domestic Lighting
44.483
13.987
330
205326
26.98
480,420
Existing/Committed Business Load
Agro-processing
22.5
4
330
29700
3.90
178200
Bakery
9
6
320
17280
2.27
103680
Saw Mill
10
2
300
6000
0.79
30000
Herbs Processing
25
5
180
22500
2.96
123750
Load 5
15
6
330
29700
3.90
Load 6
12
3
330
11880
1.56
Total
117060
15.38
435,630
Total Annual Income from sales of electricity
916,050
Probable Business Load after 3 years
Metal Workshop
10
Photo Studio
1
Dairy Processing
8
Cold Store
6
Load 5
Load 6
Total additional annual income after 3 years
Productive End Use (%)
19.40

4
12
10
10

330
320
320
310

13200
3840
25600
18600

1.73
0.50
3.36
2.44

61240

8.05

20

79200
23040
153600
111600

183,720

Figure 12.3: An example of load and benefits calculation.


Page: 79

1037
378578
49.97%

Micro-hydropower Design Aids Manual (v 2006.05)

SHPP/GTZ

13 COSTING AND FINANCIAL ANALYSES


13.1

INTRODUCTION AND DEFINITIONS

As per the guidelines and standards set aside by AEPC, this spreadsheet tests financial viability of a
micro-hydro scheme for the subsidy approval. The base of the robustness of the project is mainly its
financial sustainability during its life span of 15 years. Positive Net Present Value (NPV) of project cost
(equity) and benefit streams based on based on 4% of discount rate is expected for subsidy approval.

13.2

GENERAL RECOMMENDATIONS / AEPC GUIDELINES

1. 15 years as the economic life span of the project for calculating financial parameters.
2. Total cost of the project including subsidy should be limited to
Table 13.1: Per kilowatt subsidy and cost ceiling as per AEPC
Walking distance from nearest road
head
less than 2 days walking distance
2-5 days walking distance
more than 5 days walking distance

Subsidy
70000
78750
91500

Ceiling
170000
178750
191500

3. Net present value of equity investment at a discount rate of 4% should be positive.

13.3

PROGRAM BRIEFING AND EXAMPLE

13.3.1 Program Briefing


The spreadsheet presented requires the total costs including financing of the project and annual costs and
benefits as inputs to calculate the financial parameters such as the net present value and cost per kilowatt.
The flow chart on which the spreadsheet is based is presented in Figure 13.1. Annual cash flows for the
stated planning horizon is presented and used to calculate different financial parameters.
Present values of costs and benefit streams are calculated to estimate NPV of the scheme. The total
capitalized cost of the project includes subsidy based on accessibility of the project site, loans from
banking and other lending agencies, cash and kind equities and other sources such as donations, etc.
Investment costs are presented in Figure 13.2. Costs required for the operation and maintenance of the
project is calculated. Revenues with and without probable business loads are calculated (Refer to
Chapter 11 for business loads).
NPVs of the project on total investment, total cost excluding subsidy and equity only are calculated and
compared. As stated earlier, the minimum criteria for subsidy approval is to have positive NPV for equity
only consideration without probable business loads. Cost per kilowatt to be within the specified limits is
another criteria for the subsidy approval.
The subsidy policy came into effect because of the fact that implementation of micro-hydropower projects
in Nepal is not financially feasible and sustainable without subsidies. Moreover, soft loans and relatively
lower discount rate are applied to make them more sustainable. It is worth noting that the only loans and
cash equity are considered as investments in the financial analyses. The loans shall be paid back within
the stated payback periods.

Page: 80

Micro-hydropower Design Aids Manual (v 2006.05)

SHPP/GTZ

Start
Sources of investment
Payback of loan
Discount factor
Breakdown of investment cost
Annual operating cost

Project
Name,
Location,

NPV w & w/o probable business load


Cost per kW
Subsidy per HH
Cash flows
End
Figure 13.1: Flow chart for Project costing and financial analyses.
13.3.2 Typical example of costing and financial analyses
A typical example of costing and financial analyses of a micro-hydro scheme based on projected cash flow
is presented in Figure 13.2. Since the economic life span of mini and small hydropower is more than 15
years, use of the spreadsheet should be limited to micro-hydropower projects only. However, financial
analyses of mini and small hydropower projects can be carried out using the stepwise calculations
presented in the subsequent section.
Financial Analyses
Project costs and benefit related are presented in Figure 13.2. The summary of costs and benefits are:
Total project cost P = Rs 12,734,865
Total loan L = Rs 1,890,044
Cash equity = Rs 1,200,000
Operation and maintenance cost = Rs 305,004
Annual installment of bank loan (annuity)

L i (1 + i ) n
(1 + i ) n - 1

1890044 3%(1 + 3%) 7


= Rs 303,364
(1 + 3%) 7 - 1

Alternatively, an Excel built-in function PMT (interest rate, payback year, loan) can also be used to calculate
the annual installment. If the installment mode is other than annual (such as monthly and quarterly), it is
recommended to use Loan Payment module of the presented Utility spreadsheet.
Based on the projected annual cash flows (CFs), NPV of the project can be calculated by using following
equation.

NPV = CF0 +

CFn
CF1
CF2
+
+ ............. +
1
2
(1 + i )
(1 + i )
(1 + i ) n

=
t =0

CFt
(1 + i ) t
Page: 81

Micro-hydropower Design Aids Manual (v 2006.05)

SHPP/GTZ

An alternative equivalent Excel built-in function NPV(Discount Factor, Cash Flows)*(1+Discount Factor) is
used in this spreadsheet. NPV of equity without probable business load is,
NPV equity = NPV(Discount Factor, Cash Flows)*(1+Discount Factor)
= NPV(4%, -1200000, 307682, ., 611046,)*(1+4%) = Rs. 3,773,038 OK since it is positive.
Cost per kilowatt = Total Project Cost / Project Size = 12,734,865/96.1 = Rs 132,517/kW OK since it is
within the limit Rs 191,500/kW for projects located with an access of five days or more of walking distance.
Based on above results, the project is financially viable for subsidy approval.
parameters for different cases are calculated in similar manner.

Other similar financial

Project Costing and Financial Analyses


Small Hydropower Promotion Project (SHPP)/GTZ

Spreadsheet by Mr Pushpa Chitrakar

Referances: 1,2,3,4, 6,7,8,12,13

Date

23-Apr-2006

SMALL HYDROPOWER PROMOTION PROJECT/GTZ

Revision

2006.03

Project
Developer
Consultant
Designed
Checked

Upper Jogmai, Ilam


Kankaimai Hydropower P Ltd
EPC Consult
Pushpa Chitrakar
Pushpa Chitrakar

INPUT
Project size (kW):
96.10
Total Project Cost (Rs.)
12,734,865
Subsidy/kW
Total subsidy
more than
5 days walking distance
91500 Rs/kW x 96.1 =
8793150
Interest rate i (%)
Payback period n (yr)
Plant life N (yr)
15
Discount Rate I (%)
4%
Investment Cost (Rs)
Mechanical components
Electrical component
Civil component
Spare parts & tools
Transport.

Bank loan
1,890,044
3%
7

Other loan

8,516,715
999,040 Installation
2,061,717 Commissioning
1,363,497 VAT
57,550 Contingencies
3,178,800 Others

Kind equity
851,671

Others

O & M (Rs)
Salary
Spares
Maintenance
Office expenses
Miscellaneous
Others

232,500
623,611

Cost Summary
Project cost (Rs)
Annual Operation, Maintenance and other Costs (Rs)
Annual Income without probable business loads (Rs)
Annual Income with probable business loads (Rs)
Annual installment for Bank loan
Annual installment for other loan
NPV on equity without probable business load (Rs)+ve
NPV equity with probable business load (Rs)+ve
Cost/Kw =>>Ok
Subsidy/HH

Cash equity
1,200,000

305,004
114000
171,000
20,004

NPV Based on Different Project Costs


NPV
Probable Business Load
Without
With
Total investment cost
-3,543,677
-2,010,846
Total Inv Cost-Subsidy
5,249,473
6,782,304
Equity
3,773,038
5,305,869

12,734,865
305,004
916050
1099770
303364
NA
3,773,038
5,305,869
132,517
18,669

Annual Cash Flows


Without Probable Business Loads
Year

Equity

O & Mcosts

Loan repayment

Income

1,200,000
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15

305,004
305,004
305,004
305,004
305,004
305,004
305,004
305,004
305,004
305,004
305,004
305,004
305,004
305,004
305,004

303,364
303,364
303,364
303,364
303,364
303,364
303,364

916,050
916,050
916,050
916,050
916,050
916,050
916,050
916,050
916,050
916,050
916,050
916,050
916,050
916,050
916,050

Cash flow

-1,200,000
307,682
307,682
307,682
307,682
307,682
307,682
307,682
611,046
611,046
611,046
611,046
611,046
611,046
611,046
611,046

With Probable Business Loads


Income

916,050
916,050
916,050
1,099,770
1,099,770
1,099,770
1,099,770
1,099,770
1,099,770
1,099,770
1,099,770
1,099,770
1,099,770
1,099,770
1,099,770

Figure 13.2: A typical example of project costing and financial analyses.


Page: 82

Cash flow

-1,200,000
307,682
307,682
307,682
491,402
491,402
491,402
491,402
794,766
794,766
794,766
794,766
794,766
794,766
794,766
794,766

Micro-hydropower Design Aids Manual (v 2006.05)

14
14.1

SHPP/GTZ

UTILITIES
INTRODUCTION

In this spreadsheet tools for independent calculations are presented. These tools are especially helpful in
case quick and handy independent computations are required. Some of the presented tools are:
14.1.1 Uniform depth of a rectangular or trapezoidal canal
Calculation of uniform depths of an open channel is an iterative process. Mannings equation is used for
calculating uniform depth. VBA for Excel is used for this iterative process. A typical calculation for a
trapezoidal section is presented in Figure 14.1.

Uniform Depth of a Trapezoidal Canal (Y-m)


Small Hydropower Promotion Project (SHPP)/GTZ

Spreadsheet by Mr Pushpa Chitrakar

Upper Jogmai, Ilam

Date

01-May-2006

Stone masonry canal

Revision

2006.05

Design Discharge (l/s):

1,000

1/Mannings Coeff (M):

50.0000

1/Canal Slope (S):

300

Freeboard, FB (m)

0.2

Wall Thickness, t (m)

0.3

Width of Canal, b (m):


Unlined fissured/disintegrated rock/tough hardpen cut

1.000
Z= 0.50

1.572
0.572

Top width, T (m)


Uniform Depth (Y-m)

Canal Wall Geometry

Wall

NWL = 572 mm &


T = 1572 mm

Figure 14.1: A typical example of uniform depth calculation of a trapezoidal section


14.1.2 Payment of loan for different periods (monthly, quarterly and yearly)
The tool presented in Figure 14.2 is useful for calculating equal installment payback (EMI) for a given loan
at a specific interest rate and terms. Three modes namely monthly, quarterly and yearly payments are
available in this tool.

Page: 83

Micro-hydropower Design Aids Manual (v 2006.05)

SHPP/GTZ

Payment of a loan
Small Hydropower Promotion Project (SHPP)/GTZ Spreadsheet by Mr Pushpa Chitrakar

Upper Jogmai, Ilam

Date

01-May-2006

Stone masonry canal

Revision

2006.05
1

Payback
Loan amount (NRs) :

1,800,000 Starting Month

Interest rate (APR):

13.00% Starting Year

Yearly payment and No

2006

10

Yearly Payment

331,721.20

Back to Utilities

Print

Generate Schedule

Figure 14.2: A typical example EMI calculation


A full payment schedule can also be generated by clicking Generate Schedule button. A typical schedule
is presented in Figure 14.3.

Payment Schedule of Upper Jogmai, Ilam with Loan(1800000) & Interest(13%)


Month

Pmt No.

Pmt

Principal

Interest

Balance

Feb-06
Feb-07
Feb-08
Feb-09
Feb-10
Feb-11
Feb-12
Feb-13
Feb-14
Feb-15

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

Rs 331,721
Rs 331,721
Rs 331,721
Rs 331,721
Rs 331,721
Rs 331,721
Rs 331,721
Rs 331,721
Rs 331,721
Rs 331,721

Rs 97,721
Rs 110,425
Rs 124,780
Rs 141,002
Rs 159,332
Rs 180,045
Rs 203,451
Rs 229,899
Rs 259,786
Rs 293,559

Rs 234,000
Rs 221,296
Rs 206,941
Rs 190,720
Rs 172,389
Rs 151,676
Rs 128,270
Rs 101,822
Rs 71,935
Rs 38,163

Rs 1,702,279
Rs 1,591,854
Rs 1,467,074
Rs 1,326,072
Rs 1,166,740
Rs 986,695
Rs 783,244
Rs 553,345
Rs 293,559
(Rs 0)

Figure 14.3: Generated Schedule of EMI calculation


14.1.3 Power calculations
This tool is useful for calculating power based on AEPC guidelines for subsidy criteria and actual power
based on known cumulative efficiency. A typical example is presented in Figure 14.4 below:

Actual vs AEPC Power (Pe-kW)


Small Hydropower Promotion Project (SHPP)/GTZ Spreadsheet by Mr Pushpa Chitrakar

Upper Jogmai, Ilam

Date

01-May-2006

Stone masonry canal

Revision

2006.05

Discharge (l/s):
Cumulative efficiency including head loss (n%)

120
80.00%

Gross Head (H-m)

300.00

Actual Power (Pact-kW)

282.53

Power MGSP-ESAP (Pe-kW)

176.58

Figure 14.4: A typical example of power calculation


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14.1.4 Spillway sizing.


The spillway sizing tool is useful for calculating spillway lengths for different spillway shapes with different
downstream conditions (downstream obstructed or free). As presented in Figure 14.5, this tool calculates
actual spillway length required for critical conditions of load rejection and off-take flood.

Spillway Lengths (m)


Small Hydropower Promotion Project (SHPP)/GTZ Spreadsheet by Mr Pushpa Chitrakar

Upper Jogmai, Ilam

Date

15-Apr-2006

Stone masonry canal

Revision

2006.03

Flood discharge (l/s):

2,000

Design discharge (l/s):

500

Overtopping height (ho) mm:

300

Spillway discharge coeff

1.5

L spillway min for Qf m & full height

1.5
8.11

Length of spillway Ls1 for Qf m & half height

17.21

Figure 14.5: A typical example of spillway sizing


14.1.5 Voltage drops of transmission line.
This tool calculates voltage drop, percentage voltage drop and voltage at a lower end of a transmission
line segment for a given power. A typical example is presented in Figure 14.6.

Voltage Drop
Small Hydropower Promotion Project (SHPP)/GTZ Spreadsheet by Mr Pushpa Chitrakar

Upper Jogmai, Ilam

Date

01-May-2006

Stone masonry canal

Revision

2006.05

Reach length, L (km)

1.000

Voltage at 1st node, V1 (V)

230

Power, P (kW)
ASCR type

20
Dog

6.00

Phase at 1st node, f1 (1/3)

Phase at 2nd node, f2 (1/3)

Current, I (A)

108.70

Impedence, Z (/km)

0.4178

Voltage at 2nd node, V2 (V)

151.34

Power loss P loss (kW)

3.42

Voltage drop, dV (V)

78.66

%Voltage drop

39.49

Figure 14.6: A typical example of transmission line calculation

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14.1.6 Pipe friction factor.


This tool is useful for calculating friction factor. Manual friction factor calculation involves a long and
tedious process and can easily go wrong. The tool presented in Figure 14.7 also calculates head losses
in metres and percentage and net head for given inputs.

Friction Factor (f) & Net head


Small Hydropower Promotion Project (SHPP)/GTZ Spreadsheet by Mr Pushpa Chitrakar
Upper Jogmai, Ilam
Date
01-May-2006
Stone masonry canal

2006.05

Revision

Discharge (m3/s)
Gross head (m)
Pipe roughness ks (mm)
Pipe diameter (mm)
Pipe Length (m)
Turbulent headloss factor (K)
Friction factor f
Headloss hl (m)
Headloss hl (%)
Net Head (m)

0.500 Flow
63 Velocity, v(m/s)
0.010 Reynold's nr, (R )
500.00 Laminar Flow

2.546479089
1116876.794

5.73027E-05
9.170E+00
9.170E+00
Transitional
Flow
&
Turbulent
Flow
0.011893135
0.0119
1.282
2.03
61.718
100
1.50

Figure 14.7: A typical example of pipe friction calculation

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15 REFERENCES
1. Mini-Grid Support Programme, Alternative Energy Promotion Centre, Kathmandu, Nepal (2002),
Peltric Standards
2. Mini-Grid Support Programme, Alternative Energy Promotion Centre, Kathmandu, Nepal (2003),
Preliminary Feasibility Studies of Prospective Micro-hydro Projects
3. Mini-Grid Support Programme, Alternative Energy Promotion Centre , Kathmandu, Nepal(2001),
Technical Details and Cost Estimate
4. Mini-Grid Support Programme, Alternative Energy Promotion Centre , Kathmandu, Nepal(2003),
Guidelines for Detailed Feasibility Study of Micro-Hydro Projects
5. European Small Hydropower Association (1998), Layman's Guidebook on How to Develop a Small
Hydro Site
6. BPC Hydroconsult, Intermediate Technology Development Group (ITDG), Kathmandu, Nepal
(2002), Civil Works Guidelines for Micro-Hydropower in Nepal.
7. United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO), Report on Standardization of Civil
Works for Small Hydropower Plants
8. GTZ/Department of Energy Development, Energy Division, Papua New Guinea, Micro Hydropower
Training Modules (1994), Modules 1-7, 10, 13, 14 & 18B.
9. American Society of Civil Engineer (ASCE), Sediment Transportation.
10. KB Raina & SK Bhattacharya, New Age International (P) Ltd (1999), Electrical Design Estimating
and Costing.
11. Badri Ram & DN Vishwakarma, Tata McGraw-Hill Publishing Company Limited, New Delhi 1995,
Power System Protection and Switchgear, 1995.
12. Adam Harvey et.al. (1993), Micro-Hydro Design Manual, A guide to small-scale water power
schemes, Intermediate Technology Publications, ISBN 1 85339 103 4.
13. Allen R. Inversin (1986), Micro-Hydropower Sourcebook, A Practical Guide to Design and
Implementation in Developing Countries, NRECA International Foundation, 1800 Massachusetts
Avenue N. W., Washington, DC 20036.
14. Helmut Lauterjung/Gangolf Schmidt (1989), Planning of Intake Structures, GATE/GTZ, Vieweg.
15. HMG of Nepal, Ministry of Water Resources, Water and Energy Commission Secretariat,
Department of Hydrology and Meteorology, Methodologies for estimating hydrologic characteristics
of un-gauged locations in Nepal (1990).
16. HMG/N, Medium Irrigation Project, Design Manuals, 1982
17. His Majesty's Government of Nepal, Ministry of Water Resources, Department of Irrigation,
Planning and Design Strengthening Project (PDSP), United Nations Development Programme
(NEP/85/013) / World Bank, Design Manuals for Irrigation Projects in Nepal, 1990.
18. ITECO, DEH/SATA Salleri Chialsa Small Hydel Project (1983), Technical Report.

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19. P.N. Khanna (1996), Indian Practical Civil Engineer's Handbook, 15th Edition, Engineer's
Publishers, Post Box 725, New Delhi - 110001.
20. ITDG, Electrical Guideline For Micro-Hydro Electric Installation.
21. REDP, REDP Publications, Environment Management Guidelines, 1997
22. ITDG, IT Nepal Publications, Financial Guidelines for Micro-hydro Projects, 1997
23. IT Nepal Publications, Management Guidelines For Isolated MH Plant In Nepal, 1999.
24. ITDG/ESAP, Guidelines relating to quality improvement of MH plants, 1999
25. ICIMOD, Manual for Survey and Layout Design of Private Micro Hydropower Plants.
26. Norwegian Water Resources and Energy Administration, The Norwegian Regulations for Planning,
Construction and Operation of Dams, Norwegian University Press, Oslo, Norway, 1994.
27. Various Consultants, AEPC subsidized Nepali micro-hydropower (up to 100kW) Pre-feasibility and
Feasibility Study Reports (about 400 projects), 2002-2004.
28. Various Consultants, SHPP/GTZ assisted Nepali small hydropower (up to 10MW) study reports at
various levels (about 65 projects), 2001-2006.
29. Small Hydro Engineers Consultants P Ltd, Detailed Project Report (DPR) of 5MW Soldan Small
Hydropower Project, Himachal Pradesh, India, 2001.
30. Small Hydro Engineers Consultants P Ltd, Detailed Project Report (DPR) of 4.5MW Sarbari Small
Hydropower Project, Himachal Pradesh, India, 2001.
31. Entec AG, Switzerland, 240 kW Dewata Tea State Mini Hydropower Scheme Feasibility Study,
West Java, Indonesia, 2000.
32. Entec AG, Switzerland, 585 kW Jegu Village Mini Hydropower Plant Feasibility Study, East Java,
Indonesia, 2000.
33. Son Vu Energy Development Joint Stock Company, 3.2MW Nhap A Hydropower Project Final
Feasibility Report, Hoa Binh, Vietnam, 2005.
34. Hanoi Construction Company, 3MW Sao Va Hydropower Project Feasibility Report, Nghe An
Province, Vietnam, 2005.

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DRAWINGS

TYPICAL MICROHYDROPOWER DRAWINGS

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Small Hydropower Promotion Project (SHPP/GTZ)


Introduction:
Small Hydropower Promotion Project (SHPP/GTZ) was established in 1999 as a joint project of the
Ministry of Water Resources and German Development Cooperation. It provides technical and
logistic supports to hydropower projects in Nepal within the range of 100kW to 10MW.

Objectives:
The objective of the project is to establish a market for small hydro power development,
rehabilitation and operation which will in turn facilitate the expansion of rural electrification and
leads to associated economic activities and rural development.

Activities:
1. Strengthening of Policy Frame Work
SHPP provides input to the formulation of hydropower and other related policies, acts and
regulations.
2. Technical and logistic support from desk studies to operation of small hydropower schemes on:
Performance and optimization studies incorporating efficient technologies
Review of projects including financial analysis, hydrological studies, environmental
protection, civil works , metal works, electro-mechanical works, transmission lines, etc.
Preparation of model contracts on civil construction, mechanical works, etc.
Technical supports to under-construction small hydropower projects.
Operation, repair, maintenance and rehabilitation
3. Capacity building of stakeholders
Conducting seminars, workshops and forums for professionals and stakeholders in SHP.
Facilitating Nepali developers to participate in seminars, workshops and forums organized by
others.
4. Facilitating Investment
SHP facilitate on building up of financial set ups of small hydropower projects. It also helps
share relevant information among developers and other stakeholders.
5. Assistance and advice to
SHPP provides assistance and advice to Independent Power Producers (IPPs) on the maximum
use of electricity by increasing load factors and utilizing off-peak hours of isolated plants to
increase revenue streams. It also assist prospectus leases on assessing inventories and
requires repair & maintenance statements of NEA schemes

Approaches:
In order to overcome the entrepreneur's hesitation and / or inability to engage in the small
hydropower sector, the project offers a common platform for public and private stakeholders. The
platform allows them to make each other aware of their specific constraints as well as their mutual
interest in developing a partnership for satisfying the uncovered electricity demand of the rural
areas. In this way, the project seeks to have the barriers to private sector's involvement in the
small hydropower field reduced or eliminated. The projects also works directly with the developers
assisting them to acquire services they require to implement and operate successful projects.

Institutional Framework:
The project has an Advisory Committee which has the representation from Ministry of Water
Resources (MoWR), Department of Electricity (DoED) and German Technical Cooperation (GTZ).
The committee meets, as and when required, to discuss and approve policies and directives for the
execution of plans and programs.
The implementing consultants of Small Hydropower Promotion Project are ENTEC, Switzerland
and Winrock International, Nepal.