TREATISE
THE
ON
THEORY
OF
FUNCTIONS
BESSEL
BY
OB'
MATHEMATICS
FELLOW
LATELY
IN
OF
THE
TRINITY
F.R.S.
OF
UNIVERSITY
COLLEGE,
BIRMINGHAM
CAMBRIDGE
'
1"^
CAMBRIDGE
AT
THE
UNIVERSITY
1922
PRESS
Cp
PREFACE
book
THIS
has
functions
of
adapted;
while
they
be
value
of
encounter
such
of
collection
required
in recent
While
which
functions
consequently
endeavoured
also
special,which, although
practicalapplications;and
in
form
appropriate
with
it necessary
Since
and
of
these
the
be
to
myself, it
has
for
reference
part,
of
convenient
been
with
been
have
of
theory
Bessel
far
general
within
or
required
possible,in
as
these
have
aims, combined
has
bounds,
made
intelligibility.
that
than
rather
general theorems,
properties
of
Physics.
so
of the
Analysis by
regard
of
existence
whether
development
Modern
to
Physicistswho
likelyto be
of
book
compatible
most
Course
in the
expounded
is
as
book
the
concise
as
the
would
fairlycomplete, I
as
given,
breadth
of
cation
appli
provided by
which
The
the
interest, are
are
The
size
of
regard
results
purposes.
the
as
for
and
all formulae,
theoretical
such
is
of results
researches.
account
an
include
to
without
than
of Mathematical
would
Mathematician
Pure
give
to
for the
scope
of
admirably
are
of
problems
theory
series.
collection
functions
been
has
real variable
wider
first is the
the
by
in various
endeavour
my
of their
course
(especiallyof
years
rather
Mathematicians
of
be demanded
to
seems
functions
of
compilation
The
of
processes
of Fourier
theory
in the
functions
functions
Bessel
of
view.
Bessel
purpose
time
increasing number
the
to
Bessel
the
this
functions
in the
object is
fundamental
same
theory of
trigonometrical functions
second
the
offer at
of parts of the
The
For
variables.
complex
objects in
two
applicationsof the
of
development
with
designed
been
Professor
treatise
as
refer the
to
of functions
theory
Whittaker
standard
reader
work
original
to
sources.
It is desirable
as
the
defined
by
by
to
have
Weber
For
felt
of
mathematicians
authority of
kind.
between
The
the
second
the
of
the
two
second
who
kinds
second
function
the
to
kind, namely
sentimental
and
Hankel's
this.
which
kind;
use
and,
in
Weber's
who
my
has
function
use
any
the
functions
and
(iraf
other
use
the
for
two
which
been
kind;
kinds
was
and
pleasing
but
three
standardizing the
weight
function
of Wi'ber's
regarded
(Jubk'r
authority of
greater
one
and
have
second
necessity
opinion,the
parallelismwhich
of Bessel
of the
function
I have
function
the
it would
reasons
first is the
The
mathematicians
is the
here
subsequently by Schlafii, by
used
historical
prevented
the
of
and
justifiedin using
considerations
function
attention
draw
function
canonical
Nielsen.
to
tlie group
than
of the
function
the
second
exhibits
(cosine and
sine)
PREFACE
functions.
igonometrical
is
jrpolation
ich
CO
has
been
previously
book
at
end
of
in
of
been
eclectic
In
the
munber
/
*
value.
given
the
an
vigilance
labours
To
every
complexity,
clerical
mistakes
such
of
to
these
has
my
remove
offer
my
treatise
been
with
Mr
and
to
the
unfailing
grateful
this,
as
have
21,
1922.
the
to
theory
I
equation,
have
seemed
C.
T,
patience,
is
of
probably
useless
undetected;
but
diminished
Preece
obscurities
staff
it
have
the
in
by
and
Mr
to
been
University
a
work
of
great
to
the
criticisms
the
T.
A.
of
the
Lumsden,
greatest
who
Press,
have
typographical
thanks.
G.
August
every
omitted
which
remained
considerably
colleagues
and
such
other,
or
errors
gentlemen
assistance,
those
inserted
slight,
memoirs
this
doubtless
though
Riccati's
of
in
given
consciously
not
been
bibliography
have
however
topic
references
have
The
to
have
work.
scheme.
analytical
mistakes,
profess
XX,
numerical
proofs
possible,
which
Chapter
section
cited.
only
of
by
section,
the
that
as
not
related
inserting
each
sources
device
in
of
inferred
contribution,
the
to
with
do
end
inevitable
mentioned,
are
of
extent
the
at
complete
as
While
the
of
results
the
of
any
original
regard
general
of
no
of
/whose
the
to
case
the
an
III
be
to
made
functions
with
to
that
find
found
and
the
not
in
it.
existence
connexion
which
is
been
in
containing
relevant
it
given
has
Bessel
functions;
the
hope
be
which
memoir
be
book
the
will
memoir
any
those
necessarily
omissions
in
but
enunciated;
are
the
or
the
function
in
give,
to
treatises
is
Tables
Weber's
of
use
policy
my
memoirs
any
the
third
in
possible
make
to
seems
It
made
The
N.
W.
CONTENTS
CHAP.
PAGE
I.
II.
III.
IV.
V.
VI.
VII.
VIII.
IX.
BESSEL
THE
FUNCTIONS
BESSEL
BESSEL
BEFORE
1820
COEFFICIENTS
FUNCTIONS
38
DIFFERENTIAL
EQUATIONS
MISCELLANEOUS
85
PROPERTIES
INTEGRAL
OF
REPRESENTATIONS
ASYMPTOTIC
OF
EXPANSIONS
BESSEL
OF
FUNCTIONS
OF
POLYNOMIALS
FUNCTIONS
BESSEL
132
FUNCTIONS
BESSEL
LARGE
ASSOCIATED
BESSEL
160
FUNCTIONS
194
ORDER
WITH
225
BESSEL
FUNCTIONS
271
.
X.
FUNCTIONS
ASSOCIATED
WITH
BESSEL
FUNCTIONS
308
.
XI.
ADDITION
THEOREMS
358
XII.
DEFINITE
INTEGRALS
373
XIII.
INFINITE
INTEGRALS
383
XIV.
MULTIPLE
XV.
XVI.
THE
INTEGRALS
ZEROS
OF
NEUMANN
450
BESSEL
FUNCTIONS
SERIES
4/
LOMMEL'S
AND
FUNCTIONS
VARIABLES
XVIL
XVIIL
OF
TWO
522
KAPTEYN
SERIES
SERIES
551
FOURIERBESSEL
OF
AND
DIN
576
.
XIX.
XX.
SCHLOMILCH
THE
OF
TABULATION
OF
TABLES
618
SERIES
BESSEL
BESSEL
FUNCTIONS
LIST
GENERAL
OF
OF
654
665
753
BIBLIOGRAPHY
INDEX
FUNCTIONS
789
SYMBOLS
AUTHORS
INDEX
QUOTED
791
706
CORRIGENDA
^Page
62,
line
for
11,
^^{hzfK'
"
"
(i^)^'""
yectc^
"
'^
m=0
"^
5/1=0
"
"
Page
91,
line
the
from
foot
the
of
for
Brassiue"
"
read
Brassinne."
"
page,
Page
Page
228,
327,
in
line
formula
(2),
from
the
/or
"
foot
sec^^"
98720
of
the
read
/or
page,
"
"
Bruhns
.sec^
78720
"
read
^."
"
Bruns."
CHAPTER
BESSEL
Riccati's
I'l.
The
a
In
of
which
is derived
The
in
fact
Bessel
paper*
that
he
has
In
curves
Bernoulli
refers to
Analysis of
states,
1697):
Vellem
"
in mille
Ego
petuo
equation
of the
occasione
recordor
quam
John
gives in
he
num
banc
years
order
second
wrote"
and
aequationes alias
sed
discoveryhad
construi
See
Leihnizens
" Ibid.
p. 65.
occurs
In
1694.
type and
states
reducing
to
Leibniz
dy
x
"
dy
(Jan. 27,
yydx
xxdx.
Problema
the
perlinear
to a
yydx
sicut
reducendo
was
435
"
xHx
tentavi"
x'dx in qua
aequatio
aequationem
simple step
of the
nun
maneret
ad
banc
to
solve
equation
of
the
last
the
first
437.
+
y'^dx (idy
=
quae
an
separationem
per
(p.436).
was,
writes
dx"."
made, it
Dritte
he
equation
(Nov. 15, 1702): "Qua
invicem,
se
possit noudum
procedure
1704, James
form
improbum
mefvm
separavi illas
been
gesamellte Werke,
Bernoulli's
type
in
and
tentaveris
memoratae
indeterminatas
:
the
in
later he succeeded
indeterminatarum
of this
it. Thus
solve
et
Eruditorum
Acta
t "Esto
Riccati's
1697
between
equation)
transformation.
Bernoulli
equation
an
inabilityto
differentiodifferentialem
ddy ".y
this
Bessel's
as
yydx'rxxdx,
"
scire
Te
ex
simpliciterdifferentialis
When
(known
Riccati's
particularsolution
equation of
potui
separare
his
once,
porro
lusit." Five
as
elementary
an
an
example,
an
equation,which
the
formas
as
theory of
itf.
than
more
published by
dy
and
the
order
to
Leibniz, written
letters:J:
various
with
usuallydefined
the second
was
gives,as
solved
not
the
of
equation by
in
which
Bernoulli
is
function
Riccati's
from
on
1826
intimatelyconnected
equation
earliest appearance
this paper
BEFOUE
is
equation of
linear differential
functions
Bessel
of differential
type
equation.
FUNCTIONS
differential
equation.
theory of
certain
take
new
50"87.
defined
by
the
formula
1
du
dx
~^
_
iu the
equation
IIThe
in
d!/ldx
connexion
x^ +
between
y", and
then
this
equation
to
replace u by
and
y.
special form
of
Bessel's
equation
will
be
"43.
W.
^
B.
F.
seen
THEORY
OF
James
"Reduce
terminus
within
BESSEL
of the
solution
communicated
was
(Oct.3, 1703)
year
in the
aequationemdy=yydx\xxdx ad
seriem exprimitur,
ita
per
^~
to
Leibniz
by
terms*:
following
fractionem
autem
cujusuterque
3.4.7
[CHAP. I
FUNCTIONS
3. 4
3.4.7.8.11
7
.
8
.
1]
12
pff.
15
8. 11
12
15
.
]6. 19
X^
X^
4^
3.4
3.4.7.8.11.12
divisione
series
quidem actuali
tam
non
progressionis
quae
ratio
^
Of
"^
"^
37377
in
pf,o
3.4.7.8.11.12.15.16
unam
in qua
facile patescat,scil.
"^
37373737 57777Tn
3.3.3.7.11
at
course,
.*"!"
4^
"
3.4.7.8
differential
equationswere concerned, on
Bernoulli seems
and consequently
James
to have received hardlythe full credit
entitled him.
his discovery
to which
Thus, twentytwo years later,the paper f,
in which Count Riccati first referred to an equationof the type which now
followed by a note;]:
bears his name,
was
by Daniel Bernoulli in which it was
stated that the solution of the equation^
as
aa"
was
unsolved
hitherto
dx + uudx
The
problem.
of the solution :
anagram
occultis involuta
characteribus
"
an
hdu
ended
note
with
in
announcement
an
Solutio
2Qn, 16o, Sp, hq, l7r, 16s, 2U, 32w, ^x, 3y, +,
,
",
=,
4, 2, 1."
The
"
4!m/(2m"1),
where
of which the
is any integei',
for any one
will
be given in
the details of this solution
Suppl.
viii.
X Ibid.
other
66
x'"''dqdu
xiudx:q,
"
73.
The
form
in
which
Kiccati
took
tlie
.r".
pp. 73
"
75.
of his
members
" The
(1724),pp.
=
of
equationwas
See Lcihnizens
f Acta Eniditorum,
equationwas
where
by Daniel Bernoulli,combined
more
generaltype than
slightly
of Riccati
the work
prominencegivento
equationis
""41,4*11.
reader
Daniel
family
should
Bernoulli
mentioned
John, Nicholas
"
observe
and
that
solutions
the younger
had
been
obtained
by
three
Nicholas.
givesrise
to
an
equation which
IIExercitationes
pp. 465"473.
quaedam
is
dx
easilysoluble in series.
(Venice,1724),pp.
mathematicae
77
"
80;
Acta
Eruditonim,
1725,
1*2]
John
BESSEL
Bernoulli's
equation*has
stillmore
It is
generaltype of
equationof
any
where
P, Q, M
It is
the
The
of Riccati
without
beingassociated
but also with
solving,
Riccati's
generalised
equationto
name
he discussed
the form
given functions
are
supposed that
if P=0,
equation.
to
customary
now
1826
BEFORE
resulted in the
not
a
FUNCTIONS
neither
nor
equation is reducible
of
is
x.
to the hnear
last
linear
to
Mention
should
be made
here
of two
memoirs
Euler.
by
In the
it
first"
is proved that, when a particular
integral
t/iof Riccati's generalised
equation
is known, the equationis reducible to a linear equationof the firstorder by
replacingy hy i/i+ l/u,and so the generalsolution can be effected by two
solutions are
quadratures.It is also shewn (ibid.p. 59) that,if two particular
known, the equationcan be integrated
by a single
completely
quadrature;and
this result is also to be found
of these theorems
1'2. Daniel
Bernoulli
of theorems
number
\villbe
givenin
Bernoulli's rnechanical
In 1738 Daniel
a
in the second
on
of the
Chapter
two
papers.
brief discussion
iv.
lirohleni.
memoir
publisheda
IT containing
enunciations
**
the oscillations of
of
of
AG
Jiguracatenae
uniformiter gravis
flexilissuspensa de puncto J.,eaque oscillationes
et perfecte
in situm AMF\
facere uniformes
catena
fueritque
intelligatur:
perv'enerit
FM
sumatur
^:
n
ejus
x,
longitudocujuscunquepartis
longitudocatenae
fit
ut
valoris+f
these is
follows:
as
De
"
*
See
James
I
4/i/i
ii.
t The
the solution
term
'
by
Kiccati's
Daniel
equation
(1763),[published 1770], p.
XIX.
t Institutiones
the
reduction, see
Comvi.
IIIbid.
IX.
"Theoremata
suspeusae," Comm.
**
Luc.
t+ The
James
'
was
is
of
used
solution
1054"1057
by D'Alembert, Hist, de
V Acad.
Sci.
solution
the
which
242.
ii. (Petersburg,
1769), " 831, pp. 88"89.
Iiiteiiraliii,
Bernoulli's letter to Leibniz already quoted.
oscillationibus
Acad.
it is stated that
and
given.
Acad.
de
in tinite terms,
" Novi
Calculi
Bernoulli
0.
4.9.1G.25/r'
(Geneva, 1744),pp.
V etc.
"
4.9.16n^
4.9n3
coriwrum
file flexili
connexorura
lu connexion
82.
et
catenae
verticaliter
cit. p. 116.
with
ii.
1"2
distantiam
OC
calculo
brevissimo
say: "Invenitur
alios."
littera n infinitos valores
autem
last series is
The
described
now
as
infinite number
of
?i
of order
and
zero
this function
that
I....
proxime 0'691
function
Bessel
argument
"
4.9.16.25/1^
4.9.16n'
4.9?i3
4)in
x^
x'^
to
on
goes
x^
XX
~w
Habet
He
[CHAP.
FUNCTIONS
BESSEL
OF
THEORY
has
an
zeros.
of the chain.
the substance
followingis
The
densityof
height
above
of
chain
horizontal
The
and
(supposed uniform)
in its undisturbed
let T
be the tension
position. The
the
obtain
for
equation 8T=gp8x by resolvingvertically
integralof the equationis T=gp,v.
The
length8x.
the chain
:
investigation
the lowest
transversal,we
of Euler's
of the tension
component
; and
is,e"ectiYQly,'
T{dyldx) where
the
so
motion
equation of motion
being
element
an
at
y is the
of
zontal)
(hori
is
p"^S="^^)
If
substitute
we
for T and
proceed to
the
df^
If
lengthof
is the
the
find that
limit,we
dx\
dx)
'
simple equivalentpendulum
for any
normal
one
we
vibration,
write
y=.n(?)si"(f"^?),
where
If
and
xlf=u,
constants
are
obtain
we
and
the solution
^=
,
1
tions
On
the
t Covim.
+
Acta
took
the
distance
notation
p and
{x\f)is a
dv\
dx
dx)
in the form
"
^i
".
"
1.4
."r.
solution
of the
equation
f
of Bernoulli's
series,namely
^"
1.4.9
""""
1.4.9.16
usuallycalled cijlinder
functions,or, occasionally,
/"ncfur Math. lxix.
(1868),p. 128; see also Math. Ann.
are
(1871),pp.
111.
then
609"610.
Acad.
Acad.
weight
Petrop. vii.
Petrop.
of
(nottwice
lias been
(for d).
v.
length e
the
of the
chain
distance)fallen by
to
a
be E, and
particlefrom
the
he
rest
defined
under
to
be
the
gravity in
significanceof
and
the
measure
second.
Euler
of
the
Euler's
introduction
of
1*3]
BESSEL
FUNCTIONS
1826
BEFORE
"t
where
,
constants.
are
Since
If a is the whole
finite
is
lengthof
when
j;=0, C must
the chain,y
0 when
a?
zero.
a, and
so
/'is
"fi
+
\7f^T:\p 1.4.
be
"
C and
=
"
"
0
"
9r'
the
solution
law
memoir*
(inthe
Euler
immediately followingthis investigation
of series)of the
form
of formation
of successive
stated
however, been
equation ^
coefhcients
\\i
obtained
but his
\\v=0^
"
the
general
of the
statement
is rather
in his Institutiones
Calculi
pp. 233235.
I'S. Euler
mechanical
vibrations
The
1764.
of
arrived at the
He
jjvohlem.
stretched
membrane
investigated
by
were
Euler
in
;J:
equation
1 d'z
"ldP^_drz Idz
?~df~d?'^r(h''^
rd(l"'
where
is the
coordinates
and
(r, "/");
are
obtain
To
where
a,
A, ^, B
of
dr
solution of this
11
ur
This
of order
differential
/3; and ^
for
,7:nye2(
equationis now
may
have any
Acad.
Petroj).v. pars
t See also "" 935, 93G (p. 187
+
in
Novi
" The
IIIf
in view
function
(d
/3\
\e
r
of r;
and
the result of
equation
is finite at the
originis given on
p. 256
'
2
.
constant
argument
known
(".+
1 )(n +
3) e^
'
'
1.
as
Besscl's
equationfor
of the values 0, 1, 2,
factor
"
the series is
ar\e. The
functions
....
now
called
Bessel
of a
periodsof vibration,27r/a,
will be
" 352.
Coinm.
reason
/3 were
dr
Idu
equationwhich
omitted
an
is
is the differential
has been
Save
and
+ B),
(/5(/)
it is
of Euler's memoir;
sin
(at+ A)
constants
are
da
The
sin
of this value
substitution
discussed
depending on
constant
solution he wrote
normal
is
the
t at
of the membrane.
tension
where
time
displacementat
transverse
not
Acad.
an
(/30+ B).
not
be
onevalued
function
of
position,
THEORY
circular membrane
from
This
a
of radius
the consideration
BESSEL
OF
that
with
fixed
vanishes
[CHAP. I
FUNCTIONS
boundary* are
when
to be determined
a.
investigation
by Euler contains the earliest appearance
coefficient of generalintegral
order.
Bessel
ofLagrange,Carlini
and
in
Analysisof
Laplace.
Only a
of
of the
problem. It was
planetabout the
inverse
anomaly
at
sun
square,
the eccentric
and
M^E
giverise to
shewn
the
"iimE,
(6
'^'*
"
vector
r, the
mean
the forms
assume
a{l"cosE),
y.
An"inuM,
and
^m=o
2''+''^m\{n+
jB"cos"ilf,
orbit, and
of the
eccentricity
the
and
"'""'"'
my.'
S
w=l
semimajoraxis
the
are
i6^+
l +
n=\
radius
expansions
E^M^
in which
the
anomaly E, which
^^^^^
2"+^"" m\
(n + m)l
for w
1, 2, 3. The objectof the expansions
Lagrange gave these expressions
in
is to obtain expressions
for the eccentric anomaly and the radius vector
=
of the time.
terms
In modern
^"
It
noted
was
these formulae
notation
2/" (ne)/n,5,
by Poisson,Connaissance
memoir
Poisson
would
account
by Lefort,Journal
should
corrected,
Cf.
Journal,
xi.
(e/n)J^ (ne).
[published
1833],p.
6 that
ae
(1846),pp.
142
152, in which
"
an
made
error
by
also be consulted.
Bourget, Ann.
xxi.
Sci.
de
VEcoIe
norm.
siij}.in.
(1866), pp. 55
"
95, and
Chree, Quarterly/
(1886), p. 298.
t Hist, de VAcad.
III.
de Math.
remarkable
and
is
des Terns,1836
written
are
R. des Sci. de
Berlin, xxv.
[Oeuvres,.
(1869),pp. 113"138.]
X Riceixhe
siiUa
(Milan, 1817).
col. 197"254
reprinted in
This
courergenza
work
was
delta
serie
translated
che
into
serva
German
alia
soliizione
by Jacobi,
papers
del
problema
Astr.
by
Nach.
Scheibner
di
xxx.
Keplero
(1850),
dated 1856,
14]
BESSEL
It is easy to shew
Define
Hence
when
on
we
is
''^u*i
then
J"=2?i"ie^"''7"!
largeeither
should
(?""')
we
m^
or
w^ and
expect
du/de must
or
dujde
of
powers
where
this
substituting
u^^ duJdf
that
and
0(?j2o)
and
("") respectively;
admits
v.yjn
+
Ui +
of
an
expansionin
equation,
descending
powers
of
'^
??o= "
".
that
; so
du^, +
independent of
are
...
zero
be
to
large.
in the form
On
be
various terms
where
the formula
1826
BEFORE
??,
?"i
equationof
we
t^
1
equatingto
find that
"
If t"=0
by
that
FUNCTIONS
"
:,,
f
and
therefore
["c7.
Mlogp^^^,^"^/(l.^')+l}i
+
and, since
be taken
From
the value
and
of
An shews
of
constant
no
formula
Stirling's
that
^iide n log^ewhen
is to
integration
it
now
follows
at
6"exp
An
is
...,
small,the
upper
sign must
be added.
once
that
{nj{\e^)}
v/(U)."t(le2)i{l+V(le2)}"'
this is the result obtained
and
further
much
formulae
which
for
by
A^
Carlini's
Aleissel
in the
case
by
This method
Carlini.
of
has
approximation
been
carried
approximation is obviouslyinadequate.
more
sponding
corre
which
and the method
investigation
givenby Laplaceis quiterigorous
the value of B^ is modified by
is of considerable importancewhen
he uses
by
taking all the coefficients in the series to be positive or, alternatively,
that
an
supposingthat e is a pure imaginary.But Laplace goes on to argue
be
variables
may
approximationestablished in the case of purelyimaginary
crainte in the case of real variables. To anyone who is acquainted
used
sans
The
"
'
'
with
reasoningwill
*
486"489.
be evident.
Comptes Rendus,
t Mecanique
pp.
theoryof asymptoticseries,the
the modem
xxxvni.
(1854),pp. 990"
Celeste, supplement,
t.
v.
9;i3.
[firstpublished 1827].
Oeuvres,
v.
(raris.1882),
OF
THEORY
[CHAP.
FUNCTIONS
BESSEL
earlier
of this principle,
Stokes, Proc. Camb. Phil.
see
applications
and
VI. (1889),pp. 362"366
[Math,
Phys.Papers,v. (1905),
pp. 221"225], and Hardy,
Proc. London
Math. Soc. (2)ii. (1905),pp. 332"339;
(1905),pp. 97"101.
Messenger,xxxiv.
A statement
of the principle
was
given by Borel,Acta Mathematica, xx. (1897),pp. 393
For
other and
recent
more
Soc.
"
394.
The
the
of the principle
appliedto
following
exposition
b}^Laplacemay not be without interest :
The
.seriesconsidered
is
+
J,
is
/x, where
largeand
fi is the
has
+ 2m)?i"^'"^f"
I (?;,
~^,"=o2"
"
in which
fixed
fj.is
so
Now,
that, to
'"
'
+ "i)!
=i"""i!("
positivevalue.
greatestintegersuch
The
greatest term
that
4^ (n + ,x){n + 2^
and
example considered
2) ^ (n + 2n)nh%
approximatelyequal to
if ?"", denotes
the
general term
in
it is easy
II,S^\
theorem
verifyby Stirling's
to
first approximation,^^'r^qi,
where
'
log2=2V(l4.2)/(ne2).
Hence
~2"^^/W(lg)},
.
since*
nearly equal
is
to
1.
Now, by Stirling's
theorem,
{ns/(H62)}
e"i exp
and
e"exp{nv(l+.^)}
MI"li)l^
5"(i)"^
so
The
inference
which
Laplacedrew
V
This
Trn'
approximateformula happens to
from
{l + V(le)}"
be valid when
but it is difficult to
necessary),
prove it without
"
of.
The
formula
l +
^^^f~s'N{^q)}
Bromwich,
formula
in
may
be
inferred
It is also
the
"
Modern
Analysis,%215l.
(though the
fact that
it is
consequence
of Jacobi's
reason
obviously
of contour
general theorems
^3(0r)=(;r)H3(0Ti);
see
"
on
series;
transformation
15]
FUNCTIONS
BESSEL
1826
BEFORE
of Fourier.
researches
1'5. The
by Fourier*, La
classical treatise
appearedthe
In 1822
Bessel
functions
of order
Theorie
zero
analytique
in the discussion
occur
shewn
X
"
from
fd'v
1 dv
CD
Kda
xdx
dv
dt
K, C, D
where
Density of
and
Heat
the Thermal
Conductivity,
Specific
respectively
solution
and he obtained the
material of the cylinder;
denote
the
^2^4
2
""
2^4^6,
where
and
mCDjK
has to be
at
the
boundary of
the
chosen
so
hv + K
that
0
{dvldx)
=
Conductivity.
h is the External
where
cylinder,
that
309) by Rolle's theorem
proceededto give a proof (""307
and
of
real
roots
the values of m hasf an infinity
the equationto determine
that
no
incompletebecause he assumes
complex roots. His proof is slightly
true of integral
which have been proved for polynomials
are
certain theorems
by Hurwitz^
functions; the defect is not difficult to remedy, and a memoir
has the objectof making Fourier's demonstration
quiterigorous.
Fourier
"
formula
("313)
for the
"
The
discussed
will be
formula
of order
and
zero
in
7i
"
"
.
"
"
"
COS
ttJo
...
2. 4^6
2". 4
(a
sm
x) dx,
it is a special
case
years earlier by Parseval";
Bessel's and Poisson's integrals
(""2'2,2"3).
of what
as
depositedin
the archives
of the
French
found
in the
Institute
on
researches
VAcad.
de
Mem.
its
proved some
known
now
are
\7^
"
TT
2
been
function
Bessel
fraction
formula
1
had
quotientof
of this
generalisations
derivate ;
Another
also be mentioned
It should
Sci.,
contained
was
crowned
and
iv.
on
in
memoir
Jan.
This
6, 1812.
(1819),[pubHshed 1824],
pp.
185"
is to be
memoir
555;
v.
(1820),
pp. 153"246.
[published1826],
of
t This is a generalisation
+
Math.
" Mem.
statement
another
a
Ann.
des
of the
paper
by
etranijers,
theorem
on
of
i.
Fourier
general solution
quoted in "
statement
12.
xxxiii.
savans
Bernoulli's
(1805),pp.
639"648.
This
which
is sometimes
constants
des
writer, Mem.
Laplace's equation
in
savans
form
also
paper
etrangers,
called
i.
contains
Parseval's
the
(1805),pp. 379"398,
formal
theorem
tains
con
10
[CHAP.
FUNCTIONS
BESSEL
OF
THEORY
expansionof
The
much
examined
validityof Fourier's expansion was
Math.
Schlafli,
471"494;
viii.
(1875),pp.
The
Math.
an
Ann.
Ann.
246"269
1'6. The
in
be dealt with
expansionwill
This
researches
Math.
Math.
and
(1909),pp. 359"388;
recently by Hankel,
more
Diui,
(1876),pp. 137"142;
x.
(1920),pp.
163"200.
Chapter xviir.
of Poisson.
where
the distance
denotes
and
integer(zeroincluded),
mode, which
a
is
function
solution of the
from
R
of the radius
QQg
Jo
he discussed
by
positive
normal
Poisson
that
the
the
cases
definite
QQg
jy^sin^"^+^ft) dw
(^y,p
0, 1, 2 in detail.
integralis
(save for
It will appear
factor)a
subsequently
Bessel
function
of
^.
shewn
was
1823.
equationis
j.n+i I
and
It
vector.
solid
In the
problemof
{ibid.
cylinder
p. 340
the
X"
et
is
the analogousintegral
seq.)
cos
.'o
where
n=0,
1, 2,
is now
integral
In the
and
...
known
case
large;the
Let
Then
Jq (k)
J^ {k)is a
Journal
de
cylinder.The
integral
("23).
0, an
obtained
cos
I'Ecole R.
di Torino,
xxv.
whom
mentioned
{kcos
"
w) da,
J^ Ik)
cos
sin (k
last
integral
the variable
w) da.
cos
are
Poisson's
as
from
is the distance
(1821),pp.
equation
532
in " 43.
"
was
534, and
See
Proc. London
also
Math.
also studied
has
since
Poisson,
Soc.
v.
La
by Plana, Mem.
been
studied
Theorie
(1874),pp.
by
249"403.
della R.
numerous
Mathematiqite
136"137.
Tie
Accad.
delle Sci.
writers,some
de la Chaleur
notation
of
(Paris,
Jg{k) was
12
and
so,
by equating to
the various
zero
[CHAP.
FUNCTIONS
BESSEL
OF
THEORY
find that
we
coefficients,
A'^Ib,
A'=,^,A.i^B,...
A":
and
hence
expansion of
the
/ttX^
r/
/"tt
integralis
Poisson's
cos
(/"
0,)cfo,
cos
9.25
+
2.^:W3+r^'^'
^^j LVl8278^^
9.25
9^
\_
It should
be mentioned
W.
given by
expressedthus
first
was
was
on
r

E.
the
that
Hamilton, Trans.
for the
Irish Acad.
R.
generalterm
xrx.
of
the
and
Lijischitz
of
significance
in the
(1843),p. 313;
^
expansion
his result
\n\
he described
and
to be
(2/3sin a) da=
cos
formula
explicit
an
jsin
[i]"
are
"
A result of
some
memoir*, is that
which
importance,
the generalsolution
and
It follows at
by Poisson
equation
of the
Jo
where
obtained
was
2/
that the
once
generalsolution
dy
dy
dx
dx
e''^cos"^(y ^. ^
.'o
This
result
subsequent
constants.
are
Jo
7o
of the
equation
.^
_
"
is
in
Journal
de
was
I'EcoIe
general integral of
R.
associated
an
The
an
correspondiug
earlier
ibid. p. 227.
t Camb.
J See
Phil.
Trans,
Encyclopedic
ix.
(1856),p. [38],[Math,
u.
28
and
("53),p.
213.
memoir,
r7]
BESSEL
The
1'7.
bear
his
that
the
which
in
Bessel
written
was
name
in
Ba
expression
In
memoir
the
defined
be
be
to
in
function
is most
function
which
is of
function
After
that
it
and
Berliner
Jan.
29,
t
formula
the
"
1'4.
function
Ij/^
Atti
1824
this
in
1894,
R.
[published
Accad.
1826],
Storungen,
the
from
and
266;
"
dei
pp.
Lincei,
1
"
aus
date
der
of
defining
" lO'l)
(see
h
will
is
the
the
Ij/^ but
not
Chapter
be
III.
so
numerous
chronological
account
order.
Fourier
briefer
for
became
the
to
(3)
of
this
iv.
the
(1880),
memoir,
der
Bewegung
been
ha"
1858
account
{Transunti),
The
52.
welcher
of
in
logical
of
time
204
integer
values
functions
the
which
adapted
an
abandon
to
results
studied
be
on
the
is not
is not
will
stage
pp.
of
nonintegral
systematic
researches
planetarischen
which
at
della
for
u) du.
"
com)iled
early history
pp.
259
263.
"
Untersuchung
Sonne
entsteht,"'
is
1824.
Berliner
J This
in
given
systematically
integral
investigations
Mittheilungen,
Ahh.
der
series
the
many
when
study
Bessel
of
by Maggi,
Theils
by
of
Bessel's
ii.
Lommel
account
given
most
theory
Beni
des
now
shewn
is
u) du
sin
k sin
"
obtained
and
interest
the
Wagner,
was
with
(hu
cos
worth
convenient
seems
historical
An
by
time
develop
to
Chapter
defined
the
motion
had
r'"
integer
an
which
the
memoiri*
which
he
integral ::
detail
in
given
ne
"
investigated
functions
llM,
cos
(nu
compared
^r"
took
Bn
sin
the
planetary
detail
earlier
an
in
e
Bessel
1824
//
He
13
Jo
should
of
the
by
sin
B^
for
in
vector
nTT
this
in
but
1824,
where
examined
radius
the
of
expansion
1826
BEFORE
Bessel.
of
researches
memoir*
The
FUNCTIONS
Ahh.
integral
given
by
[published
1816"17
occurs
in
Poisson,
the
expansion
Connaissancc
1819],
of
des
49"55.
pp.
the
eccentric
Teins,
1825
anomaly
[published
with
1822],
the
p.
notation
383.
of
" 14,
CHAPTER
BESSEL
THE
of
them
who
proved
and
fourteen
the
had
of argument
coefficient
the
by
of the
Bessel
and
order
that
the
Bessel's
grals
inte
Hansen
by
Some
:J:
similar
be
is
developed
into
is called
expansion
it is denoted
Laurent
the
by
series,
the
Bessel
that
so
eH'd=
(1)
i tJ,,{z).
cc
n=
development,
this
establish
To
series
absolutelyconvergent
with
the exception of
together,their
product
arranged according to
ZeitschriftfiirMath,
namely
pointed
but
the
are
to
that
of
out
that
found
t Berliner
given
Ahh.
X Ermittelung
1824
Abh.
II.
sur
(1855),pp.
la
e.g.
Sternwarte
determination
When
ii.
text
is
into
these
Soc.
Seeburg
Ital.
165.
"
For
(Modena),
denotfed
Math.
Ann.
of t,
gent
absolutelyconver
an
an
multiplied
are
it may
so
expansion
somewhat
by Jj,,^what
similar
(1820),p.
we
Traces
(1871), p.
in.
an
be
of the
excepted.
xviii.
universally adopted.
now
Storungen
137
t, t
series
have
into
expanded
series,and
we
say,
and
^:
(1857),pp.
Schlatli,
des
is to
of
following Hansen,
the
expanded
t.
of t ; that
[published 1826],
250"251.
of
be
of t ; and
powers
absolutelyconvergent
Phys.
Absoluten
der
in
elsewhere,
can
Prullani, 3Iem.
Schlomilch,
definition
be
be
e^'^ can
that
ascending
und
e^cosO^ggg
observe
powers
an
powers
is valid
(1), which
form
zero,
is
of
e~^^'^
descending
of
series
I.
nition,
defi
("222).
P^ in the
n, and
his
f. It
by
memoir.
coefficients
can
of
is due
Bessel
discovered
Schlomilch's
is to
equal to
are
defined
expansion,was
Jacobi
from
defined
theorem
converse
in the
procedure
functions
previouslybeen
that
coefficient
of t; the
function
thus
this function
that
shewn
It will be
the
functions
of
ways
in this work
This
expansion.
properties
several
are
adopted
the
in 1836
published
been
fundamental
propertiesof
publication of
generatingfunction
The
qua
they
will be
certain
coefficients
before
years
had
results
which
the
equal to
are
which
many
mentioned
be
should, however,
in
of the
There
coefficients.
method
; the
incidentallythat
integralsby
definite
discussion
Bessel
as
derived
coefficients.
is the
coefficients
the
as
Schlomilch*,
to
known
functions
definingthese
define
chapter
of functions
set
this
object of
The
COEFFICIENTS
the Bessel
of
definition
The
2"1.
II
503.
now
write
of
Hansen's
expansion,
It must
as
be
J,^{2z);
notation
148.
p. 22.
in
:
Ellipsen
Gotha,
"perturbations
von
beliebiger Excentricitdt
1843], p.
absolues
106.
See
also
the
und
French
and
Neigung,
tion,
transla
Leipziger
2*1, 211]
If in
BESSEL
THE
write
(1) we
1/tfor
"
COEFFICIENTS
t, we
15
get
1t=
Xi
00
n=
on
a
n
replacing
by n. Since
comparisonof this formula
the Laurent
"
with
is any
J,j(0)as
integer
integral.
an
formula
"
e^zitllt) J^ (^)+
(3)
function is unique*,
that
derived
l^n+ (
Bessel
by
be written
From
( r Jn {Z),
where
expansionof
(1) shews
/" {2)
(2)
itrj.niz),
:c
"
from
his definition of
in the form
J^^(^)_
Y ^n^^
problems of
Math.
(1912),pp.
A
I.
suinmary
(1874),pp.
XXXIV.
The
IX.
of
81
"
(1909),pp. 433
The
unity has
of order
function
2"11.
391"420.
441,
"
been
in connexion
encountered
with
the
by TnwieYe, Notiv.
steepest
curves
de Math.
Ann.
on
(4)
{bxy^).
An
of
"
exp
When
is a
integeror
positive
rightwhich, when
rise to
associated
with
^2^ L_I^Z_^.
V
11^(^1/0}=
the
for which
term
there
is
terms
we
the
zero,
has
Jn{z)= S^
For, if not,
zero
(mi ajj^
This
result
could
was
be
expanded
that
particular,
integratedit round
noticed
this value.
On
and, since
0,
these
associating
productis
ni\
the result
(1)
coefficients (say,in
/;
{\zr
m={i{n\m)\
therefore have
see
I {\zf^
We
of
?"')
circle with
/r
into
were
not
Laurent
zero.
centre at the
'
If
in t, in
series
we
then
origin,we
which
some
of the
should
(1841), p. 911.
obtain
contradiction.
16
where
is
givenby
integeror
positive
of the series
terms
II
are
the formula
(
z''
Jn {z)
(2)
first few
The
zero.
[CHAP.
FUNCTIONS
BESSEL
OF
THEORY
z^
2,7;,
1
2M
(n + 1)
2M
z^
"^
"""}'
(n + l){n+ 2)
particular
In
^0 (2) I
(3)
2^
22
4''
2^
42
6.
volving
negativeorder,we select the terms int'^ in the productof the series representing
exp (^zt)and exp ( hz/t),
where n is stilla positive
integer.The term of the second series which, when
associated with the generalterm of the first series givesrise to a term in t~"'
obtain the Bessel coefficients of
To
"
is the term
for which
whence
obtain
evidently
we
; and
have
we
the formula
anew
J.n{z)
 2"! (2),namely
(rJ,,(z).
It is to be observed
is
so
term
711
"
transcendent,that is
an
l)th term
for all
cc
it follows that
and
n, and
so
it
algebraicfunction of z
it is not an
elementary
finite combination
of
as
a
say it is not expressible
and
logarithmic
exponential,
algebraicfunctions operated on by signs of
indefinite
From
to
integration.
(1) we
can
obtain two
multipleof
which
inequalities,
in the discussion
of series whose
of
ance
importgeneralterm is a
are
some
Bessel coefficient.
Whether
useful
be real
or
complex,we
have
00
\Jn{z)\^\lz\^ X
IjZ I
_2jf_l_"^
nl
and
so, when
(4)
This
854
; a
have
0, we
1/" (.)I,
result
was
,"=o
w!(wl)'"'
exp
1ii^"
(i^')
,
exp
(J I. n.
(1841),pp. 687,
Jn{z)\^^~'exp{\z\^),
n
was
given by Neumann,
(Leipzig,
1867), p.
27.
212]
all
By considering
found
BESSEL
THE
that
J"W
be observed
It should
bounded
domain
in the
terms
terms
follows from
of the
if S, A and
For
f})lane.
are
The
the
on
and
and
or
both
(1) converges
contain
not
exceed
the
in absolute
and
uniformlyin
originin the
value the
sponding
corre
expansion2^"/" {z),whether
z
the
if
considerations
Similar
2'1
does
do not
expansionof exp {\zi)
exp {^zjt)
and
of the product exp (^/2a)exp {hR/8),
of the
right in "
positiveconstants
The
"'^P^^'"
which
by termbytermdifterentiations
performed with respect to z or t
2" 12.
"fe^'(l+").
(Ji^VU
ff^exp
where
the
the terms
(5)
any
17
COEFFICIENTS
the differentiations be
t.
formulae.
recurrence
equations*
2n
(1 )
Jn {z),

JnAz)Jn+dz)
(2)
'^Jn(z\
which
connect
Bessel
To
prove
three
the
of
namely
with respect to t ;
we
get
h^z{l+
i nt'^'Jniz),
llt^)e'=''~"'^
=
SO
that
1^(1 + 1/^^)i
)l=
V'J.Xz)^ i
"
"Xl
If the
are
"
nV'^Jn{z).
X
powers
are
of t and
coefficients of P~i
it is evident
equal,
identically
that
^Z {Jn,
(z)+ Jn^ (z)} nJn (z),
=
which
*
formulaef.
primes
are
used
to
denote
the
derivate
of
function
with
respect
to
its argument.
f
The
B. F.
18
Again,differentiate
expansionwith respect to
the fundamental
M=
\{t\\t)
that
so
n=
By equatingcoefficients of
(2) immediately.
results of
The
Jn (z)+
(4)
zJn (z)

Jn (Z)
Jn {Z)
Z
Jo {z)
formulae
The
(1) and
Bessel,Berliner Abh.
(4) from
1824,
Jn+i(^).
this manner,
but he obtained
formula
(8)
which
obvious
the
und
The
may
method
direct differentiation
(2)by
be
others
derived
derived
of
^'~ip= ^
"
By
which
Schlomilch
,.C",is a binomial
where
reduce
to
./,(z).
[1826],
pp. 31, 35.
Schlomilch, Zeitschrift
fur Math,
138.
discovered
were
proof given
here
Schlomilch
is due
by
to
proved (1) in
J" {z).
()'""c../".^."(.X
coefficient.
inductions
from
have
{z'''Jn{z)]={r^Z"^Jn^,,,{z),
[jj^
(10)
n
Bessel
an
is any
integerand
is any
positive
integer.The
formula
{ibid.
p. 34).
example of
that
U,{z)8J,(z)
zJ,(z)
{Y'nJ^,(z)+ {)^'zJ^^^,{z)
n=l
4
n
smce
formula
Jn, (z),
case
(7)
As
obtain
In the
to
we
identity
^^{zJn(z)}=ZJ,,_,{z),
zJn+d^).
^JzJ^{z)}
(6)
where
t^Jniz).
to
equivalent
(5)
and then
are
X
(3)
These
i
"i=
CO
on
II
00
PJn{z)^
[CHAP.
FUNCTIONS
BESSEL
OF
THEORY
zJ^K+i(z)*0
as
*
(r'nJ.^,{z),
l
cc
,
hy ^ 211 (4).
(10) is due
20
THEORY
frequentlyconvenient
and writing2'7r B for
It is
BESSEL
OF
"
to
Since
tegratio
modify (1) by bisectingthe range of inproceduregives
/"'"
cos(ndzsine)de.
integrandhas period2'rr,the
the
II
J""(0)=
(2)
[CHAP.
FUNCTIONS
be transformed
first equationmay
into
Jn{z)
(3)
^ [^'"'^
cos{ne2sind)de,
^"n J
where
is any
To
a.
angle.
(1),multiplythe fundamental
prove
integrate*round
which
contour
encircles
thus get
We
dt.
m"n"i
J
The
on
integrals
the contour
Take
be taken
be
to
27r ta
to
"Zv +
result
givenby
Hansen
former
f in the
equationtake
part,replace0 by
In this
write t
It is thus found
a.
n;
and
e~'^,so that 0
that
"
case
0.
"
r
J",^(^)=i_^g[e'^nezsmO)
which
equation(2),from
Various
modifications
Jn{z)
If 0 be
COS
"
TT
I "^%^"(""^sin^)"(^,
^n(z)=^"7*
and
for which
one
from
decrease
to
(5)
a
the
t"^e^'^'''''dt
^(^)=^(
27n,\
(4)
may
the
we
so
27n
,"=x
be
(1) may
of Bessel's
nO
J0
replacedby tt
sin
TT
^ in these two
is
even,
sine)
obvious.
by writing
"0sin(^sin ^) (Z^.
j "
the former
integrals,
the other
in the
j^0^
obtainable
"
'
"
deduced, is now
are
integral
(zsin 0)d0
COS
line
and,
integration
being
changessignwhen
unaffected
in each
case
therefore
and
l"'^
sin nQ
.
Jn ("s^)
~
"
sm
{z sm
^) d0
(n odd).
contour.
the
d0
0')
point
once
counterclockwise.
105.
"221]
THE
BESSEL
Jn (z)=
COEFFICIENTS
I'""
nO
cos
(z sin 6) dd
cos
^'^
(7)
=
J"n{z)
it
'/"(e)
=
()*"
[Note.
It
was
due
are
nT?
sin
(2cos 77)dri
{n odd),
11
cos
(zCOS 7;)c^t;
*( 7 cos
(n even).
"j
results
COS
1
"^
last two
r?"
()^*" ^^
"
(9)
sin ^)c?(9
C^'
^
Jo
replaced
hyhrr i] in
(8)
??^ cos
cos
IT
If ^ be
(71even).
/'^'^
The
21
substantially
shewn
by Parseval,Mem.
+
^~lP"
^
^y
Jacobi*.
to
des
savans
that
and
so, in the
will be
and
special case
in
seen
Poisson's
"
Z
"
23
z
4
in which
that
r^r^,+ ...=
"
r5~T'
4
5i
COS
D
TV
(a sui A')a.r,
Parseval's
as
integralrepresentations of J^ (2),namely
identical when
"=0, so a specialname
two
integralbecome
integral.It
Bessel's
integral
this
for
is
case
ju.stified.]
The
"
212
reader
will find it
(4) from
2 "21.
Two
Bessel's
Modificationsof ParsevaVs
formulae
integralformula
oljtain
to
interesting
integral.
integral.
which
are
involvingdefinite integrals
worth notice.
The first,
namely
Jo {s'{2^f)\
=
to
formulae
closelyconnected
ParsevaPs
with
are
(1)
is due
(afterBessel)the
Bessel +.
The
simplest method
'^
''"'
{zsin 6)dd,
cos
of
proving
it is to write
the
the
expressionon
Stt J
expand
in powers
f:(y
cos
cos
Catalan
to
Journal
of
(1) obtained
fur Math.
xv.
See
also
Anger, Neiwste
"
^)" ;
i, namely
c(i+)cos0
had
Schriftcn
12"13.
limits
z
and
[Ges. Math.
0 and
Naturf. Ges.
der
cos
with
in
1 +z
for
IVerke,
factors
Danzig,
913.
(1854),pp. 910
t Berliner
Ahh., 1824 [published1826], p. 37. See al'io An^er,
Ges. in Danzig, v. (1855),p. 10, and Lominel, Zeitschrififilr ^Math.
t Bulletin deV Acad. 11. de Belgique, (2)xli.
(1876),p. 938.
Comptes Jte7idns,xxxviii.
.,
if
r
T{it+\)
(??+ 1)
by substitutingI
(1836),pp.
integralsactuallygiven by Jacobi
Z'"^
difficulty.
J""(2^"
v'2)
specialcase
2r(n+)r(^),
^)2"dB
iz sin
'
n
"n
is
Q/ cos
due
integral,
(2)
the formulae
use
0,
follows without
other definite
"tt
6 + iz sin 6 and
the formula
The
of ^
and
?/
respectively.
(1891),pp. 100"102]
I/ttreplacingthe factors
vi.
v.
(1855),p. 1,
aud
the
2/V.
Caucby,
"
Keiieste Schriften
iind
xv.
P/ji/.v.
der Xatiirf.
(1870),p.
151.
22
Catalairs
be established
integralmay
formula
z'W^)
[CHAP. II
FUNCTIONS
BESSEL
OF
THEORY
27ri
that
so
00
^.m
ytti
1"=".
2
./o(2i\/~)=
mo(w!)2
r'
.' (0 +
^Jn
t"'~'e'dt
,
271?,"=o"2! ./
/"("+)
?^^
'^
+
exp
by taking
the contour
to
be
unit circle
L /
"
+ ^6exp {e^9
'^lde,
by bisectingthe
of
range
nitegration.
2"22. Jacohi's
series,which
Two
by
^
in
expansions
are
Jacobi*.
The
J,(z)+
connected
with Bessel's integral,
were
closely
them
method
of
is
to
obtaining
simplest
expansion" 21 (3). We thus get
of Bessel coefficients.
series
covered
diswrite
n=\
On
the
adding and subtracting
we
find
two
results which
are
combined
in this formula,
00
(^sin ^)
/o (^)+
(1 )
cos
(2)
sin(^sin^)=
+ 1) ^.
Jo"+i(^)sin(2?i
71=0
Write
^TT
"
77 for
6, and
get
we
00
(3)
cos
22
sin
(4)
Anger
Jacobi's
t.
cosines
of
procedure was
multiplesof ?;, and use
which
integrals
In
view
are
seen
of the
to
Journal
X Neumann,
Fourier's
xv.
with
as
is defined
n
der
to
is
(1836),p.
BesseVschen
to
12.
in
were
sin (s cos
obtained
r;)into
later
by
series of
(1) and
(3)
are
it is convenient
not
of
formed
to introduce
be
[Ges. Math.
hi
others
integrals.
terms,
The
zero.
obtain
Bessel's
the other
rule
fact that
fur Math.
t Neueste
be associated
law
accordingto the same
Neumanns
\ "", which
factor
and to be equal to 1 when
i (fJ"2^+i(^)cos(2?i
+ l)77.
(2cos 77)=
The
Danzig,
Funcilonen
v.
222]
THE
will be of
BESSEL
in the
frequentoccurrence
23
COEFFICIENTS
enables
sequel,
write
to
us
(5)
cos
{zsin 6)
(6)
sin
e^n
00
If
put ^
we
0 in
find
(0),we
1=5
(7)
71
If
differentiate
we
e,,J,n(2).
=
of times
before
putting^
0, we
For
will
the present, we
before d is put
z=
n
6,"+i
(9)
sin 2^2
(10)
cos
results
in
The
be strict
are
(2n + 1) Jsn+i(^).
Note.
differentiations of
two
4^
11 J, (z)
3^Js
due
The
[22J, (z)
(z)+
5
.],
J, i^)"""}"
Lommel*.
to
in
sense.
once
(8)
These
differentiated
t associated
generatingfunction
^l is not
generatingfunction
(,iJn(z)is
with
e,i^"*A
{^)
(1=0
If this
If
we
expressionbe
result
S',
by using the
equation we
recurrence
formula
"
212
(2),we
have
get
jyh^itmj^^^d,.
s=ei(tiin+l(^
^e^^(tvn
(11)
A
called
equivalentto
this
was
given by Brenke,
Bull. American
Math.
Soc.
xvi.
(1910),
pp. 225"230.
Studien
+ It will be
seen
in
Chapter
xvi.
Fiiitctionen
that
(Leipzig,1868),p.
this is
form
11.
of "Lommel's
function of
two
variables."
24
THEORY
OF
[CHAP. TI
FUNCTIONS
BESSEL
2"3. Poissoiis
(z cos 6) sin'^+iddS,
cos
Jo
cos
(zcos 6) sin^'*dcie,
JO
is
We
shall
and, in view
describe
case
now
that
prove
to
appropriate
importanceof Poisson's researches,it seems
the expressions
the right
for J^i^). In the
on
" as Poisson s integrals
reduces to Parseval's integral
0, Poisson's integral
("2"2).
of the
cos
T^.'o
equal to
integrate
have
\^
d sin^*^OcW
,,
(_)m^2m 1.3.5...
cos^'"
(2m)! Jo
7r,,,=o
(2n
1). 1
3
.
(2m
...
1)
"
",=o
(2w)!
1.3.
5.
2.4.6...(2??+ 2m)
..(2/11) 2
m=o
and
\,
^,^,,1
2"^+^'"'
+
m
{n
.,,
ni)I
Journal
t Ibid.
examined
p.
de I'Ecole E.
293,
by Euler, Inst.
elegant, and
more
+
E.g.
on
p.
xii.
Polytechnique,
(cahier19), (1823),pp.
et seq. ; p.
his
Calc.
340,
et
seq.
Int.
ii.
(Petersburg,
1769),Ch.
study of them
is
more
Integrals equivalent
x.
to
249"
i03.
them
had
previouslybeen
Poisson's
forms
are
Jo
then
" Nielsen,Handhuch
BesseVs
IIThe
to
second
der
Theorie
series to be
Poisson,ibid.
der
n{n
l)
^
Cylinderfunktionen
(Leipzig,1904),
nomenclature
seems
p.
preferable.
due
23, 231]
BESSEL
THE
also observed*
Poisson
25
COEFFICIENTS
that
gizcos e^^^^n
0dd=r
(zCOS 6) siri""ddO;
COS
.' 0
when
this is evident
left and
derived
integral
the
We
we
it
^ by
by replacing
tt
the
0.
j.^;ii"j^/%.'sin"^
/"(.)
slightmodification
of this
formula, namely
has
"
on
integral
thus get
(2)
A
from
of the
mean
the
theory of
Bessel
functions.
It should
also be noticed
(4)
that
cos
(zcos $) sin'*Odd
cos
Jo
Jo
['"cos
(zsin 6) cos'* 0d6,
Jo
givesrise to
expressions
modified
obtained
An
"
cos2n^=
by
:i
^^sm"*^
.
Tii^,
()"*
,,
cos
4??[4n2}...
[4n(2m2)j;"(^)
"
,
m=0
J,is somewhat
It is
seen
lU:
integral.
which
integral,
follows :
as
elaborate; it is substantially
The
Bessel
investigation
of Poisson
Bessel's
2"31.
Poisson's
was
given by
differentiation that
on
2'
cos
6 sin'*~i6
cos
dd
sin" d
1)
^
his
the
actuallymade
but, as he points out on
Poisson
sin'"!!
0
sin^'*+^6 sin
"
(2n
{zcos 6)
~\
^
X
2w sin^**6 +
{z cos 6)
sin^"+0
;^^
2n
1
cos
(z cos 6),
statement
p.
ft
340, odd
analysis.
f
Studien
Berliner
[Ges. Math.
objectedto
Functionen
(Leipzig,1868),p. 30.
p. 13.
Jacobi, Journal fiir3Iath. xv. (1836),
[published1820], pp. 36"37.
formula,
givinghis proof ("232)of Poisson's integral
(1891),
p. 102], when
Werke,
1824
vi.
the artificialcharacter
of Bessel's
demonstration.
and
when
integration,
hence, on
^ 1,
"
(2n
1)
(zcos 6) sin^'^ed0
cos
If
^^^
I"cos(^
T^rrvwr.
cos
["cos
(z
0) sin"+ OdO
cos
0.
(n
z(j)
1)
(n 4 1)
(n)+ Z(f)
2n(f"
the
J^ (z)satisfy
that (f)
(n) and
6) sin ^fZ^
cos
c^{n),
that
shews
so
.2n
write
we
now
[CHAP. II
FUNCTIONS
BESSEL
OF
THEORY
26
formula.
recurrence
same
0,
it is evident that
But, by usingBessel's integral,
(f"{0) Jo(z),
=
^ (1)
and
when
11
{z
cos
from
0, 1, 2, 3,
the
f^
7^
"
.)
^^
1^^"
"
^H
^^^ ^^^^
have
formula, we
recurrence
c*^^
J^ {z),
J^ {")
..
investigation
of Poissons
Jacohis
232.
6) sin 6d0
cos
cos
6) cos Odd
(^^
sin
induction
by
so,
rTT
integral.
into
problemof the direct transformation of Poisson's integral
necessitates
attacked by Jacobi*; this method
was
successfully
integral
The
of Jacobi's transformation
where
cos
fjb
=
"
6. We
the
use
formula
sin"i ^
c?'"i
"
Bessel's
"
shall
1.3.
..(2/11)
^
^
5.
=()"i
this formula
assume
"
smnd,
and, since
been previously
to have
we
simpledirect proof of it seems
published,
2'323.
givean account of various proofsin ""2'321
no
shall
"
If
observe
we
z'^
COS
/i
B) sin2" ddd
{zcos
1 derivates
1, it is evident
that,by
2"
cos
of
n
(r
cos
Journal
also Jomnal
fiirMath.
de Math.
{Zi, Invr)
(1836),pp. 12"13.
196.
(1836),pp. 195
xv.
1.
"
_^
we
integrations,
partial
{zyC)(1
^
with respect to
(1 "/a)'*"*,
[Ges. Math.
have
yu,)'**
fZ/x
^\^^^dfx.
Werke,
vi.
(1891),pp. 101"102.]
See
28
2*322.
The
Liouville's
Let y
Difi'erentiate this
times
equation n
follows
then
nAD"^7/
f^,
that
A and
where
determine
To
B
A
ascendingpowers
so
compare
of 6.
that
and
since
"4
thence
we
have
the
()"^i
1.3.
Lagrange'sexpansion,which
A
ce
Now
the usual
conditions
take
of
/(2)=
of z qaa
singularities
of J{\
z^)in powers
"
fJn
/x +
to
sin 6 when
v^(lm^),i.e. to
of h
at A
are
convergent
(1
^/(1
\)ti
it follows
that
\ /
e^'^; and
both
when
h
,2
in powers
z) {czjOjj.)
.
so, when
\and
 \are
z
6 is
cZ"~^ sin
"^""^
of h.
But
it is evident
in the last
coefficient of A""
in the
ex
that
e^"^e"'^
^
"
Analysis," 732.
"_,
'
expressionestablishes
Jacobi's formula.
Cf. Modern
unity.
o?/i""i
pansion
ex
^
is the
cz _{\he''){\he'\' 1.3.5...(2".1)
I
/""
^^'3m
2.4.6...(2?t}
consideration
real,the
less than
"
A?
"
A^0.
2^/i+ k^)]ih^
"
2"~i.(?il)
pansion of J{1
then
A/'(s),
"
^^^'^
^^(12^/^+/.^)'
^"
and
that, if s
of h is
3
^"""^
is
function
Now
Hence
n6.
convergence*.
sui
SchUiJii's
proofof Jacobi's transformation.
firstrecall
subjectto
(_)""!
..(2"l)
^
^
1.3.5.
,
We
..(2/11),
5.
result,namely
c?"isin2"i(9
2 "323.
^cos??^,
constants
are
0.
/1 sinw^
Z""~iy
Hence
it
as
d/dii;then obviously
for
and
is
a'^^)^^M^="^^X^S+'''^^="^
but
so
transformation.
proof of JacohVs
proofgiven by
[CHAP. II
FUNCTIONS
BESSEL
OF
THEORY
the truth
of
2'322233]
nxdx
/ (coscc)cos
}0
S
m
(" )"*a.w/"^'+'"'
(cosx) dx,
0
"=
in asexpansionof Jn{t)/Jo(t)
cending
of t, has been studied by Jacobi*.
To establish it,integrate
powers
the left n times by parts ; it transforms ("2'32)into
on
expression
in which
the
29
expansion
formal
The
COEFFICIENTS
of Jacobi's transformation.
application
An
2'33.
BESSEL
THE
is the
a,"
1
"
1.3.
sin"^ is replaced
by
and, when
f""
I /"^'
(cosx) sin^xdx,
rx
j^
5. ,..(2?il)Jo
..(2/11)
series of cosines of
ofx, this
multiples
becomes
2/1
2n(n\)
2.4.(/...(2.)/o"'^^^^""
(?ifl)(w 2)
.
r
COS
ZX
^rr.
n^\
We
COS
dx.
\X
cos
4a;,
integrate
/""(cosa?)COS 2.r,/'"'(cosa.')
by parts, and by
a
rrive
this
of
at
a formal
repetitions
evidently
expansion
process, we
is
in
of the type stated. When
the
a
cos
polynomial
/(cos a;)
a?,
process
valid.
obviouslyterminates and the transformation is certainly
now
...
continual
determine
To
If
(cos x) cos
nxdx
expansion
()'"am/"'"^'""
(cosx) dx
/(cos x)
accordingas
is
even
or
odd, and
Jn {t)
that am
SO
It has
in
to
been
stated
cos
be
an
providedthat
that
no
*
.
it can,
lim
Jilr Math.
expansionis
a/j6" jis
Nach.
xv.
.5
less than
of
cos
x,
when
say
6"co.s"a;
the smallest
[Ges. Math.
(1836),pp. 25"26
94
col.
[Ges. Math.
(1849),
xxviii.
/(cos x) is a polynomial
is
stricted
merely re/(cosx)
valid when
however, be established
function
integral
0; the
Journal
()'"a,,^"+^'"
{(r /o (t)],
the
of
investigation
practical
importance.
=
from
J^ (0
deduce
we
be
root
positive
given since
Werke,
vi.
Werke,
vii.
of the
it
seems
equation
to
be of
(1891),pp. 117"118].
(1891),p. 174].
See
30
THEORY
Bessel
formulafor the
24.
The addition
The
coefficients possess an
expressedin terms of Bessel
be
may
which was
in
simplestway
of
provingthis
which
z.
Jn {y + z)
This formula,
J",(y)Jn,n{z).
J,,{y+ z)=
The
formula by
coefficients of y and
is
and Lommelf,
(1)
coefficients.
addition
Bessel
[CHAP. II
FUNCTIONS
BESSEL
OF
CO
gives
/" {y + z)=
e^'2'+^'"""'"'dt
"1
^~.
rto+)
1
1
CO
V^'''J,n{y)e^'^^'!*^dt
'
V.Trl
'Ztti
...
00
/"(0+)
oo
27n
m=
00
00
J, (y)Jnm (z),
ao
1)1=
Hansen's
series
of squares
and
the producton
By expressing
j I )?(
00
the
be
addition formula
Specialcases of Neumann's
earlyas 1843. The first system of formulae is
fundamental
expansion" 2'1 (1),so that
(,r
established.
of this expansionwill
generalisations
Numerous
2'5.
in
integration
and
on
rightas
givenby Hansen J as
obtainable
by squaringthe
were
Laurent
series in t,and
the left,
we
on
expression
equating
in the Laurent
pansion
ex
find that
00
Jn{2z)=
In
particular,
takingn
(1)
J, (2^)
Theorie
der BesseVschen
t Stiidien Uber
Ann.
+
and
in.
Jo^(^)+
Functionen
die BesseVschen
(1871),pp.
Jr{z)Jnr{z).
have"
0, we
J;^(z)
()'"
=
()'"
e, J,'(2).
(Leipzig,1867),p. 40.
(Leipzig,
1868),pp. 26"27
Functionen
gave
see
also
Math.
Schlafli,
der absoluten
Storungen (Gotha,1843),p. 107 et seq. Hansen
did
of (2)in which n
only the specialcase
\. The more
general formulae
Ermittelung
he
135"137.
Functionen
(Leipzig,1868),p.
(z)}.
{J^^
33.
not
are
give (4),
due
to
2426]
generalformula
the
From
Jni^z) =1
(2)
find that
we
J'
coefficients of
the Bessel
Jr {Z)Jnr (^)+
)"=()
when
31
COEFFICIENTS
BESSEL
THE
./,(z)J,^, (z),
()'"
l
negativeorder
are
removed
by using" 21 (2).
since
Similarly,
exp
1,
{^z (t
t +
1/01
it follows that
2 2
J,H^) +
(3)
/.n^)
in
l.
cc
+ 2 2 J, (^)/,"+,.
(^)
()'j:,(^)J,"_,.(^)
(4)
!"
0.
very
?"
2'6.
1, 2, 3,
was
by
from
Hansen.
J r
e^inezsm9"^0^
so
To
reduce
by
the
this double
integralto
singleintegraltake
new
variables defined
equations
6cf"
so
is real,
"22(5) that
J,,(2)
and
for Jn"(z).
integral
Neumanns
It is evident
noticed
...,
\Jr{x)\^lls/%
Jo(^)kl,
(5)
where
of
importantconsequence
2x, e
"t" 2f,
=
that
It follows that
f,2usin^cosx(^;^c?x/r,
e'"'^
=^^,ii
J,;;
(2)
where
the field of
is
integration
the square
for which
the
if x
gration
inte
BESSEL
FUNCTIONS
C^X.
;j;)
;^ is acute
32
THEORY
OF
[CHAP.
II
Hence
1
.'0
"n"
If
we
obtain the
obtuse,we
or
result
"in
J,^{z)
(1)
I'"
J,n{2z sine)dO.
IT
'his formula
may
is the result
I fi
written
obviouslybe
actually
given by
3laborate transformations
Neumann*.
It
derived
was
the additiontheorem
from
which
by
him
by
given
proof of
will be
2.
proofwhich
in the form
has
"
Jn' (^)
^ f
Jn (^)
TT
1
=
f"
2n\lr
dyfr
1
=
"^
"
f"
"
result which
attributed
Schlafli;:
2"61. Neumanns
By taking the
rightin powers of
and
dylr,
2)i\lr
to
Neumann.
for J^ (2).
series
formula
Jo {'22sin ylr)COS
Jo
that
1
Ttt
S
Jn'(z)=\
Jo
TT
\)n "2H+2)n
;"=o
^ (Y{2n
\,^
m\{2n
ciri
''"
2n+2*;i
"
dd
f
"
m).
2my.{^2Y"+'^
'
m=o
'
der
Theorie
Einleitung
J The
" 2Iath.
formula
Ann.
in the
BesseVsehen
in die Theorie
is
iir.
an
Fiaictionen
1867), p.
(Leipzijj,
der BesseVsehen
immediate
(1871),p. 603.
m\{tn+
consequence
The
70.
memoir,
of
equation 16
in which
(1869),pp. 221"256.
on
"
p. 69 of Neumann's
this result
vvas
given,was
85.
treatise.
first
lished
pub
261, 27]
BESSEL
THE
This result
written
was
COEFFICIENTS
Neumann
by
33
in the form
Toz^
(1) Jn'i^)
T,^
+
{2n
1)
(2w + 1)(2/1+ 2)
1.2.
where
2/1 +
2/rr2'
(2/1+1) (2/1+ 3)
4)'
(271+ 2) (2/1+
(2)
This
generalexpansion(due to
expansionis a specialcase of a more
functions
Bessel
as a series of powers
with
productof any two
coefficients
comparatively
simple
("5"41).
for the
Schlafli)
2'7. ScJddinilch's
We
shall
obtain
now
series
0 has
of sin 6.
in
cerning
"2*22con
These
is any
cos
2//^ and
sin
(2/i+ 1)^
expansionsare*
(2 ,,",).
i^(_).M^+;^f
2".=
cos
foreshadowed
was
expansionsin powers
of Bessel coefficients.
of z"^ in a
expansibility
positive
integer.The result for m=
their
result which
the
the
In the results
in
expansionof z^
('2??+
"
(n
1)
sV
Sin
The
results of substitution
(zsin 6)
cos
J, (z)+
=.
are
J," (z)
\I
(f
y*/"
t^^'(2 ^)4
sin
1
If
we
that it is
'
the series
rearrange
to
permissible
the
on
power
series in sin 0
(assuming
have
do so),we
S
rightas
x)
+ .9l)!
()H2sin^y^^i^ 2//..(/i
2JJ..(.)jJ^^^A^^i"^^^_^^, ^J.M\,
cos(.sm^)^/.(.)
"
.X
^ (y(2sindr+'
S ^
sin(2'sni6')=
rvi
^
^
+ 1)!
(2.5
,=0
"
"
ns
"
Cf.
W.
B.
F.
Hobson,
Plane
"
If
expand the
we
[CHAP. II
FUNCTIONS
BESSEL
OF
THEORY
34
find that
we
n=l
(^
(i^""=i'^4S^^'""^)'
12.3.)
(,,)."
itn+l).(n
The
into the
The
He
how
can
make'use
we
by
Neumann
of the
of the
double
series
of the double
convergence
^2nJrl)\
^^'^
The
be
bined
com
is
series.
6) we
that
see
similar
may
the rearrangement
justification;
needs
now
I2 sin
6
"'"
"^ 2"+i
I
I
"i
.)
givenby Schlomilch*.
which was
givenexplicitly
generalformula
f and Lommel::.
""
so
1, 2,3, were
"
and
inequalities
with
the
I'^2,,
!"
1 {z)
in connexion
; the others
alreadyobtained
(1)for which
to obtain
rearrangemeut
permissibleif we
If
of
cases
particular
years later
The
0, 1, 2,
(.
singleformula
also shewed
some
j^^^^^^^^
^7
v''
n=s
sy.
is convergent.
The
(2.+ 1)!
sinh
(Iz
sin 6
series for
cos
I, 128 +
I
I^'l
('A I 2 2'l
exp(^2)
pxn
1z 2),
\)exp ((2sin 6) may
be treated
in
manner.
somewhat
elaborate
az\m
Zeitschrift
filrMath,
Theorie
"j
X
IS
Studien
der
und
BesseV schen
nl)l
140"141.
Functionen
(m+2n).(m
(Leipzig,1867),p. 38.
Functionen
(Leipzig,1868),pp.
35"36.
Lommel's
investigation
36
were
obtained
gave,
as
where
of
or
2p times
with
The
he
of the
in $^, and
term
so
since terms
equidistantfrom
The
equal
truth
from
manner
reader
Schlomilch
"
^1^ !
^2
will
expanded
2(V'
"'
(2m;
in
ascendingpowers
of 0,
Ci'2//i2X)^
t=,"
z^I^S!,
of
222
when
jn"p,
The
of the summation
1). To prove the first formula, take the equation " 222 (1),differentiate
It is thus found that
respect to 6, and then make 6 equal to zero.
terms
no
coefficient and
binomial
Di=o
similar
n.
i*^
are
Phyi.
i^(m"
is ^rfi 1
und
^C'tis
contain
the value
[CHAP. U
FU^'CTIOXS
BESSEL
OF
THEORY
the end
of the summation
e"dent,
and
equation
with
,2} is
to
respect
proved
in
(2).
easilyestablish
the
following specialcases,
which
were
stated
by
,
bKJ.,(.)+
...=!(5+^3)^
=
.
l^,
l2.3.4J3(2;^4.5.6J5(2:i6.7.8^(2)
+ ...=M
of
272.
Xeumanns
From
Schlomilch's
even
Bessel
"
take
the
Q\'^
integratewith respect
that
(1)
series of squares
of Bessel coejjicierits.
expansion
(2m +2n).(27n
(when
rn
"
+/(!):
..
.^
to
find that
6, we
^
so
as
Thus, if we
and
expansionof z^
(2m2n).{2m\nl^
0)
(i^)=i^
("2m
V
9n).(2rn^nl):
"272]
result
This
and
BESSEL
THE
this
was
is
true
special
As
cases,
given
by
when
Neumann*.
An
it
for
0,
37
COEFFICIENTS
then
alternative
reduces
to
form
is
Hansen's
formula
of
have
we
2=
^nJ^'Z),
f".
(3)
o
.
If
we
differentiate
(1),
use
it=3
"
212
m\{rfLV)\
,
"
an
'
(2"i
and
then
it
rearrange,
Leipziger
is
existence
Berichte,
was
xxi.
indicated
(1869;,
by
p.
readily
found
that
(2rft+"2)!
2nl).
whose
expansion
"
(2;
226.
,.
,,
Neumann.
[Math.
Ann.
iii.
(1871),
p.
585.]
"
2"5.
CHAPTER
FUNCTIONS
BESSEL
3'1.
TJie
The
Bessel
of two
which
coefficients,
be
required to
have
functions
This
effected
analysishe
linear differential
definition
by
shall
equation which
of the
Bessel
function
r(^
the
for
which
values
functions
the
v,
The
had
shall
Bessel
finction of order
course
desirable
to
integralvalue
We
d' Analyse,
n,
not
called
iiher die
ii.
i^
Math.
Following Lommel,
being
glance
reserved
come
whether
this
(Paris,1840),
i.
into
a
(1869),
for
to
as
Bessel
course
of the
Lommel's
wasf
''''"' ^'^^'
by
effected
Lommel
by
of
real
by HankeliJ:
;
of
means
an
tension
ex
2 "12.
with
order
whose
"
solution
solution
to
odd
an
Bessel's
v,
of this
reduces
as
of
Plana
and
integer
treatise.
in
occurs
that
1'6
is half
Lommel's
which
certain
solutions
and
differential
then
define
equation ; it is of
Jn (z) when
p.
assumes
not
0,
necessarily
an
v.
p. 1.
integer) were
studied
byDuhamel,
Coum
469.
the
symbols
integers.
This
in
this
is true
(.^.^)y
equation
118"121.
use
use
differential
of the
(Leipzig, 1868),
Functionen
(with v
pp.
we
general
result
of
solution
order
Bessel's
BesseVschen
"
yet
be
to
discuss
resembling
Ann.
and
Studien
so
in the
integral;
being
publicationof
.^g ^g
will be
been
n.
shall therefore
t Integrals
"
of
functions
select such
(1)
which
definition
in this section.
the
before
values
defined
were
on
unrestricted
an
argument
now
equation by
the
"
observe,
century
of
complex
investigatedBessel
nearly half
so
discussed
formulae
will
functions
defined, is
is to be
Jv{z)
to
less than
recurrence
reader
We
extension
of order
of the
Poisson
exceeds
R{v)
of
hitherto
the
integralon
function,
''''"
and
Poisson's
^^
^'
C'^''"
1)^(1)
J. {z)
functions
ii, are
has
whose
by Lommel*,
the
that
but
generalisethese
now
of
generalisation
shewed
Chapter
(complex) variables.
effected
a
in
is unrestricted
unrestricted
of two
was
generalisation
function was
of his
integer. We
an
discussed
were
of which
n,
differential
equation.
BesseVs
generalisation
of
variables, z and
III
v,
distinction
country.
for unrestricted
denote
fj. to
is
unrestricted
customary
It lias
functions
the
or
on
obvious
the
numbers,
Continent,
advantage
for functions
of
the
symbols
it has
though
of
shewing
integral order
at
only.
31]
BESSEL
Let
us
construct
now
assumed
form
for such
solution of
solution is
39
FUNCTIONS
(1) which
series of
is valid
the
near
ascendingpowers
origin;the
of z, say
00
where
the index
that Co is not
For
so
and
"
^111 ^
"
"
to
are
zero.
brevitythe
(1) will
be called V^,
*^,^^U,=
^.,,=
(2)
It is easy to
The
111
the
expressionon
"
if
111=0
rightreduces
of
in the two
of
series
{{a+ ly V]
+ 2)v~\+Co
c,\{a
c,n
(4)
values of
Now
i^; for Cq
=0
C,n_"=
have
CmZ''+"'=Co{orv')z'^.
series can be a solution
postulated
and ^" vanishes onlyfor exceptional
that the
is not
zero,
z.
written
v"}+
satisfied,
we
"'l)
only if a
equationin
the system
(3) when
It
1.
ui"
be
can
in the form
c,a (a"v
it determines
so
"
?/
or
integer(when
We
aY
a=
When
then
the
is
by
c"i_o
0,
2v is
v) or unless
{a + mf
constants
formal
+
III)
c,",in terms
v
"
III)
(a +
v
"
and
processes
is
does
c,,^have
easily
solution
seen
not
been
to be
greater than
m
"
2v
negativeinteger(when
values
disregardthese exceptional
35),and
*
[(a+ mf
V,
From
obtained
=0
(3)
unless
rightcancel.
the
on
so
equations
c,
and
to
the coefficients Cm
choose
we
givesthe system
This choice
_,,
that
see
2",
namely Co (a i/)
corresponding
powers
of
in
occurs
that
of
determined
convergent
of the differential
when
vanish
is
??i
l, 2, 3,
negative
i").
(see ""8'11,
It
....
now
equation.
equations(3) that 01
of Co by the equation
the
follows from
0365=
in terms
[CHAP. Ill
FUNCTIONS
BESSEL
OF
THEORY
40
=0, and
...
(rco
that
c^m
is
pressible
ex
(5)
a
"^
Co2
formal
see
v, we
solution
",r1 ml{v
l){v + 2)...{v+ m)
equation(1). If
of
take
we
obtain
we
~v,
second
solution
formal
Co'2 1+
(6)
'
,riml{v
Cq and
constants
in
Cq
m)_
Cq, because
the
2)...{v
placeof
without
carried out
be
evidently
obtaining(6) can
l){v
written
of
(4) that
from
is
take
satisfied ; and, if we
The
to the existence
reference
independent.
are
procedureof
Cq and
the constants
values
reducible
to
Cq';
Jn{z) w^hen
^
series
The
be written
now
()'"(i^)""^'"'
,"romir{v + m + l)'
(y'^(l^)''+2m
,"tom ir{v + m + l)'
"
In the circumstances
of powers converge
differentiations are
which
two
solutions of
the
{z
these series
integer,
so
termbyterm
in the analysis
f by
an
0 excepted)and
operationsinvolved
and
legitimate,
consequently
are
so
we
have obtained
equation(1).
series defines
two
and
z, of the
argument
/^
{z). Since
symbol
v
of z,
2v is not
The
permissible.
first of the
The
order
considered,namely when
for all values
obtained
theywere
an
function
kindX;
first
is unrestricted
the
integer),
and
called
the
Bessel
function
functionof
by
is denoted
second
series is
that,for
evidentlyJL.^{z).
is defined
the functionJt.{z)
Accordingly,
hy the equation
It is evident
from
" 211
integer(zero included),
positive
a
identical with
*
For
X Functions
up
function
of
to hold
when
integralorder
Bessel coefficient.
propertiesof
+ Which,
Bessel
to the
the
Gammafunction,
of the second
and
see
Modern
Analysis, ch.
xii.
purely formah
third kinds
are
defined
in ""
i^
is
being
311]
BESSEL
symbolic solution
interesting
An
FUNCTIONS
of Bessel's
41
equationhas
been
givenby
Cotter*
in the
form
djdz while
and
This
constants.
are
be derived
may
by writingsuccessively
[D{zB2v)+z]z''^ 0,
=
L"^z]z''i/=2vB,
+ z''Dh''^\j=
2vBz~\
zD{z''y)
[zD2v
result.
givesCotter's
which
" o\,
two
order is
whose
3'11. Functions
In
of Bessel's
cases
It will
now
is half of
that
is half of
values of
odd
an
If
is
we
take
general
zero.
find that
=0,
1
ni
and
in the
(r + i)^
+ 2)
[Cx.l(2r
+ 2r
\c,n.('"n
'
be included
of " 3'1, we
^in the analysis
,,.
an
let
integer,
positive
integeror
omitted
temporarily
is
(ii)when
integer,
odd
v.
ir
where
integer.
(i)may
case
When
odd
generalised
equationwere
be shewn
integerf
theoryfor unrestricted
an
halfof an
(i)when
consideration,namely
from
)+
c",_,
{m"i)
0,
so
"*""""
(2)
which
If
c,..
is the
2.4...
value
(2m)
+ 5)
(2r + 3)(2?
2ni +
(2r +
and
'
replacedby
are
1)
^,
take
we
"
obtain
we
when
of Com
2''+*r(r+ )'
the solution
,,Zomir (r
which
is
denoted
naturally
the
by
^)'
so
symbol Jr+ki^),
take
we
"
(o..l(2;)
[Cm
As
before,Ci,
(m
m
"
c^,...,c.2,_i
become
=0.
"
2r)+
"
c,"_2
are
0
.
"",.+!+ Cori
0.
equationto
when
c.i,+i',
this
f
'"+'
\in"r
"
Froc.
t The
f^
(2r + 3) (2?+ 5)
E. Irish. Acad.
cases
combine
xxvn.
to form
+
(27/i
) 2
.
(A),(1909),pp.
the
case
c.",~iis
determine
0,
value of
equationis satisfied
by an arbitrary
is defined by the equation
and
Cm
(",^j^
(3)
/
determine
,the equationswhich
"
in which
(2m
4
.
2/)
157"161.
'2v is
au
integer.
"
r, c.."n+i
42
the
v=rl,
If
[CHAP. Ill
FUNCTIONS
BESSEL
OF
THEORY
solution
now
structed
con
is*
Co
2'^r
It follows that
(1
r) J_ri{z)+
2'+^r (r +
)/,+"(^).
in the definition of J^
modification
no
C2.+1
when
{z)is necessary
is that the
of the solution in this case
peculiarity
negativeroot of the indicial equationgivesrise to a series containingtwo
constants, Cq and Car+i, i.e.to the generalsolution of the differential
arbitrary
equation,
"{r
v=
\);
the
real
3"12. A
It is well known
equationof the
respect
to
the
if the
does
vanish
not
then, either
the two
one
second
the
independentvariable,then
Wronskian
if the
Wronskian
solutions vanishes
of the two
a
independent
linearly
are
determinant^
and
identically;
solutions is
solutions
does
vanish
else
or
identically,
identically,
the ratio of
constant.
If the Wronskian
does
vanish
not
then
identically,
any
solution
of the
differential equationis
Cg
constants
; the
solutions 2/1and
For
3/2are
brevitythe
then
said to form
of t/i and
Wronskian
We
now
being used
proceedto
Myi,i/.},
it is necessary to
when
system.
m^z[y"yo],
the former
fundamental
are
the independentvariable.
specify
evaluate
im[j.{z),j_.(^)}.
If
we
multiplythe equations
V, /__,{z)
and
by J^ (z),J"_^(z)respectively
which
may
be written
0,
subtract
V, J, {z)
the results,we
obtain
an
equation
in the form
o,
j^[zm{JAz),JA^)]]
=
lu connexion
Sci. di
Torino, xxvi.
with
series
(1821),pp.
Plana, 2Iem.
della E. Accad.
delle
519"538.
are
16
on
44
concerning Bessel
but
the
discussion
are
65"72
; XXII.
(1904),pp.
Trans.
Royal
Soc.
Math.
Soc.
The
be
of these
results
to
found
in
analogues is
of
80"85
of this work.
105"118,
of
generalisation
399408;
Proc.
main
London
function, obtained
Bessel
the
functions,
Jackson's
Proc.
1"23.
by increasingthe
of the terms
basic Bessel
theory of
the scope
Royal Soc.
Proc.
Edinhurgh, xli.
obvious
sets
outside
series of papers,
the
analogues in
their
more
number
have
functions
[CHAP.Ill
FUNCTIONS
BESSEL
OF
THEORY
see
Cailler,Mem. de la Soc. de Phys. de
generalisation
in the shape of Bessel functions of two
Oeneve, xxxiv,
(1905),p. 354; another generalisation,
variables,has been dealt with by Whittaker, Math. Ann. LVii. (1903),p. 351, and Perfes,
170.
ComptesRendus, CLXi. (1915),pp. 168
in
"
In connexion
4"4.
with
this
"
General
3'13.
The
series which
closed domain
R
of J^,{z).
properties
defines
of values of
(v)" 0],and
\v\^
[theoriginnot
domain
bounded
in any
For, when
Jy{z)converges
of values of
v.
and
4Z
m{v
whenever
is taken
to be
m)
{m
in
mmNl^'
This choice of
N)
"
beingindependentof
Q.
and
z, the
An
is that termbytermdifferentiations
of this theorem
importantconsequence
and integrations
(with respect to z or v) of the series for J^ {z)are
permissible.
An
due
inequality
to Nielsen
where
and
I^ i"
11/0+
This
1is the
result may
with
the
Bromwich,
t Modern
1 1,
"l,^'^!,

Iko
of the numbers
+ l \}
+ 2,i/
+ 3j,
i/
+ l,i'
be
function
z", which
is
as
factor of J^
"
2*11
"
(5);
it should
be
pared
com
specifica{z),needs precise
Theory of InfiniteSeries,"82.
Analysis, "5"3.
3Iath. Ann.
(1902),p.
exp
here,namely
the
Finally,
*
smallest
be noticed
% should
494.
Lii.
is.
(1899), p. 230; Nyt Tidsskrift,
(1898),p. 73;
see
also Math.
Ann.
lv.
313,32]
tion. We
BESSEL
define
it to be
TT
"
it is necessary
values of arg z,
3'2. Tlie
"
is
this range of
of the process to be carried out.
the function
will be made
J^{z)outside
of the
generalisations*
("2'12)are
as
formulae
recurrence
efficients
co
follows:
(1)
J.^,{z)vJ.^Az)
(2)
J".:{z)
^JAz)
2J; (z),
J.+,{z)
(3)
(4)
zJJ (z)
These
of
^w.
arg
to "continue"
mention
explicit
recurrence
Lommel's
the
value
givenits principal
When
45
FUNCTIONS
vJ, {z)
of
are
the
precisely
being the
substitution
To
them,
prove
we
dz'
form
same
as
the results of
number
of the unrestricted
for the
integern.
first that
observe
"
zJ,.+,(z).
^^'
dz
,Zo ^"^"^
/
00
\V{v+nirl)
"
\iti
^iv"l\2m
,"=o
When
we
the
differentiate out
2^+^'".m!r(i.+ m)
the left,
we
producton
at
once
obtain
(3).
In like manner,
J
dz^
"^^^
CO
"
Vn
,2W
dz,r=o^^^'"'.m\V{v^m
l)
C_yft^2
V
111
1)
00
C_y"+i 2''"+i
r
"r=^2''+'^'"+im!
.
whence
when
p. 533.
is half of
an
odd
2)
z^J,^,{z),
Studien
(z/+
Functionen
be
obtained
by adding and
(Leipzig,1868),pp. 2, 6, 7.
della
R. Accad.
ddle
Sci.
Formula
di
Torino,
(3)was
xxvi.
tracting
sub
given
(1821),
46
THEORY
We
obtain
now
can
the
[CHAP. Ill
FUNCTIONS
BESSEL
OF
formulae
generalised
[Z^J.{Z)\ Z^^J.m(Z),
(^)"
[z^J.(z)] () ^'/.+".(^)
(^)"
(5)
(6)
when
by repeateddifferentiations,
obtained
Lommel
described
formula
The
his
results from
all these
has been
which
integral
positive
integer.
is any
in
of
generalisation
Poisson's
" 3'1.
in the construction
used*
extensively
of Tables
of Bessel functions.
(4),we
formula
of
this formula
was
discovered
3'21. Bessel
imaginaryparts
extended
subsequently
See
seq.
also
it,Studien
Math.
Neumann,
obtained
detail
where
J"^ifj,(x),
by Lommel J,and his
v, fx
and
results
were
by B6cher".
the
after defining
particular,
equation
11
real functions
by
K^^^{x)and Si,^^(x)
the
the results
(1)
2(v"ifi) +
X
d
,j.
A",+i,^
(x)
(3)
'S^^+i,K
(^) 'S^..M
(^)+ S^'Vm
(^)'
o
dx
(2)
K,^^(x)+ K'\^^{x),
See,
Math.
Ann.
iv.
Math.
Ann.
ra.
"
Annals
IIThe
of
consequences
of the function
some
In
Lommel
et
functionsof complexorder.
real and
The
various
48
600.
(1871),p.
III.
Functionen
are
^^.i(^)"?.+i(2)
y";(^);
(8)
Ann.
^~^^f^
(2) of "312.
interesting
consequence
Au
(z)
/, (z)/i_, iz)+ /_, (z)./,_,
(7)
from
formula
derive Lommel's
can
of J""
terms
e.g.
Lommel,
of Math.
for
reason
established
in
"
3'3.
Ahh.
Milnchener
xv.
(1884"1886), pp. 644"647.
(1871),p. 105. Some associated formulae are given
(1871),pp. 481"486.
vi.
(1892),pp. 137"160.
insertingthe factor on the right is apparent from
in " 3'G3.
formulae
which
will be
321, 33]
with
no
BESSEL
other formulae
numerous
great importance,and
in which
memoirs
In the
of this
solutions
in which
equationin
47
of like character.
consequentlywe
published.
they were
case
special
FUNCTIONS
the
results
merely refer
0, Bessel's
form
These
the
be of
to
seem
I'eader to
the
equationbecomes
of series
Boole*
given by
were
many
years ago,
3'3. Lormnel's
shall
We
shew
now
that, when
R{v)"
integral
of Poissons

cos
type.
^, then
(^
6)
f"TmvT)//os
J. {z)
(1)
sin'^'
6 dO.
cluded),
proved by Poissonf that, when 2v is a positiveinteger(zerointhe expression
the rightis a solution of Bessel's equation
on
; and
the delinition of J^(2)for positive
was
as
expression
adoptedby Lommel;]:
It
this
expression
of J^{z) hy an
was
values of
^.
Lommel
subsequentlyproved that the function, so defined,is a solution of Bessel's
formulae
of 5^3"2 ; and he then
generalisedequation and that it satisfies the recurrence
defined /" (i)for values of
in the intervals { h, f), (" f,
#),(#, f),
cessive
hy sucof " 3'2 (1).
applications
v
"
"
...
deduce
To
the
the definition of
(1) from
generalterm
Jt,{z)
adoptedin this work,
manner:
Jyiz) in the following
(yjhzy
(y^(^zy+'"'
r(i;+ )r(m
f^
we
form
trans
^)
m\V{v
providedthat R(v)"
Now
when
\)
V{v+h)V{hy{'2.my:
R(v)^^,
\)
l^p'Hityi
(2r/i)!
^eoiiverges
uniformlywith respect to
be integrated
termbyterm; on
may
Tripos,
the series
Pliil. Trans,
"^.
n"=\
T{v
See
also
question set
in the
Mathematical
1894.
f Journal de VEcole B. Pohjtechnique,xii. (cahier 19), (1823),pp. 300 et seq., 340 ct seq.
the right
21/ is an
odd integer,the expressionon
Strictlyspeaking, Poisson shewed that, when
the
Bessel's
is
solution
derived
of
the
from
appropriate
equationby
multipliedby ijz a
equation
change of dependent variable.
J Studien
Fuiictioneii
(Leipzig,18G8), jip. 1
et seq.
48
0,
namely
f^il
ty^dt, which
"
is convergent,
the
usingthe
more
terms
result stated
(2m)!
the
unaffected
the
analysisnecessary
elaborate.
The
simplestprocedure seems
omitted and integrate by parts,thus
m=2
jo
to
be to take
m=2v
establish
to
(2m)!
Vi^dt
by parts a
integrating
in
integration the second
on
of the
(which are
second
time.
line of
analysisis
On
series.
It follows that,when
^^^'^
Obvious
adding
obtain
convergent),we
(2)
J, (z)
^^^
'^^^^^
equation is
0.
little
J^
^
2
/^ ;, {ity"Kdt
j
i,"=2 (2m)!
result.
^, then
^^
C^"'*
r(z.l'i)r()
~
transformations
last
placeof
and
interchangeof the order of summation
of the uniformityof
permissibleon account
\
integrals
correspondingto the terms m
0, m
the
"
the
^ in
"
and
The
the desired
R{i")"
f=sin^
substitution
by writingtt
ov^^
convergence
that, when
r^'
(2m)!
by making
follows
integrandis
"^"R(v)"h,
When
find
Ave
Jo
'^(""r(.
i"^o
+ i)r(i)Jo'
whence
[CHAP. Ill
FUNCTIONS
BESSEL
OF
THEORY
of this
^'
''''
'' ^^
result,in addition
to
"^^^
^^'^
(1),are
the
following:
r( n^
p.,^^.^!fpp.(zt)dt,
1
cos
^*'
^'^""^ ^'^^
Wi:'^
Ijr(i)
"
r(.
^"^^
(5)
IJ''cos(^cos^)sin^d^
"^(^)=rA^t)r(i)
(6)
J.(^)
The
formula
(7)
^*^^''
=
r(/^+i)r(^)
obtained
J, (2)
=
by
of (5),namely
partial
integration
^:;^^;;^YT I sin(2cos(9)sin^''^5'cos^rf^,
1
1
(i;+ ^)
is sometimes
g,"cosegin2''^(;?6'.
useful ; it is valid
(^)
only when
R(v)" ^.
331]
An
with
BESSEL
FUNCTIONS
expansioninvolvingBernouUian
help of the expansion
49
has
polyn(juiials
been
the
in which
(^"(^)denotes
of
[Note. Integrals
polynomialand
izt.
the
"
and
363"371;
Duhamel,
Cours
d' Analyse,li.
(Paris,1840),pp.
substantially
equivalentto J^,(z),defined by
function,
x) =1
(jx,
(1
cos
v^)'*
V.V
118
the
"
121.
equation
do,
investigated
by Lommel, Archiv der Math, imd Phys. xxxvii.
(1861),pp.
problem of obtainingthe differential equation satisfied by
WAS
The
349
"
3G0.
convei'se
z^
[^"f''i,vaf^
iv^J^ dv
126.
In
by Lommel, Archiv der Math, und Phys.xl. (1863),pp. 101
Inst.
also
Calc.
Int.
li. (Petersburg,
Euler,
integralsee
1769), " 1036,
der linearen Dijferentialgleichungen
Petzval,Integration
(Vienna,1851),p. 48.]
also discussed
was
connexion
and
with
"
this
3'31.
derived from
Inequalities
Poisson's
From
be real and
greater than
i, then
"
\I(z)\
^pj!ffp(X)j^^exp
sin^^edd
I/. (2)I
(1)
By usingthe
formulae
recurrence
deduce
in
similar
that
manner
lA'(^)K^l
^i)}expr/Wl(."i).
(3)
"
^
cos
By using the expressionf{2/(7r^)}2
"
character
Math.
can
Ann.
Analysis," 7'2;
t The
reader
general theorem
w.
B. F.
be obtained
lix.
in
(1904),p.
Nielseia
should
will be
uses
have
for
(z)it may
./_j
be shewn
that
^.
^hese inequalities
should
obtained in "313. When
v
integral.
inequalities
compared with the less stringent
of a more
is complex,inequalities
complicated
of
portance
but they are
no
the same
great immanner,
be
108.
The
notation
used
iu
the
text
is that
yiven iu
formal
proof of
Modern
different notation.
no
in verifying this
difficulty
result.
more
[CHAP. Ill
FUNCTIONS
BESSEL
OF
THEORY
50
of Poisson's integral.
Gegenhauersgeneralisation
332.
formula
integral
The
in which
ascendingpowers
R(v)"^ and n
reduces
to
In the
of
is due
a,
0, 1,2,
integers
When
...
2at +
a^)"in
is valid when
formula
the
Gegenbauer*;
to
is any of the
Poisson's
expansionof (1
in the
a"
0, it
obviously
integral.
in which
case
special
the form
assumes
h, the integral
TV
(2^
j j ^'''
'
Jn+i(z) {iT
(2)
""'
'
'
equationhas
this
To prove
and
J^n {z)
times
(_
y.V{v
and
reader
^^^'
''"^^^'
ft""*"
the
to
case
special
establish
(3) by
\.
induction
with
the
aid
of the
formula
ci^^(o=(2.+.o
^2)^?^.
"c/ (0 (1
Wiener
Milnchener
pp. 365
^"
Gegenbauer'sequationis
of
(n+1)
memoirs
'
hjrilv+n)
is evident.
givenby Rayleigh"in
recurrence
"*'"
dt
f.f('
v"^t)
^^^
symbolicform
The
the form
have
'*"()
was
in
integral
^^~^'^
Gegenbauer'sresult
this
take Poisson's
n\\)V a) jJ
Viv
we
studyby Whittakerf.
that::
(")
detailed
the result is
by parts;
it is known
whence
subjectof
Gegenbauer's formula, we
n
integrate
Now
the
been
"
lxyii.
Sitzuvgsherichte,
(2),(1873),p. 203; lxx. (2),(1875),p. 15. See also Bauer,
di Mat. (2)xii. (1905),
0. A. Smith, Giornale
v. (1875),p. 262, and
Sitzungsberichte,
The
studied
373.
function
has
been
extensively
by Gegenbauer in a series of
C^" (t)
in the Wieiier Sitzungsberichte; some
of the more
important results obtained by him are
given in Modern
t Proc.
London
t Cf. Modern
" Proc. London
Soc.
Analysis,"
Math.
xxxv.
(1903),pp.
198206.
15 '8.
Soc.
iv.
(1873),pp. 100,
263.
See
52
TPIEORY
[CHAP. Ill
FUNCTIONS
BESSEL
OF
and so the
periodicfunction of yjr,
integrandis an integral
be taken to be a and a + 27r,where
with respect to yjr
may
integration
This follows from Cauchy'stheorem.
(complex)number.
arbitrary
NoAv
the
limits of
a
is
an
thus get
We
I'^r
'^'
JJru)^
6 sin
e^'^^'^'^'^^^'^cos''^
dd^lrdd
Ja
7rr(z^).'o
ii^Z / I
""
"
i^+a)
e^^sinecos
cos^!
e sin
Odyfrdd.
7rr(i/)Jo.'o
We
define
now
OT
so
the
by
cos
pairof equations
Z
"
cos
sin cf),
that
Jv{^)=
t,/
ttI
[i{Z"
exp
(j/)Jo Jo
sin dcosdr(i")
cos
^ sin
cos"!
this formula
between
onlydifference
The
J^ (tij)^\^
is in the form
with
analysis
the
"
"
i{Z~
^ sin
cos^"!
i/r]
cos
Od^dd
are
cos
cos
n
"f))
cos
"^)cos
"
iz sin
"
"/"I,
.
iz sin
"
sin 6.
"^cos y^
is
expression
iZ
\,
{v) j oJ 0
cos
ttI
the formula
i{Z
so
(9c^'vrcZ^.
of the
i{Z
last
[m sin 6
exp
The
and
^]
exp
iz (cos^
"
6 + sin
cos
"^sin 6
cos
"/r),
the steps is
retracing
\iZcos 6
"
iz
(cos(^cos 0
sin rf)sin 6
cos
"\^)]
sin2''ii/rsin^''^rf"/rr
and
consequently
Gegenbauer'sformula
[Note.
this
The
device
section,to evaluate
The
3"4.
We
when
hy
shall
ineans
using transformations
seems
integrals
definite
of
to
polarcoordinates,after
be due to Legendre,M^m.
Sci. iii. (1818),p. 126.]
the
of
manner
de I'Acad,
des
expressionof J"("j^i)
{z)in finiteterms.
the importanttheorem
that,
integral
is halfof an odd integer,
in finite
the function
terms
J^iz)is expressible
and trigonometrical
of algebraic
functionsof z.
now
It will appear
is not
of
is established.
so
recondite
deduce
later
from
("474)that, when
expressible
; but
character
Poisson's
than
of
course
the theorem
this
has not
theorem
converse
which
is
such
now
about
is of
to
be
much
more
proved.
34]
BESSEL
Solutions
[Note.
by
earlywriters
various
1765),p. 76 that
equation satisfied by
the
[1820],
pp.
solution of the
of differential
in finite terms
equationsassociated
with
tained
ob
"/" (2)were
"
it was
observed
by Euler, Misc. Taurinensia,iir. (1762
in finite terms; while
equationfor e""/^^j(2)is expressible
"
solved
was
t/j,^.i.(2)
2
53
FUNCTIONS
in finite terms
by Laplace,Conn,
des
Terns,
and
v. (Paris,
MecMnique Celeste,
1825),pp. 82"84
; by Plana, J/em.
Torino,x.x.vi. (1821),pp. 533
534; by Paoli,Mem. di Mat. e
di Fis. {Modena),xx. (1828),
and also by Stokes in 1850, Trans. Camh. Phil.
pp. 183"188;
Soc. IX. (1856), p. 187 [Math, and Phys. Papers, II. (1883), p. 356]. The
investigation
be given is based on
the work
of Lommel, Sttulien ilber die Bessel'schen
which
will now
Functione7i (Leipzig,
1868), pp. 51
56.]
1823
245"257
delle Sci. di
della R. Accad.
"
"
It is convenient
then, by
when
" 33
to
be
to
and
integer(zero included),
positive
(4),
integrateby parts
we
restrict
2" +
times; since (1
times
r
"
polynomialof
terminates.
then
culated
observe that if d''{l
we
"ty^/dV be calexpression
the
from Leibniz' theorem
(1 + ^)^
only
by writing(1 t^y^ (1 ^)"'
which
does not vanish at the upper limit arises from differentiating
n
the other factor
the factor (1"^)", and therefore from differentiating
times; so that we need consider only the terms for which r'^n.
simplifythe
last
"
term
is
()""
"
'
2"~'"
Hence
dV
and
I 92*1"
d'(ltT
similarly
{y
df
i=i
Cn
"
(2Hr)
It follows that
(i^"n+l
sjir
'hn (^)
i"r+l 22"i""^. !
2w
S*
()"+!e"
z''+\{rn)\ {2nr)l
,.=",
and
,="^'i.(r")K2nr): j'
hence
(1) /n+j(^)
,':,rl{7ir)l(2zy'^^
,7, rl {n r^
(2) /,n+i
V(27r^)
be written
in the form*
"i"
"=(~)^ (z
sin
^ /?7r)S
"
,.0
()'".
(n+2r)!
(2r)!(n2r)!(2^y^'
"k{ni)
cos{z
"
luTr)
}"=()
compact
Soc. Sci. de
method
of
Bruxelles, xxix.
(2^)'_
(1905),pp.
110"143.
(Y,(n+2r+l)l
(2r + !)!("is
2?
given by de la Vallee
1)1{"Izy'+\
Poussin,
Ann.
de
la
54
In
have
we
particular
the former
the
hence, from
n
.^
sm
formula
recurrence
(^~
j (^^
J(^)
^,
Again,from
and
(^"
j
/j {z)
(3)
[CHAP. Ill
FUNCTIONS
BESSEL
OF
THEORY
cos
series for
the power
from
5J;
Jj iz).
have
we
(1),
jr'^A?i+ ry^_
,^0 r!(nr)!(2^)'
( ^")''^
(7?+ r) !
_.^
,ro rl{nr)l(22y
"
But, obviously,
by induction
we
can
express
\zdzj
as
polynomialin 1/zmultiplied
by e*'^,and
",..
("iY''(n
12
r)\
,"
f d
"^,
have
must
we
so
\" e"''2
z
would
for,if not, the precedingidentity
e'^ "j),
(z)
e''
Avhere ^j {z)and
lead to
4"o{z) 0,
=
an
is obviously
identity
impossible*.
Hence
it follows
I
r=o
thatf
t'^.Q^+ r)!
! ("
r): (22)'
(tr"(n
.^
,"0
! (n
r)!
r)! (25r)'
{T{2'jryz^^(^^^\
{y(2'jTz)KI_"_,(z).
Consequently
^
(4) J^nl{z)=
*
Cf.
V(27r^)L
^'"+'^(" +
olZ
/");
"
.
,=0
! (n
r): (2^)'
t From
the series
i^'
it is obvious
that
r(i) ,"tom!i.f...(mi)'
J
(iy+'\{n
r)l'
,lz)
i
"
\TrzJ
cos
z.
,.ror
! (?i

r)! {2z)
341]
and
BESSEL
FUNCTIONS
55
hence
(5)
J_,,_i
{z)
("2r)!(n2r)!(2^
lo
kTTZ
(^ + ^ /"7r) i
sin
"
(2r +
r .=0
In
we
particular,
1 ) ! (rt

2r
1) ! {2zy^^\
have
J_i(.)=(Vcos^,
./_3,(^)=(iy(^^^_sin^
\7rzJ \
(6)
"
\7r^/
We
have
half of
an
The
expressedin
integer,
by means
now
odd
explicitexpressionof
numerical
results contained
(1873),pp.
3*41.
number
of these
letter from
functions
Hermite
be
can
written
Gordan, Journal
to
down
fur
Math.
from
Lxvi.
303"311.
Notations
Functions
branches
in
finite terms
forfunctionswhose
of the
order is
halfof an
with
such
odd
integer.
frequencyin
various
of Mathematical
Royal
CLViii.
surrounded
vibratingspheies
by a gas, Stokes,Fhil. Trans, of
and Phys. Papers,iv. (1904),
made
use
(1868),p. 451 [^Math.
p. 306],
on
the
of
the series
"*"
2.imr
which
is annihilated
by
the
opei'ator
d'^
?i(n + l)
^.
dr^
This
denoted
series Stokes
+"""'
2.4.(mr)2
by
dr
the
;^
and
symbol f^ (?")
he wrote
e
(r)+ "S';
v/." "S'"
i'"'7"
( r),
e"'"'/;,

where
S,^ and
;SV/are
zonal
surftxce harmonics
so
that
\/^"is annihilated
by
the
total
operator
dr'
dr'
dr
"
and
by
the
n(n"r\)
;
partialoperator
c2
{
.
.7)}
Stokes
and
was
followed
Proc.
56
lu
order
obtain
to
Sn =()""*"!
Sn in the
and
analysis,
of his
course
origin,Rayleigh found
finite at the
solution
[CHAP. Ill
FUNCTIONS
BESSEL
OF
THEORY
to take
it necessary
then
"/'" (0"^^m,SJ"
j J,,+ ^(mr).
twrj
IX p
"'^/'''^
(i^^"
and
that
[e
j^^
J^^^(r)
{271+ 3)
(1884),pp. 139"149;
pp.
519
pp. 486
Math.
xxx.
^^"(^)
=
it is evident
T{n
"
"
/" ( ir)].

of the
found
types e+''"/"
(" t")which
in his treatise
Soc.
(1882), pp.
xiii.
51
f\
\n,
f"
o
+
()"i3.5...(2,.
K
"
^T^i'^"+j(^)
found
it convenient
to
also Proc.
Hydrodjaiamics and
the notation f
on
^" iz)
"
modify
London
this
ingly
notation, and accord
Math.
Eayleigh,Phil.
Phil. Trans,
while
149
"
(1909),pp.
Trans,
161
665
has been
736, and
"
V."(2)
=
Cn {^)
=
it is
the
certainly
best
to
Papers,
A, (1904),pp. 87"110
[Scientific
t
he
symbol
f,i{z)
by Xn{^) Love,
rejjlace
A, (1915),p.
ccxv.
'
CCIII.
it convenient
Soc.
notation
found
""J'
5)
,7+r^
^" (2)
=
Chemie,(4) xxxvii.
(1912), p. 29
191
this
notation is
(1913),p.
;
and
(1901),
xxxii.
^^^
of the Royal
yet another
XXVIII.
Soc.
*
"
(1912) pp.
^^^^
f '^Y
l).(^_^J
^.
,\
he used
zdzj
V.
xv.
"
(d
while
212;
"
(1883),
; Phil. Trans, of the Royal Soc. CLXXiv.
A, (1906),
by Eayleigh, Proc. Royal Soc. lxxvii.
(1912), pp. 300
312],and by Love*, Proc. London
120"150
that
189
66;
"
^"^^^^1.3.5...
+ 3)'''2.4(2?i
+ 3)(2w +
(2n + l)L^~2(2?i
SO
to write
it convenient
that
%)
however.Lamb
Subsequently,
pp. 11"20,
^"
(1899),pp. 308"321.
this notation
With
e"
27"43
followed
was
Papers, v.
[Scientific
499
"
Soc.
he
2.4.(2?i + 3)(2?t+ 5)
Math.
(1885),pp.
xvi.
and
549;
"
London
Froc.
+
/" (ir)
Lamb
origin.
finite at the
solutions
requiredfor
i" +
ir
"
notation
simjile
^^
'
In order to have
are
34 that
"
It follows from
112
omitted
the factor
"
)" and
wrote
used
of his
two
and
(Wj,+.(.)=.i(^^^J
"
{hTrZ)^
+
iJ_
[J,,
+, {^) ( )"

adapted
for the
on
investigation
(Z)],
electric
which
waves
was
the
"
(d )
"J
stated,
he
t This
p. 82 ;
not
modified
is
nearer
the definition
the notation
in his
memoir, Journal
defined
e~^^
"
but, as
by Heine, Handbuch
(z)to be twice
i^,j
fiirMath.
lxix.
the
(1869),pp.
der
i. (Berlin,
Kugelfimctionen,
1878),
expression on
128
"
141.
the
35]
BESSEL
notation
Sommerfeld's
used
and
Vn
v" +
is
in
)"nv"
modified form
slightly
of
and f,,
place \/r"
; see
second solution
57
of the notation
Selskahs
of
3*5.
FUNCTIONS
his memoir
used
by
L.
Lorenz,who
reflexion and
on
refraction
i.
Skrifter,
(6)vi. (1890),[Oeuvresscientijiques,
order.
of BesseVs equation
forfunctionsofintegral
seen
fundamental
give a
The
system of solutions.
which
solution
will
be
now
constructed
involved
analysis
obtained
was
in the construction
by Hankel*;
firstpublished
were
by Bocherf.
An
his
alternative
method
is based
jjrocedure
214
pp.
"
contained
has
since
pp.
101
"
Chajjtervi.
note
of
the
1.
It is evident
that, if
negativeor zero),the
be unrestricted,and
if
be
integer(positive,
any
function
J,.{z){YJ_^{z)
is
solution of Bessel's
vanishes
when
functions
equationfor
of order
; and
this function
n.
so
Consequently,
long as
i^
n,
the function
J,{z){TJ_Az)
V
is also
solution of Bessel's
assumes
undetermined
an
We
shall
equationfor functions
n.
form when v
li"/,W()"/.(^)_
Vn
r*n
and
we
shall shew
Math.
Ann.
t Annals
it is
that
(1869),pp
r.
of Math.
vi.
solution
of Bessel's
equationfor
functions
of
469"472.
(1892),pp.
See
85"90.
also
und
filrMath,
Niemoller,Zeitschrift
Phys.
(1880),pp. (;571.
X The
essence
of order
evaluate
now
XXV.
"
integer n and
of Hankel's
p
is not
which
has
is
investigation
an
a
integer,which
limit when
v*n.
the
assumes
construction
an
of
an
undetermined
expressionwhich
form
when
is
satisfies
equal to
58
order
and
independentof Jn (2);
linearly
solution required*.
that it is
be the second
to
[chap. Ill
FUNCTIONS
BESSEL
OF
THEORY
It is evident
so
that it may
that
dv
as
"
dv
since both
v^n,
be taken
Hence
Mz){YJ..{z)
lim
exists; it is called
To
Bessel function
it
distinguish
from
"
of the
which
functions
other
are
n.
of
the second
we
(1)
lim
{z)
Y"
and
also
(2)
dJ,{z)
Y,(^)
It has
be shewn
to
now
_,_y,dJ,{zy
^
dv
functions J""
dv
(/=?l
solution of Bessel's
functions
analytic
(z)are
equation.
of both
and
order of
v,
the
and
is
matter
with respect to
When
may
be written
1^
J;
dz^
o
dv
dz
combine
we
^
dv
{z
V)
^
"
"
dJA^)
IvJ
;r
dv
in this formula,
(z)
/
"^
^^v
U.
find that
we
_^_y^^^JA^y
2v{jA^){rJA^)],
=
dv
*
The
reader
limitingform
will realise
+ See "3'1.
X The
function
is
It is conventional
in many
symbol
equal
that,given a solution
of this solution
coefficients while
Of course,
dv
to
solution
to write
parts of the
to
are
differential
\Yith
written
was
of a Real
equation, it is
corresponding limitingform
differentiations
of
of the
respect to
as
obvious
that
equation.
total differential
partialdifferentialcoefficients.
contemplated.
as
is used
("354).
Variable
not
of the
in this work
to
denote
60
(^)
is
termbytermdifferentiation
the result of
and
y%^)
[chap, iti
FUNCTIONS
BESSEL
OF
THEORY
1)
7/1
.
{m !)2
m=0
derivate
logarithmic
is customary, the
t/tdenotes, as
where
+ l)},
{logi^l/rO"^
Gamma
of the
function *.
Since
('"+ !)"
0"V'
when
"
bj using
may
The convergence
replacedby m.
concerninganalyticfunctions.
(1)
Yo(^)=2
(2)
Yo(^)
S^
See Modern
\^]J
Yo (z)
The
solution of Bessel's
\'\J ^{m
1)
")
1)
I
that
1
is
be noticed
J^^y^T^
i
5"3.
to
V'''
log(1.)}/o (^)
of
{iog(i^)^(,,,+l)},
m=0
(8)
Yo(2)
is
\//(ml)
theorem
general
series for
series in which
consequence
Analysis,"
expansionare
of the
convergence
immediate
an
S/
log(i.)../o(^)
the
...
is also
of the
forms
following
The
2, 3,
m=\,
D'Alembert's
be estabhshed
(log2
Yo (z)+
7) /o (^)
functions
equationfor
of order
The
zero.
expansionof
this function is
VW!)
m=0
This
function
Neumann,
But
adopted as
was
the canonical
obtained
was
as
notation
own
2'^
kind of order
of Bessel's
is that the
rii\
of the second
function
1867), pp. 42
(Leipzig,
solution
"
(m \y
m=l
the series
()(^n
"
generalsolution
of the
zero
by
3'57.
"
Euler
f.
equation
2Aq
IS
22Ag^
"
100.4/
,.3"
.t'4"
+ etc.
''
n?
1
.
8?i5
27w^
1.8.
9'
9'
,,.2)1
_
nn
'^
a
"
.3?"+
Analysis,Ch.
^^^.r"
1.4h^"
7l?l
Modern
xii.
^(1):
where
7 denotes
Euler's
11.
4?r
1.4.
"P''
"
%i^
1.4.
"7,
^(m
l)=
27
a;3"+
9?i"
1.4.9.
64?i9
9^
.r*"etc.
.i;3"
+
1.4.9.
16?i8
that, when
+
+...
Ua'
16?i8
^"_etc.,
is
positiveinteger,then
+Y,
....
It is to be remembered
constant, 057721.57
Mathematica, pp.
pp.
2.33"235.
186"190.
See
also
Acta
Acad.
Petrop.v.
352]
BESSEL
and
wliere A
numerators
548
22
100
16
gave the
...
We
shall
Y,i(^),where
successive
11
548
7.229.6,
25
1 00
etc.
in
riiCTm
"
ascendingseries
an
and
the
definition
of
Hankel's*
obtain
now
determine
!)
'^^,
ml
7nJ
1 ) am
(2'"+
expansionof Yn(^)
The
3*52.
to
the formula
evidentlyexpressedby
Om
100
3528
2(1
^
\1
If
is
followinglaw
5.64.2,
22,
this law
61
3.21.0,
He
arbitraryconstants.
are
FUNCTIONS
is any
It is clear that
"Zo ^v [m ! r (i'
+
dv
1)
(_)".(1^).+.
X
^om.^.r {v +
when
where
v^n,
is
I)
III
^^^
'"
positive
integer.That
'dJA2)
^)
(1)
if'{hzY+'''{\
is to say
1
cv
evaluation
The
of
(i/r
I'
at
break
in the
{z)into
and
in the former
part
0 ^
We
;"=H7/i!r(:/
l)
l)'
r (v
in) sin (v
"
"
m)
TT
^^
m+l) 1)
"
0,l,% ...,n\.
pole
replace
we
Now, when
iii
of the
parts,thus
T(v
for which
terms
two
low! r{v
tedious because
little more
\dJ_Az)ldv\=nis a
of
TT
n,
'
~d
dv
=
r (:^ 7/0sin (v
((^)''+'"

JJf='
TT
[{^z)''+'"'r(vm)
yfr(v
{tti
m) ir]
"
sin (i/m)7r+
III)
r (w
(l^r)"+27n
m)
cos
cos
(v"m)
tt
tt^
TT.
(/I III)

3/ai/t. Anil.
i.
(1869),p.
471.
log(^z)sin (i/?")7r}]"="
BESSEL
OF
THEORY
62
[chap. Ill
FUNCTIONS
Hence
"n+2m
ni()nr^nm)(^z)
2
dv
\.//l: ,_.,{loga^)
!
w^!
+
("
=n
"/r(7?
m)
1)1,
that is to say
(2),
az;
"(
x[log(^)Ar("i+l)}
when
replace by
m
we
??
?7i
have
On
series.
in the second
Hankel's
formula, namely
(
00
'"'
m
,"=o
()'"(l^)"+^^^il1
{m
0) of
so
...
111
1)}
^^^~^^;r^^'
(i^)""
1
the
in { is
expression
.
Lommel*)
(following
%{^)
(4)
7n)\
+1
convenient
frequently
\n+im,
,111
11
It is
{n
{2log{^z)^lr{7n+l)ylr(n +
ml
'
\m
to write
J^{z)\ogz,
dv
that
n
'^"^^^
(5)
when
negativeinteger,
^^ (z)is defined by
right.
is
the
on
We
Y" (z)
2 J,
complete solution
contained
936
expression
of
+ ay
j^^
was
given in
Cede.
the form
Int.
li.
of
series
(partof
which
(Petersburg,1769),"" 935,
solutions
x^ Ji (2ai^2)j ^4 Yi
Euler
this
thus have
(6)
The
+ l)}
{log2+ 'v/r(j;4??l
nZ^miriWm^l)
also gave
(2aia;i).
{ibid.
"" 937, 938) the complete solution
oi xi
Q);solutions
j^\ay
=
equationare
Studien
Functionen
x^).
(4a*
(Leipzig,1868),p.
77.
of
353, 354]
BESSEL
The
353.
is
the
function
integer.The
an
values of
odd
of the second
of the
when
prove
VTT
J^ {z)cos
pn
sni
I'lr
have
Y" (z),
when
evident
is
equation,
has any
(i)v
integer
The
function
second kind
v
is
vw
J^z)
Y,(4
Y^(^),defined
should
reader
function
either
form
by (1) or by the limiting
equationfor functions of order v both
is not an integer,
and when (ii) is an
combined
with " 3*5 (3).
equation(2)
2v
avoid
2,
be careful to observe
of
v,
is continuous
The
i'
n,
WeberSchldfi
functionof the
("3"5o)
Sept.
Journal
function
Ann.
Journal
dated
function
of the
is any
Ann.
fur
1872
filr Math.
i.
slightly
by Weber
the
failure
producedby
is half of an odd integer.
which
i' and
given by
was
in order
Schlafii^'
of the
definition when
to
the
(1869), p. 472.
Math,
and
(1873),p. 9; Matli.
respectively.In a
105, dated
(1873),pp. 75
lxxvi.
Oct.
lxxv.
of the second
(U Mat.
kind
second
modified
was
or
negative.
integer,
positive
second kind.
the inconveniences
Math.
of the
Bessel function
definition of the
Hankel
"
fact,Jt,{z)and
The
"
J^y {")'
"
Y^ (2),qua
3*54.
J_^ (z)'
"
solution of Bessel's
(of Hankel's
The
respectto
completein
by the limit
integer.
an
Note.
function
that
is defined
an
"
(" )"cos
limY.(^)
of that
restricted
un
proved that
(2)
It is now
for
is half of
failure is
vtt
v
VJT
v
we
its
that
J^,{z)cos
{)" lim
so
Hankel*
when
The
function
lim
(3)
cos
and
onlywhen
Tre""^
lim Y^
integerand
an
case, the
the rightand
on
expression
definition of " 3*5.
To
adopted by
excepted)is
was
of the
the
is
case
defined
sin 2v7r
because
integer,
has been
"
'
the latter
kind
definition which
values of 2v
(integral
(1)
This
63
of ^,(z).
definition
Hitherto
order
FUNCTIONS
1872
"
kind
Ann.
paper
May
vi.
(1873),p.
written
1872, Weber
(2)vii. (1875),p.
17 ; this paper
is dated
Oct.
148.
few
4, 1872.
These
months
had
used
papers
before
are
these,
Neumann's
64
THEORY
The
which
function
adoptedby Weber
was
J^ {z)cos
VTT
sin
is
symbol K,
so
formula*
by the
J_y (z)
"
viT
integer).
an
^tt; and
that,with his definition,
Schlafli,
however, inserted
the
as
in terms
second kind is expressible
[CHAP. Ill
FUNCTIONS
BESSEL
or
his function
denoted
he
factor
by
^^^J.^(^)cosz^^J^)_
^^
sm
VTT
function.
The
by
symbol K is,however, used largelyin this country, especially
denote
function
to
different
Bessel
of
3"7),
a
Physicists,
("
completely
type
and so it is advisable to use a different notation. The procedurewhich seems
to produceleast confusion is to use
the symbol Y^,{z)to denote Weber s function,
of NielsenJ,
after the manner
and to adopt this as the canonical function of
the second
in
kind, save
order
integial
instances
rare
the
when
saves
ir
function
of
in certain formulae.
thus have
We
JA^)^o^v'JA^)
n ^ {z)
^
(1)
^
^
cos^
(2)
lim
F,.{z)
[Note.
Schlafli's function
pp. 85"90,
and
pp. 23
Sehafheitlin
30.
"
the
Tre""^'
Sehafheitlin
which
Mathews
Y" (.).
been
used
Math.
(1892),
(1895),
and Heaviside
Weber's
function
with the sign changed,so
use
we
(with Nielsen) denote by Y^ {z) is written as
Yy (z)by
Gn (z)by Heaviside.
7i)as
Annals
of
by Bocher,
Math.
viii.
of
Annals
vi.
ix.
.
Gray and
symbol Y".
J^i^)^^^^'^J^i^)
has
by McMabon,
function
smyTT
that
of Hankel's
use
sometimesH
Weber's
use
function,and
they
denote
by
it
the
Weber's
definition was
by an integral(see " 61) which is equal to this expression; the
expression (with the factor hw inserted)
was
actuallygiven by Schlafli.
+ Einleituiujin die Theorie der BeHsel'schen
Funktionen, i. (Bern, 1898), p. M et seq.
of
index, thus
are
obvious
objections to such
change
^] A
functions, writes
Theorie
der
the
number
indicatingthe
order
notation, and
we
it for the
reserve
obsolete
function
as
an
There
used
by
("358).
Neumann
other
der
Funktionen
fur
Math.
cxiv.
(1895),pp.
(Leipzig,1908).
31"
44, and
other
Royal Hoc.
in
papers;
also Die
Theorie
der
liv.
(1893),p. 138, and Electroma"inetic. Theory, ii. (London, 1899), p. 255;
sign has been made from his Electrical Papers, ii. (London, 1892),p. 445.
Treati'^e
on
Bessel Functions
(Loudon, 1895),pp.
65
"
66.
355]
BESSEL
FUNCTIONS
function
in his Studien
65
of the second
kind
1868), pp.
(Leipzig,
85
"
(see" 3'o7),but
86, he used the
function
Yn {z)+ {^l^{n+^)
+ log2} Jn (z),
lrr
F" (z) is the function
where
(" + i) makes
\/
of the term
presence
of Weber.
Julius, Archives
complicated;see
One
the
disadvantageof
formulae
recurrence
x.xviii.
iVeerlandaises,
this function
is that
(1895), pp.
221
much
the
more
225, in this
"
connexion.]
Heine's definition
of the functionof the second kind.
3"55.
definition
The
be
"
The
of Heine's
use
the function
function
it Gn
This
function
revival of the
(which will
cosine
been
has
of Heine's
use
function
become
and
sine;
the
to
unfortunate,both
distinctly
seems
kind
and
pointsof resemblance
adoptionjof Jn{z)and 6'"
(2)as
Vu (z)present many
so
use
the Continent
many
years ago
in their treatise t, and they term
the
that
of
cosz
and
^tt sinz
as
senses
symbol G^
writers,namely Heaviside, Proc. Royal Soc. Liv. (1893),p.
Dougall,Proc. Edinhuryk Math. Soc. xviii. (1900),p. 36.
two
and
canonical
It
is
also be
(aswas
the
the
parable
com
pointed
justexplainedby
138
and
of the fact
functions
must
account
on
account
on
canoniciil functions.
that the
out
also
more
./"(z)and
on
Mathews
of the second
of functions
existingmultiplicity
functions
and
Airey", and
of the
the
died out
to have
seems
used by Gray
occasionally
was
stated in
at least
" 354),
pointedout by Morton,
signof y in formula
had apparentlybeen copied
" 3"51 (3)supra. It was also stated by Morton that this error
noticed by GrayH) J. J. Thomson,
by various other writers,including(ashad been previously
and
Researches
in
Rec"iit
Electricity
Magnetism (Oxford,1893), p. 263. A further error
Note.
Nature,
An
error
in
signon
(1901),p.
lxiii.
Haiidbuch
.i Treatise
Proc.
der
on
p. 245
the error
29 ;
of Heine's
is
equivalentto
Kugelfanctionen, i. (Berlin,1878),
Bessel
Functions
pp.
change in
185
"
the
248.
(1900),pp. 32
RoijulSoc. lxvi.
(6)xxii. (1911),pp. 658"663.
the historical point of view there
"
43.
also
not
for
even
11 Nature,
W.
B. F.
function
usiug Neumann's
is
but
something
Heine's
to be said for
function, being
using Hankel's
more
modern
function,
than
either,
(1894),p.
359.
5
THEORY
66
noticed
Heine
hj
called
for
The
which
formulae
those which
satisfied
are
(1)
p. 248
on
to
most
same
satisfied
are
the
form
same
follows
^Y,{2),
Y,_,(2)+Y^^,(2)
=
"
by Y^ (2)are of
as
consequently
F,_,(^)F,+,(^) 2IV(^),
(3)
2Y:{2)^vY,{2)
(4)
zY:{2)vY,{z)
formulae
in these
function
To
function
the
2\\_,{2),
zY,.^,{z\
be
may
replacedthroughoutby
the
Y.
them
prove
take
we
[z^J",{z)]
=
^
if we
(J^o ^'^'o)
(2)
and
the function
symbol Ko to denote
W
symbol Kq denotes
the
nses
the
Recurrence
recurrence
to be due
seems
p. 245
on
356.
as
work
in Thomson's
Morton
by
[CHAP. Ill
FUNCTIONS
BESSEL
OF
z^
multiplythese by
/,_! (^)
cot
vir
[z^/_, {z)\
and
cosec
and
vrr,
then
/_,+!{z);
z
the forms
have
subtract,we
[z^F, {z)]
=
dz
(3) follows
whence
at
z"
F,_, (2),
Equation(4) is derived
once.
in
similar
from
manner
the formulae
{z"J, (z)]
=
By
addition
The
and
formulae
but since F^
replacev by
z"
subtraction
are,
{z)and
proceedingto
the
so
./,+!
(z),
of
[z^/_, {z)]
=
j^
far,proved on
its derivatives
limit when
obtain
are
tends
to
hypothesisthat
continuous
an
./_,_,{z).
?"
functions
is not
of
integralvalue
v,
integer;
an
the result of
n, is
simply to
n.
tlie
case
of functions
instructive
Neumann's
to establish
them
of
Fimctionen
for
connected
investigation
with
the formula
were
The
given by Lommel,
reader
series of
"
(4)will be discussed
will find it
3"52.
in
" 358.
68
It
shewn
was
typefor 7'"'(z).
of Poissons
integral
The
3571.
by
[CHAP. Ill
FUNCTIONS
BESSEL
OF
THEORY
that
Poisson*
gixcosa,
^Qg (a;sin co)do)
Jo
is
equationfor
solution of Bessel's
an
associated
The
identified
with
if
so,
Ave
the
"()"/," (2)
^
=
of summation
order
TT
at
once
F""
(1)
from
which
The
we
2?i~i
observe
of the
cos27i^
that, since
Parseval's
the definition of
integral
("2 2) and
['"cos
{z
cos
of summation
and
nonuniformly convergent
(
integrationhas
^
near
To
0.
()"^2"(2)/'i= lim
a*l0
Journal
associated
Cours
a".l0
TT n=l
y 0
Abel's theorem
Theorie
ii.
and
difficulty
% that
,a"cos2n^
cos
{zcos
6)'
de. VEcole
d' Analyse,
examined,
this
B. Polytechnique, xii.
(cahier19), (1823), p. 476. The
partialdifferential equation had been given earlier {ihid.p. 227). See
(1857),pp.
()"a" J2"(2)/"= hm
2
n
be
to
now
overcome
'"
2
n=l
1=1
result is obvious.
order
is
./0
the formula
{z)
Neumann's
change
because
with
obtain
rh
cos
de
{z cos 0) z
cos
TT
F'"'{z),
we
be
can
integration
"cos2/?6'
/"*
from
and
that
2 2 ^~^n
analysisby
given here, with
Jo
nir
that
assume
deduce
changed,we
the
of detail.
in matters
and
F""'(z); and
function
the
have
From
of
slightmodifications
some
(z sin 6) log(4^^cos^ 6) dO
cos
by Neumannf
Avhich he obtained
argument
integral

was
and
zero
in the form
of the integral
expression
Stokes obtained an
subsequent!}^
ascendingseries (see" 3'572).
and
of order
functions
Spitzer,Zeitschriftfur
solution
also
Math,
,.
ctd.
und
of
an
Duhamel,
Fhys. ii.
16.5"170.
der
fiir Math,
BesseVsr.hen
imd
Cf. Bromwich,
:J:
Functionen
(Leipzig,1867),pp.
Fhys. xxv. (1880),pp. 65 71.
Theory of InfiniteSeries," 51.
"
45
"
"9.
See
also
schrift
Niemoller,Zeit
3571, 3572]
Now, since
is less than
1,
FUNCTIONS
69
with
integration(by comparison
of
range
BESSEL
2a"),and
so
is to say
2
""
/'*'"
/ cos (2cos 5)
n=i
fk"
2
2;i(9
d6"
cos
/iN
I
^
'^
Hence
22LW
^_^^
n=i
If

cos(scos^)log('l
2acos2^a2)c/(9.
lim
ijjj^
proceed to
now
,"
do
have
we
We
(scos ^)
1
=
a"cos2?i(9
"
,
cos
^.^,g
^^log (1
(_ ^jQg
2a
2(9+ a'i)
C^5.
cos
that*
shew
"
cos(scos^){log(l2aco.s2^
0.
a2)log(4asin^)}(;(9
a*'l0.'
0
It is evident
and
that
26l+ a24asin2
1 2acos
log(1
so
bound
cos
^) {log(1
(sCOS
2a
2a
2^ ja)
^
cos
t of jcos
(1 af^O,
{zcos
0^6
^ ^tt,
have
we
2(9
+ a2)
cos
^ .4 I
{log(1
2a
cos
26 + a')

"
a"
1.2
/AnI
cos
"'^"
^"
"1
log(1/a)
^^
"=l
2/(^
*7rJlog(l/a),
termbyterm integrationbeingpermissiblesince
1.
a"
Hence, when
as
"i7r/llog(l/a)^0,
1,
a"
Consequently
1
i ()"'^2''("^)=
lini
_
^
TT
and
'
["cos(2COS^).log(4asin2^)c
"''cos(2cos(9).log(4sin2^)rf^.
,,^
justified.
interchangeis finally
the
reader
The
combined
with
"
3"5
integral.
d^y
differential
The
m
is
Stokes
stated
solution
equationconsidered
This
constant.
is Bessel's
(presumably with
f
The
t If
+
p.
value
is
Trans.
42.]
by
Stokes
equation for
reference
1850
functions
was
of order
Poisson) that it
to
^
was
dy
.,
^mi/
zero
known
and
0, where
argument im:.
that the
general
was
J
*
integralfor J^ (z)
(5).
3572.
Poisson's
to deduce
will find it interesting
of this limit
real,^
Camh.
""
was
1 ; if not, A
Phil.
Soc.
(mz
cos
6) dO.
ix.
assumed
by Neumann.
{z)\\
exp
Papers,
(1856),
p. [38]. [Mathematicaland PhijsicaJ
{]I
iii.
(1901),
70
It is easy to
^n {CThe
that,with Neumann's
see
series
WiC+D
it is
(,^'i; J
"
dd,
it may
be
that
order
kind, of integral
The
Neumann*
of F""'{z)by induction
in terms
(1)
is
this
^if^
nY^^'^ (z)
of the
formula
recurrence
...
^)}.
from
by
the formula
^F"'^+i)(z\
type
same
defined
n, was
as
"2'12(4).It
is evident
equationthat
F(") (^)
(2)
( ^r
F'"'(z)satisfies the
Now
of F""' {z).
definition
Neumanns
358.
from
recurrence
logsin
i^(l^
2#^i7rlog2
j^%os2"^logsin^c^^
which
right
equal to
cos^'^0
j^r^
obtained
by parts, Stokes
and, by integrating
Stokes
by
,1=0
deduced
the
i^W iimz).
log(4m)} Jo {imz)^\tTD
expandedinto
expressionwas
[CHAP. Ill
FUNCTIONS
BESSEL
OF
THEORY
(4
(^)""")
equation
and, if we
"r
theorem,
and
we
use
Leibniz'
get
so
This
equationis at
once
reducible
(4)
and
this
to
so
to
V, F"") {z)
F'"' (z)is
Again,(3) may
solution of Bessel's
be written
0,
equationfor
functions
of order
?i.
in the form
Theorie
its order
t The
der BesseVschen
is not
an
Functionen
(Leipzig,1867), p.
integer.
analysis is simplified
by taking iz
i,
zdz~
so
that
_d
d^'
51.
The
function is undefined
when
358, 3581]
BESSEL
FUNCTIONS
71
that
SO
whence
obtain another
we
(5)
\^
When
combine
we
formula
recurrence
/iFe^){z)
^F"^'
at
(2).
the other
deduce
once
recurrence
ormulae
F'"i' {z)+
(6)
F'"+') {z)
F'") (z),
(7)
F""i' (^)
F'"+"
satisfies the
ConsequentlyF*"' (^")
and
" 357
F"") (^)
(8)
(^)
same
r/T''""iz\
^ *
.
formulae
recurrence
7) ./,(4
und
The
which reduce.s"to
integral,
Zeitschrift
fur Math,
by Spitzer,
definite
Neumanns
3*581.
Jn{z\ F"(2)
7) /, {z)
the
as
(2) that
of the
generalisation
been
formula
givenby Neumann*;
it is
s"
To
the
2m)
111
where
()^ {n
+
9
+"""""""'
^o
^
functions L^
(z) and
Un (2) by
equations
(2)
Z.,(.)
/. (.)log.
(3)
U,,(z)
.,
/,.{z)+
^~^, ^
j^ ;^^
/"
(^),
SO
that
We
F")
Zo (^)
(z)
shall prove
(z)
(4) X"^.:
and
then
*
Ln{z) and
the
t^^C^)satisfy
Theorie
die BesseVschen
and
that
f/o(^).
der
BcsseVschen
Functionen
Functioncn
(Leipzig,1867),
1868), pp.
(Leipzig,
from
82"84
xxxi.
uiidPIii/.^.
recurrence
formulae
p. o'i.
Otti,Bern
also
Lommel,
Stmiien
(1886),pp.
25"33.
iiher
3") ;
THEORY
72
that
It is evident
z"
^
dzl
z''
J
=
Sn
"^
("Y\m
*"
Z"^,(Z)+ Un^,(Z)
dz
z'^
since the
induction
and
that it vanishes
The
The power
the
equation(1) is therefore
sefies for
Ln jz)+ Un {z)
{""""(Z)
rightvanishes
values
for all integral
expressionon
the truth of
3'582.
z^
0, it is evident
when
of
Hence
??.
by
established.
Un(z).
function
series of Bessel
series with
simple
in:{n + m)i
1)1=0
To
(" + m) /",.",,(.)}
J^ "^(;^:^ {^^Jn,.m.(z)
"
"
z''
have
the second
y"^+'"(Z)
and
dz\
m{n^m)
,^=1
"i^^^
"
^n
and
J^___l+___^^_^^^
''dz\z"'
(z)
^^"^^^^^
"
,,t^{nm).m\dz\z'''^'^
^"+i
f ^^^
^,inm).ml
Jn^.{z)\ogz +
and
[CHAP, III
FUNCTIONS
BESSEL
OF
that it is true
when
7i
the
differentiation,
3"57(1);and that,by straightforward
formula as that of " 3"581 (4) for Un (z);
recurrence
rightsatisfies the same
equation(1) is then evident by induction.
Note.
of
It will be found
2w
(2)"
in the
Math.
Ann.
in.
(1871),pp. 146"147.
coefficient
358236]
BESSEL
reader will
The
(2)
easily
prove
now
%. (z) {7
=
(3)
F"" {z)
(4)
47rYn{z)
3 '583.
The
different from
observe
L"(z) +
to
Un {z),
of
obtain
y(")
"3571
{z).
for
F(")
(2) was
generalised by Lommel,
(Leipzig,1868), p. 86,
Lommel's
^ly^^
j
J, (z)log.=
so, from
sin d) cos^"
(.
cos
^^"
with
result in Neumann's
^
and
Functionen
Neumann's;
formulae
following

Ln {z)+
formula
73
log2}J, {z)
Studien
the
Poisson Neumann
The
FUNCTIONS
notation
notation, we
ratlier
first
have
{log(^cos^ d)^{,
J)}dO,
r^fi^WMf
'"
^'"'
and
^")
=
(1)
hence, since \^(^) \//=
r(")
(1)
{z)
^y
^.
log2
"
^'^^
it is to be remembered
coefficients and
powers
of
COS
Jn (2)+ /^"(2),
{^ {n + h_)y\r
(i)}
that Z"
as
(2)is expressible
finite combination
of Bessel
z.
of the
3*6. Functions
the formula
'"
,1,
in which
have
log2, we
(n + 1) y} c/^ + Ln (z),
"/'
third kind.
developmentsof
numerous
consequentlyseemed
It has
functions
Jv{z) "iY^{z)
as
the
desirable
standard
to
regardthe pairof
and he
Bessel's equation,
Nielsen*
solutions
of
to
describes
"^"^"
is
Since
in which
*
\^j
Ofversigt oier
t Nielsen
uses
der
the
Vaiiskc
same
and
linearly,
Vide.nskahernes
have
the
Y^{z) satisfy
with
tsm^TT
J^{z) and
sides
the righthand
integer,
an
Hf^ (z)
combined
these definitions,
From
When
l'^
(z)
(1)
as
"
are
to
recurrence
be
ismi/TT
replacedby
their limits.
formulae
356),
(""32,
(Leipzig,1904), p.
Cylindcrfunktionen
11/ [z).
symbols Hi''{z),
Forhandlinger, 1902, p.
IG.
125.
Huiui
[gHAP.Ill
'
74
linear functions
are
these
same
Hence
we
at
can
it follows
of J" (z)and Y^ (z),
coefficients)
(withconstant
formulae
recurrence
dH^^\z)
".
rf^
"
satisfied
are
"'1^
"^'
,,^
.,.
dz
.;r,(2)
^a)."^
(6)
that
functions
dHf\z)
,,.
^
by
write down
once
FUNCTIONS
BESSEL
OF
THEORY
.^^^.jy^i)
^(^"(.),z^^^^rH''\z)
zH%(z).
(.)
.
dH^!;\z)
dnf{z)
a)
,,.
Hm
Note.
266 ; (6)xiv.
(1897),i").
Eayleigh on several occasions,e.g. Phil. Mag. (5)xlhi.
iv.
[Scientific
Papers, (1904),p. 290; v. (1912),pp. 410"418],has used the
(1907),pp. 350"359
denote
symbol D^ (z)to
3'61.
the function
the
connecting
Relations
of the formulae
some
which
Nielsen
calls
three kinds
followingset
(2)
^iriH
[z).
of Bessel functions.
of formulae, which
kinds.
express each
reader will observe
The
are
functions
the
on
left.
H^H^)+ ^f(^)
r,
,,,
^^^
Y.^z) YA^)
'^''^'^
+ e^''^Hfiz)
e^^^H^\z)
F,
^^^
"^A^)
Y
.,x
^^^^^^
.ox
^"^^
...
F, (^)
'
sirTW
_/..(^)/.(^)cos^7r
Yi
'
_e^''^Hl'^{z)e^'Hf\z
",
^^
gj^^^
^r.(^)e"r,(^)
HW^s_JA^)e'"''JA^)
sin
sin
T/TT
jim,.^e^"'JAz)JA^)
"
(7)
From
^tt
'
H^^\z)Hf\z)
/.(^)cos.7rJ_.(^)
"
(6)
VTT
sin;;7r
i^.l^)
(5)
(^)cos
cos
^STT^tT
^Y.,{z)e^iY,{z)
isinyTT
H^]l(z)
=
obvious
e"
'
i/tt
sinvTT
that
^i^^(z),
?;(z)
=
'
e"
7/f^ (z).
76
It is clear from
m,
[CHAP. Ill
FUNCTIONS
BESSEL
OF
THEORY
[J,(z),n i^)]
=
cosec
_2_
Wi
vir
[J.(z),J_. (^)l
"
irz'
result is established
This
of
hypothesisthati^
be
integeror
system of solutions.
siderations
con
Hence
not.
an
integer;but
an
r, (^)l 2/(7r0),
mi{JA^\
v
is not
that
shew
continuitj^
(1)
whether
the
on
F^ {z)alwaysform
Jv{z) and
mental
funda
that
It is easy to deduce
ra{/.W.Y.Wl
(2)
jjjj^,
and, in particular*,
im[Jn{z),^n{z)]=2lz.
(3)
When
we
Y^ (z),it is found
Wi
(4)
so
that
of the
third kind
of /"
in terms
{z)and
that
[H?(z),hT
functions
the
the functions
express
of the
{z),F, {z)]
C^)}=^i(m{J.
third kind
also form
ii/iTTz),
fundamental
system of
v.
Math.
Soc.
formulae
connected
(1) and
with
(1889),p. 55;
XXI.
(5)
J, (z)IV
(6)
j; {z)} v
(7)
J. (z)IV" (2)
(8)
j; (z)IV" iz)
(9)
(10)
J, {z)}v)(') y. (z)
(11).
(^)
j; {z)r,(iv)
(z) JV {z)^.("")
J2,
^)
(^1
n (2)J.'" (2) ^.
('^1)
r; (z)J.'" (z) ^2(I"
1)
=
'
'
A (1

J^^Kz)=^A,
(1
Throughout
these
formulae
1\ may
be
be
Cf.
Lommel,
Math.
Ann.
iv.
2i/2+3 ,\
+
V
^
/v*+ Uv'^
(^^4
replacedby J_"
are
if the
replacedby
expressionson
the
right
throughout if the
S^^\
ZT^^^^
2i.
(1871),p. 106,
and
Hankel, Math.
Ann.
vni.
(1875), p. 457.
37]
BESSEL
An
associated
Math.
Ann.
formula, due
to
FUNCTIONS
Lomtnel*
77
Math.
Ann.
iv.
Hankel,
(1875),p. 458, is
viii.
J,{z)Y,,^{z)J,,^{^z)l%{z)^\.
(12)
irz
This
is
proved
Bessel
3'7.
iu the
differs from
which
in
occurrence
way
as
"
(7).
32
differential
The
same
equation
Bessel's
problemsof Mathematical
Y^ (is)are
However
is regardedas
its phase,
not with reference
of the function
of arg z,
J^ (iz)would
it
by
the
systems
When
the fundamental
which
is a solution
symbol /^ (z)so
that
convenient to define
complex variable,it is usually
the
of
value
to
principal
arg iz,as the consideration
but
with
value
reference
to the principal
suggest,
that
so
introduction
The
"
argument
that
of the
is due to Basset
four
suggestedthe
use
other writers.
the Continent
on
as
compared
positionsof Pare and Applied Mathematics
are
remarkably illustrated by the fact that, in Nielsen's standard
the second
solution K^iz), which will be defined
treatise ", neither the function Iv{z)i
nor
in
of
their
in physicalapplications.
is
mentioned,
even
spite
importance
immediately,
The
with
relative
this
The
country
function
I"{z) is also
solution
of
(1),and it is easy
to
prove
(c"
"312)that
^(3)
*
Lommel
m
gave
the
corresponding formula
for Neumann's
^^^
.
function
of the second
kind.
Camb.
Pliil. Soc.
vi.
78
It follows that, when
a
fundamental
In the
of functions
case
by
The
system of
the methods
function
an
order,a
integral
of
""3*5
of
lim
K^ (z)
(4)
solution has to be
second
structed
con
3"54.
"
will be
Kn (z),which
second
[CHAP. Ill
FUNCTIONS
is not
BESSEL
OF
THEORY
adopted throughoutthis
equation
work
as
the
^//_,(2)/,"
V
"
An
It may be verified,
by the methods
the order v is equal to n.
Macdonald*,
by
the
solution of
function
The
of
values
(1)when
of
v,
by
equation
K,{z)
(6)
^7r^''^''^~^''^.
Sm
it may
and, with this definition,
I^TT
be verified that
Kn{z)=\miK,{z).
(7)
It is easy to deduce
from
h! (iz) iTTie*'"''
H[,(iz).
^TTie^""'
K, (z)
(8)
(6) that
that
x"
it is
through
established
in " 723.
^,,(2)is due to Basset,Proc. Camh. Phil. Soc. vi. (1889),p. 11, and
his definition is equivalentto that given by equations(4) and (5); the infinite integrals
by
in "i^6'14, 6:15. Basset subsequently
which
he actuallydefined the function will be discussed
The
definition
modified
18
pp.
"
order
In
Gray
omit
19, and
and
to
obtain
Mathews
the factor
of
function
in their
1/2",so
equivalent to
which
work, A
Hydrodynamics,il. (Cambridge,1888),
in his
"
r,
satisfies the
Treatise
on
^^
same
^^
"
recurrence
Bessel Functions
formulae
as
/^ (z),
equivalentto.
ira/_^)_a7j^)
The
of unrestricted
formula
K^
*
Proc.
London
Math.
I/TT
{/_^(2)/^(3)},
Soc.
xxx.
(1899), p. 167.
order
is
by
the
371]
Analysis," 17'71)but
(of.Modern
it vanishes
whenever
formulae
is
1v
will be used
function
been omitted
although it
function
factor is not
undesirable
so
those
disadvantageof
that it would
it is
the serious
as
A"^{z);
have been
not
the
satisfying
connected with
"
advantageousifa
K^,(z)are
not
of
common
occurrence.
formulae
for the
for
are
^L (Z),/Cx (Z)
(2)
(3)
(4)
zi: (z)
/C+i (^)
=
1: {z\
vK, (z)
^^ (')'
2K: (z),
zK,_, (z),
zK,^, {z),
[z^K.{z}] ()^''^._,"{z\
{z^L(z)] ^"'"/.m{z),(^^)"
(^)"
=
\zdz) \
s"
z^^'^^
(8) I^n{z)
\zdz) \
'
K: (z)
(7) I,'{z)=L(z),
id)
factor ^n had
/"(^)and Ky{z).
The
rence
recur
the
(1)
^^^
same
to make
now
of the formulae
5)
that
disadvantage
inadvisable
now
give various
constructed in ""3*2 3*6
shall
the
linear combinations
3'71. Formulae
We
suffers from
has
the definition of
from
(" 3'54)because
79
/^ (s).
as
of Macdonald's
"
this function
odd
an
of formula (8)shews
inspection
An
FUNCTIONS
BESSEL
formulae
integral
following
are
'
Z^^'"
K, (z),
(^zY
liijJL
onlywhen
cos
R(v
6) sm'''dde
e^^^o^^sin"Odd
^ifll"
=
valid
I'^osh
(z
r7"XTVr7rx
K_,{Z)=K"(Z).
Iniz),
lAz)
Z^
/'''cosh
(z cos d) sin^'edd
[ (1
/,
h)"
80
These
results
due
are
InH (^)
(10)
()"(n+ r)!
,%r\{nr)\{2zr
sj{'lirz)
I
(^i 4 7'")
^^
{Z)
I(n+h)
(11)
(Y(n + r)l
:^
z
^(2rrz)
I r=orl{nr)l(2zy
,^orl(7iry.{2zyy
(n + r)\
(^VeS
2z)
^",,(^)
,.ZQr\(nr)\(2zyy
e^
^^
(12)
Ill
also have
We
to Basset.
[chap.
FUNCTIONS
BESSEL
OF
THEORY
'
r=Qr\{nry.{2zy
(18)
K. (A
(14)
^i^"
f (m
{m
{logi^z) \y\r
log(iz) 7. {z)+
(15)
2,"=o
1),
m!(^^)"""
/'l9\n+2jn
00
m!(M
,=0
Hi)!
1)
^^/r(n +
)},
+ 1
7n
"
Z'o(^)
(16)
e^''"^0
(17)
K, (^e"')
(18)
7C {z)
e'"'
(19)
5ie{7.,(2),
A^(^)}=1/^,
(20)
The
integralsinvolved
memoir
"Zur
The
pp.
Theorie
"
in
been
(9)and
the
der Nobili'schen
recurrence
formulae
have
used
by
he added
Soc.
been
Hertz
yet another
in which
notation
^=0;
Math.
Soc.
discussed
der
he
an
odd
those
described
by
"
in his
Riemann
also discussed
Camb.
the
Phil. Soc.
(1899), pp.
xxix.
Dissertation, 1880
to
(cf." 3572).
Stokes
order is half
in his Berlin
by
of Japan,
discussed
Farbenringe,"Ann.
Functions
and
(16)has
"
were
in
(1855),pp.
power
1/z.
The
I/TT
110
"
ascending
vi.
(1889),
115; and
integer,as in equations(10)and
{Ges.Werle,1. (1895),pp. 77
"
in
"
by.
19.
341.
(12),
91
J;
38]
BESSEL
functions of order
be defined
may
(1 )
x
ments
we
ber
ber
Hence
we
first examined
were
by
Thomson*; they
ber and
bei denote
definitions
I^,
(^vVO,
real functions.
expressedby
For
complex arou
the formulae
have
g....
bor(.)=ly;^
(3)
(2!)^(6!f
'
""""
(10!)^
second and
functions of any order of the first,
and Whitehead".
effected by Russell:J:
W.
by
equationj=
adopt the
(2)
zero
the
is real,and
where
occurs
81
TJiomsons
38.
FUNCTIONS
to
kind of order
by Russell by
I^ being replacedby the
defined
were
zero
function
(5)
Functions
to
of unrestricted order
defined
were
i"
by
(6)
(7)
her,(z)" i hei,(z)
It will be observed
(8)
of
(z)
=
"
hir hei
due
series,
following
The
if,""(ze^^'"').
that
ker
in consequence
to
Russell,are
without
obtainable
:
difficulty
+ lTrhei{z)
ker{z)= \og(^z).her(z)
(9)
with reference
Whitehead
Presidential
Address
to
(1890), p. 492.]
Papers,
f In the case of fLinetious
the
Institute
of
Electrical
Engineers,1889.
[Math,
and
PIiijs.
in.
of
order, it is customary
zero
to omit
indicates
the order.
Phil.
(3)XXII.
{z)and
kei
\V. B. V.
(z)occur
i.
in
memoir
by Hertz,
Ann.
der
Physik
nnd
Cheinie.
(1895),p. 289].
6
82
kei
(10)
(z)
ber (z)
{z) lrr
bei
log(1^)
E.Wtw^"'"'^'^
also been
It has
ber^
Eussell
by
ber2(2)+bei2(.)
(11)
"
had
this result
but
that
first few
the
of
terms
expansion
the
of
thus
(2)have simple coefficients,
bei^
(j)+
observed
[CHAP. Ill
FUNCTIONS
BESSEL
OF
THEORY
l+MV"+ii^+Mf,
obtained, with
previouslybeen
in the
541); the coefficient of (l^)^"
expansion on
...,
(cf.
notation, by Nielsen
different
the
rightis
Formulae
the results of
analogousto
Whitehead
(12)
ber_" (z)
cos
vir
(13)
bei_" (z)
cos
vtt
(14)
her_^(2^) cos
vtt
(15)
hei_^ {z)
vir
reader
The
been
worked
The
by
sin
will be
functions
B. A. Smith
3*9.
"
here
following
sin
vtt
her^(z) sin
vir
her,,(z)+
vtt
"
cos
discussed
by
[hei^(z) bei^(z)],
"
ber^ (z)],
[her^(z)
"
he\^,
{z),
hei,,
(z).
the
able to construct
of order
ptt
bei,,
(z)+ sin
which
formulae
recurrence
have
Whitehead.
lengthby
at
out
ber^(z)
been
have
""861, 3"62
in
examined
unityhave recentlybeen
detail
some
f.
The definition
of cylinder
functions.
Various
theoryof
the
have studied
and Nielsen",
writers,especially
SonineiJ:
analyticfunctions
of two
variables
the
satisfy
"^^{z)which
general
pairof
formulae
recurrence
(1)
'^._,(5)+ ^#.+1
(^)
"
^. (^),
(2)
"^.1(^)
in which
are
and
satisfied
in
hy
Functions
Sonine
'^Vi(^)
unrestricted
are
each
which
complex variables.
satisfy
onlyone
2*^; (^x
of Bessel
of the two
brief account
These
formulae
recurrence
functions.
formulae
are
also discussed
of his researches
will be
Chapter X.
*^
Phil.
Mag. (6)xix.
"fProc. American
X Math.
Ann.
" Handbttch
xvi.
(1910),pp.
Soc. of Civil
49"58.
Engineers,
xlvi.
(1920),pp.
375
"
425.
(1880),pp. 1"80.
Cylinderfunktionen(Leipzig,1904),pp. 1, 42
et seq.
by
given
84
THEORY
Some
writers*,
Fourier
(cf. ""
Bessel
Bessel
the
Jn{z)
Bessel
Fourier
function,
call
the
of
Jn{z)
seems
work
of
desirable
of
order
any
to
do
to
customary
Bessel's
but
so,
in
predecessors
his
used
were
associate
name
invention
the
with
because
also
before
long
of
of
them,
the
great
and
simple
time
Bessel
because
only
not
advance
made
compact
notation
by
functions.
Bessel's
(1836),
name
p.
associated
was
[Oes.
13
with
Werke,
Math.
(1891),
vi.
by
functions
the
p.
Journal
Jacobi,
"Transcendentium
101].
definitis
integralibus
determinandis
in
usus
que
coefficients
generally
the
on
it
1'4),
13,
become
has
for
called
who
Ill
function.
Although
it
Heine
following
[CHAP.
FUNCTIONS
BESSEL
OF
ill.
exposuit
fur
Math.
/j.* naturam
Bessel
in
xv.
varios
commentatione
celeberrima."
recent
more
series
of
letters
Nicolas,
E.g.
Jonrnal
cylinder
function.
fiir
controversy
in
Ann.
Math.
Sci.
lxix.
the
on
Nature,
LX.
de
VEcole
(1868),
pp.
norm.
p.
to
name
(1899),
128.
101,
sup.
Heine
applied
be
149,
(2)
xr.
also
to
174;
(1882),
seems
the
functions
(1909),
Lxxxi.
is
p.
to
be
found
in
68.
supplement,
to
be
responsible
for
the
term
CHAPTER
IV
DIFFERENTIAL
4'1. Daniel
The
solution
EQUATIONS
Bernoulli's
solution
givenby
Bernoulli*
of Riccati's equation.
of the
equation
^^az''
+ bif
(1)
^
dz
in
consisted
shewing that
0'
while
of
"l
h have
and
means
"
when
_S
any
the index
_12
_8
and
algebraic,
exjxjnential
is
zero
or
Ifi
f, then
the
Ifi.
equationis
The
logarithmicfunctions.
soluble
values
by
of
the formula
" 1
Im
where
of the values
_12.
values
constant
has any
integer.
positive
Bernoulli's method
of solution is as
follows
If
is transformable
'^
N=
(3)
1'
it is also
and
into the
(4)
n
index
is transformable
4.
the
because
equationof index zero is obviouslyintegrable,
4 is integrable.
variables are separable.
Hence, by (4),the equationof index
this
If
tinued
Hence, by (3),the equationof index
 is integrable.
process be conthe
arrive
at
we
by usingthe transformations (3) and (4) alternately,
set of soluble cases
given above, and it is easy to see that these cases are
comprisedin the generalformula (2).
Riccati
The
"
"
pp.
n
Exercitationes
473
is not
475.
"
The
restricted to be
t It is assumed
be
quaedain iiuithematicae
notation
an
used
by
(Venice,1724),pp.
Bernoulli
has
been
77
80;
Acta
;
Eruditorum,
and
in
this
1725,
analysis
integer.
that neither
Ji is
nor
zero.
If either
were
zero
separable.
t That
"
slightlymodified
r;
and
h have
arbitraiy values.
the variables
would
obviously
86
OF
THEORY
Daniel
4*11.
Bernoulli
[CHAP. IV
FUNCTIONS
BESSEL
of Riccatis equation.
transformations
Now
index
equationof
the standard
" 41 (1)as
the
and make
the substitutions
^"+'
"
[Note.
The
n.
The
substitutions
factor
+ \ in the
The
Y'
possiblebecause
are
denominator
presence
^
'
included
the values of
among
Bernoulli ; the effect of its
inserted
by
simple than
not
was
equationis
1 is not
"
more
if it
omitted.]
were
equationbecomes
1
clY
V2
,7*7
^^
'
that is
dY
where
in
Again
The
where
and
+ 1) ;
n/(?i
h{n + \YZ^
this is the
"
4 ; and
"
transformations
equationis soluble
solution in
generalequationof
the substitutions
index
N.
"
this is the
generalequationof
described
in
in the
The
When
the
stated.
cases
"
The
2.
finite number
in
this
v.
effected,and
proceduredoes
equationwith
equationwith
vjz,and
the
with
equation,
""4'1, 411
which
of transformations
To solve the
therefore
are
But
limiting
form of Riccatis
processes described
Riccati's equation,the value to
" 4"1
index
the
so
give the
not
compact form.
4" 12.
write y
aY\
equationbecomes
The
index
of the
index
"
2 is
"
2.
appliedto
continually
are
index
the
index
tends, when
not
consequently
in
soluble
by
*"
consideration.
2, namely
"
equationbecomes
dv
z
tt
bv
dz
and
this is
an
equationwith
Hence, in this
of
the variables
limiting
case,
elementaryfunctions.
Riccati's
separable.
equationis
still soluble
by
the
use
13]
41 14
This
solution
If
[). 185.
which
is
implicitly
given by Euler,Inst.
was
write
we
EQUATIONS
DIFFERENTIAL
(cf." 414)y
^^^
'T^'
~"r
87
Calc. Int.
(Petersburg,
1769)," 933,
ii.
equation which
determines
r)
is
Euler
does
although he
which
not
gave
both
connects
mention
to
seem
the
equation of
any
limitingcase
homogeneous
Riccati's
of Riccati's
linear
type with
linear
equation explicitly,
equationand
the transformation
equation.
examined
This
than
theorem, due
converse
soluble
cases
will
notation),
First transform
constants
follows
as
(1)
Riccati's
Define
new
ah
c\
cases
^'
'"'"'"
those in which
are
variable
by
the
so
zu
equationin
'
odd
integer.
equation
^
that the
2q2;
1/q is an
1
variables and
equationis
the soluble
recondite
cases.
specified
v/h,
(2)
and
in the
more
the transformed
equationis soluble
much
be
now
C(jurse,
of
devised
was
of the values
one
of Riccati's equation.
Elder's solution
method
practical
been
(orboth) is zero.
Liouville,is,of
to
now
_9
or
that the
Bernoulli's theorem
4"13.
in
in which
has
_S_K.
_4_4
0
and
the index
in which
dw
ciz
is
2c.^
(?
) ^^^'''^'^
=
0
equationis
providedthat
Ar+,
(2qr +
q +
l){2qr +
8^c(r +
~A7
Nov.
[1764],pp.
Comm.
154"169.
Acad.
Petrop.
1)
'
viii.
:5" 63
and
ix.
(17621763)
88
THEORY
and
+
so
1/(27H+ 1);
this
and
[CHAP. IV
FUNCTIONS
BESSEL
OF
solution*
proceduregivesthe
examined
Bernoulli.
by
the two
solutions
being the
(5)
0.
Cayley's
generalsolittion of Riccati's equation.
4'14.
We
,2_^2,2
constant
have
equationis reducible
that Riccati's
justseen
the form
to
dz
make
we
and
shall
we
is to
the
explainCayley'sfmethod
regarded as a canonical form
be
and, if f/jand
U^
are
respect to
the
system of solutions of this equation,
form
of Riccati's
constants
arbitrary
and
equationis
primesdenote differentiationswith
z.
To express
U^ in
Ui and
finite form,
V
so
that the
in
lu
equationsatisfied by zy
proceedingin ascendingpowers
^1
q{q\)
1
write
we
{cz^jq),
exp
is " 413
(4). A solution
of this
we
When
Phil.
take
the memoirs
(iriKSi^l)^,2,2.
.,^+
q{ql)2q{2ql)
J This
cV9
the index
of the Eiccati
by
equation
of z'i is
(ql){Sql)(oql)
q{ql)2q(2ql)Sq{Sql)
and
Riccati's
0 ;
fundamental
of
solving
the equationbecomes
(\ogv)/dz,
c^z^^^v
substitution!
r]
(1)
of
now
Euler
(1868),pp.
which
were
equation is
348"351
in
1702
by
James
11.
Cf. also
414]
DIFFERENTIAL
Now
U"
EQUATIONS
U,
^
exip("cz'i/(j)
integer.
multipliedby
Ui, U^ form
If q
ratio
the
Since
qiq
(ql){3q~l){5ql)
q(ql)2q{2ql)Hq{Sql)
U^
fundamental
the
were
equation(1) in
when
q is the
U^ is the
algebraicfunction
an
so
take
we
(ql){3ql)
series terminate
both of these
and
c,
^q{ql)2q{2q^'''''
'"
1)
and
89
of
reciprocal
of an
reciprocal
odd
exponential function
exp
of zJ, it cannot
of solutions of
system
an
odd
(fz"i +
"
be
constant
...
positive
{2cz'^lq)
;
and
so
(1).
we
negativeinteger,
should
write
the form
"P
(v/z)
0,
c'{l/z)"i'{vlz)
d{l/zy
=
it follows that
whence
where
Fi
j^
V2
and
detail in
The
""44
reader
equation,when
It is to be
to terminate
"
442
and
constants, and
(+ cz^/q)
exp
series which
The
see
72 are
"
have
been
now
l)
q{q
obtained
l)2q{2q
will be examined
...
l)
in much
greater
442.
should
have
it is soluble
noticed
with
cz"i+
q{q
that
the term
uo
the following
in constructing
solutions
difficulty
of Riccati's
in finite terms.
the
series
the
as
"'1,U2 (or l"i,V.^,
Glaisher,Phil.
Trans,
which
of the Royal
has
Soc. cLXxn.
zero
case
(1881),p.
773.
90
[CHAP. IV
FUNCTIONS
BESSEL
OF
THEORY
Among the writers who have studied equation (1)are Kummer, Journal fur Math. xii.
(1834),pp. 144"147, Lobatto, Journal fiirMath. xvii. (1837),pp 363"371, Glaisher (in
the memoir
reference has just been made), and Suchar, Bull, de la Sac. Math, de
to which
" 43.
France,xxxii. (1904),pp. 103"116
; for other references see
The
reader
soluble
obtainable
by taking j
2 in
second
the
(1),and
included
it is not
so
of Riccati's
form
equationwhich
This is
reduced
easily
independentvariable.
To solve the
examined
was
Schlafli
equation,
arrived
the
at
generalsolution
of the
2/
solution of
(1) is
m!
r(a
equationin
y is
between
function
1, 0
Later
Ann.
c.,F{al,t)
cd^'F
(
a,
t)
somewhat
s, defined
1
'*'
2
as
the series
a^
"
a^
1
"""
2^2+1)
2T 3
"
0^2+17(2
+
"^
""*
2)
'
used
of Schlafli's function,was
evidentlyexpressiblein terms
by Legendre,
of his proofthat tt is irrational.
(Paris,1802), note 4, in the course
the function
his Math.
di Mat.
was
studied
notation
(witha
different
(2)i. (1868),p.
t This
t).
de Geometrie
fragment in
*
a,
between
Elements
1)
Riccati's
is
'
evident ; but
The
new
then
c^F{a,t)+
rendered
cV^+^Fja
"
connexion
pn
F(a,t)=
1=0
which
was
'
00
to
equation
Iff
The
Schlafli
wrote
dt
The
by
of
the form
to
''"^
the
cases.
^^t^t^Ht\
(1)
and
the soluble
among
415.
The
that
and
diately
0, the equation(1) is homogeneous and immeq
Bernoulli (" M) is
order equation solved by James
that when
will observe
should
be
232.
with
The
reader
will
Schlafli's solution
compared
with
notation) by Clifford;see
346
see
rather
the notation
posthumous
349.
"
that
than
of " 44.
James
with
Bernoulli's
solution
Cayley'ssolutiou.
in
92
reader
The
the
majority of
Univ. Nach.
And
the results
5, 7, and
1898, nos.
of the equationdiscussed
generalisation
obvious
(1)
Euler*.
by
either P
is
" 41
Qy^Ry^
P +
ox
are
any
Set. Math.
in
P, Q, R
where
4.
1899, no.
Riccati equation.
generalised
4*2. The
An
short paper
a
by Siacci,Napoli Rendiconti, (3) vir.
monograph on Riccati's equation,which apparentlycontains
of this chapter,has been producedby Feldblum, Warschau
also consult
should
139"143.
(1901),pp.
[CHAP. IV
FUNCTIONS
BESSEL
OF
THEORY
was
nxx
dx
nyy dx +
"
xx
dy
ii.
xy dx
studied
pn'mi gradtts
by IManfredius, De constructione aeqiiationmndifferentialum
(Bologna,1707),p. 167. "Sed tamen haec eadem aequationon apparet quomodo construiab
bilis sit,neque enim videmus
quomod5 illam integremus, nee quomodo indeterminatas
was
invicfem
separemus."
The
equation(1) is easilyreduced to
order,by takinga new
dependent variable
1 d
(2)
The
equationthen
C^^^*
if in
Conversely,
the
logu
dz
(/^
dR] du
Tin
rv
generallinear equationof
dhi
/,.
(4)
the second
order,
du
P^d?^P^dz'P''''=^'
(where
jJo,Pi, p^
are
given functions
(5)
it
equationto
determine
of
write
z),we
e/.'/d2^
y is
^J _ft_"!j,_y.
(6)
dz
which
defined
becomes
/r,\
the
the linear
is of the
Riccati
type
same
equationwith
as
po
/)o
of the generalised
completeequivalence
equationof the second order is consequently
(1). The
the linear
established.
The
equationsof
1896, pp.
*
Nov.
Johnson,
t This
Calc. Int.
Comm.
Ann.
Acad.
of Math.
is the
II.
been
by Anisimov,
examined
1"33.
Petrop.viii. (1760
ni.
(1887),pp. 112
generalisation of James
1761) [1763],p.
"
"
1896, p. 256.]
32 ;
see
also
short
paper
by
W.
W.
115.
Bernoulli's
Univ. Nach.
Warschau
pp.
substitution
88, 104.
("11). See
also
Euler, Inst.
42,421]
DIFFERENTIAL
Elder
4'21.
93
theorems
EQUATIONS
solution of the
that, if a particuhir
by Euler*
Riccati equationis known, the generalsolution can
be obtained
generalised
solutions are
known
the general
by two quadratures; if two particular
solution is obtainable by a singlequadrature
f. And it follows from theorems
if
and
Picard
three
discovered by Weyr
solutions arc known,
that,
particular
be effected without a quadrature.
the generalsolution can
It
has
To
prove
and
shewn
been
he
the first result,let i/,,
write y
equationin
^/v The
yo +
solution
particular
is
'^ {Q+2R"j,)v
+
of which
0,
the solution is
V
and, since
To
of
exp
l/(y
"
the truth
t/o)"
"
y^ be two
y
dz
prove
exp
0,
is manifest.
solutions, and
particular
write
ih
"
"
yVi
The
result of
"
dw
3/0yi
and, when
and
dz
we
"
dz
substitute
for
last
Ih'^v
equationis
Vq
(y^'^^ y^

1 dz
"
y in the

p _^ q
Qya + Ry^^,the
P +
dy,
_^
{w"\y
1) for
{yiW "y")l{w
substituting
values
iv
"
F +
Qy^+ Ry^
1 diu
r,
tu
so
that
where
we
tu
that y
see
exp
/(i?y" Ryi)dz],

w,
integration.Hence, from the equationdefining
is expressedas a function involving
a
singlequadrature.
is the constant
r,
dz
of
solutions alreadyspecified,
prove the third result,let y^ and y^ be the
le^2 be a third solution,and let c' be the value to be assignedto c to make
To
y reduce
Then
to y.,.
yo
c_
yya
yo
^
'
yyi
this is the
and
*
t
Math.
Nov.
Ihid.
XL.
Gomm.
p.
59,
in
integral
Acad.
and
(1850),p.
Fetvop.
ix.
361.
viii.
form
uii/^'
free from
quadratures.
(1762"1763) [1764],pp.
163"164.
See
also
Minding,
Journal
fUr
94
generalsolution
in
expressible
the form
four solutions,obtained
by
the values
givingC
is
yi,yi be any
that, if ^/i,yu
it is evident
Hence
[CHAP. IV
FUNCTIONS
BESSEL
OF
THEORY
{yiy2)(y3yA)
(2/l2/4)(2/32/2)
is
; for it is
of z
independent
equalto
(6\a)((73C,)
(C.QCCaO,)'
In
the obvious
spiteof
noticed
been
until
it does
of this theorem,
character
not
have
to
seem
fortyyears ago*.
some

these
form
the methods
correspondto
by changesof
of
propertie.s
Various
functions
the
been
have
"'
^(f);
the
obtained
of
solution
by
of Riecati's
C. J. D.
1356; cxxviii.
(1899),pp. 410
Comptes Reiidus,xcvi.(1883),pp. 1354
de V Assoc. Francaise
Jamet, Comptes Rendus
(1901),pp. 207
(Ajaccio),
228;
Autonne,
"
"
behaviour
hagen, Nieuw
The
(1902),pp. 1
"
equation of
of P, "^,R
near
singularities
Wiskunde,(2)VI. (1905),pj). 209
"
the second
order
whose
23
37
"
412; and
"
Atm.
de la
21.
of the solution
Archiefroor
rational
Hill,Journal
primitiveis of
has
been
studied
by
Falken
248.
the type
Cir)i+C2r]2+ C3rj3
^
where
the Riccati
no.
Toidouse,IX. (1895),
and
Comptes Rendus,
*
de
Weyr,
VEcole
Ahh.
norm.
is devoted
Noiiv.
Ann.
cxxxvix.
hdhm.
Ges.
s^ip.
(2) vi.
to
of integration(which is an
obvious
generalisation of the
equation),has been studied by Vessiot,A7m. de la Fac. des Sci. de
6 and by Wallenburg,Journal fitrMath. CXXi.
(1900),pp. 210
217;
constants
primitiveof
the
(1903),pp.
1033
"
theory of surfaces
and
applications.
de Math.
1035.
(4)ii. (1902),pp.
529"545.
twisted
curves"
p.
30; Picard,
which
theory
the
in
Ann.
result
which
is
Sci.
tained,
con
Kiccati's
43]
DIFFERENTIAL
Various
4'3.
The
Bessel's
EQUATIONS
95
of Bessel's equation.
transformations
about to investigate
derived
are
equationswhich we are now
transformations
of
the dependentand
equationby elementary
from
pendent
inde
variables.
first type which
The
where
is
unrestricted
an
shall consider
we
The
constant.
equationis of fiequent
occurrence
is
problems,
usuallyan integer.
p
and, in such
physicalinvestigations,
in
is*
in the
of Heat
and the
Tlieory of Conduction
xn.
Polytechnique,
(cahier19), (1823),
the Royal Soc. 1868, pp. 447"464
[Phil.Mag. (4)
XXXVI.
(1868),pp. 401"421, Math, and Phys. Papers, iv. (1904),pp. 299"324]; Eayleigh,
Soc. iv. (1873), pp. 93"103, 253 283
Math.
Proc. London
[Scientific
Papers, i. (1899),
in
in
which
2
The
the
occurs
specialequation
138,
139].
Theory of the Figure of
p
pp.
The
de
VEcole
the Earth;
Ellis,Camb.
see
Since
Journal,
Math.
equation(1) may
li.
be written
d(uzi)
^d{uz^)
(1841),pp. 169"177,
193"201.
in the form
.",,.
_,
,1..,,
its general.solution is
(2)
ii
zi%+.{ciz).
Bessel's
equationwhen p is
unrestricted,and no advantageis to be gained by studyingequationsof the
form (1) rather than Bessel's equation.But, when
tions
the solujj is an integer,
of (1) are
"in finite termsf" (cf." 3 4), and it is then
expressible
desirable to regard(1) as a canonical form. The relations between
frequently
various types of solutions of (1) will be examined
in detail in ""4'41
4'4:).
"
Tiie second
type
of
the
dependent variable
The
roots
vz~P
equationis
which
of the
indicial
we
thus
are
generalsolution
(4)
"'"
Mem.
See
t This
Las
Plana, Mevi.
was
just been
di Fis.
known
made.
della B. Accad.
della
to
transformation
equationhave
and
"
p, and
zero
so
we
of
root.
write
dv
2
zP+^'",,+,(ciz).
delle Sci.
Soc. Italiana
Plana, who
p+l
(1) by
is
v
di Mat.
2p
from
indicial
the
the
makes
/Q\
of which
derived
di Torino,
studied
xxvi.
(1828),pp. 183"188.
equations (1)and (5)in the paper
delle Sci.
andPaoh,
xx.
to which
reference
[CHAP. IV
FUNCTIONS
BESSEL
OF
THEORY
96
(1876),pp. 1011"1016,
Next,
we
in its normal
derive from
We
form.
becomes
'^^,cV^'v
(5)
0,
its solution is
and
(6)
When
taken
to
into the
is absorbed
factor
constant
a'i/qy'^'^^'^m,){ci^'^lq).
symbol '^,the
solution may
be
be
r*"^l/(2,)(c^"W(Z)"
has
Equation (5),which
Mem.
Studien
encountered
Tonno,
in
1868), pp.
(Leipzig,
Functionen
of the researches
interesting
account
been
studied by Plana,
Cayley, Phil. Mag.
9"12]; and Lommel,
112"118.
been
The
(1821),pp. 519"538;
xxvi.
Papers,vii. (1894),pp.
[Collected
348"351
(1868),pp.
(4) XXXVI.
alreadybeen
delle Sci. di
della R. Accad.
constructed
important memoir
433"438;
contains
an
Haentzschel
which
both
of
zero.
by Glaisher should
Messenger,viii. (1879),pp.
followingpapers
The
pp.
g^ are
cussed
dis
of earlier writers.
The
who
has been
also be consulted
20
Proc.
23;
"
Phil.
London
(1872),
(1878),
Soc. ix.
pp. 197"202.
It may
be noted
of
equation(1) used by
various
writers
are
as
^J+y=^^^"
d^R
j^"
(Plana),
n{n + \)
au="
",
"
follows:
/p
"
(Glaisher).
u.
of a
by Greenhillin his researches on the stability
Equation (5)has been encountered
variable
u
nder
When
of
the
the
crosssection
action
of
crosssection,
pole
gravity.
constant, the specialequation in which j f is obtained, and the solution of it leads to
vertical
is
Bessel functions
*
Phil. Trans,
and
Dublin
of order
of
the
Math.
Royal
1
.
Soc.
Journal,
clxxii.
(1881),pp. 759
"
828 ;
(1854),pp. 272"290.
Math,
und
t Zeitschrtftfiir
Phij". xxxi.
(1886),pp. 25"33.
Phil. Soc. iv. (1883),pp. 65"73.
X Proc. Camb.
ix.
see
also
paper
bridge
by Curtis,Cam
431]
DIFFERENTIAL
Lommel's
4'31.
transformations
of Bessel's equation.
examined
types of transformations of Bessel's equationwere
by
two
of a somewhat
occasions;his earlier researches* were
special
Various
Lommel
97
EQUATIONS
on
much
were
In the earlier
general.
more
that
after observing
investigation,
the
generalsolution
of
is
(2)
3/
Lommel
proceededby
generalsolution
which
is
^'"g;(^),
direct transformations
where
z^''~''9$\{jz^),
a,
to construct
/3,7
the
equationwhose
His
constants.
are
result,
generalsolution of
is
(4)
it
When
and
when
unless jiv \H
The
into
0, it degenei'ates
zero.
solution of
(3)was
givenexpHcitlyby Lommel
followingfor refei'ence :
in
nvmierous
specialcases.
It will
^^'^A^.
cfe^+.rf^+n.^'?)^*=^'
(5)
"=.i''%^.(v/.).'
0;
,g* (l_,)J+l"
(7)
ctz
az
(9)
^2 /32/.23
(11)
P^"zu0;
An
2^''"'2?,(7^^).
'
0;
u=
u=zi^i(izi),2H#j("ul).
of Stokes' researches
account
zi^i/c,^)
(yz?).
on
the
solutions
of
equation (11)will
be
given in
"" 64,102.
*
Studien
(1871),pp.
t Math.
w.
B.
liber die
Bessel'scken
Functionen
(Leipzig,1868),pp. 98"120;
Math.
Ann.
475"487.
Ann.
F.
xiv.
(1879),pp.
510"536.
iii.
98
THEORY
Lommel's
OF
later researches
appeared at
about
the
same
to
the
two
d^jylxi^)] 2vld[ylx(z)]
d[y^{z)Y
yjriz) d^Jriz)
of which
the solution is
reduction
the
y}r{z)
adequateto
'
%(^)]%(^)
^ ^
%(^)
'^
J ^
equation
take
"^(^) ^'(^){%(^)Plt(^)}"^
(14)
If
^^
x(^)Ja^
i^iz)
It Avillbe
Lommel's
equationbecomes
l[ylr(z)
Now
memoir
papers.
(^)
as
x(^){^i^)V'^Mf(^)}
(z)
[yjr
dz^
time
("4'3)
(12)
On
[chap. IV
FUNCTIONS
BESSEL
we
eliminate
dz"
(^)"it is apparent
^{z)
that the
generalsolution
of
dz^\_4^\"l,{z)\
2cf"{z)
l
yfr'
(z)]
+
4"\^}r'(z)yfr{z) + ^2(^)_^.+ ^'ir{z)\
j
1J
'Z
IS
(^(z)yfr(z)]
As
"^^)
special
case,
if we
take (p(z)
=
1,it is seen
that the
generalsolution
2
of
IS
(18)
y=snir(z)/f'{z)}."^^{.jr(z)}.
take x
(z) [y\r
{z)Y\ and
=
we
general
solution of
is
(20)
*
Messenger,
y=W{z)Y'i^^{y^{z)].
ix.
(1880),pp. 127"131.
The
functions
(z)and i/(z)are
arbitrary.
100
43 this is
By "
where
is
in
integrable
integer;
an
if
finite terms
that
so
J)4s
(lr)^}
(2)
,.
The
in the trivial
equation is also obviouslyintegrable
2="
compact notation,invented
is convenient
write
the
expressing
subsequently
for
and
now
{0L)n
The
notation
which
by
series which
{a +
...
will be used
and
Pochhammer*
2)
Pq,
...,
"
(a)"
1.
("i)n
{Cli)n ("p)n
"
"
"
rr~Y~Y~\
''
"
\Pi)n \Pi/n
"
"
"
7T\
\Pq)n
,.
particular,
^"{Ph
i i"^
,F,(p:z)=
functions defined
by
2;(p)2
^.{ph
z
0^^\p)n
n=0
The
modified
In
2.
b}^Barnesf,
We shall
investigated.
1),
n
m=
is,in general,
...,
be
to
are
00
ITT
pJ^gK^i,0(2,
and
.4=0
cases
l)(a + 2)
ci{a+
^^^^
of Pochhamvier
The notation
44.
[CHAP. IV
FUNCTIONS
BESSEL
OF
THEORY
ni{p)n
series
are
called
generalised
hyper
geometricfunctions.
It may be noted here that the
differential equation
and, when
p is not
an
Various
iF^(a; p; z) is
an
integer,
independentsolution
z^^
It is evident
function
.,F,{ap
l; Ip;
of this
solution of the
equationis
z).
that
by Pochhammer,
*
Math.
Ann.
xxxvi.
t Proc. London
of the
suffixes
_p and
Math.
(1890),p. 84 ; xxxviii.
Soc. (2)v. (1907),p.
q before and
after the F
The
to render
inodilieation
evident
587.
due
Cf.
" 415.
to Barnes
the number
is the insenion
of sets of factors.
44, 441]
4 '41.
We
DIFFERENTIAL
Various
shall
EQUATIONS
solutions in series.
examine
now
^c^u
and
obtain
101
relations between
in Pochhammer's
equation
1^2 u,
them, which
part be expressed
notation.
It is
It is
this
zP+'
The
which
.oF,{p + r, i c'z');
be written
equationmay
is
and
z^^S'p+'^iciz),
.oF,{lp; i c'z').
3P
in the forms
solutions of the
are
When
^ is written
(^
When
for
1) (^
jt)
the
{djdz),
we
+ l; 2p
zP+'e^'.^FAp
^p+i Qcz
last
,^F,{p+ l; 2p
2c^^
jj) {ue^'')"
(weT")
we
are
z'P e''
2; 2cz) ;
o.
four expressions
for u:
following
led to the
2; 2cz);
pairof equationsbecome
,F,( p
z^' e''
2cz);
2p:
.iF^{p\ 2p;
2cz).
on
the
involve
rightsimilarly
the
are
powers
when
same
2p
is not
we
integer,
an
2cz)
e'"
^oFAp
e''.,F,(p; 2p
J^)
2cz)
These
formulae
due
are
to
Kummerf.
to consider
have
now
It follows
from
"
31
that
the
cases
fUr Math.
xv.
(1836),pp.
138"141.
of
2p^2;
2cz)
ic'^')^
,F,( p
2p
2cz)
oF^{ip; \"fn
(1) has been provedfor general
replacing
p by
when
specialinvestigationis
integer.
t Journal
e"
When
on
I ;
sets
have
must
,F, (p
of the two
none
....
e'^'.,F,(p+l;2pv2
(1)
Since
z'^, z^p,z'',
2p
is
an
p
l in
"
(1).
integer.
also necessary
when
is half
of
an
odd
102
When
a
as
[CHAP. IV
FUNCTIONS
BESSEL
OF
THEORY
of
is
there
By
z.
lowest
powers
obvious
...
of
involved
that there
no
are
that
We
and
shall
(2) which
^; \"z^
are
not
zero.
of (1)
have to give an independentinvestigation
consequently
of series.
depends on direct multiplication
In addition
Note.
which
constants
are
kj,ko
kzP+\F,ip
where
the
to
should
researches,the reader
Kummer's
consult
the
tions
investiga
Papers,
(1868),pp. 348"3.51
[Collected
by Cayley,Phil. Mag. (4)xxxvi.
Phil.
(1872),pp. 433"438;
9"12] and Glaisher,Phil. Mag. (4) XLiii.
of the series
(1894), pp.
VII.
The
between
Relations
4'42.
(1881),pp. 759"828.
CLXXii.
equation
e'\F^{p+ \\ 2p + 2; 2cz)
which
forms
due
generalformula
to
p;
of the
case
particular
more
which
presently)
e^.FApa;
p;
0,
be stated
2; 2cz),
Kummer*
.FAa;
(1)
which
e'\F,{p+ \; 2p
first suppose
"
nC"i {p
"=o(wm)! w!(p)^
w!(p)nm=o
1=0
"),"(1
n)r,
,(1 an)n
nl(p)n
(a)"
'
ifwe
in
firstuse
the numerator;
result
The
values
*
III.
Vandermonde's
!(p)n
theorem
f and
then
reverse
requiredis therefore
established when
and p have
generalcomplex
J.
Journal
(1874),p.
fur Math.
xv.
(1836),
pp.
138
"
141;
see
Ann.
also,Bach,
Sci. de VEcole
norm.
sup.
(2)
55.
Camb.
the theory of
on
(1908),pp. 254"257.
proof depending
Phil.
Soc.
xx.
contour
integrationhas
been
given by Barnes,
442]
DIFFERENTIAL
103
EQUATIONS
unless
equation(1)is obviously
negativeinteger,
meaningless
of (1) in these
also a is a negativeintegerand a ]" p . The interpretation
will be derived by an appropriate
circumstances
limiting
process.
p is
When
so
negativeinteger(= N) and let p not be an integer,
is valid. The
series iF^{"N; p: ^) is now
a
that the precedinganalysis
sists
^) is an infinite series which conterminatingseries,while ^F^ip + N ; p;
in
\vhich
the
earlier
followed by terms
factors p + N,
of iV + 1 terms
First let
be
"
"
p +
N
p +
li^'i
(p + iV
is any
; p ;
then
^11'*^
"
\l,N
in which
then
we
the
does
numerator
to
see
01 =.F,(.Y;
replaceN hy
M
ordinarycase
and
"
^)^
and
from
have
M+2;
^)
This could
,F,(N;
have
been
value, and
integral
an
with
(.5)
Cf.
far
^^^^"*"\
^^^+,
...
the term
as
the
vanishing
though
as
^^\ i.e.
their ratio
that
M;
^ by
,F,{N
Ol
have
^,we
M;
J/;
we
^1
1
e^.FiN +1;
^v
H
2; ^),
deduce
derived
then
2 ;
that
0^=e^^F,{IyM",^r:n^.
M;
v. (1871),
pp.77"
Gayley,Messenger (oldseries),
462],and Glaisher, Messenger, viii. (1879),pp. 20" "23.
*
in
.^^M+l^ (,Y+
of (1) we
,F,(MN\l
y^
in
factor,w^hile
zero
proceednormallyas
being cancelled
N\{MN)\
an
0^,
contain
not
wnth terms
denominator
M:
,F,iNM;
(4)
form
M, and the limiting
"
When
*
^)]=e^,F,(NM;M;
means
and
,F,(N;
(3)
equality.
of
With
....
it is to continue
factors in numerator
one
2,
symbol ']means
and
(^^'~^\
be written*
symbol 1
As
...
"
N,N
integers
in w^hich the
were
both
,i^,(iV; .";
(2)
in
in the denominators.
I, p +2,
p, p +
be cancelled
can
'may proceedto
we
(1) may
"
of the
Hence
the
in the numerators
in the sequences
...
When
of
2,
with
82
Papers, vm.
[Collected
(insteadof
a)
(lB95),pp.4oS"
104
THEORY
We
examine
next
which
forms
[CHAP. IV
FUNCTIONS
BESSEL
equation
the
^\F, (^ +
(6)
OF
1 ;
2p
2 ;
2cz)
o^^i
(^
f ; \c'z%
which
of
the remainder
is also due
to
Kummer*.
the coefficient of
suppose that 2p is not a negativeinteger,
the productof the series on the left in (6) is
If
we
( 2r
"
{p
{Y
1)",
Now
"
2'"
expansionof (1
l{n
(1
2t)P'
and
t)'^+^'^\
it is
so
m)
2t)v'(1
dt
r"i
^)"+2i"+i
no+)
".\
"" in the
equalto
1
\
(1
(1
!/2)ph"'"irfM,
of the
"
that the
see
2;)!)"_",
"C,rt
(^J+ l)m ("n2p
/"(0+)
/"(0+)
27r*
where
lX"(n
"""
(p
{nm)\m\
,"=o
2,"
{czy'in
integralis
zero
when
is
even.
Hence
it follows that
jczT'
^
_
and
the
make
we
p tend
limiting
process
same
lim
,F^{p +
\:
proved.
to the
as
value of
negativeinteger, N,
we
find
by
before that
2p+2;
2cz)
,F,(1N;
2iY;
2cz) 1
^'^
(V'(N1)]N^
^
i2N2)l(2N)Y
2cz).
'
It follows that
oF,{^N; ic'z")e'''.,F,{lN;22N;
2cz)n
(Y(]Vl)\Nl
^^''^''''" ^^^^^"
(2^)!
"^
""
(2i\r2)!
If
we
"
and
throughoutand
2iV^'2c^"
add
the results
so
obtained,
find that
we
(7)
2.,F,{^N;
lc^z')=e".,F,(lN; 22N+
e''
.
2cz)1
^F, (1
iY;
2N; 2cz) ~^
Journal
filr Math. xv. (1836), pp. 138"141.
In connexion
Barnes, Trans. Camh. Phil. Soc. xx. (1908),p. 272.
see
443]
DIFFERENTIAL
course,
For
on
"
see
The
rightcancelling
by
proofof
of
use
Rummer's
equation(1).
with
This
is,of
different notation.
gration,
inte
of contour
6"5.
equation.
Sharpes differential
equation
.g 
(1)
which
J^r+},
(icz)in finite terms
for
expression
Barnes'
4 "43.
the
105
EQUATIONS
is
(. + 4),
0,
in the
y=G\
(2)
(io^{zGo^6+A\o^(tot\d)d6,
Jo
where
"iff
(3)
['"cos
(A logcot
hd) dd.
Jo
This
is the
its convergence
write
(4)
^
'^
It is easy
to
values of A
from
see
for which
cos
cos
(^0+.
j/(^)
of the
'
tanh
and
(f),
tanh
To
vestigat
in
it becomes
"^)
^
cosh(/)
./(,
this form
integral(" 2'3).
of Parseval's
appropriatemodification
that
integral
for
it converges
(complex)
1, andf
"
"
cosh ^ttA.
IT
in great
integTalhas been investigated
successive
given elaborate rules for calculating
The
y in powers
A
of
simpleform
reader should
*
by Sharpe
coefficients in the
and
of the solution
have
no
(which
was
e"'2,Fi(i+ iU;
expansionof
1;
2{z).
xii.
(1884),pp.
66"79
result.
; Proc.
Comb.
Phil. Soc.
pp. 101"136.
e.g.
has
givenby Sharpe)is
not
this
in verifying
difficulty
t See,
he
z.
2/
The
detail
Canchtfs Theorem
(1914),pp.
64
65.
x.
(1900),
106
OF
THEORY
the second.
4"5.
[CHAP. IV
FUNCTIONS
BESSEL
of
construction
differential
functions
of the
Each
possess
Now
and
is the
this
form
fundamental
hence
2v.
and
2n,
(ii)if
or
have
we
that 7^"=
so
(" )"c^",
ic exp
values
possible
2^^
Jn(y V^)?
{rrriln). (r
obtain
we
that
=
0, 1, 2,
solutions
2n
of
1)
n"
,..,
these
(2),and
system.
we
H^'\,+i,
Next, if '^"+.denotes
and
off
value such
all
if
integer,n,
an
Yn,
either J,ior
By giving7
is
"
1.
solutions
has any
(i)if
order
obtain Lommel's
equationwe
^/2)are
2i^Yn{'y
where
2?i +
if 9^n denotes
Hence
From
either
case
) K.n
(Iy)^*'""
(7 V^),
rightis of
the
on
not.
in the form
2^"^^ (7 ^2)
cylinderfunction
This
integeror
an
when
(1)
the
is
iT,'''
{2), H^'^^(z)
the functions
property
this
order, possesses
Yn{z), of integral
and
Jn{z)
2'^'"''^^
H^^\+),
(7 ^^z)is
have
that
so
'^_(n+A)e'"+^"^'^n+i,
=
solution of
d^^_(^cr^
where
has any
value
the solutions
and
*
Studien
ilber
so
that
such
obtained
die BesseVschen
g^
7^''+! c^"+i Q^n+\)n%^
ic
form
exp
a
Functionen
+ ^)},
{r7rij{n
fundamental
^j^g^^
(r
0, 1, 2,
2?i)
system.
(Leipzig,18G8), p. 120;
Math.
Ann.
11.
(1870),
pp. 624"635.
has
The
been
more
generalequation
discussed
by Molins,
Mem.
de VAcad.
des Sci. de
Toulouse, (7)viii.
(1876),pp.
167
"
189.
108
These
four
cases
(6)
(8)
g,"g.l";
^^
w;
These
to be the
seem
^*{"^i(^)
+ #i(^2)},
in the
their solutions
u=z^{"^i{izi)+WU"^h],
of Bessel functions
[CHAP. IV
FUNCTIONS
BESSEL
OF
THEORY
soluble with
Nicholson's
the aid
general
^32fx
2fi
"^^V42/x'
42/i'
4*6.
z^'^
l+2fi
42/x' (42^)V
equations.
Symbolicsolutions of differential
mathematicians
Numerous
given solutions
have
of the
namely
"=^^^".
(1)
in
symbolicforms, when
connected
intimately
are
It has been
j:)is
with
positive
integer(zeroincluded).These
the
(4'3) that
seen
formulae
recurrence
the
generalsolution
for Bessel
of the
forms
functions.
equationis
2i%+^{ciz);
and
the
from
recurrence
formula
" 39 (6) we
have
{ciz)].
[zi'S^
lj"j'
zi%^,(ciz) ( ciyzP^^
=
Since
where
any
function
cylinder
and
/3 are
of the form
as
'W^{ciz)is expressible
the
generalsolution
of
(1) may
be written
(2)
"
.P"(4Y?"!!"^"r.
\zdzj
where
*
modification
of this,due
/8'= /3/c.This
ajc,
"
to
may
Glaisher*, is
be
seen
aV^+/3'e~'^^
once.
by differentiating
Phil. Trans,
remarked
of the Royal Soc. clxxii.
(1881), p. 813. It was
by Glaisher that
equation (3)is substantially
given by Earnshaw, Partial
DifferentialEquations (London, 1871),
p. 92. See also Glaisher, QuarterlyJournal, xi. (1871),p. 269, formula
(9),and p. 270.
46]
DIFFERENTIAL
109
EQUATIONS
result
"
"
Next
""/)".'
zf
operatingon
function
function
the
operators z^
with
to
to
is
Equations (1914),"
It is easy to
from
see
reversal of the
zP+'
at
the
reverse
now
The
Nouvelle
CLXXii.
X It
function
of
z.
no
2) (^
(4T
=
^*'"^" ^
was
2^)+ 4) (^
2jj+ 6)
:^,
the
on
(^
of the
left)
2) (^ 4)

(^
...
(^
2p
(^
2) ^
e"z'+^)e
e'^^"'"]
(eo^)...
(e"^).
[^e^e^^
part
2)
dzj
by
get
second
of (5).
time, by repeatedapplications
the
with those
e~"^ (beginning
functions
previousprocedurewe
problem
Cambridge
2^
order
^p+i
*
a) Z,
(5) that
successive
presents
e^iP)B(^
bring the
we
Z is any
e"' ./(^
33.
when
this formula
in the
case
and
constant
proof of
is the
as
it is supposed
right,
applicationof the
.^a.
.",
The
the
write
/(^) (e"'Z)
a
1/^^"before
symbolicformula
the
use
(5)
in which
the
on
(d/dz).
then
the operator
multipliedby
is
It is convenient
S,
that
Glaisherf,
to
z'
In
and
due
symbolictheorem,
^""(:^J
ii^,dz)
(*)
that
the
shall prove
we
2p
4)
et^i'^t"]
zi'^
of
; see
the
p. 319.
UniversityCalendar, 1839,
Math.
Corr.
ii. (187(3),
pp. 240"243,
349"350
and
Phil.
Trans,
of
the
Eoijal Soc.
(1881),pp. 803"80.5.
was
remarked
by Cayley, QuarterlyJournal,
s"+'
xn.
(1872),p. 132, in
^2", i.e.
",
obey
footnote
to
paper
the commutative
by
law.
no
THEORY
proved. If
and
dz)
',dz
When
the
replace
p hy p
we
2P+1
(6)
we
of
1, we
find that
zP
I
"
"cz
dz)
'
1p"\
,d y+^
/3'e
"cz
(xe'^ +
\fdz)
^i'+3
solutions of the
that
zP+^V
(8)
see
+ ^edyae'^'
/
"
(7)
The
transform
generalsolution
[chap. IV
FUNCTIONS
BESSEL
OF
Z2P
equation
d^v
2p
dv
c^v
"
dz
0,
dz
which
[(3)of "43],
(9)
^e"'
yae^^+
!^"P+i
zdzj
d, \^+^
(10)
(11)
(12)
\
dz)
Z'
z^'
ae"^
d_\P+'
'Tzj
'
4
^'e'
^2p
diflferent and
direct method
more
of
"
dP'V
symbolic solutions
Similar
John
equation 15
vi. (1886
Hopkins UniversityCirculars,
A
pp.
for the
transformation
of the
solution
cz^'i~^v=0
discussed
by Fields,
7),p. 29.
"
(9), due
to
xi.
(1856),
364"371, is
(13)
{ae''\Sie").
c'""(^^.\
1
is derived
This
functions
We
of
thus
from
the
equivalenceof
obtain
the
1
equivalenceof
when
operators ",",
they operate on
the
followingoperators
:ci)"j]=""^"="*{C:^*)"a
=
is then
the
cz.
^2^ +
it
were
the
(p.^yp +
{cz)
_\cz^ccj czj
operators operate
on
function
\_\cdcj cj'
of
cz
and
Williamson's
formula
4'7]
DIFFERENTIAL
Liouvilles
4*7.
EQUATIONS
HI
classification
of elementarytranscendental functions.
we
"
For
write
brevitywe
f
I (I(z)),
I,{z)
e,{z) e(z)
e.(z) e(e(z)),
I (I,
(Z)),
I,(z)
...,
eAz)
(e,(z)),
l,,/(^)},
e',
fimction
of
is then
said to be
....
elementarytranscendental function\
an
function
algebraic
if it is
The
order
of
elementarytranscendental
an
function
is then
defined
follows:
as
inductively
function of
(I) Any algebraic
is of order
zero.
(II) If /,.
[z)denotes any function of order
of functions
of
r,
then
function
algebraic
any
of the types
at
least
one
Thus
of order
not
elfr(z) is to be
?"
replacedby
?'
1.
fr{z),and
it is
function of
2.
connexion
Orders
It may
be noted
merely remarked
*
Journal
de
that
Liouville
that it had
Math.
ii.
many
(1837),pp.
did not
56"10.5
be
fonction
the
as
in.
(18.38),
pp.
523"547
(1839),pp.
iv.
423"45(5.
all iudeiinite.
fiuie
explicite."
irratioiKtl
investigation,
functions.
algebraic
purposes
regarded
in detail,but
of this
powers
of :, sucli
as
z^
of
course
must
112
character
of the
investigation
The
linear differential
equations.
concerning
theorem*
first
Liouvilles
471.
[CHAP. IV
FUNCTIONS
BESSEL
OF
THEORY
equation
d}u
,
transcendant
x{z) is a
in which
orderf n,
has been
made
by Liouville,who
of order ni + \, where
which is of orderf n,
^ n, then either there exists a solution of the equation
in the form
expressible
else there exists a solution,u^, of the equation
If equation(1) has
of
theorem
following
or
^^=^^%(^"'
(1)
solution luhich is
(2)
where
u,
(f)^{2).ef^{z),
of 4"^{2)does
the order
order fu,,and
is of
ft,.{z)
transcendant
exceed
not
fj.,and
/m
is
Let
m.
concentrate
us
(I) We
m
1, then
solution
can
how
1, let it be
functions
functions
whose
of
order
fm+i{^); then
the types If^(z)^
does
not
function of
particular
accordingto its type.
on
or
more
or
attention
our
let it be called ^, ^
three types,and
of order
"
to
prove
be constructed
which
does not
one
solution
involve
exceed
of the
of order
functions
of
^.
function of 6;
F(z, 6),where F is an algebraic
of order ni + 1 which
in F
(otherthan 6 itself)
occurs
let /,"+i
(z)
For, if possible,
and
is
any
function
of
independentof
algebraically
it is easy to shew
Then
^^'
'^^^
dz'
that
dz^^f^Xz)dz
df,,{z)Yd^F\d \
\
^
6.
{z)
(/,"
"^
f 8^
dz
beingsupposedthat z and
differentiations.
the partial
it
are
dOdz
\
df,,{z)\\dF
"^
{z)
^dz (/,"
the
dz
\\de
in
independentvariables
^ ^^ ''
"
performing
Journal
t This
t
Null
de Math.
iv.
phrase is
used
solutions
are
an
abbreviation
disregarded ;
if
of
were
"
elementary transcendental
of order
less than
function
n, then
would
,
less than
n, which
is
contrary
to
hypothesis.
dz''
of order
".'
be of order
471]
DIFFERENTIAL
113
EQUATIONS
which
is therefore
is to say
That
zero.
^^^
(4)
When
differentiate
we
F{z,0
d'Fjz, 0
c)
'
solutions of
(1) for
all values of
^0' Ke,
(1). For
of
consequentlysolutions
either F
they do
If
put
we
0 after
be called
brevitythey will
Fg form
and
ol' (1)
system of solutions
fundamental
or
not.
they do
not,
have*
must
we
Fe
where
"""
'
""""
Now
If
c)
dF{z,e)
dF{z, d)
are
find that
c, we
independentof z.
become
expressions
these
performingthe ditferentiations,
which
dc'
ac
are
with regardto
(4) partially
dF(z, e
0.
c).x(2)
is
independentboth
of
AF,
and
On
0.
we
integration
find that
F:=(^e^',
where
involves
(of order
transcendants
in
Fg^ is expressible
where
in 6
and B
(with constant
and "I"2
are
"l"i
the roots
of the
^ ^,e^^
^.e'^^
only value
/3
0 ; and
of F
which
then F is
be
B.
".
the form
linear
equation
e'^^["i",
+ "i".d\,
nature
same
as
while
cj)^
and
jB are
"
0.
function
algebraic
linear function
"f 0.
is
an
of 6 is obtained
wc
can
prove
when
that
w.
Ax
"
if f^,^^^
{z)involves
Similarly,
it must
equationof
equation
X
The
an
BF,
or
of the
functions
by
and
coefficients)
F
where
AFe
Now
constants.
are
of F and Fg
terms
Fee
not
Since
must
involve
0, b'ecannot
be
zero,
identically
114
It follows that,in
write
may
of order
^p,q(z)are
involved
we
the functions
m
fm^^{z)involves
(z),
te, {z)d,{z)...dp{z) ^, {z)% {z)...\ (z) ir,^
,
/"^,{z)
of order
as
that
so
linearly,
it involves them
where
far
so
[CHAP. IV
FUNCTIONS
BESSEL
OF
THEORY
in them
onlyfunctions
the
of the type 0.
are
in
of the terms
any one
function of O^,6.,, ^i, ^2,
Take
1 at most, and
(z)which
f,n+i
is of the
highestdegree,qua
let it be
and
""",
...
is
solution of
function
f
is either
'\jrpQ(z)
But
of order
of order not
function
which
involves
functions
exceedingm,
of the
else it is
or
type 0
and
of
not
^.
In the former
we
case,
case
we
that
see
solution
some
to
functions of lower
of the
equationis
an
solution which
where
"^^{z),
of order
the transcendant
G is
of order
Then
yu.+
fi
and 0^
prove
our
solution which
of functions
n,
then
attention
on
(1) has
it has
of it
power
of the
order which
an
that, whenever
greater than
is a transcendant
solution of order
{z)is of
ef^{z)only in having a
concentrate
and
ef^{z),
algebraicfunction
an
shall next
transcendant
We
n,
f^ {z)is of order
(II) We
where
provedthat,if (1)has
have therefore
We
else it has
type ef^{z)and
solution
solution
as
or
which
which
is
involves
factor.
transcendant
particular
of the
form
then the
an
it is easy to shew
that
Ovr
^[/m"(^)+{/m'W]^^3G^.x(^)
^^
'
(? (5,c
0)
{z).
116
THEORY
Liouvilles
4*72.
We
have
second theorem
'J
(^) i^ of order 7i]has
scendant
differential
equations.
"%W
linear
concerning
IV
justseen
(1)
[in which
[CHAP.
FUNCTIONS
BESSEL
OF
then
n,
is
which
solution
have
it must
elementary tran
an
0M (^)e/;{z),
where
/u.^
equationhas
If the
/;.
(logu^jdz is
of d
than
more
shall
we
equalto
solution
one
the smallest
has
/u.
called
u^.
now
n.
Let
d
log u,
^
~
dz
and
then
If N=n,
satisfied
by
If
N"n,
then
^1
+
solution whose
the
order N
^'
not
exceed
is
is gi'eater than
n.
iV
an
1.
"
If t contains
our
attention
on
We
than
more
a
one
function
particular
t
used
and
this is
solution
differentiation with
for
in
" 4"7l,we
jF (z,6
all values
respect to
of
c=o
we
have
U2
so
itiJFg
dz,
that
du.y
of
(1) is
independent
l{exil"jF{z,e
c)dz]
write
c) dz,
_dc
is also
concentrate
c, we
does
respectively.
type d, we
we
order
c)
solution
corresponding
exp
6, ^,
F(z,d
a
of the
the types
of
F(z,e).
By arguments resemblingthose
is also
equation
(^)'
^/x.
t, namely
(2)
has
requiredis proved.
theorem
the
dui
,
"
u.
of
z.
Hence,
defined
as
by
472,473]
But
DIFFERENTIAL
the Wronskian
of any
EQUATIONS
solutions of
two
ih'Fe
where
G is
If 0
u,
Hence
Mj is
an
consider any
function
so
(1); and
we
write
Cr{z,"),
used
in
" 471
it., defined
and
those used
earlier in
as
0=1
have
that
da,
This
is
Wronskian
and
constant, C'l,
so
The
N, if N
^ ^
"
4"73.
We
shall
to
that the
by writing
*
See
e.g.
t Journal
concerned
"various
Forsyth,
de Math.
with
Treatise
iv.
the
to
modifications)
"1841),pp. 1"13,
36.
1
,
on
Bessel's
no
integral.
algebraic
uz~
i^
==
"v
"
is an
function
algebraic
of
z.
\
DifferentialEquations (1914),"65.
(1839),pp.
general
equation
no
We
/a +
be established.
(otherthan a nullfunction)which
integral
firstreduce the equationto its normal form
has
therefore
is of order
u,
be greater than
cannot
has
that BesseVs equation
theorem]
shew
now
that N
shews
And
Liouville's
in t ; and
occur
of
n.
contradiction
d([ogu,)ldzis n.
that
hypothesis
of order N.
where
was
we
expJG^(^,cQy)dz
du;
of
in t ;
occurs
dc
solution of
C :^0, and
in t.
occur
hypothesis
; so
it is an algebraic
function
similarly
which
of the
by arguments resemblingthose
this section, we
is
is contrary to
sJiCIF,).
and,
so
C,
algebraic
functionof 6 ; and
Next
constant.
117
case
429"435
; vi.
in which
equation was
Liouville's
(1841),pp.
4"7.
i^) is
polynomial; the
given
any
first investigation
application(with
Journal
de
Math.
vi.
118
THEORY
OF
[CHAP. IV
FUNCTIONS
BESSEL
where
xW="^^i^^i.
(2)
If
has
an
an
as
64{u,z)
(3)
where
is
in
polynomialboth
and
ii
in
it is
; and
is
irreducible*.
Since
is
solution of
have
(1) we
MuuMi'l"4uz^uUz\r9lzzS"r^^6"^^ux{z) ^.
(4)
The
of
is
rational function
of
for which
Let
any
this
Hence
z.
(3) be
of
; and
is not
sum
such value of
than
s" would
Mj, lu,
S4
itself,and
all the
roots
of ii)would
this would
be reducible,which
be
is contrary to
w,^.
...
there
hence
sides of
factor other
highestccrmmon
polynomialin u and in
hypothesis.
a
root, and
common
is at
least
value of
one
exceeding
not
zerof.
be taken, and
let
M
"
tf
"
\
M
Also
let
Tf ,
(5
1)
(s
1)
'du.
^i z/^*'"r'^X
\
m=\
where
prove
1, 2,
r=
...
Since
s.
u^, lu,...
u^j
are
dz J
all solutions
:Jof (1),it is
easy to
that
dW
'^"=,r.,
(5)
dW
~^=^Vr^^+
(6)
.^4 has
That
roots
Because
satisfied
is to say,
(4)is
of
no
factors which
(3) would
by
r{sr+l)x{z)W,u
be
are
polynomials in
(r
or
zero.
of
(3),qua
equation in
".
in
or
1, 2,
in both
...
"
and
1)
z.
473]
DIFFERENTIAL
W^ is a rational function
Since
that
so
EQUATIONS
,..
of z, it is
"
A^ and
where
Bn,q are
only in
values
integral
Let the
constants,
of
a,y)in Wr is 1/(2
1/(2
there is
Hence
contradiction
higherpower
that there
shews
are
?"
have
no
terms
From
which
Tfo.is
in
of
term
of
(2r).(s
geometricseries
of
degreesX
2 and
"
is odd.
When
is even,
is then necessary
by
(,"

highestdegree
to
that the
shew
equatingcoefficients of
s\
\A,.
,F, (1,
oFi{h,^s; ^
the term
analysisgiven by Liouville,
t The
point,because
in view
he
of
IV.
is; i
only of
the
hyper
z^~'^ in
(7) is
hs] l)y.
hj; 1)
0,
(.9 1)
"
apparently
only when
of
Journal
overlooked
the
here
is
X,
highest degree
de
Math.
based
Mem.
on
^^^
is
in
zero^f*.
xi^)
1
7,
algebraicfunction
delle
made
Sci.
to
seems
fail at
failure
vanishing. The
suggestion
Accad.
^^
(1841),p.
vi.
possibilityof
('"^*^
(z)+ J'tnh
jf^^j
hj] l),+a,
theorem,
Vandermonde's
It is to be remembered
!"; i
XA^.sl
on
expression
\)..^,(i,
2r +
...
Math.
of
shew
1.3.0
pp.
\A",{'^s^2)z^\....
of
^^
The
are*
the result of
is to say
so,
highestdegree in
of
be taken.
\Ak.s\
and
must
"""
3)
1 indicates
to
are
whenever
That
aq)~^ in W^
"
expressionfor W^
this
see
possibleto
1) (s
Bn,q(z
identically.
complicatednature
more
the suffix
If
of the type
right.This
the
on
highestdegree in W^r+\ is
\A,z"^' 2.4...
where
of
^;,^M.3...(2rl).s(s2)...(s2r+2).
induction
An
it is
"
K
\A",z^\ A^sz\
simpleinduction
to
occur
A^z\
By
vanish
\j{z a^y.
.9.
...
J.a=^0, because
if it does not
last term
that
assume
now
may
1, 2,
on
n=
We
in TFo be
where
UqY'^'',
"
"
positive
assumes
ciq^ 0.
occurs
"
from
n
integers,
are
and
which
l/(^ a.q)
easy induction
by an
A.
highestpower
It follows
and
in partial
fractions,
expressible
__?".?
119
of
z,
by "
34.
by Liouville,Journal
di
Torino,
xxiii.
this
evitable
in
seems
The
de
(18(51)),
120
THEORY
We
s
proved that,when
in the form
Wn is expressible
have
is even,
therefore
where
does
J.o,s
[CHAP,
FUNCTIONS
BESSEL
OF
~"
()
vanish.
not
IV
Newton's
which
theorem
equation
be even,
'1 ii'''^'}%.(l/z)
0,
u^'+
(8)
r=l
where
^^
the functions
When
solve
we
of
series of
where
is
vanish
not
the constant
And
l/z,we
find that
in the
positive
integerand,
because
of
ascendingpowers
in the form
is expressible
(8) in
polynomialsin l/z.
are
of
case
branch
one
in the functions
terms
at
^,.are
least,Cq does
not
all
zero.
of the form
are
00
?n
are
When
we
Co must
zero,
thus obtained
On
4"74.
We
shews
the
now
are
contrary
is
in
what
in
so,
just been
equationhas no algebraic
integral.
order
of
in finite terras
expressible
" 4"73,we
an
odd
by
integer.
Bessel's
reduce
of
means
equationto
elementarytranscendental
its normal
form
"="^"^)^{z)
Now
I
write d
p(p
t Journal
t,and
"
p=
"
^.
have
we
^^^.,i_"0l).o.
Goursat, Cours
convergence
and
l)/2''
(logu)/dz
(2)
*
find that
has
positionto
(1)
where
(1),we
in finite
Bessel's equation
terms.
impossibility
of integrating
functions,if 2v is not
As
to
side of
term
that Bessel's
equationfor functions
which
z.
of
de
d' Analyse,ii.
series derived
Math.
vi.
(Paris,1911),pp. 273"281.
in this
manner
(1841),pp. 1"13,
from
3G.
an
Many
treatises
algebraicequation,
assume
tacitly
the
474]
Since
has
(z)is of
If
has
(2)
t, as
integral,
an
an
have
i.e.it must
is of order zero,
which
Since
irreducible
an
is
az
(4)
in the
As
polynomialin
solution
expresses
this
0,
t and
z.
have
solution of (2),we
have
must
algebraic
integral.
an
S4 (t,z)
S^ is
(2)
(3)
where
in
integralexpressible
an
121
EQUATIONS
DIFFERENTIAL
[x (^)
^*
1']
0.
branches
of t
satisfy
(4).
dui
""'
'"''di
~
constants, which
are
Now
du2
~dJ
will be called
is
1.2
"
not
Mo
Cj ^ 0, and
would
U0U3
(and similarly
UsUi
Ui
therefore
u^
is
Next
suppose
LetTthe branches
and
that
be
so
=
.
has not
has
two
Mj
[F'+
be fixctorised so
Mo)is an
function
algebraic
oi
of
more
z.
than
branches, so
U and
This, as
two
we
have
seen
are
rational
4t7F=0.
and
integers,
"473,
quadraticin t.
functions of z.
By
that SW{t,2) is
are
in
branches.
that
z.
V=Az^U{za,;)'''t,
where
"
find that
^^^
V
have
and
in (2) we
substituting
Let
equation(3) would
Gi/{ts to).
function
algebraic
an
be the case,
cannot
the
zero,
were
so
But
and
,,
{is" 1.2}'.
UiUs
"
therefore be reducible.
ii^Us
Therefore
dui
~d^
''"'
"
Jz
dvo
K'S J
"J
because, if it
zero,
'''
dtti
ri
(J
^3
duo
dii^
verifythat
it is easy to
'
and
dui
'''^~'''~cU'
'
k,, and
a,, are
not
zero.
122
From
rr
_
4^
and
consider the
Now
that
is evident
is greater than
of them
of the
principal
part
of the
none
numbers
4, which
that Kg is 0 or
the numbers
Kg are
"
Again,if we
consider
principal
part
the
the
1 in ^
"
Hence
have
t cannot
as
for
expression
the
where
An and
values
onlyin
Bn^g are
constants,
that X
"^
highest
Kg.
consider
and
fractions
partial
\l{z ag)cannot
of t in
IS
Ug ^ 0.
find that
(2) we
Anz
(h=k
(^q)
5,,,
^^
\Z
that
B\
^1^5=
consider
"
we
may
PSp"1^
=
Ojg)J
0.
side
near
a^ we
the first and that
see
that
0,
principal
parts near
take ^_i
J'
1.
{A_yA_,==p(p+1);
K=l,
"v^,
the
positive
ii assumes
integers,
X, are
principal
part of the lefthand
in
^ to a higherpower
than
occur
if we
Similarly,
be
'
the
"
be rational.
it must
so
Zg {Z~ ag)
and
and
l^^+
n,q\^
It then
that the
see
we
n.
'"^'''
Since p=
all
Hence
K
this value
substitute
n=K
SO
oo
(z),so
in
Anz''+
nAnZ^^^
we
one
1
n=
If
consideration.
from
near
2, and, if any
"
equation
branches
two
as
many
t=
we
It
a^.
hypothesis.
let
Accordingly,
If
less than
near
z) is reducible,which
/4{t,
consequently
the left
2.
"
cancel with
in V must
power
equalto
have
we
U,
excluded
both
are
be
the
satisfy
Kg + ^fCq
SO
of (5)
on
expression
can
k^
2 it must
"
'
4"{z Clq)
into
by substituting
then
^9
""?
IV
that
(5) it follows
of
member
the second
[CHAP.
FUNCTIONS
BESSEL
OF
THEORY
without
p
0 and
oo
,
0, ^o'
loss of
find that
we
l.
generality.
follows that
u
zPe^''U(zag).
(J
if we
Accordingly,
must
this
have
replaceu by
solution
which
polynomialdoes not
z'P
is
vanish.
e^'^
in
(1),we
polynomialin
z,
see
and
that the
equation
the constant
term
in
124
THEORY
Solutions
4"8.
The
equation.
ofLaplace's
(" I'S) to
which
equation,
We
shall
Whittaker's*
the vibrations of
how
shew
an
problem of
in the
occurs
now
with
in connexion
be
the
of
analysis
in
first appearance
seen
[CHAP. IV
FUNCTIONS
BESSEL
OF
circular membrane.
natural
from
manner
equation
Laplace's
solution of
d'V
d'V
d'V
The
solution in
questionis
^^
(2)
in which
In
/denotes an
/(^
^*
^^^
*^
*V^i^
^*' ^) ^"'
"TT
of the two
function
arbitrary
solution
a
particular,
variables involved.
is
ixcosu
ek(z+
iysinu) QQ^.^^^^^,^^
'
TT
in which
If
we
k is any
and
constant
is any
integer.
coordinates,defined by
cylindricalpolar
take
cos
(f),y
p sin
the
equations
^,
gfcz
.
gikpcoi{u4,)
(jQg y^n^du
e^^ I
"It
manner
and
this is
analytic
near
(v + 0) dv,
j^^y QQg
j,j0^y^
In like
2e^^ I eifcpCOS"
QQg
by " 2'2.
ei*p'="s"
cos
"IT
solution is
"IT
Both
J",^
(A:/?).
of these
solutions
are
nates,
coordiAgain,if Laplace's
equationbe transformed!^^ cylindricalpolar
it is found
to become
'^
dp"*
Monthly
Notices
of the R.
A.
'^
dp'^
p d(f"^ dz^~
S.
lxii.
'
3Iath.
Ann.
lvii.
(1902),
pp. 333"341.
t The
W.
simplest method
Thomson, Camb. Math.
of
effecting the
Journal,
iv.
transformation
(1845),pp.
33"42.
is
by using Green's
theorem.
See
48, 481]
and
DIFFERENTIAL
solution of this
normal
EQUATIONS
which
equationof
125
be such
is
"
that
be
equal
which
is a
'
dp^
and
therefore it must
be
dp
multipleof
p'
./,"
(kp) if it is
to be
analytic
alongthe
line p =0.
We
thus obtain
the solutions
anew
e^^
md)
J,n(kp).
sm
These
solutions
Maxwell's
of
derived
been
have
method
Hobson*
by
harmonics
differentiating
the sohition
from
with
respect
to
^^J"(kp) by
Clerk
axes.
solution of
^
sin
arbitraryfunction
where/(2)is an
a
of the
function
function
London
of
kind
involves
of this solution when '^'"j
interpretation
Other
solutions
a
involving Bcs.sel
question.
been
given by Hobson, P)oc.
arbitraryfunction have
shall
examine
now
the
"^
"^
the
from
I'TT
wtere
In
'
of the
of propagation
velocity
waves,
/(^
denotes
sin
cos
"TT.
F denotes
Loudon
Math.
Ann.
an
t
(1904),pp. 122"137,
sin
cos
+ ct, u,
v)dudv,
is
+
1/sin
function
arbitrary
(1902),
and
silli} + Z":osu
+ ct)
^ /f^f^i\dudi*
(I
Matli. Soc.
lvii.
+ y sin
arbitraryfunction
an
solution
a
particular,
Froc.
equationis
i'TV
"ikixsmucasi"
where
dt^
cr
aspect.
same
(2)
the
motions
wave
dz'
dy'
492"494.
motions.
equationof
dx'
in which
(1895),pp.
xxvi.
of ivave
equations
^^
to
Soc.
Solutions of the
4*81.
is open
operator actingon an
xxiv.
(1893),pp. 55"67;
an
Math.
We
second
"'"V'^rf^
but the
xxii.
pp.
of
and
v.
(1892),pp. 431"449.
See
also Havelock, Proc.
H4o.
342"
xxxvi,
Watson, SIr.ssrnijcr,
(1907),pp.
London
98"106.
Math.
f^oc.
(2) ii.
The
is the
solution
particular
this
physicalimportanceof
generalsolution in which
[CHAP. IV
FUNCTIONS
BESSEL
OF
THEORY
126
the
the
all have
waves
frequencykc.
same
of
polarcoordinates
let the
cos
ft)
sin
sin
(f)) sin
(v
(n,v)
{v
cos
shew
that
(f)),
sin ^fr.
to be
Sn (u,v)sin
we
then
may
u, where
notes
S,,de
write
Sn {d,(/)
; Oi, ir),
in (w, ^) of
Sn is a surface harmonic*
co
"
Sn {U, V)
where
sin 6 sin
{u,v) of degreen
in
surface harmonic
cos
function
arbitrary
take the
Now
cos
trigonometrythen
spherical
of
formulae
wellknown
^axis. The
degreen.
We
Vn
TT.'
0
Sn is a surface harmonic
Since
sin codwdyjr.
Sn(d, (});ft),i/r)
gikrcosm
e^^"*
of
in
degreen
write
we
("","\jr),
may
Sn {6,"f";
(0,ir) An (0,(f")Pn (cOSft))
=
11
\ S
sin mylr\Fn"'
cos
[A J"'\6,(f))
(cos(o),
m^fr + BJ""^6,(i))
and """'""
An^"'^{6,
(^,"^)are independentof
"/")
An{6, 4"),
where
to
and
v/r.
Vn
lire'^'^^An
(0,(t") e^fc'cos.op^^
^qq^^) sin (odo)
=(2'7r)Ue''^"'^'I^^^An(
"
by " 832.
Now
t
by
the
the
equationof
same
factor,leaving6 and
"^unaltered
of the constant
Hence
to say,
lim (^"~''
Vn) is
is
r''An{d,"f")
motions, and
This
follows
motions
wave
is unaffected
i.e.if we
factor,
constant
so
k which
a
if we
and
t
multiplyr
{0,(f))
may
t.
r and
multiplies
multiplya;, y, z and
constant
by the same
that An
solution of the
equation of
be
to
be independent!
motions, that is
wave
solution
Laplace's operator is
an
invariant
for
changes of rectangular
axes.
t This
taken
is otherwise
obvious, because
S,^may
be taken
independent of A.
482]
is
DIFFERENTIAL
surface harmonic
of
EQUATIONS
If
degreen.
eikctyhj
we
127
it to be
assume
to
permissible
take
we
^kr)F,r (cos6)
^^^
vid"
sm
is
solution
representedby
that
justifythe assumption
/
di V
A,^{6,cf))
may
of the
solution
the normal
construct
,bV\
,cV\
drj
be any
equation of
/
0
c
sin 6 d0
^dV\
^dV\
dd
surface
a'I'
1
^
harmonic
of
degreen,
we
motions
wave
sin^ 6
i^d^V
'
cos
which
has
factors of the
form
t;'*"'
The
mcb.
factor which
involves
6 must
then
he of
sm
the form
involves
is annihilated
by
the operator
l)U^r^
(r'^"yn(n
dr
so
Theorems
4'82.
analyticat
derived
dr
from
the
originit
solutions
be
must
of
the
multipleof e/^+^{kr)j^h:
equationsof
Mathematical
Physics.
It is
to
possible
Bessel
of the
equationor
Thus, if we
prove
functions
render
to
by a comparisonof
motions.
equationof wave
cerning
probable)theorems convarious solutions of Laplace's
e^^J^i
+ a"
[k^J{p'
lap
"
^)],
cos
see
that it is
solution
natural
to
00
e^^ J.ot/o
{kp)12 2
?"
{A,ncos mj)
Assuming
the
consideration
in p and
/We
a,
of this expansion,
we
possibility
is
an
and
function of cf),
even
A,n is of the
form
so
B,n
0 ;
c," is
Cm.Jm{ka),where
independentof
p and
a.
thus get
+ aJo \k's/{p"
lap cos
S e,"c,"Jm0"'p)
'fn{ka)cos
^)}
mcf).
111=0
we
powers
Cf.
and
cos
get
C,)i=
of p,
Bryan, Nature,
i,
lxxx.
(1909),p.
309.
and
(f),
compare
the
128
and
expansion*
led to the
are
we
so
[CHAP. IV
FUNCTIONS
BESSEL
OF
THEORY
00
2a p cos
+ aJo {k\/(p
of which
which
take e'*"'^*+^*,
Again,if we
to
be
is a solution of the
motions,
equationof wave
and
+
proofwill
formal
more
I Cni^^J^^^^(kr)Pn{cOS
(^^"^kct
6),
where
is
Cn
constant
that
; so
r^y
gikrcose
=
\KrJ
If
we
the coefficients of
compare
nl
and
so
c"
^;
4*83.
Solutions
of the
be
analysis
justexplainedhas
equation
d^V
"
normal
function
solution
of
and
of this
been
dxp^
dx.r
d'^V
c
dt
equationof frequencykc
vW
by
the
case
of
which
is
as
expressible
"2+
"""+
VX
the operator
j^
such
by Hobson" to
only,where
be annihilated
so
dimensions.
d^ p1
and
extended
...
ofp
space
d^V
1
r=
must
dV
1
dx{'
find that
expansion:}:
equationin
wave
The
the
side,we
,1=0
proofwill
formal
more
each
''"2'"+*r(n
+ )'2".(w!/'
\icr/
of which
n=0
are
we
c,,i'^/"^.
(kr)Pn (cOS6).
(jr
solution,containing
timefactor e^*^^
a
must
be of the form
e""'''^^^p.,,(kr)/{kr)i^p^K
*
This
t The
is due
tesseral
to
Neumann,
harmonics
X This
expansion is due
" Proc.
London
Matli.
Theorie
do
to
Soc.
not
occur
der
Bessel'sclten Functionen
because
Bauer, Journal
xxv.
(1894),pp.
the function
fur Math.
49
"
75.
lyi.
(Leipzig,1867), pp.
is symmetrical
(1859),pp. 104,
about
106.
59"65.
the axis of
z.
483]
DIFFERENTIAL
describes the
Hobson
of rank p
such
succeeded
Hobson
in
combined
notation
By using this
function
a
as
ikr)/{kr)^^P~''^
quotient'(^jipa)
cylinder
function may
with
an
example of
provinga
equalto
Xp
no
cos
when
shall consider
we
a"
odd
an
for
'
%ir
expansionfor
an
p],
"/")
cos
it is convenient
and
\k s/'if+
^jdimensional
space,
of
functions
cylinder
integersimultaneously.
of theorems
half
such theorems
J
where
the concept of
number
129
EQUATIONS
to
other coordinates.
Hence
e''*"*./
{kV(r+
is annihilated
by
by
dp
dr
dec./
'
are
cf) d(f)
sm
r
functions which
normal
"/")
jp]
cos
the operator
dr^
Now
2ar
the operator
dp'^
that is to say,
a
annihilated
r
d(f)'^
by this operatorare
of the form
oa
where
(l 2a
By
J
the
used
reasoning
+
{k\l{r
a^
2ar
"
in
cos
of aV' in the
cos
" 4*82,
we
expansionof
+ a'y^p.
(f)
infer that
"^)\p]
1
=
/N^ow
{ka)Pn (cos"t"p).
i]^r)
Jn+,,,.,
^n/"+i^i
{kap=Hh^^^^
all the
expand
on
cos
{k'^ar
"^)'*
each
side ;
Bessel
functions
and
equate the
coefficients oi'
find that
we
2^
2" r
A^
(?t+ i/J

)
^
"
^M+hp,
so
that An
*
So
,^ 1
1^ ^^^
+
2flP^(n +
ip^
2"+iPi r {n +
h^pl)V
{hp
n\ r
(1^
1)
'
1).
W.
lp)f
15. K.
C^/'^cos./.).
!)
130
OF
THEORY
expansion
We
{kV(r2
/jp_,
(r^+
2iP
a^
2ar
"f))]
(f))^^'
2ar
+a^
"
[CHAP. IV
FUNCTIONS
BESSEL
cos
cos
^^ i
(*^
'/\;f_,
*pl)e/,^i^i(^^r)/^,p_,(A:a)Cf^(
4"84.
Two
Batemari's solutions
of the generalised
equationof wave
solutions of the
systems of normal
rr
a^
8^
motions.
equation
dV
1 B^F
_
have been
the two
If
also established
connexion
between
systems.
take
we
variables p,
new
equationtransforms
the
who
investigated
by Bateman*,
normal
Xi
^2
a,
^y
cos
"^ defined by
the
yfr,
^,
Wx
cos
p sin Xr
^i
(^
sin \/r,
equations
into
solution of this
equationwith frequencykc
is
J^ (kpcos "t")
J^ {ka sin "f")
e' ('*x+''"^+^fO^
where
"I"is any
constant.
Further, if we
write
p
so
that(r,
^) form
%, i/r,
?" cos
of
system
sin
(f",(T=r
"^,
polarcoordinates,equation(2) transforms
into
^,g.
'
^ir.??7,l?!r
ar^
dr
r
cot"/"tan"/)aF
"^
d(l"^
df
r^
a'^F
"*"
Now
normal
annihilated
are
K^" +
or
solutions of this
7, 5^ +
Messenger, xxxm.
cos
"^a^'
equationwhich
a^Fia^F
~
r
have
sin "/"
a"/rc^ 1)"
'
e""('^xl'"/'t^cO
as
a factor
the operator
by
rdr
1
^
r^
'^ +
^
v
loT^
6
(cot
v
r
[a"^2
(1904),pp. 182"188;
"
tan
"i)
r/
^^
Proc. Lo7idon
^r~
Math.
.
^^^^^
Soc.
sm'
)"
,
'
"j"\
(2)in. (1905),pp.
111"123.
CHAPTEK
PROPERTIES
MISCELLANEOUS
this
have
shall discuss
chapter we
place in the
namely
common,
found
not
feature
one
in
preceding chapters,and
that
they
all obtainable
are
indefinite
some
(^)
1%"+^'^.
dz
(1)
l~z^^
(2)
"^, {z)dz
these formulae,
generalise
To
which
by
which
have
but
of
processes
integrals.
formulae
recurrence
functions
Bessel
character.
The
propertiesof
some
two
definitely
elementary
We
FUNCTIONS
BESSEL
5*1.
In
OF
z^+^
the
to
results
^C+i {z),
'e,^ (z).
z"^'
lead
once
consider
j%''^^f(zy^^{z)dz;
integralbe equal to
let this
+ B(z)K^,(z)l
z''+^{A(z)"^^(z)
where
The
(z) and
result
{z) are
to
be
determined.
of differentiation
^"^Vl^) K
(z)^
z"^'
is that
\a' (z)"^^{z)+
+
In
take
order
(^)
that
{z) and
B' (z),and
{z) may
{z)
z"^^
^''^"^^{z)A{z)^^
(^)
[B'{z)^^.^j
{z) +
depend
not
on
the
{z)"W. {z)\.
cylinderfunction, we
then
f{z)^A'{z)^^^^A{z)^B{z).
Hence
it follows
'
(3)
z^^^
that
^^
\^"{z)
+
B'
(z) f B
z^^^
This
result
formula
die
due
pp.
(with
BesseVschen
to
was
obtained
diflPerent
Functionen
Nielsen, Nyt
by Sonine, Math.
notation) had
been
(Leipzig,1868),
Tidsskrift,ix.
(z)].
^^ {z)dz
[E {z) ^^ {z)+
Ami.
p. 70.
(1898), pp.
{z)%\^, {z%
xvi.
obtained
Some
73"83
developments
and
Ann.
di
ber
and
equivalent
an
previously by Lommel,
Studien
of formula
Mat.
(3)
vi.
iiher
(3) are
(1901),
43"46.
For
some
associated
Quarterly Journal,
XLii.
integralswhich
(1911),pp.
338
involve
"
340.
the
functions
bei,see
Whitehead,
51, 511]
MISCELLANEOUS
THEOREMS
The
is
133
obvious
an
of (3),
consequence
be noted:
should
z'^^''",{z)dz
(4)
ifji'V
r z"'K
5" 11.
two cylinder
containing
integrals
functions.
Lommel's
which
simplestintegrals
The
derived
the Wronskian
from
{z)dz
contain
formula
"
of
312
are
those
which
integrals
contain
^^^^
functions
(2),namely
/. iz)J'_. (.)
Bessel
two
TTZ
which
gives
dz
"
(I)
J^^{z)
2 sin
VTT
./.,
(Z)J_, (Z)
2 sin
VTT
^^
^^
/, (z)
'
and
dz
^^
V^{z)
2J^{z)'
; zJ^H^)
(3)
'
77
zJ,{z)YAz)2'''^
JA^)'
dz
(5)
two
given
TT
zY:{z)
reader
The
any
J.{z)
J^ {z)
IT
^
are
should
have
cylinderfunctions
due
to
Lommel,
of the
Math.
to Euler
order
same
Ann.
verified
which
in the denominator.
was
quoted
"
Math.
Ann.
The
to
xiv.
The
fornmlae
reader
should
actually
compare
1 '2.
Lommel*,
by differentiation that,if y
in
due
f (PQyy'}'^^
then
similar
(1871),pp. 103"116.
rv.
more
once
F,(2r)'
in evaluatingthe
difficulty
no
results,also
interesting
of Bessel's equation.
genei'alisations
It is at
J^ (z)
are
obtained
the
and "?;satisfy
"'''""
(1879),pp. 520"536.
from
equations
134
THEORY
Now
apply this
^v denote
I,
result to any
equationsof
two
functions
cylinder
any two
[chap. V
FUNCTIONS
BESSEL
OF
the type of
of orders \x and
".,^^^^.,.^^Ap^
dz
(6)
dz
cj^'iz)
4"(z)
where
functions
arbitrary
are
(z)and y{r(z)
(f)
This formula
As
use.
generalto be of practical
multiplesof 2^,say kz and Iz. It
be
{k^l^)z
^^.
is too
and ^{^(z)
to
(f){z)
(7)
of
IX'
"
take
special
case,
is then
found
that
%(kz)'"^Mlz)dz
The
k
(ii)
If
take ix=
we
(8)
{kz)
This formula
It becomes
numerator
v,\i is found
6
^
may
{tz)dz
(i)/u,i/,
cases
special
is
that
k''V
be verified
nugatory when
the expression
on
by differentiating
is then
the
right.
constant.
If this constant
when
stillfurther in two
the left simplifies
on
expression
l.
is omitted, an
of THospital's
rule
application
shews
that,
l^k,
(9)
z"^^{kz)%\ {kz)dz
result of
[kz^^^,(kz)'6; {kz)
kz90^(kz)f^V+i{kz) '^^(kz)#^+1(kz)}.
The
^
using recurrence
formulae
to
the derivates
remove
on
the
rightof (9) is
(10)
z^^ (kz)9^^(kz)dz
^,^,{kz)"f,,{kz)]
511]
MISCELLANEOUS
of these formulae
Specialcases
K' {kz)
f~^
dz
(11)
{kz)f
^~z'W^
_^
are
135
^z' {'e;~
{kz) '^^_.
{kz)'^,^,{kz)]
(l^\ 9B,'{kz)
Iz^
a 2)
THEOREMS
{kz)dz
{2'^^^
{kz)'f
\z"
(/.^)J
'^;^
_^
9?,^,{kz)^_^^,{kz
the
latter
function
To
equationbeing obtained
of order
obtain
is found
"
by regardinge~'^'''Yi}
^{kz) as
cylinder
fi.
different class of
take
elementaryintegrals
k=l
in
(7) and
it
that
^" ^^'*'
^'"^^' ^^"^
iic.)^=r fe^(fe)g,
"^"^'^'"^'^^'
^'^'
"
(13)
^S^{kz)^,{kz)
The
result of
(14)
?^
making
z/
in this formula
^/a
^
(^"^)6. ^ (A;^
T
""
last
'
~a
'
0 fJi
^g'M(A:^)^^.(A^^)
^M+i(^)l
_^
^^ (yr,^)
(15)
we
mtegrating,
and
then
re
have
j ./mH^^)^
=^{/..,(A,^)!iM(^^)/.
2^^.M^4
+
method
of
formulae
Lommel's
Various
result will be
obtainingthis
Results
Chaleur
V,^^^^=2/.t^(^)
kz.
Arfalternative
other
by multiplyingthe equations
case
special
placingz by
As
'
'""^'
"
2~ 1
The
is
of this section
as
seem
old
in the
to
as
Fourier's
treatise,La
of functions
case
have
been
givenimmediately.
of order
discovered
Analytiquede
Theorie
zero
before
but
the
none
la
of the
publicationof
memoir.
specialcases
of the
formulae
91"99
have
and
been
worked
out
in detail
by Marcolongo,
of St Louis,
Sci.
136
THEORY
cylinderfunctions;
Indefimte integralscontainingtwo
5'12.
[CHAP. V
FUNCTIONS
BESSEL
OF
LommeVs
second method.
An
alternative
integrals
justdiscussed.
of the
form
been
has
method
The
consists in
method
this method
By
more
Lommel*
givenby
their values
some
evaluating
are
obtained
in
computation.
adding the
results
two
z"'
(p +
v) z'"'1^^{z)W,{z),
^+
^{p^v2)
that
so
(p +
v){~z^'
%\ (z)^,{z)dz+
/x +
(pfMvz^
and
then
Thus
(1)
2) r
(2)
As
^^+, (z)W
,+1
(z)dz
givingspecialvalues to p.
we
have
fz"^''^%^Az)'^^^,{z)
dz
'^e(^)%%
J ^'^""''+i
cases
special
(^)f/^
g^^^^_^^^
c^^
['
'
z^+^'^C^
{z)dz
(4)
Again,if p
be made
zero
,
it is found
that
^'^+ '^'^^^
^'^'^"^^^^"^'
of these
"^V+i(^)
f^'"'
(3)
(5)
ZP'
re (z)f
^"^^
^'^^^
2(/7^+l)
so
for
of this type, we
get
%\ (z)W,(z)^(p,
2n) j'
W,^,,(z)^?.+,
v)f
(z)^
+
Math.
Ann.
xiv.
5'12514]
if /u.
particular,
In
0,
z^
137
THEOREMS
MISCELLANEOUS
dz
j %\{z)'"n{z)~
(6)
r,
"ll
r
'^0(^)^0 (^)+ 2
m
where
1, 2, 3,
there
But
seems
+ '^niz)'^n{z)
'",n{z)'^\n{z)
I
to be
no
....
j%{z)%\ {z)^
For
I.
xi. (1881),p.
Rayleigh,Phil. Mag. (.5)
(1)see
for
Papers,
{Scientific
217.
(1899),p. 516.]
So7mie's
5 "IS.
in
expressible
be
extended
by Sonine,Math.
Ann.
(1880),pp. 30"33,
xvi.
that
the form
f {"/^(^)}
{0 (^)}
{^ (^)H^ (s)2?^^,
(^)^M i'^(^")J;5.
been
of conditions
the discussion
may
functions.
containingtioo cylinder
integrals
The
to
of
specialcase
simpleformula
+ C
+i" (.)
{0 (z)}
^^^,{^ {z%
gf^^j
(z)"^^{0 (.)}
%^^^{V.(3)}
are
too
complicatedand
not
important to justifytheir
sufficiently
insertion
here.
reduction formula.
Scliafheitlins
5 '14.
reduction
formula
for
I'z"^9^%''{z)dz,
is
which
natural
and
Schafheitlin*
^v{z)
To
as
varies
appliedby
(" 15"6).
the formula
obtain
of the formula
extension
we
him
to discuss
observe
that
'
2"^{z'v')'i^J'{z)dz
fz^W.i^)\z^^^z^m^)dz
'
^ [_ ^^+2^"^_
(^)r^; (^)]+
Now, by
+
(/j.
^;2
I {^^+2
(^)+ (^
1 , ^^+1
i^^
(^)'^;(^)dz.
integration,
partial
[z"^+''^\''{z)]
S)\'z'^+"(^J'(z)dz
=
Berliner
1%'^+'
{z) +
K' (z)[z"^:
v. (1906),
p. 88,
Sitzunf/nberichte,
dz,
{z" v')K (^)l

138
THEORY
and
[CHAP.
FUNCTIONS
BESSEL
OF
so
+ 1)
{fjL
'^/^{z)dz
I%'^+^
Hence,
r^'^+^K"
{z)]+
'^,(^)g^;(^)dz.
(^'^ v'^)
['2'^+^

substitution,
on
{lji+\)\%"^{z'v')9^'{z)dz
^/^(2) (/x+ 1) z^^' '^v(z)'^J (z)]
[^'^+"
1%^^+'
9^.(z)%%' (z)dz
{fi+3)
[V+^ W^
and
{z9S:
[^'^+1
(^)

5'2.
Expansionsin
shall
We
in " 2'7.
(1^)'"^
Chapter XVI.
result of
The
" 27
'i'/{z)
J^*^
dz.
v'\
+
1) '^.(^)}^
in
at
^f^
z^9Sj'{z)dz
^'
^'^+^
[z'

7.^+
H/^
(^)].
^)1'^^.^
question.
of Bessel functions.
series
discuss
now
i (m
formula
for
for
dz
+ lfv^z"^+'^ii,'{z)]
{hAjJi
2)['
{ti+l)[v'\{fi+
z"^+^^i^fj'{z)dz
+
(z)W;{z)
1%'^+'^,
22.^1
find that
we
By reari'anging
{fji
+
z"'+'"^.{z)
"^J {z)+ z"^+''g?,2
{z)
"W:^(z)(fi+1)
[z"'+'
+ If
{{fi
of the
tained
simplestexpansionsof the type obgeneraltheoryof such expansionsis reserved
some
The
of the expansion
suggests the possibility
once
00
+
(i.)^=s(^i"MIV
.")^^^^(,)_
(1)
is due
which
establish the
To
is
Gegenbauer*
to
series of
and
is valid when
expansion,observe
fi is not
negativeinteger.
that
domain
bounded
J^+on(Z)]
{(i^)"^
it is evident
(^z)~'^
(z)(fl+
{nJ^+^nl
^_^
^^
of the series
now
under
n) J^+2n+l(z)],
consideration
i"n
is
1=
n
Wiener
Sitzungsberichte,lxxiv.
^"
(2),(1877),pp.
124"130.
0,
140
By
we
analysis,
of the
slightmodification
[CHAP. V
FUNCTIONS
BESSEL
OF
THEORY
that, if k is
prove
may
any
constant,
oi^i
{fi+
This
formula
in"
n, n\
+ 2n)J^,+^n
1\ A)
(yu,
{z).
some
requiredin establishing
will be
generalexpansions
more
116.
+ h)].
\\/{z
of {z + A)**''./^
expansions
LommeVs
5'22.
It is evident
+ h)],
A)~^"J"^[s/{z
qua
that {z +
Am
00
J. {V(^+ h)]=1
(.+/o^''
These
formulae
(2) we
deduce
are
from
h, is analytic
combined
[zi^j.
(v^)l
^
.
some
yirzj
(4)
^
sin
z\h
+ 2zt)
^/{z^=
0; and
so,
in
J.ni(z),
m.
,n=o
"
when
^ in (1)and
^
slightchanges in notation,
take
we
2zt)=^
^(z^
cos
(V^).
{.i^/.
(V^)]
If
f+Wl
m
dtie to Lommel*.
l^\
(3)
(Jm
+ ^)} is analyticexcept
{\/('2'
Again, (^+ A )"'/,.
providedthat A " j^^ ,we have
(2)
have
{z + hr^^j.yiz +h)]
(1)
of
theorem
by Taylor's
consequently,
function
./i_^(z),
"
equation(4) being true only when i"^2^j. These formulae are due to
Glaisherf,who regarded the lefthand sides as the generatingfunctions
odd integer,
associated with the functions whose
order is half of an
just as
efficients.
(^ 1/0} is the generatingfunction associated with the Bessel coexp f^^'
"
Proofs
been
givenby
is somewhat
*
of (3) and
Studien
Glaisher ; the
algebrainvolved
in
of this
investigations
nature
formidable.
ilber die BesseVschen
by Bessel, Berliner
Abh.
t Quarterly Journal,
Trans,
of the Royal
Soc.
1824
xii.
Functionen
[1826],p. 35,
(1873),p.
clxxii.
136
(Leipzig,1868),pp.
for the Bessel
; British
Association
(1881),pp. 774"781,
813.
11
"
16.
Formula
(1) was
given
coefficients.
Phil.
522]
shall
We
In
(1) replacez
J, {W(l
(5)
// by
and
modifications
various
enumerate
now
h)\ (1 + hr
of
^"2^and then
and
z
141
THEOREMS
MISCELLANEOUS
;;,
^
/.^",(^),
and, in particular,
If
/.(^V2)^2^^
(6)
from
In like manner,
providedthat .^^"
A'
make
we
A)H (1 + AOi" i
when
is
an
1 + 0,
the series
W'i
integer.If
the
on
v
is obvious
of ?",
"^
in]
TT
the condition
is any
^^^^/.,"(^),
m=0
for convergence
the convergence
satisfied,
when
find that
1, we
"
^
we
"??l!
Hence
1.
A*l+0
providedthat
make
J^^Az).
(2),
J. {W(l
(8)
If
then
and
(5) by (1 + A:)^"
divide
we
"7f
when
Consequently,
is absolute.
if the
condition
is
integer,
S
(9)
if
In like manner,
^^
R(v)"
^f^J.,"{z)
0.
also when
1, and
"
is aiii/ integer,
we
have
/. (W2)
(10)
2^"
^^
J,_",{z).
III
It should
be observed
for functions
and
j^"I"
1 ;
of the
so
that functions
first kind
in
of the
may
be
substituted
(1),(2),(5) and
that
111 =
(12)
r, y{2
(z + h)i''
h)]
(13)
F. [zV(l
AOJ
=
^i^^]:"'^!")
Y,_,,wz),
5
(1
"*!
Y^ {zv(i
S
Z^)^"
/"
(14)
kind
second
^7"^^iW" (),
t ^
^01 (1 + k)^"
=
};_,"
(4
142
THEORY
[CHAP.
FUNCTIONS
BESSEL
OF
when
tends
to
integralvalue, we
an
they hold
that
see
for functions
of
order.
integral
the
correspondingresults
substitute the symbol W
kind, we
first
the
that
see
we
may
for functions
for the
of
symbol
throughout.
last formulae
These
234
(1918),pp.
by Lommel,
noted
were
Chapter xi.
that
242,
they are
"
Stadien, p. 87.
of
some
Numerous
generalisations
by Airey, Phil. Mag. (6) xxxvi.
observed
It has been
given in
will be
of them
in calculations
use
connected
with
of
zeros
Besael functions.
When
that, when
combine
we
X^
"
(_\m
x^
when
and, in particular,
("\m
results
two
X' S
/. (X^)
"g',^",
{z),
is unrestricted,
00
These
find
we
il^\m
(\2
\\m
U__^^_JiAi^
00
(16)
replace\/(l\k)by X,
1" 1,
^. (M
(15)
then
(\2
^^
\\m.(lp'\m
^''^
described*
fi*equently
are
J.^,n{z).
theorems
multiplication
as
for
Bessel functions.
(when
observed
be
It may
is taken
the result
that
equal to
(2/zr
{al)\
(17)
of
treating(14) in
ii^
?n=0
An
alternative
proofof
xiii.
Sitzungsberichte,
see
formulae) Wagner,
A
[Note.
Lommel
Bern
Ann.
special
years
before
27r
as
(8) is that
the
of formula
the
F"_,"(4
has been
pp. 115
(fornumerous
of the
"
see
1, was
discovered
der Math,
Archiv
area
consisted, in
I I c,os,{^r
cos
with resi:)ect
to
integrating
difif'erentmethods.
rj is
^i^^")
cos{^cose)iimU{lP).riim6}~^^
^^
7 _i
()'"(lrsing)2"^
J^^i(?cosg)
(2?n+ l)!
"7r"i=o

ml
TO=o
Schafheitlin,Die
two
di
6
_v'(i{=)'''sin
6 + r^r sin 6)
e.g.
and evaluatingit by
rf'"l.,
_i
See,
by
xxxvii.
"
result of
The
way
"
lix.
^
the
same
356.
His method
over
''''
formula
multiplication
Mittheilungen,
1895,
case
seven
(1861),p.
the
the
integern)
an
Theorie
der
Besselschen
"=
b/
'
(/cos^)'"*!
Funktionen
(Leipzig,1908), p.
83.
523, 53]
MISCELLANEOUS
changing to polarcoordinates
the result of
and
'2n
"TT
{ri}cos
cos
"
these equationswe
If we
compare
and r^ sin ^.]
r'^cos''^^
obtain
expansionof a
Bessel
5*23.
The
From
formula
Bessel functions
If
fjb and
The
/""^ r^
"
which
"n
the
(f))
pdpdcf)
I)
case
functionas
has
(rpcoh
cos
./
i/
l with
series
deduced
and
replacedby
of Bessel functions.
series
interesting
an
of
unequal,and
are
(1) in
(7),Lommel
5'22
^"
"^"n'
143
{p,(p)is
1
/"jr ri
I
I
1
"
THEOREMS
jx is not
we
negativeinteger,
have
may
arrange
re
"
and
hence, by Vandermonde's
This
formula
1868), pp.
putting
22
=
"
case
23, in the sjjecial
0, it is found
=
/i
/i=0,
with
0; by differentiating
have
we
Lommel's
MJ
"
An
compared
addition
with
Neumann's
(1)
of
i
7/1
the
"
to
*
ilv
"
3'571.
"
of any
order is
J."^{t)J,n{z),
00
t)=
m
is due
"
to Be.ssel functions
This
(2)
lit
expansiongiven in "
" 2'4
J,{z + t)=
where
^^'ff
"f
;/'^
of the formula
extension
An
formula
is due
to Schlafli* ; and
%\,n{t)J,.{z)
X
Soninef.
Math.
Ann.
then
"J/l^\
53.
and
formula
be
(Leipzig,
v
l"l
m=0
respect to
i ^^~^{"r''J,..,n{z)
J,{z)\0g{hz)''^f^}^
"}
(3)
This
Functionen
that
and, when
Studien
given by Lommel,
was
knY,{z)
(2)
theorem,
in.
(1871),pp.
13')" 137.
^'^'''x^'i
144
THEORY
the
that
series
where
r,
R, A
When
in
sin
when
ascendingorder
Jum(i)Jm(^)
positive,
is largeand
uniformly
7? ^ I^ I^ A,
r,
numbers
unequalpositive
are
and
is
rightof (1)
the
on
functions of both
convergent series of analytic
I2^ I^
[CHAP. V
FUNCTIONS
BESSEL
OF
vir.i^Ry.ir/Ry
is
(m
of
magnitude.
comparablewith
v)
and
of the
the convergence
series for {l"rjR)". When
series is
is
of the
"
binomial
n), the
general
is comparablewith
term
V{v
the
and
uniformityof
n+\).n\
the convergence
of values
sets
of
iii
by
Termbytermdifferentiation
ilP) i
\"jt
so
consequently
permissible*,
J..n{t)Jrr,{z)=l
CZj^=tx^
\J\n,{t)
J^{z)
m=
"x"
"
""
on
J' m{z)]
,_,n{t)
it is seen,
ao
1,1=
and
that
terms
on
the
rightcancel,so
that
Hence, when
series
2
m
of
and
with
F{z
which
respect
+
is
to
1),then
we
put
0,
we
that
see
"
oc
and
{t)^J^{t),
the
truth
evident.
and
in
in=
and
when
(3)
function
analytic
as
a
expressible
functionof z\t only,since its derivates
and t are
identically
equal. If this function be called
m=
If
J^,m(t)Jm {z)is an
have
"
with
(1),we
see
that
I Y^_rr,(t)J,n{z).
Y,{z + t)=
m=
(1) be changed,we
Cf. Modern
CO
Analysis, "58.
of
(1) becomes
5'4r]
MISCELLANEOUS
with
this is combined
When
reader will
The
(1),equation(2) becomes
J,^,n{t)J,,{z\
'i^,{tz)=
%%^,,(t)J,n {Z),
Ann.
is
Studien
Functionen
by Graf,
given* explicitly
of these formulae will be
generahsations
an
(1893),pp.
XLiii.
,
";
"
given by Lommel,
results,(3) was
1868),when
(Leijjzig,
Math.
i"
^ "
F,+",(0 "/".
(4
2
)"
evident.
that,when
Y,{tz)=
these
method
same
J,{tZ)=
(6)
Of
the
readily
prove by
(4)
(5)
145
THEOREMS
141
142.
"
Various
of Bessel functions.
Products
5'4.
ascendingseries for the productJ^ (z)J^ (z) has been givenby various
stated to be due to Schonholzerf,who
writers;the expansionis sometimes
published(in1870)
publishedit in 1877, but it had, in fact,been previously
examined
been
has
More
by Orr",while
by Schlafli^.
recentlythe product
has givenexpansions
(c" " 542)for productsof the forms
Nicholsonjl
The
l^^(z)Yn (z).
presentsection
shall construct
we
differential
two
equationsin
the
productvw,
have
we
y"
v"iu
{I
where
*
See
also
[Jahrbuch
yXJeber
Epstein,Die
vier
Gubler, Einleitung
Nielsen, Ann.
in
die
Theorie
Sci. de VEcole
2v'tu',
respect to
some
z.
norm.
who
der
sup.
1904), p. 20.
derfiinktionen(Leipzig,
p.
J)y
Ftniciionen
attribute
the
According
expansion to
Funktionen,
BessrVschen
(3)xviii.
l^mndertmgen
(1901),p. 50
to
Nielsen,
Integratioimceges
include
Math.
Ann.
Graf
Ann.
de
Frogramm,
Math.
(4)ii. (1902),
1862.
that he
uses
iii.
IIQuarterly Journal,
xliii.
and
None.
des
Schonholzer
(Bern,1894),
der Math.
authorities
The
2v'w' + vtu"
bestimmterlntegralemit Hiilfevon
die Auswertlmng
(Bern,1877),p. 13.
differentiations with
primesindicate
forms
their normal
dz
az
if y denotes
then
(1912),pp. 78"100.
10
146
THEORY
OF
^Jy"(^
It follows that
^) 2/1
2^"^' + 2v'rv"
2Ivw'2Jv'w
and
y'"+ 2(1
hence
J)
+ 4//
2/'"
(1)
to shew
but, if I ^ J, itiseasy
This
Appell,Comptes Rendus,
To
a
Orr
form ; both
2/'2/=0;
in connexion
with
(1),see
211"214.
results to Bessel's
applythese
normal
viv').
the equation
satisfies
(1880),pp.
xci.
{I J) (v'w
differentiation that
by
differential
of the
is the form
I =J, y
when
case
Hence, in the special
to
(/' +J')y
[CHAP. V
FUNCTIOjNS
BESSEL
the equationhas
equation,
Nicholson
and
effect the
to be reduced
reduction
by taking
it
z^^^{z) as a new dependent variable,but, for purposes of solution in series,
is simplerto take a new
independentvariable by writing
d^_d^
that
so
^"
the
Hence
5?
(^= .=)"=
.^^ 4e,}
2 (2^= .'"

/x ^ v', is
0,
that is to say
[^^2(fi'+ v')^2
(3)
and
the
(fM' vj] y
+ 4e"'
(^ +
1)(^
2)3/
0,
(4)
Solutions
in series of
(8) are
m=0
where
" /j^"
a=
and
4(a
Cm
If
2ml)(a
"
{a +
fx +
take
we
+ 2ni
/m +
){cc+
/J,
"
2m) (a
2m)c,"_i
+ 2m) {a
yu,+
z/
"
'
"
fi
"
2m)
and*
1
^'~2''+''r{fi
+ i)r(v
we
obtain
^
,"^oml
and
()'"(1^)'^+'^+""
T(fi +
+ m + l)r {/jl
+ 7n
{fi+
V
signsof
i)'
the series
either fx
or
or
are
both
solutions of
/x and
v.
v+2m
+
l)
l)r (v +
(3) are
obtained
1)'
by changing the
148
earlier
mode
obvious
This
of
writers;it was
[CHAP. V
FUNCTIONS
BESSEL
OF
THEORY
been
have
to
seem
Ann.
noticed
by
of the
any
(1899),p. 228.
lii.
obtained
by Bessel,Berliner Abh. 1824,
Jq{z)cosz and J(i{z)ii\mwere
and
for
results
J^ (2)sin 2 were
and
the
J^{z)cos,z
corresponding
39,
[1826],pp.
schen
Functionen
iiher
die
BesseV
Studien
Lommel,
deduced
from
Eoisson's integralby
ber
the
functions
and
bei have
deductions
Some
16
18.
concerning
1868),pp.
(Leipzig,
been made
by Whitehead, QuarterlyJournal, XLii. (1911),p. 342.
series for
The
38
"
"
an
fow!T{v
mn
tt'"'
oF^( m,
'
obtain
l)
m;
//
1/
1 ;
6/a^)
+
r(yLt
m!
and
l)r(i/ + l)
so
{hazY (Ibz)"
r(^ + l)
(2) J^(az)J,{bz)
=
2^1 ( m,
^ ()'"(a^)^'"
Jlo
mWiji
this result
and
in
expressible
One
another
whenever
simplified
is the
case
case
we
is the
then
Ave
I
/ox
the
1; "/a')
l)
hypergeometricseries
a,
which
/i =
has
alreadybeen
v".
the formula*
use
r("^fl)r(i)
1)=
that
see
case
ia,providedthat
Fia ^ a^41and
hiiTT
cos
iy" (^azy''+^
m
(4) J_.(az)L(az)=
If
(6)
an
we
take
e^'^"
in
2
=oml
(3) we
Cf,
the
Kummer,
()'"(^a^)2''+^'"
m^
l)r{i' + 2m+
() (i"^r
which
T{v
ber,2(^)+ bei.H^)
expansionof
is
compact form.
of reduction
case
In this
be
can
fim;
cos
1)'
(I. lm)7r
find that
S
^^
i2i/+4W
~^,
leadingterms
Avere
xv.
(53).
discussed ;
542]
The
MISCELLANEOUS
(1906),pp.
XV.
from
490
of the
been
series have
Some
By giving/*
e"
(7)
and
497
"
consideration
discovered
(3),(4),(5) were
formulae
"
/._, {zsin ^)
in
by
importance.
is easy to prove
that
^'"''
^^"'^"^y\) (2 sin By^ S rT^^TZT^
\^v
1
M=o
in which
of this formula
case
special
to be of any
(2),it
The
given,QuarterlyJournal, XLi.
but they are too cumbrous
(/:),
values
special
the
149
THEOREMS
2i/ is
n)
integerhas
an
given
been
Hobson*.
been
outline of
kind.
have
We
{J^(Z)/. (Z)]
I;
TtJ,(z)Yn {Z)
=
where
second
The
have
Bessel functions
of the
involving
Products
5'42.
is to be made
equalto
I [J,(^)/. (^)l,
(r
performed.
Now
;{/.(^)J.(^)}=l0g(^)./.(^)^.(^)
2
r=0
rlT{fi +
x{f(fjL+
2r +
l)r{fM
l)ylr{/u.+v
l)r{v+ril)
1)
+
(z.
i/r
?"
1)}
and
[J,{z)J_. (z)}
1^
=
50
irlr
(fM
1)
+
+ 2r \l)^lr{flv
{^r{f^v
parts, S and
We
1) r (fi+
.=0
r=o
l)
2r +
r
(
l)^jr{v +
In
the
1)
r
former
l)]
part
we
r=n
have
^^"
Proc.
Lotidon
Math.
1 (i' +
Soc.
xxv.
l)
(1894),p.
0(3 ;
see
also
Cailler,Mem.
de
l"i Soc.
de
Phijg.de
xxxiv.
(1902"1905), p. 316.
had been
The
expansion of Jo(z)Yo(z)
t Quarterly Journal, xliii. (1912), pp. 78"100.
p. 21.
1904),
(Leipzig,
der Theorie der Cylinderfunktionen
previouslyby Nielsen, Handbuch
Geneve,
giveu
150
OF
THEORY
undetermined
is
replacedin
this part
by
+ r, it is
[CHAP. V
FUNCTIONS
BESSEL
to be
form
evaluated.
When
that
seen
"
^
(;. n + r
(l^r"+^'r!r(;a+
2^
\.to
X
r\{n+r)\T{fi
+ ?i
(yu,
v/r
1)
1)!
l)
2r +
+ r
(yLt
"/r
r+\)
+ "
[21og(i^)+ 2"/r(yLt
1),(n
7r/,(^)J.(^)
(1)
l)
+
1)
^/rO^+r+l)^/r(r+l)}.
The
m
0, 1, 2,
by
and
continuous
function
rightin (1).
series for
The
of /a at yu m where
series for 7rJ'm{z)
Yn{z) is obtained by replacing
fx,
the
so
...,
the
on
rightis
the
expressionon
series
by constructing
be calculated
Yj,i
{z)F" {z)can
for
'dJ"y.{z)J"^{z)'
dfxdv
in
similar
have
been
5*43.
integral
for J^ {z)J^ {z).
The
by
; the
" 5*41
has
integral
0,l,2,
...
provided
R(fi + v)"l.
It is then
evident
J^{z)J^{z)
that,when
that
change of
difficulty.
This
p. 263.
formula
the
order
is due
to
T^
(fiv) 6 dO,
l,
"
J^ (z)J, (z)
the
COS
"
R{/jb+ v)"
(1)
integral
("2*6) for Jn^(z)is obtainable
formula*
to the result of
so
which is extremelylaborious,
analysis,
will not be repeatedhere.
applyingthe
details of the
of Neumann's
generalisation
that
The
manner.
m,
"=
fj.
('^J^+,
{2z
cos
of summation
Cauchy
Jo
; for
and
proof by
integration
presents
contour
see
integration,
no
Modern
serious
Analysis,
543551]
If
be
MISCELLANEOUS
"
J^ (z)J,,(z)
(2)
151
1, then
"
^t)!['V^_,
{2zcos d) cos
if /a and
is also true
this formula
and
THEOREMS
are
both
(ix+ n)\ede,
but
integers,
are
otherwise
unrestricted.
Formula
given by Schlafli,Math. Ann. iii. (1871), p. 142, when yi"v are both
cxi.
general formula is due to Gegenbauer, Wiener Sitzungsherichte,
(2a),
(1) was
integers;the
567.
(1902),p.
The
5*5.
A natural
expansiono/QzY'^''as
series
formulae
of the
generalisation
ofproducts.
of Neumann
and Gegenbauer
(""2'7)
("52)is that
+ i)r(.
(i,w..r(,.
(2^r
a^
(i)
i)
r(/x
i)
The
formula
is true
if p, and
proofappliesonly if i2 (^ +
" 5"2
From
multiplyby
we
6
cos'*+''
^^
(p
cos
"
following
^/^+,+,",(22cos^).
it is clear
integrate,
and
(/up)Odd=
cos
^"T^
"
v)6
"
Jo
77"
the
1.
"
have
we
(zcosey+''= s
If
1) "
i'
but
negativeintegers,
not
are
"
from
"5"43that
/^
"
"i'
and
of fx and
the result
is at
formula
The
Lxxv.
5'51.
once
from
formulae
values
herichte,
Sitzungs
(2),(1877),p. 220.
series
LommeVs
expansionderived by
An
t/,,+m(2),
'/^+"i,(2^)
from
the formula
2vdJ^^{z)
j"irz~'='^^'^'^'^^^'^^^
2(v + 2n)dJU,,,(z)
r,
/,x
J^_i {z)
IS
~r
so
a^
71=0
that
2JzJ\_i(z)dz
i (v + 2n)J\^,,,(z)
p. 532
The
;
Ahh.
xv.
will be fouud
in Math.
(1886),pp. 548"549.
Ann.
11.
(1870),pp.
632"633
xiv.
(1878),
.152
Hence, by
have
..
Iz^ {./^_i
(z) J,,(z)J, (z)}
(1)
when
on
If
take in turn
we
have
we
+ 2n) J%+,n{z),
(i/
0
by adding on
R{v)"0\
seen
terms
so
at the
is superfluous.
R{v)"0
h;,v %,and
[CHAP. V
FUNCTIONS
BESSEL
OF
THEORY
obtained,
("3*4)
z
(2)
=
sm2.^
(3)
while, by taking7
1.
"
(_)n("+i)/.^^^^(^)^
that
see
we
(w + i)/Wi(4
(4)
Another
formula
of the
type is derived
same
"
'v+n
the
by differentiating
series
("3')
;
M=0
for it is evident
that
"^
00
2^
J
end
'v+n \2)
e,i Jv+n
Z"
(^)^
i^)
v+n
00
and
so.
Avhen
R(v) "0,
+ J,^,(z)]
J,(z)lJ,_,(z)
2vJj^{z)/z,
obtain
we
J"+n (2)[Ju+ni
(^) '/^fn+i
i^)}
"n
modification
of Hansen's
formula
("25),
namely
(5)
enJ\^,,{z)2v\ J.'{t)~.
2
"
.'0
An
By takingy
i, it is found
en
an
upper
sin^ t
2 r^
+
sni
TT
^.cZ^
2t
so
(6)
I J\+,{z)
Si{2z),.
TT
n=^0
by
of
TTJo
2 sin^^
and
value
that
/n+i {z) \
"
the
the "sine
to
This
integi'al."
which
reference
result is given
has been
made.
56]
MISCELLANEOUS
5"6.
Continued
Expressionsfor quotientsof
immediatelyfrom the
it is at
Bessel
functions
formula
recurrence
are
givenby ^3'2(1);thus,
J^_,iz)
\z/{(v+rn~l)(v+m)}
This formula
is
easilytransformed
/,_, (z)
results
+ ni)
^z J^+rn^i(z)l{v
i^
"
These
fractions
be written
AM=W^
^^^
continued
as
apparent that
once
(u
^ ^
153
fraction
formulae.
deducible
if the formula
THEOREMS
2vlz2(v
J"+,"(2)
"
into
l)/z...2(v + m)!z
./,+",
{z)
for
are
was
to
'
discovered
by
is
Schlomilchf,
Other
(4)
J^+^{z)
Z"'
J,{z)
^^
2{v + \)l{v
Z"
2)2{v\^)...2{v
^2{v+
'
JJz)
Bessel functions
The
Z"
m)
Zj,+,n+l{2)
J.^m{z)
'
'
l)2(v
in all these
2)...2(,^
formulae
may
J.+.ni^)
m)
obviouslybe replacedby
any
functions.
cylinder
It
assumed
was
so
neglected,
Berliner
writers ;
Graf,
see
Ami.
Abh.
the
00
last
quotientmay
be
Mat.
des
(2) xxiii.
t Zeitschrift
fiirMath,
only.
I Stiidien iiher
und
Math,
Phys.
+ l)] \z^'l[{v^l){v+2)]
\z"l\v{v
(1824),[1820],p.
Kncydopedie
di
^
that
JAz) _hzlv
1
J,_,{z)
/m
Sci.
31.
Math.
Formula
11.
(2) seems
(1895),p. 47.
uiid Plnjs.11. (1857),
p.
142
p. 217.
not
A
to have
_....
been
given by
ditt'erent form
slightly
considered
Schlomilch
the earlier
is used
by
integral values of
pp. 292"297.
die
xxx.
BessePsclien
Fiinctiunen
(1858),p. 332,
and
(Leipzig,1868), p. 5;
Giinther, Archiv
der
see
Math,
also
uiid
Spitzer, Archir
Phys.
lvi.
dcr
(1874),
154
THEORY
[CHAP. V
FUNCTIONS
BESSEL
OF
though it happens to
assumptionis justifiable,
be so, and a rigorous
proofof the expansionof a quotientof Bessel functions
fraction will be given in " 9'65 with the help of the
into an infinite continued
theoryof Lommel's polynomials."
obvious
It is not
that this
"
[Note.
the fraction
tends
The
tends
pjom
to that
to
limit
be
as
The
reader
continued
pp. 483
been
will find
fraction
sinw,
memoir*
considered
q,a
discussion
elaborate
an
by Perron,
of the
fractions
types
considered
and
231"247
(1860), pp.
that
case
^'"^"'
though
^"'
"
oi J^{z)/J^_i(s)as
representation
xxxvii.
Sitzttngsberichie,
equation,depending on such
by Wilton, QuarterlyJournal,XLVI. (1915),pji. 320
continued
LVii.
the
on
MUnchenei'
a,"=l.]
m,
of Riccati's
504; solutions
"
between
in
that,even
by taking
seen
jt?"i=m +
the
necessarily
it is not
"i*co
is
obviouslycorrect
is not
assumption
the
why
reason
been
The
323.
"
connexion
the relations
noticed
necting
con
Journal
by Heine,
Lvur.
fiir Math.
Christoffel,Journal
(1907),
representation,have
has
filr
(1861),
pp. 90"92.
Hansen's
5*7.
It
was
stated
expression
for J^(z)as
Hansen
by
limit
ofa hypergeometric
function.
jthat
i4fJ
"^'"=j",i"Tl)'^(^'''^^
"
We
This is
numbers
For
term
and
m!
V{v
continuous
(lessthan
\2^)
+
function
2
n
+
1)
of h and
of the
expansionon
when
the
and
rightis
1'
77 ;
and, if 80
arbitrary
positive
770 are
it is the
{m
l)th term
verges
con
the
Since
*
1/8,fi
and
This
uniformityof
the convergence
the convergence
memoir
is the
follows from
is uniform, the
subject of
paper
of the
sum
by Nielsen,
Milnchener
terms
is
continuous
Sitzungsberichte,xxxviii.
(1908),pp. 85"88.
t Leipziger Abh. 11. (1855), p. 252 ; see also a Halberstadt
[Jahrbuch ilber die Fortschritte dcr Math. 1909, p. 575.]
dissertation
by
F.
Neumann,
1909.
156
We
take
Murphy's formula
P" (coszjn) o/^i
(=
and
modification
that
then
when
,F, (where
is
we
can
the two
compare
1 ; 1 ; sin^'^z/n),
applicablewith
the
slight
series
,F, (1/So,
1^ +
^B^
1 ; 1 ;
^
^),
number
less than f j^ ~^
and the comparison
positive
arbitrary
\n\" l/8oThe details of the proofmay now be left to the reader.
Bqis an
is made
n,
1 ; 1 ; sin ^z/n);
precedingsection
the inequality
use
we
n,
the
reasoningof
the
[CHAP. V
FUNCTIONS
BESSEL
OF
THEORY
when
is restricted to be
it is convenient
In the
generalised
Legendre functions (of unrestricted order '7"i),
depends on whether the argument of the functions is between
of
case
the definition
+
1 and
"
P"so
not
or
(between
.F, ((cos
^) ^^^^^^
=
l;m
.,
0 and
have
ir)we
l;
.r/.),
sm^
that
lim"P,r"'(cos)=j;"(^),
(2)
but otherwise,we
have
Pn'"^ (cosh ~]
p
so
j^^oPi(^^^\^
n,
1;
\1 ;
smh^
^/"),
that
(3)
lim n^P,r^
(cosh
)
/,,{z).
The
from
sin
lim
(4)
This formula
n IT
second
Qn"'[cosh
Km (2).
has been
it is most
given(with a different notation)
by Heine ;]:;
the integral
of Laplace's
easily
provedby substituting
type for the Legendre
function,proceedingto the limit and using formula (5) of "622.
*
Cf.
Bromwich,
+ Cf.
2r
??^
sin
mir
n)
P~"^
nir
g/"
in Barnes'
notation, which
t Journal
fiirMath.
lxix.
is
in this work.
adopted
(1868),p.
131.
"
'"
^"
T
r(lm
n)
T{l
n)
572]
MISCELLANEOUS
Another
(5)
lim P,,
"
this is due
to
Pn (cose)
The
[Note.
to be
g^)
/o (2.);
provedby usingthe
be
second of
Murphy's
namely
formulae,
used
157.
THEOREMS
generallybelieved
Thus
Bessel functions.
Functions^ Lamfs
it
that there
stated
was
Functions
Bessel functions]
are
[i.e.
and
with
in
the main
luith Mehlers
^^).
be
emphasized because it
Legendre functions and
his Eleuientan/Treatise on Laplace's
(London, 1875), p. vi, that "these
subjectof this book."]
Functions
BesseVs
associated
Integrals
5"72.
no
tan
must
connexion
Todhunter
connected
not
of this section
was
by
1 ;
n, n;
formulae
of the
existence
^e 2F1 (
cos"
between
formula.
the formulae
of the last
completelydifferent method of establishing
and
this
Mehler
method
section was
also,later,by Rayleigh;
givenby
depends
of
thus
a
on
use
integral,
Laplace's
A
":
P,j (cos6)
\ (cos 6
i sin 6
cZd)
"/))"^
cos
1 T"
g" log (cos0+i
__
sine
"/))
^^Jj
cos
Since
uniformlyas
when
go
^
i sin
log{cos{zjn)+
0 ^
{zjn)cos 0}
have
tt, we
at
iz
^
cos
once
1 f"
lim
Heine
of
f and de
Laplace'stype
Bessel functions
results in
" 6'22
has also
Mehler
P" (cos2/n)
Ball.I have
for
made
Legendre
when
/'^
2
"^
If
be shewn
it may
y\r^
n"p
by using the
the
limit
integral
cos
(9)}
])resentssome
^rd^
/"^cos
"
.u,
r:y,
'^
to
Mehler Dirichlet
that
2
passage
his
{n + ^) (f)d(f)
cos
J 0 V{2 (^os(p
P"(coss/")^bvit the
to
of Y^,{z).
representations
integral
his formula
given a proof of
deal with
we
d(f) J^ (z).
and
of the second
e'' '"''"^
\'V
because
little difficulty
the
integralis an
proper
im
integral.
Various
*
Juuriml
enoneous
de
on
Journal
have
formulae
which
givenrecently
384"385;
(3) i. (1875),pp.
Math.
account
been
of
Math.
J'iir
arithmetical
an
lxix.
Nacli.
cxxviii.
(1891),col.
formula
actuallygiven by
Laurent
is
error.
(1808),p. 131.
pp. 383"386.
t Ai"tr.
the
in which
1"4.
See
also
Journal,
Sharpe, (juarterli/
xxiv.
(1890),
158
the
Legendre
Thus,
formal
approachesits limit
expansiondue to Macdonald*
function
its
as
degree tends
to
infinity.
is
where
[CHAP. V
FUNCTIONS
BESSEL
P^'lcos^)
(1)
a;
formulae,which
Other
OF
THEORY
(2) Pn (cos7])"
an
replacing
Qn (cOS7])
ITTl
4"9i
\/(sec11)
Pn (cosh^j
(3)
(4) Qn (coshf)
(^)
^^^
/o (nf) +
j)
e("+4)(ftanh
^(gech I) 7^0{(w+
i) tanh ^
"6"3V(sech).e"^^+^)^
"^
i? (n) +
where, in (2),0
less than
^ ?; "
unityin absolute
magnitude,and
0 ; the numbers
be
complex
may
the proof of these results is too
positive.But
i,
6^,62,6s are
providedthat
lengthyto be
givenhere.
Th
The
expressible
by Hansen's formula as a
to investigate
methods
hypergeometricfunction has led Olbricht;):
Bessel's equationis expressible
confluent form of equations
a
as
"
fact that
limit of
which
by
formulae of OlbricJd.
5 73.
associated with
If
Riemann's
take the
we
Bessel
function
is
Pfunctions.
equation
S^('^"
of which
and
fundamental
the
compare
equationwith
the
'a,
pU
Proc.
obtained
London
Math.
previouslyby
+ Watson,
Tram.
the
Soc.
same
Camh.
equationdefined by
b,
1,
/3', 7',
writer,Proc.
Phil.
Soc.
xxii.
London
Math.
(1918),pp.
pp. 151"160.
X Nova
Acta
the scheme
c,
^,
A,
*
o.
Caes.Leop.Acad.
(Halle),1888,
pp. 1"48.
associated
; some
Soc.
277"
xxxi.
308 ;
results
(1899),p. 269.
Messenger, xlvii.
had
been
(1918),
573]
MISCELLANEOUS
THEOREMS
159
namely
fl""
d^y
^
d^;^
^^'
1
^
f"a^(g h){a_^
"
] dz
"
{h c){by3/3^
c)
17y]
"
7y(ca)(c6)
a)
"
_^
_^
2'
"
"
=0,
(2: a) (s' b) {z

"
that
see
we
latter reduces
the
while
0,
remain
finite
We
thus
(their sum
obtain
a=
the
7'
"
J/
0,
2^/3,
fi,
^,
/i,
Pl
scheme
for
lim
those
which
Note.
have
It has
whose
when
zero.
solution
the
the
^2
{6 and
h +
7'
0.
2i/3,
z
'y,
7
"p,
7,
Hansen's
formula
4a/3,
but
constructed
is
0,
ahv,
schemes
observed
7,
00,
^^".
v+la^.
they
are
will be
by Haentzschel,
of
no
sufficient
Zeitschrift
fur
examples.
Math,
unci
Phys.
xxxi.
equation
(/m), may
{% 43) is iih^"^v
invariants
directlyfrom
ii/,
been
now
been
^,
[_ij,^
l^\v,
other
given
/3/3' 77'
7 4
before.
0,
pJ
(;^::)
has
7' as
J^ {z)derived
r
Olbricht
/3 + /3'and
that
way
/^,
IX,
V
of 7 and
values
same
fx,
"
is
scheme
\vii,
the
such
while
"
scheme
lim
with
+ ^Q}.
^[{ix+ i)
similar
Another
o!
IX,
"
infinityin
to
I7,
if
former
being 2/a+ 1)
lim
where
the
to
c)
"
and
g^ of
the
be
derived
Weierstrassiau
by
confluence
Lame's
from
eUiptic function
are
made
equation
to
tend
to
VI
CHAPTER
REPRESENTATIONS
INTEGRAL
Generalisations
6'1.
this
In
Poisson's
of
Bessel's
functions
in
applied
Chapters
and
vii
It
that
happens
the
shall
we
integralwhich
formulae
singleexponentialunder
examine
shall therefore
integralswill
formulae
and
integral are
Bessel's
of
more
and accordingly
integral,
is due
of
choices
large.
Poisson's
in substance
the circumstances
Hankel
to
is
" 3"3
expressiblein
are
can
contour
approximate
integralsign,while
the
functions, Avhich
circular
is
with
be obtained
investigationof generalisationsof
give
now
the
or
Poisson's
The
6"2.
shall
we
simplestof
The
"
to
type
applicationsof
study integralsof
now
Bessel's
of
the
obtain
to
suitable
elegantformulae
integrals.The
applications of
than
elementary character
of
viii
integralsassociated
integral("2'2). By
definite
as
FUNCTIONS
contour
integration,
largenumbers
Bessel
BESSEL
integral.
various
study
integral(""2'3,3"3)and
express
also be
Foisson's
shall
chapter we
of the contour
which
of
OF
the
*.
this formula
other
of
terms
in which
Poisson's
contains
formulae
contain
exponentials.
two
We
contour
2^1e'^'Tdt
J
are
solutions
of Bessel's
not
of z, and
that
of
the
equation;
it is
and
endpoints,a
h, are
complex
is
function
numbers
of t but
independent
z.
operating on
" 3"1, is
in
V", defined
TdA
'
of
result
The
e''
integralwith
gu'fj(i
^2~)^n + (^2v+
fb
J
Math.
and
Ann.
AV(2)
expressed
detail
i.
is due
in
(1869), pp.
473
Schladi,
Ann.
to
the
notation
by Gubler, Zurich
the
theory
pp.
235
"
Bruxelles,
of the
262
xxis.
linear
lvi.
The
485.
"
di
explained
operator
Mat.
in
discussion
415.
(1903), pp.
140
432
"
equations
"
143.
444.
See
Te''^
Ttdt
i2vVl)Tt^^{T(t^l
dt,
of
1) ("+'
xxxni.
Vierteljahrsschrijt,
differential
(1905), pp.
Bessel's differential
follows:
as
^"+2
the
e^~^'T{t'l)
t"''+i
are
that
supposed
which
also
The
the
for Iv(z}
corresponding integials
though
232"242,
integrals have
(1888),pp.
147
also
"172,
la
Vallee
Poussin,
been
and,
Math.
Ann.
Schlafli's
results
examined
from
the
Ann.
de
in great
la
aspect of
xlv.
(1894),
Soc.
Sci. de
61]
INTEGRAL
we
by a partial
integration.
Accordingly
if T, a, h
are
so
chosen
161
REPRESENTATIONS
obtain
solution of Bessel's
l)Tt,
eiztT(t^l)
^^{T{t^l)]^{2v
+
The
former
of these
that
so
it is
that
we
0.
multipleof
integration,
constant
the
path of
^
1)"+
e''^*(^2
that
is
choose
may
that
equationsshews
equation
that
returns
"
so
to
its
vanishes
each limit.
A
contour
passinground
figureofeight
clockwise.
the
point
if
and round
t
And,
we
suppose
of
is
the
second
t
hat
contour
real
of
the
a
z
positive,
temporarily
type is
part
both the points
which starts from ooi and returns
there after encircling
one
t
counterclockwise
1,11
counterclockwise
(Fig.1
and
"l
If
Fig.2).
we
take
a,
"
1, it is
Fig.1.
Fig. 2.
necessary
to
suppose
that
R{v
h)"0, and
we
merely obtain
Poisson's
integral.
To make
of ^
1 and
"
axis
on
We
the
rightof
therefore
^=
we
1)""*definite*,
where
the contours
take the
cross
phases
the real
1,
proceedto
examine
the contour
integrals
"(i+, 1)
+
of the values i ^ ^,
It is supposed that v lias not one
"1, and both integralsvanish, by Cauchy's theorem.
,
at
w.
B. F.
tt
CCI
...
; for then
the
integrandsare analytic
11
162
THEORY
It is
differentiations
analyticfunctions
are
integrals
In
order
expand
the
under
to
in
integiand
the
convergent with
respect
/"(!+,1)
J
Now
odd;
or
we
2
m
and so,
1)""^is an
takingthe
or
even
left with
the
To
from
u
"
"
1) "
0
0 ;
1
to
on
the
evaluate
the
the
is
even
origin,
we
are
/"(!+)
rightoi
contour
taken
Jo
(2m):
/
;
{'^lll)
u^"^Hniyidu,
Jq
right,we
then
the
on
the
1 vanish
"
when
be
temporarilythat
the straightline
assume
deformed
into
second
part, returningfrom
"
and
\.
the
may
twice;
l)"*dt
f^'" (f^,
/"(1+)
(_\7nf.v+2)n
^
integralson
{\"u)e~''',and on
{\ u) 6+"',where,
We
accordingas
rightvanish, and
the phasesof
\/u; in the last integral
i? (i/
+
i^
s
7/1
on
a"
is
the
on
(_\m^v+2m
00
of t
1)""^dt
t'^ (P
JA
equation

writingt
r
of the series
efe*(^f 1)"*dt
JA
r{,\+,l)
odd function
an
1)
/"(1+,
2"
on
ml
to be
contour
see
then
dt=
f^it^"
It follows that
,;in2:v^m
oo
^^t (flyi
z
v.
the contour.
on
of
powers
to t
convergent,
permissible.Also, both
integralsign are
of
first
the
express
are
{")" 0, both integrals
that, when
phase oil
is
"u
to
we
have
0, we
have
1,
1 to
zero.
thus get
f(l+)
ti""h(xi
r\
1)^*du
tcnh (1
{e(""*)'r^' e(''*)T'}
2t
Now
both
sides of the
cos
VTT
du
u)"^
^^
and
be observed
to
[CHAP. VI
FUNCTIONS
BESSEL
OF
"
"
"
equation
f"^'"""
(" 1)'
rf. =
2i
cos
I"^^"ili""i)
of v; and
by the generaltheoryof
proved when R(v + ^)"0,
so,
has been
v.
R
Modern
Analysis," 55. The reader will
("+ i)" 0, by repeatedly using the recurrence
P+^.4
(u
1)"+*
du
is obtained
find
it
possible
+J'""_1
"
nAh
f"^\,"i("
J0
u1
the
result, when
i)v+"H du,
the formula
by integrating
(m
^{u'"+^(ul)''+"+ill)u"'^(ul)''+" (,
the
obtain
to
formula
Jo
which
also
terms
of
au
integralof the
same
"
!) M"'i(u_!)"' "*;
type in which
the
exponent of
164
THEORY
Thus, when
and
R(z)"0
r"'i
^is not
positive
integer,
/"(!+.1+)
7/V'"rtVi "y
"
(2)
BESSEL
2/
[chap. VI
FUNCTIONS
OF
27rtr()
This
also obtained
equationwas
Next
by
Hankel.
consider
f(i+,i+)
,
where
of
co
00
esp(!to)
defines
or negative.This integral
angle,positive
is analytic
when
is an
which
acute
iTT +
"
and, if z is
subject
analyticcontinuation
of
ZttI
has any
jR
(2)"
0 and
(v+ ^)"0
we
can
the
an
have
we
value between
0);
e^^Hf lyUt,
"^tt
function
J cciexp(iuy)
{^)
for
that
defined
that
so
contours
be
Jt,(z)can
J.(^)='^%
yrnV
arg
K^TT
arg
of the two
of values of arg z;
range
(3)
where
ft) "
to
be deformed
extended
^ir+
obtain
can
tt
"
take
may
and
o)
and
the
(o.
of J_^(z)
representation
a
tt.
contour
to
be
that
shewn
in
Fig.3,
/\
Fig.3.
supposed that
By takingeach straightline
in which
it is
made
ultimately
are
we
separately,
small.
indefinitely
get
^"^^^s^T/:" ''"'")*
J.{z)
+
*
If
iw Ibe
of J
increased
I,
(z)valid
in
series of
for any
stages to an
preassigned value
e^"e'^'(''i)(l"2)i/i^^1
appropriate value
of arg
may
(greaterthan
be obtained.
a
Jtt),
sentation
repre
611]
On
"
bisectingthe
third
(4) JA^)
which
Weber
t in the
the formula
to
integrals
by it,
Gubler*, which corresponds
is
l^\^^{l
+ t^^rhdt+rcoB{zt
^J;jf[smvTT
vn).{lt^yL
Jo
J
{" + 2)
formula
the various
^,
i
n(^)
and replacingt in
integration
for J^v{z),due
a formula
integralfor ./^(s)
;
(5)
of
obtain
we
t, "t, t, it respectively,
to Poisson's
path
165
REPRESENTATIONS
INTEGRAL
""
K^J
with
Poisson's
2{^zr
=
"r(v+*)r(i)
was
it is found
integral,
that
I e'i{\irt'^Yhdt\
j\m{zt).{\t^)''hdt
also discovered
values
of integral
case
by Gubler,though
of
it had
been
stated by
previously
v.
should
have
in obtaining
a
difficulty
no
formula
(6)
in which
rightof
it is
i
supposed
the
that
phase
of t'^"\
vanishes
when
is
Modifications
of HankeVs
6 '11.
of
contours
" 6"1
By making
Zurich
und
the
which
the contours
(1888), p. 159.
See
also
are
to
parallel
the real
and
(1893),p. 115.
xxxvm.
Phys.
portionsof
those
xxxiii.
Vierteljahrsschrift,
t Journal
pp. 86"00.
on
Fik'. 5.
Fiff.4.
Phys.
integrals.
contour
on
l.
filrMath,
The
iii.
lxxvi.
formula
(1873),p. 9.
was
(1892),pp. 142,
examined
234.
Cf.
Hayashi, Nyt
in the
case
i^O
Tidssk
riftfor
Math,
xxiii.
is, (1012),
by Escherich, MonatsheftcfiirMath,
166
THEORY
axis
off to
move
obtain
BESSEL
OF
(so that
infinity
[chap. VI
FUNCTIONS
integrals
along them
the
tend
to
zero),we
followingformulae:
the two
(1)
(1+)
X
(2) J_.U)
1+coi
r(i+)
(1+)
,
/"(!+)
X
I
./"1
l+ooi
manyvalued functions
phase of
phase of f
be 0 at J. and
t^"1
the
1 is 0 at JL cmd
"
To
in the
^
avoid confusion
same
1 is +
"
to
(3) J.A^)
to have
i?,the formula
at
TT
the
phase of ^ 1 interpreted
it is supposedthat the phase of
unaltered,while (2)is replaced
by
27rt r
(1)
e^^{t \y^dt\evm\
l+
alteration
e^'^{tiy^dt
1
OOl
in
the
00
the
integrals,
convention
has been
determiningthe phase
reversed
of i^
"
has
necessitated
On
"
(1)
(1+)
the
the
and
interpreted
by taking
at B.
it
"
it is desirable
in both
way
is
at
tt
00}
to be
are
be +
to
3"61
equations(1)and (2),we
that
see
H.^H^)
(4)
^^\"r}a'fl''^'
e^^^{t^iyidt,
(5)
*""* ^
unless
We
is
in
integer,
an
can,
however, obtain
value (w),from
continuous
which
consideration
functions
of
ir""i'
{z)
=
near
and
1
oot
equations(1)and (3)are
case
(4)and
(5) in
the
case
when
not
v
Thus
n.
JTl
(t)
r(n).(i^)^
iriVil)
for ^"*^'{z).
similarly
has
lim fr;i'(z)
y^n
\2.'
1+ooi
fi^^)
e'^^ifiyidt,
1+ooi
independent.
an
integral
involved
are
612]
As
INTEGRAL
REPRESENTATIONS
167
in the
be
(5)may
continuation.
analytic
if
Thus,
(6)
^77"
"
"y
f TT
"
6)
'^1' i
both
providedthat, in
^TT4 ").
"
27r and
If
and
^"' (^'
1)^
cotexp(
"
obtained
thus
27r,and
^^^'
"
!w)
"
lies between
of ^^'^'(5)when
of H^^^(z) when
arg
has
arg
^tt+
"
any
and
"
tt.
increased
be
o)
round
tt
"
\2)
are
Representations
between
1)"dt;
^^vwrf^I
^;=) (z)
(7)
^"* (i'
have
Itt,we
"
have
we
'^\.;ViV
^.'^'(z)
while, if
f TT,
"
the
beyond
singular points of
the
the
make
to
errors
the
are
coil
contours
liable to
occur
Note.
The
formula
2ii\{z)
makes
Hy('^){z)HJ~'){z)
possibleto
it
Hankel
obtained
and
in this manner
loop integrals,
be
of
view
w
ill
in
this
not
reproduced
investigation
Yn(3);
Hankel's other method
which has been described in " 352.
offunctionsof the
Integralrepresentations
6"12.
In the formula
between
tt
"
and
27r,and
that
that the
phase of
contour; and
(1)
(o
has any
given value
^,
shall write
we
e^^i z^ (
tl=
so
3^^(2)in
"
Then
phase of
equation
define /3 by the
the
express
series of
third kind.
that the
arg
so
the
of
terms
has
mulae
for
it follows
H^^ (z)
m).
increases
from
tt
/3 to
tt
/3 as
t describes
the
immediatelythat
^^
7,f,
( uy^
e
.
1 +
du,
the
_
+ /3"
Itt
arg
zk^it
13.
168
[CHAP. VI
FUNCTIONS
BESSEL
OF
THEORY
/3 is any
where
or
negative)and
angle(positive
7r+ /3 " arg ^ " Itt+ ^.
acute
t,by " 361 (7),H^^^'^{2) e""' iT^D (^),it follows that we lose nothing
to deform
that R(v + ^)"0; and it is then permissible
so
v
by restricting
taken twice; for the
into the line joiningthe originto 00 expt/3,
the contours
tend to zero
at the origin)
taken round a small circle (with centre
integrals
Since
with
deformingthe
On
where
/3may
the
specified
manner,
{^^l.^,;^
I
HJ'" (.)
(3)
(1) in
of
contour
be any
l)"0,
from
In like manner,
find that
(l 2i)^.
." "*
and
or
negative)
angle(positive
acute
R{v
we
Itt+ /3 "
arg
"
/3.
tt
(2),
rxexp'jS
2 \^ g"Hz"ivTr"iTT)
iu\''~^
*''
i."w=Q VTTTirl."''K^s)
w
where
^ may
be any
R(v
results (3) and
and
or negative)
angle(positive
acute
l)"0,
7r+ yS.
/3"arg^"
yet been
proved when
odd positive
integer.
(where ?j 0, 1, 2, ...)
similar work of " 6"11,that (3) and (4)are true when
it follows,as in the somewhat
^,
also
be obtained for such values of
results
The
by expanding the integrands
", #,
may
in terminatingseries of descendingpowers of z, and integrating
termbyterm;the formulae
are
so obtained
easilyreconciled with the equationsof " 3' 4.
The
in view
But
of the
(4) have
f7r
not
continuitynear
of the functions
2u
is
an
involved
....
importancein the
generalformulae (3) and (4) are of fundamental
of J"" (z)for largev^alues of \z\. These
discussion of asymptoticexpansions
of the formulae will be dealt with in Chapter Vll.
applications
The
arg
u=2z
To
There
obtain
formula,write
e~^" 2^ ( h),
fh l
=
is
an
even
to be
function
Cf. Modem
an
If we
Schafheitlin".
acute
and
angle),
"
this
seems
be
to
to
of
no
then
r^cos''*(9.e"'"^''^+^'^
2"+'^"
rT(.^,^
,^.
is due
of the formulae
useful modification
,^
,^
2e"'"
(1 ^iufz).
v.
Analysis,"
1222.
"
Journal
fur Matlu
cxn.
(1894),pp. 31"44.
take
write
613]
and
INTEGRAL
REPRESENTATIONS
that
hence
008"'^$. sin
li''
2^1 ^^
(7)
169
(zvO
hO)
These
formulae, which
of
valid
_.^^^^^g
^"
sin^'+i^
^''(^)r(i;+i)r(i)Jo
,.
rf^,
onlywhen
course
"
integral I
The
u^'^^{l + ii)'^~^
du, which
e~"^
is reducible
to
Jo
Lix.
The
ix
v,
has been
studied
this section
of differential
are
also discussed
6*13.
detail
some
The
from
by Nielsen,Math.
nos.
in
Ann.
89"102.
of
integrals
solutions
MehlerSonine
generalised
theory of
Polyt.Inst.
577].
"
Nach.
totic
asymp
1902,
integrals.
Some
definite integrals
elegant
maybe obtained to representBessel functions
of a positive
variable of a suitably
restricted order. To construct
them, observe
is less than , it is perthat, when z is positive
(= x) and the real part of
missible
to take ")
Itt in " G'll (6) and to take "
^tt in " 6'11 (7),so
that the contours
those shewn
in Fig.6. When, in addition,the real part
are
of V is greater than
the contours
to deform
(afterthe
, it is permissible
of " 6"12) so that the first contour
consists of the real axis from + 1
manner
v
"
"
to
"
1 to
twice while
taken
00
"
taken
00
second
the
contour
twice.
^.^
r,^^
N.
/
Fig. 6.
We
(,.;)
=
I/f^(3)
(^,)
=
(i^^lM
[V*{t'
e.(*t)
^"^Skl^^^
(1
the second
(1
iriv
being derived
from
(o)
dt,
1)^^
it? 1)"^dt,
e=(5))^e''

.'1
t by
" Gil (7)by replacing
1.
170
THEORY
replacez; by
In these formulae
1^
and
the transformation
use
formulae
then
['* e^^*dt
iT.W (a;)
(1)
l"R{v)"^,
and
x"0
[CHAP. VI
FUNCTIONS
BESSEL
OF
=iY{lv)T(i).{lxy] {t'iy^i
'
so
e^'^^dt
[*
that
dt
f'"sin (a:;^)
(3)
/. (^)
(4)
Y^ {x)
r(i^)r(i).(i^)v'i
(f^i^i'
2
Of
these
results,(3) was
Other
specialcase.
Symbolicformulae
"When
R{z)"0
where
the
denotes
If D
and
of 1
phase
Ann.
"
due
(i/
+^)
is any
Ann.
v.
0 and
Maodonald.
and
0, it is evident
i^ lies between
and /
{djdz)
Mat/t.
^^.^ ^^^^^
Hargreave
to
"
^^^^^
xvi.
of
generalisations
6*14.
given by Mehler,
case
^^ J, ^^^
(xt) di
r"" cos
from
formula
\tt.
"
polynomial,then
f(it).e^^^=f{D)e^\
and
so, token
is
v+\
have
we
positive
integer.,
r("+i)r
When
is not
of
representation
("''+""'
',
0 dt.
e^^'/(^"
Consequently
(1)
and
SO
similarly
that
B^K^s(z)=
ly
(i+i)yj"i!iizi^2^,
THEORT?"
172
in which
phasesof
the
both
^^ are
Now, from
zero.
have
we
and
so
^^
(3)
that is to
"
'
we
^^i^i^^
fe"
Jo
(i/
K, (z)
(5)
^
result set
formulae
Hobson
by
as
are
Basset's
6*16.
When
sinh^''^d^,
The
will
and
positive
is
'^"
t)
Tripos,1898.
problem in the Mathematical
R{v + l)"0 and [arg^ " Itt. The reader
from " G'll (6).
(4) directly
^
1
(*"!)'**,
/C(^)='^^4^/V'
whence
Iarg
^^iMiy
say*
(4)
of 1
and
tl
[CHAP. VI
FUNCTIONS
BESSEL
OF
is
complex
number
derived
for H^^^
{xze^"^)
the integral
I" lTT,
subjectto
from
condition
the
"611 (6)may
be written
in the form
of a circle from p to
taken round arcs
integral,
Hence, by Cauchy's
oo
tends to zero
as p
by Jordan's lemma.
p gijTTiiargz^
the line
until it becomes
theorem, the path of integration
may be openedout
iu, the phase of
which R (zt) 0. If then we write zt
{ujz^)1 is tt
on
in the ?tplane.
at the origin
Now, when
the
R(v)^l,
It then
follows from
=
(.r^e^O
iT^l^
J..V.(^^i)"^^
2r(i)
e^^'^du
V{v+\). {Izy p
and
so
we
have
Basset's formula
,^
valid when
Basset
*
The
,_^_V{v
\).{"zy r""
co^xu.du
R{v
f, for
"
"
K, {xz)
"
in the
case
by Kiemann,
Ann.
obtained
the
der
Physik
Chemie, (3)xcv.
t Proc. Camh.
Phil.
Soc.
vi.
(1889),p.
Hydrodynamics,
ii.
by
limit of
(Cambridge, 1888),p.
19.
und
616, 617]
REPRESENTATIONS
INTEGRAL
173
it by the corresponding
Legendre function of the second kind and expressing
of
limit of the integral Laplace's
type (Modern Analysis,
" 15"33).The formula
for
is obtainable
Kn ("^^)
Basset
of
by repeatedapplications
similar
a
investigated
also
formula
for
the operator
"
j
I^,(xz),but there is an
error
in his result.
mathematicians
before Basset.
integralon the rightin (1)was studied by numerous
Poisson (see " 6"32),Journal
these investigators
de I'Fcole Polytechnique,
were
ix.
The
Among
Catalan, Journal
de Math.
(1840),pp.
v.
de
corrections,Mem.
some
de Math.
110"114
(reprintedwith
viii.
"
Other
who
writers
(1873), pp.
; J. J.
815
360
365
"
Phil. Soc,
Camh.
Ellis,Trans.
Leslie
be mentioned
must
QuarterlyJournal,
cos
.Ku
(1882),pp.
Oltramare, Comptes
and
provedby
writer
last named
213"215
Thomson,
(1849), pp.
viii.
SLhlomilch,
the integral
Enneper, Math.
CLXXii.
377"381
xviii.
Rendus
de
Ann.
lxii.
232
vi.
(1881),pp. 792"
Coates,Quarterly
V Assoc. Frangaise,
that
integration
contour
du
31); and
"
are
(1841),pp. 65 "74
20
()"'
/e"^Vi"\j
["(i"'
TT
r c^"!
()"i7r
e
+pY_
The
former
be obtained
/.
cos
and
obtainable
Whittakers*'
6" 17.
Formulae
xu
the equation
by differentiating
du
^^
ire
'^P
by using Lagrange'sexpansion.
of Hankel's
generalisations
in
equationshould
p=l
be constructed
integrals.
solutions of Bessel's
in the form
zi\'e^''Tdt.
J
be shewn
It may
by
the methods
" 6'1
of
that
v,.."/%.""^
r*
and
so
the
functions
each
end
integralis a
of order v"\
d"T
("
solution if T is
and
dT
solution of
Legendre'sequationfor
at
integrated
part are the same
of the contour.
*
Proc.
London
Math.
Soc.
xxxv.
(1903),pii.
19S"
206.
174
the contour
Legendre function Q^_j(^),
may start
is
where
acute
or
an
negative)
angle(positive
iexp(" ?'")),
satisfies the inequalities
to be
If T be taken
end
and
at
+00
providedthat
the
Itt+
"
If T
taken
be
arg
^TT+
z"
Py^{t),the
be
to
"
of P^_i (^ at
singularity
logarithmic
to
joining
impossible
in
considered
the special
"3'32; for a detailed
case
in the generalcase, see " 10"5.
We
proceedto
now
"
take various
is
(when
"
0).
possible;but the
an

integer)
contour
same
it
makes
[CHAP. VI
FUNCTIONS
BESSEL
OF
THEORY
to
t
is not
"
as
except in
contour
discussion
of the
integral
in detail.
contours
First consider
/"(!+,1+)
zi
e'''Q,..(t)dt,
J
phase of
the
where
contour
crosses
1 and
1^1
=
the similar
t is
ootexp("
the
at
zero
/(o)
the
point on
the contour
to
rightof ^ 1 at
lie whollyoutside
=
of t.
It is thus
which
the
the circle
found,as
in
r(i+.i+)
(lz\^e^^"^^'!'^^
J^ (^)
(1)
^Hn^n
^
I'
and
"
\2)
""*
xi
exp
Qi (0 dt,
2u))
therefore
JA^)
(2)
^l,^.
^''
J
""^va/
If
kinds
combine
we
and
these formulae
r
i (
cos
(I)
2 )
TT
use
Q^k (t)dt
iu")
the
relation*
connectingthe
two
find that
Legendre functions,Ave
of
ixiiexp
VTT
J
J ooiexp(ia.)
ooiexp(iai)
Again,consider
"(1+)
zH
e'''Q,_^{t)dt;
J
at:
"K
i ATn
exp ((
7
"
uj)
},.\)
i
rightof
z
^\ coi.
^
"
00%,
Hence
we
find that
/"(1+)
?iU
"'~'Q,_,{t)dt
J ooiexp(
Tlie relation, discovered
"
i"o)
is
by Schlafii,
p"(.) =
*^{Q"
(.)"_"_,(.)}:
TT
cf. Hobson,
Phil.
Trans,
clxxxvii.
(1896),p. 461.2
62]
is
INTEGRAL
REPRESENTATIONS
H^^H^)
(4)
*
V2/
C^z^h
ph'v+h)ni r(l+)
^
H^^^ {z)
with
(TLz\h pk(v +
TT
1 is
"
from
which
integral
h)Tvi
r{\
COS
VTT
e^'^P._i (0 dt;
jexp{ioj)
rjj
(3).
differs from
the point+
(6)onlyb}^encircling
inside such
analytic
on
"
"
6*2. Genei^alisations
We
system
Schlaflif.The
to
We
the
Hankel's
take
that
at
"
contour.
crosses
point.
of Bessel
representations
contour
integralsdue to
which
formula
fundamental
in
integral
Bessel's
various
integralsand
definite
of
contour
1 instead
of BesseVs integral.
examine
shall next
Q,_,(t)dt,
Schlafli's relation,
zero
e'
l^.\^.^^^^^
(2/
H.^^ (z)
(6)
e"^Hl_,{t)dt,
exp(iaj)
00!
"
of
^^p.i. I
and
consideration
7*
(5)
175
will be obtained
of functions
case
wellknown
whose
order is
by
Sonine*
and
is
reduced
easily
integer.
an
of the
generalisation;]:
functions
Eulerian
second
integral
1
r(o+)
l)^^i].^
^
V{v
in which
the
phase of
increases from
tt
"
to
tt
'""^*^^'
"
as
then
\^
2
Consider
'
^
TT
e^ dt.
obtained
the function
t"^^
the signsof
by interchanging
summation
the right;it is
on
integi'ation
and
/"{0+)
Z)
an
S LJ_llfZ_
t'''exp\t~[dt=
'/h!
00
Matlmnatical
t Ann.
di Mat.
also be consulted.
Hopkins
+
Cf.
Collection,
'it)
v.
Ann.
memoir, Math.
(2)v. (1873),p.
204.
In
Graf, Math.
addition,see
t''^U'dt,
J
"j=o
UniversityCirculars,xiv. (1895),pp.
3Iodern Analysis," 1222.
Ann.
20
"
lvi.
00
xvi.
An7i.
(1880),pp. 9"29.
(1871),pp. 134"149,
iii.
(1903),pp. 423"432,
and
21.
sliould
Chessin,
Analysis,"" 532,
444.
John
176
THEORY
and
so
have
we
at
"^'W=y/_j'pK4*
result,which
This
When
it passes
real axis.
On
the first to
was
writingt
Sonine's
given in
was
Again,writingu
J, (Z)
(3)
valid when
In this formula
Fig.8, with
about
angle arg
an
arg
the
originuntil
the negative
with
\" 7r,
earlier paper
e2Sinh",K!.
^^y^
^r".
vertices at
oc
(p.335).
have
e'",we
the contour
by Sonine;
2^L""~''"'expi^(i.j^z^.
^"'^^)
form
then
Izu, we
by Schlafli,was rediscovered
pointout its importance.
Iarg z\"^7r, we
in a
to infinity
(2)
in
discovered
was
This
[CHAP. VI
FUNCTIONS
BESSEL
once
(1)
and
OF
"
to
iri,
"
consist of three
iri,rri and
sides of
by
Schlafli.
as
rectangle,
m.
ni
TTl
Fig. 8.
If
on
write t +
we
for
tti
(4)
/.(2)=
valid when
If
if R
we
jarg
make
(v)" 0, so
is still true
The
second
tri,
we
f''cos(i/6'^sin^)rf^^H^^
["e^'^^'^ht
^^^
\" ^tt.
when
^
^r
is
pure
integrals
justdiscussed
memoir;
the sides
iv on
in that
memoir
modifications
appropriate
or
(positive
negative)and
were
examined
he obtained
of the contour.
if
For
621]
replacedby
(tt+^^)^. By takingthe contour
the contour
+
00
corners
as
REPRESENTATIONS
INTEGRAL
in
be
(3) may
177
which
goes from
be three sides of
one
to
i,(tt+ y}r)
i,and
y}/)i, (tt v/r)
modification of (4),
at
cc
(v
"
"
viip
"
with
rectangle
obtain,
e'^''*"''"'^^*'cos(i^^^cosvrsin^)rf0
e"'* sin
f"
ITT
Again,if we take ^ to be
be replaced
by one which
anglebetween
an
passes from
oo
0 and
tt,
,,^.,,
the contour
to go
(7r4 "y\r)i
"
Jo
TT
so
"
fn
Ju{z)
(5)
i to
(tt yfr)
"
(tt+ v/r
)i,we
co
"
in
(3)may
and
(7r4\r){,
find that
we
riT + ^
(6)
1
1["
./^(^)
=
1
^_
cos(i^^^sin6')r/6?
f"
gzsinh"sin^.,?
gj^
COsh t COS
(2r
ttJ 0
providedthat arg
When
"
{i")
is
both
and
"\\r
tt
"^
I^TT
dt,
J^a/t)
^.
"
positive
(= x),we
take
may
"r
cosh
(a;
in the last
formula,and get*
fi'^
(7)
./^(a;)
=
Another
the contour
by
Jordan's
cos
1 r^
{yO
"
sin
e""' sin
0)dd +
c/^.
I^'tt)
"
out
importantformula,derived from (1),is obtained by spreading
axis on the rightof the origin;
until it is parallel
to the imaginary
this is permissible
if R{v)"
lemma
1, and we then obtain the
"
formula
J.(^)=^^^J t''^exi^]t\dt,
4^1
J
(8)
^TTl
in which
may
which
Integrals
(1899),pp. 121"161
Whipple, Proc.
resemble
W.
London
Math.
Soc.
(2) xvi.
94
(1917),pp.
substitute Schlafli'sintegral
" 62
we
rightof
the
of
importancein
Soc.
the
tion
investiga
Math.
Proc. London
of
Soc.
xxx.
HI.
"
equation
=
vTT
/_,.{z)cosec
vtt,
find that
C^
fir
"n
basis of many
is the
integral
Math.
this
those
lightby
H.
which represent
uf the
functions
Integrals
621.
the
have any
of the diffraction of
on
"
value
positive
investigations.
c
Sonine's
If
Y, {z)
=
cot
COS
VTT
J (,
{v6

sin d) dd
cosec
cos
pit
(r6^+
cos
VTT
W.
13. V.
Cf.
Gubler, Math.
sin
dt
e"'''"'^''
Jo
*
^)dB
.'0
Aiiit.
xi.ix.
f"e"'""'!''
dt.
J^
(18',)7),
pp. 583"584.
^^
178
OF
THEORY
Replace^ by
tt
^ in the second
"
[CHAP. VI
FUNCTIONS
BESSEL
the
on
integral
and
right,
it is found
on
duction
re
that
1
(1) Y, (2)
=
/'""
sin {2 sin
C"
\ (e"*+
ev6)d6
e""* cos
vn)g^inhf ^^^
By
means
which
function),
for Neumann's
of this result
can
we
TTlj
Iarg zIk^tt;
when
is valid when
\" ^tt.
evaluate
_x
for we
[arg
be rectilinear,
in
as
to
li
"
Fig.9,and
Fig. 9.
write
the
iri for
t, id, t +
"
on
then
we
see
that
is equal to
expression
1
"] ("00
and
p"vni
/""
this is
formula
roo
(1) combined
with
".( "'e^sinhww^'
^^^
(2)
jy^d'(z)
(3)
JY,(^)
(z)=
.!
TTlJ
"'
e^ ^'"h
fi^
uw
co
Formulae
pp. 327"357.
pp. 1"16.
By
an
obvious
change of
(4)
ir,(')
{z)
(5)
H.^^ (z)
"
variable
I
1
we
M"^
roc
A.,
^
may
write
expU^[u

exp(7ri)
,..
exp
du,
^^j
/
.(ui)
.
du
"
180
OF
THEORY
Modifications
thus found
of
w
by
by replacing
obtained
[CHAP. VI
FUNCTIONS
BESSEL
"
^iri; it is
that*
HJ^'H2)
(8)
ei2coshwvw^^
"
gizcosh
ir^('
(Z)
(9)
qqqY^ J^W
dw,
Jo
TTl
d^
gizcoshw,'W
r
TTl
oc+hni
2ei
gizcosh
qqq]^ j/y
dw,
TTl
(o
"
of
interest
special
arise
"
that
ie'',
(10)
HJ'^Ux)
e^^coshi.'^^^^
r
ijkvni
(11)
ff/"^(x)
hence, when
"
J^,(x)=

F^(a;)
=
"
1^
"TTl
00
"
"
iit(i^)
"
1, we
J 0
have
C'^
sin
TTJ
(13)
cosh z^^f/",
Opkvrri I"ao
roc
gixcoshtut fli
0 and
2
(12)
J0
7n
TTl
and
cosh
e''^
__
j_oo
TTl
(x cosh
"
^ vtt) cosh
.
vt
dt,
I
(" cosh
cos
"
j/tt)cosh
.
i/^ c?^;
.
and, in particular
(cf."6'13),
F.w=?r5^*,
(15)
.
when
The
Math.
replacecosh
we
last
Ann.
Proc. Camb.
two
xvi.
formulae
by
are
^.
due
to
Meliler,Math.
aud
(1880),p. 39, respectively;
Phil. Soc.
viii.
(1895),pp.
122
also been
discussed
SoDinc,
by Basset,
Journal,
given by Hardy, Quarterly
find that
J{ah),xt^au
+ bjw,we
The
reader
A(cos^)
^
=
77
combined
xxxii.
^^)^^=.yo{2v/("6)}.
j'%in("u
(16)
Note.
they have
v.
128.
"
been
x
Ann.
with
the formula
*
Cf.
to obtain
f' sin(n +
(14) from
the formula
^)(^
je ^/{2(cos^cos0)}"^
was
Mehler's
Coates, QuarterlyJournal,xxi.
originalmethod.
(1886),pp.
183"192.
622]
INTEGRAL
which
previousanalysis
is
easilymodified
formulae
If in
(3) the
"
SO
that
prove
(!"""'"""""
dw.
valid when
arg^:
^tt if E
be three sides of
to
(v)"
0.
with
rectangle
corners
that
I"^
'
ir
Sin
VTT
e'^'^'^cosvede
e'^^^^'f"'
dt,
that
2 sin
/_. (z)
hence, when
and
jarg^
77 77
e^c"**h"
cosh vt
L {z)
=
"
K,
(5)
a
to
as
00"17}
iri,it is found
IJ2)=
(4)
is taken
contour
x
Tri, iri,rri,
"
so
"
=J"V
iTT%
00
givenfully;theyare
mainly in terms of the
arg z\"^'ir,
/, (z)
(3)
at
of sufficient interest to be
K^ (z)are
of " 62
analysis
hence, when
The
in the discussion
function
The
involved
arc
to
and
of the
modifications
of I^ (z)and
due
181
6 "22.
The
REPRESENTATIONS
dt,
^tt,
{z)=re^coshtcosh
jjt
.
dt,
Jo
obtained
formula
From
by Schlaflif by
the results
evaluate
can
e^ cosh
z\"^7r.
\ arg
For
it is
cc
"
d^
that
r^+TTi]
r=o7r/
"I
_!. J
27^^ [j_^_^,
27nJ
"
wuw
"ni
easilyseen
=
tions.
elaborate transforma
of somewhat
means
justobtained, we
27ri
when
"
^.j
d^fj
gZCOS\MVVW
J ooni)
TTi
e"^'''^'''''dt
+ I,(z)
"lTTlJ
_:
1i
(2)v. (1873), pp. 199"205.
(2) v. (1873),pp. 199"201
(1868),p. 131, as the definition to
Ann.
di Mat.
Ann.
di
Math.
Lxix.
Mat.
I/TTl
+ L{z\
[I_^{z)L{z)]
sm
vir
this
which
formula
reference
was
was
used
made
[CHAP. VI
FUNCTIONS
BESSEL
OF
THEORY
182
and
hence
e^'''I.Az)e'"''I,{z)
oo+wi
g0COShWvW(^,;y
(6)
"
27rlj
Again,we
KAz)
(7)
^r
and
e'^^'^"''Ult,
" 621,
r
n
fee exp ( ill)
/""=exp(i".)
1

^"(^)
(8)
when
"
TT
"
fi)
"
u"^exp
and
TT
vir
the form
(5) in
write
may
2i sin
ocTTl
'
) du,
Oexpiuj
^tt+
"
1\)
iWw
"
"
arg
^tt+
"
(o.
Similarly
r
sinz^TT /'""exp(,ra"),"^
(9)
e""'
.s
/_, (^)
e''"
r/x
I, (z)
it"^ exp
7^
0 "
aX
27r and
contours
J0exp{7r+"o)j
^tt+
"""
(8) and
arg
(9) are
"
^tt+
shewn
ix)
nz(u+h
V
du ;
"^^/j
co.
in
Figs.13
and
14
respectively.
Fig. 14.
Fig. 13.
Further, when
(= x) and
positive
is
"1"
round
be swung
it
is
thus
axis
found
that
imaginary
;
in
(8) may
the
path of integration
half
of the
positive
R(v)"l,
until it becomes
the
Iv
^v(^) le"^""'
=
so
y"""^ exp
^lixiv
that
(10)
and,
on
(11)
K^ (x)
=
^^^
lei""j ef^sinh(vt
v,
K^ (x)
I ei""^*r
J
e'*sinht+vt ^f^
00
623]
INTEGRAL
From
these results
(12)
we
REPRESENTATIONS
that
see
IvTT.K^ (x)
cos
183
g'^sinht ^q^]^ ^^
that
SO
K^,(x)
(13)
f"^
(a;sinh 0 cosh
cos
COSjl^TTJo
these formulae
and
In
are
"
0 and
;4
(^^,
"l"R(v)"
i.
particular
K, [x)
(14)
{x snih 0
cos
dt
result obtained
It may
by
be observed
Jo
Mehler*
"
{z^)
0.
whom
exp
among
(cahier16), 1813,
p.
integralon
The
the
be mentioned
may
I)
^ze'
=
j^ { "}
provided that
the substitution
make
A'.(^) I {^y
(15)
(t"+
in 1870.
if,in (7),we
that
),/
: 0
^^^^
T,
we
find that
been
righthas
studied
Poisson, Journal
bj
de V Ecole
Report, 1872,
maticians,
mathe
numerous
ix.
Pol^technique,
pp.
15
"
17; Proc.
Camb.
41
in.
The
44.
"
"
"
"
962.
6*23.
The
Hardy
of Du
formulaefor integrals
Reyinond's
type.
integrals
r=c
ra
/j,2
_
I sin
Jo
in which
of Du
Bois
./" "
Bois
0, "1"B
sin
"
i""^
dt,
gO.
cos
t
.
cos
{v)" 1, have
been
^""^
"
dt,
Jo
examined
by Hardy f
as
examples
Reymond's integrals
r txtf^'^t.f'dt,
Jo
cos
a differential equation
f{t)oscillates rapidlyas ^ 0. By constructing
of Bessel
them in terms
in expressing
of the fourth order, Hardy succeeded
them is to make use of the results
functions ; but a simplerway of evaluating
in which
of
622.
""621,
*
Math.
Ann.
t Messenger,
(1881),p. 182.
(1911),pp. 44"51.
xviii.
xl.
184
If
it is clear that
replacet by xe\
we
sin ^ sin
t"''dt
"
sin (^e"*)e"*c?^
{xe^)
sin
x"
Jo
[CHAP. VI
FUNCTIONS
BESSEL
OF
THEORY
"
roo
j^ "v
J
=
hence
and
_,
(2a;)],
have
we
rT^
sinisin^.^''irf^
(1)
"00
7i
2e^'"^'
iT^(2a;) 2ei'"^^
and
{2x)
[7rtW'""'f/'^_^*
(2.2;)TTte^"*H^^^j,
i^"
gf*^^
g2ia;cosli(gSiasinhf g2ia;siiilitj
fg2ij;cosh"
+ /_,(2^)/,(2./0][/.(2.t")J"_,(2.r)
similarly
(2)
When
^ cos
cos
these formulae
zero,
become
+ A'"(2a.O,
sinisin^.^
7rFo(2a)
t
t
(3)
.'0
"
(4)
cos
cos
6 "24.
it
Jo
value
special
has the
cZ^
ri
.
curious
extension
of Jacobi's formulae
of
obtained
has been
" 2*2
in the
of
case
and
Ji{x) by Theisinger,Monatskefte
fiirMath, und Phj/s.xxiv. (1913),pp. 337
shall now
formula which is valid for functions
of Theisinger's
give a generalisation
V
"
where
If
341
Jq {x)
; we
of order
h"v"\.
is any
it is obvious
positivenumber*,
^
J^(x)=
'"' '
^^fj [""
e"'^"'"cos(A'cos^)sin2''^c?^
j^
A)r(i) jo
r(r
integralthat
Poisson's
from
'"f/
"
^r(r+)r(i)jo
^^^
(ie"^8ine)cos(^cos^)sin2''^"Z^.
)
\
I
^
/"in"
Now
sin" "9o?^
(9)
COS
(1 e"^sinfl)
(.rCOS
}0
Ttt
contour
1exp
above
origin,and
sinh ix sin ^
cos
u;
6) sin" ^cZ^
5)
"?2
/._l/A^''
(.!/.)}
(lag;.origin. Take
the
write
\^
+tan
z"
the
parts
^^,
sui
T"
(x cot
r,
sui
ix tan
(^)
^0)
e""^'cot" d)
.
f ^^^W^^^^^t'^)
sin Gr
l"^).e
"'
tan
/o
"
4A I
Jo
sin
/I
/I
JLN
cot d)
cot (/")
(ia.r
cos
(iax
\_
4.
4.
In
cot^"
^
sui(.rcot0)
['"
2'
of the contom*;
r
"
sin (.rtan
vn)
Theisinger's
analysis,a
^^
sin
"^
+ ^"
contour
the two
on
2/
expressionis equal to
/"!
passes
the
at
;rs
sin
the
"
[x
where
"
snili
^
^^'V
j_t sinhl:.rz(2l/2)}
__
indentation
g"
^^TT
aarsin^
sin
is
au
"p
^
c^
^sm0
r",
(.rcot 0)
cot^" d,
even
c?6
i"^)
'.
integer.
^^
sin
we
an
thus
624631]
and
INTEGRAL
REPRESENTATIONS
185
therefore
(1)
.wis/
"
"
^.(""")=
e"^^"'e
(.rcos^) sin'^"^c^^
cos
""
j
The
case
to
(hun)
sni
(I
hecause
I'^A,
fails when
l differs from
cot
"
the radius
with
zero
transformation
tend
not
"*"'
sin
the
he works
^i/(*") f
^fej^I^^
with
"
The
form
sui
the indentation
does
(7) which
3"3
'^
(.rcot (Ji)
integralround
of the indentation.
(1) because
_^^
(f_^50)
^ot^^ "i
gives
'"
(2)
"""'=''"^
f""
"
4,
,1
/I
(iax cot (b
i.j\
(^a.rcot 0)
sm
xj
cos
T
jo
d cos
cos
("""
e) sin2'''.^
"ii
X
sin'''
(i^ tan
vtt)
"
"^
T
sni
^ cW
i(i)
deb
,,,
fJicot"
.,
(acot (/))
(h ^J"
^sni^"^
6*3.
The
Three
obtained
of K^{z).
equivalence
of the integral
representations
different types of
in
""6*15 (4),6"22
now
been
e^'""'"*coshi/".c?^,
Jo
demonstrated in 1871 by
directly
of the second and third as early
Schlalii*;but Poisson proved the equivalence
of the
1813, while Malmsten
as
gave a less direct proof of the equivalence
second and third in 1841.
We
proceedto describe the three transformations
in question.
The
equalityof
6'31.
We
arises from
(1)
r("+^)
.
be established
may
We
have,of
at first to taket
*
more
t The
tion
or
of the
Ann.
by Schliifli,
analysisused
di Mat.
(2) v. (1873),
{\z)^
j ^_,^
^y_.^^^ ^r
"
j,
j"
'
and
of K^ (z),
comparison of two of the integralrepresentations
that
of
2"323.
by analysisresembling
^
course,
to suppose
~h"R
{v)"
tliat R
{z)"
0 to
secure
convergence,
and
which
it is convenient
1.
earlier
Au
much
abstract
"
which
was
Scldiifli's
transformation.
first give an
pp. 199
second
by the
proof is
use
of
due
recurrence
to
Kuinmer,
fornuilae.
Journal
186
THEORY
Now
where
on
define S
by
and
x^l;
the
cosh
0, we
J,
that,by
see
have
we
u,
integrandin
Replacingx by
so
equation
theu^ii t=x{xl)
expanding the
[CHAP. VI
FUNCTIONS
BESSEL
OF
of
powers
and
termbyterm.
integrating
that
uFii)
(coshdty
partialintegration,
^'^^^""'"^^
1 e^^^i^esinh ^sinh r^cZ^
/""e^eoshecoshr^c/^^^"^^^","'"^^
jo
r(i)
jo
"FC*)
r(i.)jo
F(I^)/,i/"'""'"'""'
rci.) ji
2"
of the
the transformation
6*32.
The
to Poisson*
is true
when
of the
course
of
and
If
we
by
presents
integrations
no
and
great theoretical difficulty,
transformation.
proof that
is due
of the
zt"
is established.
Poisson's
direct
order
re'^f"iyidt;
J
the inversion
jo
j.
^""'r(i)
Journal
de VEcole
x"0
arg2"7r,
proofthat R{v)"^
an
appeal to
replace^ by
suflficientto prove
new
ix. (1813),pp.
Polytechnique,
and
R{v)"
and
arg
"
g,
"
formulae
recurrence
variable
jo {w^+z^y^h
defined
jtt,
and
by
but
it is convenient
and
to derive
the
the
The
239"241.
to
equation
in the
assume
values
theory of analyticcontinuation.
equation v^x^e'^,
we
see
that
that
f%x".r_i,/.v..
pcos(^,70rfu_lr(l)
"2,i/.v^^
*
See
also
Paoli,Mem.
di Mat.
di Fis.
della Soc.
Italiana
delle Sci.
xx.
(1828),p.
172.
it is
188
and
the first is
of the third
unboundedness
multipleof
the second
C is
independentof
C, make
and
x^0
then
sotnat
R{p)"0,
follows,when
requiredtransformation
'
z'"
2z^^T{v+ i)
if we
the
use
duplicationformula
function.
in finite terms
expressible
for it is
"
transformation
of Malmsten's
consequence
,.
"
,,
",,,
immediate
An
constant
(u^+ z^)
the
he
JX
^
determine
To
.v.
/
and
of the
In view
that
so
J 0 {U +2')"
where
third.
that
it is obvious
x^+oo,
as
and
of the second
linear combination
consequentlya
[CHAP. VI
FUNCTIONS
BESSEL
OF
THEORY
is
r,
that
"^
[
,
cos
xu
du
^^
^"
2m
equal to
roc
^' ^^
2^i{(nl)!}^j,
'
"i(2a's)'"(2/i"i1):
^gw
given by Catalan,
evaluatingthe integralis simpler than a method
is not rigorous in all its
Journal de Math. v. (1840),pp. 110
114; and his investigation
is discussed
by Serret,Journal de Math. viii. (1843),pp. 20,
stages. The transformation
also
193
see
216;
Cayley,Journal de ,Math. xii. (1847),p. 23G
21; IX. (1844), pp.
This
method
of
"
"
Airi/sintegral.
6*4.
The
integral
r
{t^" xt) dt
cos
Jo
of Light in the
appearedin the researches of Aiiy* "On the Intensity
which are
of a class of integrals
neighbourhoodof a Caustic" is a member
tabulated by Airy
in terms
of Bessel functions. The integral
was
expressible
laborious. Later, De Morgan "(but the process was excessively
by quadratures,
obtained a series in ascending
powers ot'x by a process which needs justification
either by Stokes' transformation (which will be explained
immediately)or by
the use of Hardy'stheoryof generalised
integrals^.
which
Trans.
Camb.
Phil.
Soc.
vi.
(1838),pp. 379"402.
cos
In
form
(iv'^mro)die,

thif?is easilyreduced
but
to the
communicated
Quarterly Journal,
xxxv.
integralgiven above.
to
Airj'on
(1904),pp.
22"66
March
11, 1818
; 2'rans.
Camb.
see
Trans.
Phil. Soc.
Camh.
xxi.
Phil.
Soc.
(1912),pp.
viii.
1"48.
64]
INTEGRAL
It
noticed
was
Stokes
and
The
Stokes*
also obtained
values of x, both
with
by
reader
will observe
189
is annihilated by the
integral
operator
asymptoticexpansionsof
negative.
and
positive
the
integralfor large
{loc.cit.p. 187),but
Stokes
that the
the
of the transformed
one
REPRESENTATIONS
of Bessel's
integral is identical
equation for Aiiy's
equation (^ 43). This fact was noticed by
made
of it until Nicholson,Phil. Man.
specialuse was
(6)
of Bessel functions of
XVIII.
(1909),pp. 6"17, expressedAiry'sintegraldirectlyin terms
orders
considerable importancef; see
"7'.. These Bessel functions have latelyassumed
(1910),p. 267, and the approximate formulae described in " 8'43.
Weyl, Math. Ann. Lxviii.
no
the
nexion
con
he then
"
To
observe
we
Airy'sintegral;]:,
evaluate
that it may
1 r*
^
consider this
Now
exp {if
ixt)dt.
integrandtaken alongtwo
of
arcs
circle of radius
with
at
centre
*
rcoexp^TTt
/"CO
{f "xt)dt
cos
^
2
Jo
lr
"^
.'0
[e^""'
exp ( T^
second
the contour
of the
originand
the third
"
exp {iV""
e^'^'
^t)
ixt)dt
^'^'
integralconsists
exp ( T^ "
of tvro
dr ;
i'^'xr)]
integralis obtained
rays
rays.
series
Now, since the resulting
Jo
*
pp.
Trans.
(
exp
73
" es"''
xt) dr
convergent, it may
are
^^
Phil.
Camb.
329"349.]
See
also
Soc.
ix.
Stokes'
(185ii),
ppletter of
t'"
'^""'
111=0
12, 1848,
pp. G09"
X The
Soc.
Sci.
functions
occur
in
problem (with
619; xxx.
(1915),pp.
of the
Bruxelles, xvi.
" Bromwich,
dr,
( 7*)
[Math,
and
Airy,
Sir
to
Pli,/s.Paper.",11. (1883),
G.
G.
Stoke/^,Memoir
and
160.
integral is convergent.
de
"
exp
that"
.0
166"187.
May
be shewn
cit. p.
228,
or
de la ValltJe
Poussin, Ann.
de la
190
OF
THEORY
and
so
cos(f
(Im
(+ a;)*"cos
^
S
xt)dt=
^^="^
^
"J
Avhich
a;
(1)
to be
{t^ Xt)dt
cos
De
by
"
".
1) TT
r
.
When
Morgan.
of Bessel functions,we
terms
is to be taken
!
{^vt+ ^j)/m
the series
obtain
the
on
Nicholson's
right
formulae, in
:
positive
/2x\/a
^TT'\/(^x)
,x
T"'exp(Tnc?T
Jo
(" i^)
,^=0^?^!
r(?n +
r=^
i7r
f)
TT
^^"
ml
,,^^0
'
are
[chap. VI
FUNCTIONS
BESSEL
J"[373/
J,
i2x\Jx
V'3V3,
2x \Jx
/2x.\/x\
'2x\/x\
f2x\/x\
(2)
^^l3V3J^n"3V3J
\Jx
Barnes'
6*5.
/2ijc^/x\
"
integral
representations
of Bessel f unctions.
Let
consider
us
the residue
of
r
at
2m
r,
where
of the residues is
?'
0, 1, 2,
(2m
s) {izf
("^'n^amgiz^
Hence, by Cauchy'stheorem,
J, (z)e"''
if the
(v +
that the
that
suppose
s)
"
the
2^'" .mWiv
^.
"
R{v)
When
"
, and
"
choose
(2m
~o 2^"'.mir(v
rn=t
is convergent and
Rend,
Lincei,
ser.
t Mellin
J
Gamb.
of this
del R.
has
Istituto
type, see
given a
Trans,
Barnes,
ds,
the
l)
be
contour
verified,by using
so
that, on
it,
s)
l)
equalto
4, Rendicoiiti,
Phil.
It may
points0, 1, 2,
are
integrals
convergent.
00
"
formula
Stirling's
r(2ms).{izy
/"""+'
i
2'Tri^=0
encloses
contour
Now
(hzy 5
=
Lombardo,
iv.
summary
xx.
of his
(1908),pp.
Proc.
London
Atti
researched,Math.
270
Math.
"
279.
Soc.
For
(2)v.
della
Ann.
lxviii.
(1910),pp.
bibliographyof researches
65.
(1907),pp. 59
"
R.
Accad.
305
on
"
dci
337.
inte;,Mals
65]
onlypolesof
The
calculate the
we
Gauss.
to
integrandinside
the
191
If therefore
the
contour
sum
change the
we
order
have
we
integration*
and
of summation
due
formula
wellknown
the
by
REPRESENTATIONS
INTEGRAL
0, 1, 2,
at
are
When
....
find that
we
poles,
that
so
J^ {z)e
(1)
1^1
relation.
is Kummer's
which
('^ I
f^^r+1)
,h {z)e^'
(2)
'^'^" +
R{v)
"
which
; 2z. +
are
v,
2iz),
1 ;
2iz).
relations
\, are
"
1 ;
find that
we
Y%'ll) i
; 2r +
In like manner,
These
and
connectingfunctions
by the theoryof analytic
so,
It is also
which
no
T{vs)T{s){lizy^^^,
function
qua
of
5.
It has
5
residue at
The
0, 1, 2,
the
polesat
2,
....
is
the residue at
"
vir
in
i^
()"'(2 ^)'"^'"'
m\ T {v {m + 1)
'
sin
'
is
iri"
()"(l2)''+='"
'
sin
ml
vTT
(v +
1)
'
that
so
ds,
(lizY^''
^^.ir{vs)r(s)
7rei"''+i'"'
i/,''
(z)
(3)
and, in like
where
the
in
X
manner,
Treic+it'^''
^,w
(4)
"
l,v
...; v,v
TTJ^
while
points
the contours
start
{z)
from
~[r(v
and
return
to +
(5)
we
iz
to
reverse
7rei"'+^''
H/'^
(z)
^. f'^"'
r (ItTI J
Cf.
Bromwich,
hir
\"
as
the polesof
encircling
in (3)or jarg (" iz)\" 7r
after
oo
start
we
from
oo
i and
find that
ds,
s) V ( s)(^izy^''
cjai
end
at
192
THEORY
OF
BESSEL
[CHAP. VI
FUNCTIONS
number
c is any
positive
providedthat \arg (" iz)" ^tt;and, in each integral,
is parallel
to the imaginaryaxis.
exceedingIl{v)and the path of integration
There is an integral
resemblingthese which represents the function of the
and the argument
R(v)"0
firstkind of order v, but it converges only when
in questionis
The integral
of the function is positive.
in the
it is obtained
and
Barnes'
the
offunctionsof the
representations
^vK^)e
Consider
for the
2i.^/7r}^
r(s
the
now
{2zy
third kind.
Gamma
function
we
write
may
l)r(2i.+ s+l)sins7r"
integral
"'
2iVt.
in which
precedingintegrals
; the reader
integrandis 0 {\sl"""^).
formula
By using the duplication
results justobtained in the form
\^}
the
as
way
js is largeon
6'51.
same
T{s)r(2vs)r(v
i).{2izyds,
_c
the
"
"
"
...
"
''
"
"
"
"""
for,if s
have
we
pe'^,
i).(2,"r
,r(.)r(2..")r(.+.H).(2,.).^p^^"/r
(s) (2i/
1)
(2i^ s)
+ . +
5 +
sm
STT
sm
TT
and, by Stirling's
formula,
r{v
i).(2izy
''^r(s
+ i)r{2i^
i)
pe'^log(2iz)(v
with
of
p
s
cos
and
is
When
logp.
p
jsin 6 j}and the
\ exp \piT
times the integrandis
6
cos
log122 [
"
this tends to
p sin ^
"
as
"
pe'^)(logp
when
"
^
tt "

in
pOamO
"
6 is nearlyequalto "
dominant
arg 2iz
/a
"
term
pcosd\ogp
if  arg iz i"
7r.
pcosd
{
"
2p\^\nd\,
651]
INTEGRAL
Hence
the
times the
round
integral
to pass between
REPRESENTATIONS
integrandtends
all alongthe
to zero
193
and
semicircle,
zero
so
so
as
It follows from
Cauchy'stheorem
that,when
argiz\" 7rand
2v is not
an
then
integer,
r'
J
be calculated
may
2v
( s)r (
s)r (v +
i).{2izyds
"x"i
"
residues at the
the
by evaluating
poleson
the
rightof
the
contour.
The
residues of
r
at 5
and
TT
r (( .9)
2^ +
"
(v +
7)1
1) (2/^)^
.
respectively
are
1) {2iz)'"'
2/. s)r{v+s
r (
TT
;/
1) (2i")2''+"'
sin 2viT
and
rn
!F
+
(2i/
'
1)
sin ^vir
nil
r(" 2i^+
1)
hence
Pr r
=
r{s)T{2vs)T(v
s+l).{2tzYds
^^+i' ^^"
snr2;^r(2TTT)^^^^+^
H2^)vr^r(iz.)
g"
TT^e'^
sin 2t'7r
It follows that,when
i,,..(,,
(2)
^'"'""=(^)(2)"
77 '^
j.i
X
"
and
when
similarly,
2/v
r (i.
+
.9)
s +
1) i2izyds,
s) r (r+
.9 +
1) ( 2{zyds.
F.'^'(2)
(3)
( s)r (
XI
giiz.'Tr)
cos (i^tt)
(22:)"
.
r (( .s)
2i'
XI
The
restriction that
is not
to be an
integermay
be removed
by a limiting
process, but the restriction that
integercannot be removed, since then poleswhich must
would have to coincide with poleswhich must
contour
manner
AV. B. F.
2i" must
be
be
on
on
in the usual
not
the
be
an
rightof
the left.
13
odd
the
VII
CHAPTER
EXPANSIONS
ASYMPTOTIC
7*1.
In
Chapter
series
since the
large compared with 4 (i^+ 1), 4 (i^+ 2), 4(^ + 3),
fairlyrapidlyfor such values of z. But, when ^ I is large,the
slowly,and an inspectionof their initial terms affords no clue
z^ is not
converge
converge
; when
i^
is
possiblethe calculation
Bessel's equation when
There
the
of
the
be
calculated
without
of formulae
fundamental
difiiculty.
which
recondite
latter,and
investigationof
problem
the
render
of solutions
system
of
large.
it is
be considered
to
that
made
was
behaviour
until
postponed
however, be mentioned
It must,
the
to
to
series
this statement
exception to
one
determination
values
; the
is
than
more
is
is not
functions
..
when
largeis very different from the investigation
former
investigationis, in every respect, of a more
V
The
character
of the
reallytwo
are
when
large.
the
chapter is
this
objectof
is
Y^,{z). There
integerwhich
an
("3'4) enable
in finite terms
The
{z) and
of J^
values
approximate
the
obtained
were
multipliedin some
computation when
z,
series
These
by log z.
functions
Bessel
representationsof
various
III
of series of
in the form
cases
FUNCTIONS
BESSEL
OF
by
the
Chapter
of Jq {x), for
some
is not
recondite
viii.
Carlini*
gation
investi
the
solution
before
years
of
Poisson'sf
large positivevalues
of x,
was
published.
The
formal
expansion obtained
by
Poisson
was
1^
3^
1
5^
Hsin(^i,r).^^3J^^
+
when
is
large and
and
since
positive. But,
Poisson
to
be
*
Ricerche
1817).
his method
regarded as suggestiveand
An
siilla convergenza
t Journal
de
of Jv
Mathews,
of these
account
VEcole
on
che
serie
investigations has
to
Bessel
Poisson's
Functions
series
of
the
on
right are
serva
than
alia soluzione
already been
given
34
"
vergent,
con
in
dominant
the
term) is
convincing.
del
prohlema
di
Keplero (Milan,
in " 1*4.
not
remainders
obtaining the
ingenious rather
Pohjteclinique,xii.
{x) similar
Treatise
della
the
investigationof the
no
gave
since
..
350
been
38.
"
352
see
constructed
" 16.
An
by Gray
vestigation
in
and
196
of the formula
generalcharacter
The
the researches
and
memoir;
vi.
by Lommel,
publicationof
Studien
indicated
Functionen
for
[CHAP. VII
FUNCTIONS
BESSEL
OF
THEORY
the
(1873),pp.
146
"
149
Haukel's
also be
must
mentioned.
asymptoticexpansionof K^{z)
at an
earlydate by Kummer*
asymptotic)
formula
of
addition
the
the
corresponding
also contains
known
paper by Malmsten:]:
expansionof K^ {z).
The
study of
close
the remainders
(and proved to be
investigated
with
was
reproduced,
for /^ {z),
by Kirchhoff f ; and a littleof the asymptotic
an
investigation
was
; this result
in the
and
been
made
"
"
expansionshave
The
1906, pp.
239
"
265, and
also been
Ann.
investigatedby Adaraoft",Petersburg
1905.
by Valewink in a Haarlem
dissertation,
Inst,
polyt.
Investigations
concerningasymptoticexpaosionsof t/^[z)and F" {z),when
to be most
l^iis largewhile v is fixed,seem
simplycarried out with the aid
of Poisson's type. But Schlafli*[has shewn
that a largenumber
of
of integrals
of integrals
results are obtainable by a peculiartreatment
of Bessel's type,
Barnes**
has
discussed
the
while, more
recently,
asymptoticexpansionsby
of the PincherleMellin
means
integrals,
involvinggammafunctions,which
examined
were
6"5,6"51.
7'2.
We
in
shall
obtain
the
asymptoticexpansionsof the
third kind, valid for largevalues of \z\;the analysis,
apart
modifications,will follow that givenby Hankel ff.
Take
valid
R{v
now
The
7r"/3"7r
l)"0.
expansionof
and
the factor
^'^
Journal
fur Math.
Svenska
xvii.
V. Akad.
(1837),pp.
Handl.
lxii.
Tra)is.
tt Math.
Camb.
Ann.
Phil.
i.
of the
slight
some
(1869),pp.
xx.
228"242.
f Ibid,
(1841),pp.
^, provided that
xlviii.
(1854),pp.
1907, p. 492.
di Mat.
270"279.
of
is
"""'
65"74.
der Math.
(1908),pp.
491"495.
3,^ +
"
2:4:1^
H Ann.
Soc.
arg^^
in descendingpowers
(1 + liu/z)"'^
^ttf/3"
^
2z
t K.
from
the formula
when
+
functions
348"376.
72]
ASYMPTOTIC
EXPANSIONS
197
since this
but
shall
we
For
all
values
positive
integral
"2zJ
V^i2/
"^'
",=o
It is convenient
to
take p
any
8 is
sin S,
"
2iz
S.
"
so
that
2S.
"
""'^^h
"
"I
independentof
TT,
so
^e!'"''):(sinS)""''^i'
^p,
=
z.
On
term,
is
Ap
^277
"7r
is restricted
given,z
consideration,and
under
2{z/
say, where
choose
ut\
ut
1
then
we
made, then
1
ii
'
(Itt+ /3)
"
2S ^ arg
TT
"
and
"
2tz/
satisfies the
"
When
(p~\)l\2izJ Jo
j/3^7r S, Iarg^The
have*
we
largethat R(v"p
l)^0;
inequalities
so
positive
angle S which
of p,
find that
we
)
_^
l).{2izy
+
(i/),".r(i^
"p"i
Z,
mlT{v
^^(j)'
where
^^
(1) I "
i?
^'
(I
^).
(1
i(3
exp
ty' dt
.U
^(piy:r(v+i)(2iz)p\]o
I^^v+p ^^f^
;
^Bp.\zrp,
where
5^
is
function
Hence, when
when
is such
and
angle";
function
The
*
due
of the
formula
Cf. Blodern
to
Graf
pp. 86"87.
Math.
the
Soc.
and
t Cf. Modern
v,
8 which
p and
and
R(vpl)"0
that
tt
independentof
R(v+l)"0,
Analysis, "541.
valid when
The
Modern
(1920),pp. 6"9
as
die
acute
being any positive
symbol which denotes a
^ 
oo
^^
this may
R(ppl)"0;
of this form
use
in
Gubler, Einlcitung
of z~J^
Theorie
der
of the
z.
have
we
2S ^ arg 2^ ^ 27r
28, 8
is the BachmannLandau
(1)is also
is
symbol 0
order of magnitudef
Cf. Whittaker,
xxxviii.
of
MacRobert,
BcsseVschen
(7;/(/.pp.
seen
by
to be
expansion seems
Fiinktioncn, i. (Bern, 1S9S).
binomial
be
10"19.
Proc.
Edinburgh
198
THEORY
[chap. VII
FUNCTIONS
BESSEL
OF
supposingthat R(v
"
"
"
"
of these q
In
similar
work)
can
we
is therefore 0
p + 1 terms
"
{z~v).
manner
from
deduce
throughoutthe previous
+^^^
ir,W(^)=('A'j%^.4i:r)
"J'
_,r=o m!(2..)
(2)
277 +
Hankel,
If,following
{v,m)
28 ^ arg z^ir
of values of
is
given
now
1h.
write
we
(i
()
and
v\n il + v)y,
ml
{v +
!r
(i/

"
"
1)
+ I)
m
m
1)^}
2'^.m\
become
expansions
these
2 \^
(3)
Sl=W^'^i
TV 2f /
''"^
For
^Ay eM3A.^i^,
ir;^)(^)
(4)
brevitywe
write these
(5)
(v,m)
0(zp)
equationsthus
WzJ
(2t2)"'
,^.0
(6)
Since
(v,m) is
of
V,
"
when

z
function
even
of
of order
it follows
v,
"
"
with
the
the real
of
sponding
corre
part of
^^" (^)
(;^)'
(8)
m^
(A)*
(z)
anglejustless than
Stt.
when
iJ
..F,U
+ .,lv;
^'"'^'"^"''^'
e^^i"'^^ .^0
"
tt
"
arg
"
"
(i
+
^,
(6) are
of
i/
formulae
functions,the expansions
generalised
hypergeometric
are
(7)
(7)is valid
the
from
is unnecessary.
So the formulae (1)
is confined to one or other of two sectors
In the notation of
of which
t,
connect
fimctions
exceeds
an
"
2^^
'
27r "
arg
"
tt.
721]
ASYMPTOTIC
7 '21.
199
AsymptoticexpansionsofJ^{z),J^(z)and Y^{z).
combine
we
the formulae
Bessel
(which express
of
functions
" 72,we
deduce
of the
from
first and
second
(r
"
"
cos
"
(z
vir
'^to
irz
^A^)'^
7H
COS(^
" 361
of
{Izf
^
\
=
''
'
{^zf"i+i
()
()'" (^.2w)
"
'
^^
"
2
cos
irt+l
(^2r)
J. {z)
{v,2m)
()"^(^',
2//i+l)'
f 7r). N
I i^TT"
"
"
^^^
sm(2'iz/7ri7r). S
"
\lTZj
(3)
of
in terms
(2#
sm{zh"rr\Tr).
(2)
kinds
kind) that
'/.iz)
(1)
the formulae
"
If
EXPANSIONS
m=0
"
1
/
1
%\Vl{z^\vtt
\it)
F_.(^)^
case
of functions
Y, ^z)
oi
order
integral
2??i + i)"
()"^(/',
co^{z
"
\mr
"
(2^)"'+i
()"* {n,2m)
(2^)"^
.
s\n{z\mT\'Tr). %
+
()'".(n,2m +1)'
{'TT).S
m
formulae
\"^}
only),
1)1
These
C0s(2'
+ z/7r:^7r).S
2lT
(5)
1)'
(in the
{f.{y, 2m)
and
.^^
1
.
(4)
()"'"
(^.2m
^
^^^^
with
are
which
we
have
to
deal.
has
been
seen
in
"
Cf.
xxiii.
(188:)),p.
223
Searle, QnarterhjJournal,
xxxix.
to have
originatedfrom Todhunter, An Elementary Treatise
(1908),p. ()0. The error
appears
(London, 1875), pp. 312"313.
Laplace'sFunctions, Lame's Functions and BesseVs Functions
on
200
The
[CHAP. VII
FUNCTIONS
BESSEL
OF
THEORY
and
by Lipschitz*by
" 1) with
grating
inte+ 1
at
corners
.'0
1
"
ei""^ e"'+""^zr ^ (2
ui)"dn
0,
and
be convenient
It may
involved in
to note
expansions
3^)
(4.V"1)(iv
in the
2!
(8^)^
"^
4!(8^)^
(4t/^ 1)(4i/ 30 (4i/ 5'^)
3! (82^)3
^ (yn.{v,2m + l.)_4i"l1182
(2zym+i
""=o
The
reader
should
notice that
J,^{z)+ J,^^Hz)o^2/(m),
a
formula
Note.
of
method
which
by
respect to
but
of
93
be noticed
that
endeavoured
to obtain the asymptoticexpansion
the expansions of J^^ (z)with
by
differentiating
97,
that the termbyterm differentiation of an
known
now
Lommel
was
"
it is
course
67.
respect to
Lommel's
later
which occur
These errors
have been enumerated
in his earlier work.
errors
algebraical
Archives
The
221
225.
xxviir.
by Julius,
A'eerlandaises,
asymptoticexpansions
(1895),pp.
of 'Ai
Ann.
of Math. viii. (1894),
(^) and T"{z) have also been studied by McMahon,
282.
fiirMath, und Phys. xiv. (1903),pp. 275
61, and Kapteyn, Monatshefte
pp. 57
the
"
"
"
novel
of
application
3'ears : they are
in recent
divisors of numbers.
In
these
of
Journal
\ Ann.
Math.
fiirMath.
Sci.
de
Kongresses
Acta
in
lvi.
VEcolc
norm.
sup.
Heidelberg, 1904,
Mathematica,
%Quarterhj Journal,
pp. 1"25.
(1859),pp. 189"196.
xxxvii.
xlvi.
(1904),pp. 207"268,
(3) xxi.
pp. 241
459534;
Verh.
dcs
Int.
245.
"
140.
(1914),pp. 113
(1915),pp. 263"283;
"
Proc.
London
Math.
Soc.
(2) xv.
(1916),
722]
ASYMPTOTIC
Stokes'
7"22.
!arg2^"7r.If
between
and
tt
"
/.,(z)
=
we
201
phenomenon.
formula
The
EXPANSIONS
established
for values
e"^'A
27r
of
such
that
lies
(so that arg^'g"''''
(2'e~"')
2
CO
e"
"'
(ire
cos
TT
"
i/TT
"
tt)
"/HI
that,when
so
"
arg
/
"
2m
^ ()"'"(J^,
Wi
(2lp
III
The
and
the
27"
()'".(!/,
sin(^+ i^7r
+ Itt) S
"
shall
make
now
derived
throughoutthe sector in
asymptoticexpansion
close examination
which
tt
"
from
"
arg
iy
=11
expansion is superficially
quite different
1)'
this
'lir,
"
TTZ
and
^
^^
ze'
expansionof
change.
from
the
of this
the formula
"
\m
The
expansionfor //^''^
(z),namely
corresponding
^;^) (^)oo
(1)
"
Hz 4"
J)
('\'"'\
TTZ
"
arg
E,^'^
(z)
=
and
this
(2)
sector
2^ "
cos
'Iir we
VTT
H,^^{ze^')
+
e"^'
gives
('Bii/jTiTr)
H,('Hz)c^(~Ye
{v,m)
..o(2izy"
^(r.(^,)
2cos...(iY.^i^\lT4yJ
The
F,'"{ze^%
"i
\'"^
.'
now
the
difference between
2cos^7r.(" ) e''^+i+i" S
and, on
account
oi lower' order
U'W
"
is
this exi)ression
the series,
multiplies
duo to stopping
than the error
of magnitude{when \z\\blarge)
of the factor e'^ which
202
at
OF
THEORY
term
definite
stop at the pth
expansion(1); for
term.
Hence
when
occurs
used in
0"arg2^"7r,
where
this
is 0
error
between
discrepancy
when
(e~^^z~P~^)
(1)and (2),which
(1) has to be
series in
its remainder.
with
conjunction
Generallywe
is
the
[CHAP. VII
FUNCTIONS
of the
any
we
BESSEL
have
the constants
have
values which
and
Ca are
c,
Ci
where
difficult to prove
follows :
as
le2p{"'+i)"
Co
^"^i^^',
e^+i)
c,
p is any
This
Stokes
which
confined
functions which
Soc.
to
possess
discontinuous
in which
le2?"(''+i)^
him
Bessel
in
arg
"
{2p + 1) tt],
[2p7r"
arg
"
(2p + 2) tt],
asymptoticexpansionsof
involved
which
constants
discovered
was
by
in the
by
simpletype*.
Stokes
made
and
Stokes
third of these
to
seems
have
been
Acta
Math.
; 283"298
written
by
(1902),pp. :39.3"
(1905),
pp. 283287.]
xxvi.
; V.
Stokes.
and K^(z).
of Iy,{z)
Asymptoticexpansions
7 '23.
The
"
series of papers.
It is a phenomenon
functions,and it is characteristic of integral
The
the constants
X.
397.
assignedto
1 ) TT
discontinuity
of the
discovered
was
apparentlyone of those
Gabriel Stokes,Memoir
papers
e2^(''+^)^,
[(2^

by
Jy (z)are
of the
discussed
was
is not
or
integer,
positive
negative.
phenomenon
and
The
Ci, c^
formula
shews
K^ (z)and H^^^'"
(iz),
at
once
with
connects
that
^^'W~y ''"!"(2ir
(1)
(")'
1 H^
"
'
2!(8^)
1!82
CO
Cf.
Bromwich,
t Stokes
the latter
Theory of InfiniteSeries,"
illustrated the
being
those
change
associated
with
with
133.
functions
Airy'sintegral("6'4).
whose
orders
are
0 and
"
204
THEORY
be
quoted here.
functions of
The
are
order had
zero
[CHAP. VII
EUNCTIONS
to deal with
it convenient
Russell*; he found
BESSEL
OF
been examined
the
previously
by
be written
may
as
follows:
iber(^)^expg(^)cos
^^
\hei(z)V(27r^)sin
'^ ^'
ker(z)^expa(^)cos
^"'^
^'
^{Iz/Tr)sin^^
[kei(^)
where
13
25
_z
"^^^^~V2"^8^V2
384^^/2
^^^
The
Iarg
\" 7r in
These
the
of
case
results have
(1910),p.
been
the formulae
Hadamard's
result
the
of
case
(1) and
expressedin
modified
form
expansions.
modification
of the asrjmptotic
which
so
expansions,
that
is of
no
importance is due to
modifythe various asymptotic
luith a negligible
convergent series together
mainder
re
that it is possible
to
formulae
have
theoretical
considerable
theybecome
The
term.
in making
difficulty
the modifications
but
variables,
appropriate
complex variables.
We
u,
" ^ir in
arg^j
are
(2).
to
3842V2
162'^
8^v'2
51.
7*25.
A
of
validity
of
ranges
V2
""'
128^*
take firstthe
of
case
when
/"(";)
"
\.
"
When
U^)
ilxy
ede
ii^V^n
f'^^^''""sini) (i)Jo
rf
1 (i^
+
( '"'^" ""^'
nSm) ir'^
"
2(2xye''
"
i^v)
^
may
being valid
write this
equationin
e^
_
because
[^w2.+2m
exp (_ 2ux)du,
where
y denotes
Phil.
is convergent.
integrals
the form
r{r
l, 2x)
l).m':{2xym
"incompleteGammafunction"
of
'
Legendre".
the
the series of
I (^v\,^.y(v+
V(27r")^=o
'"
"^'~'
Jo
"""
replacesin ^ by
have
we
we
de la Soc. Math,
de
France,
xxxvi.
will be
(1908),
pp.
77"85.
explained
in
" 811.
725, 73]
e~^)which
0{x''^"'^h
In the
is
of the
case
EXPANSIONS
205
largevalues
For
is
ASYMPTOTIC
n.
we
ordinaryBessel functions,
take
the
expressionfor
so
\S plixiv:rj;ntfee
'i),\vh
that
fl
(2)
and
!."(,)
=
(A)',
^^';'"'_7"''+'"+.%
0(...n
,,.i..i"
similarly
^irxj
(y + I)
! ("
2ta;)^
for functions
gave the formulae
of any order exceeding  is obvious.
Hadamard
functions
of order
zero
only ;
but
the extension
to
"
7'3.
Formulae
for
in the
the remainders
asymptoticexpansions.
in
shewed
which
that the remainders
investigation
order of
the asymptoticexpansionsof H^,^^^
{z) are of the same
{z) and i/^"'
magnitude as the first terms neglected.In the case of functions of the first
In
and
" 7'2
second
theorem
to
we
an
gave
kinds, it is easy
to
obtain
v
more
is real*
and
exact
x
is
and
rather
remarkable
positivethe remainders
after
Let
us
write
We
"'!(iv"r+(ii^.n'^^'")
may
take
v^O
without
losing generality.
206
[CHAP. VIT
FUNCTIONS
BESSEL
OF
THEORY
that
SO
(1) /i,
(x,v)
Sin
{x^lvirItt)Q {x,v)\
cos
yrrx/
/ 2 \*
"
l{v)
the variables
real,and
are
that, if p
It follows
[2x)
and,
V^2x)
1 ;
It follows
'
be
taken
on
\.2ixJ
, there
\2ixJ
{2p)l
in this formula, we
real,
^"^' since 6o is obviously
"
exists
1 ^
'
have*
\2x)
{2p)\
^o^
'
1.
that
integration
^^Zo
(2"0 ! i2xy^^
doe" zf+2p* du
'
^)Jo
'
the
if+'^P^
du
T{v
2p^ I),
(p
l)th term
"
the formula
From
(l +"'Y""=
2x)
V
find in
I e"
Jo
see
exceed
of
"
\h
we
^tt since
since
and
we
so
ml
2xJ
take h to be
may
1
results combined
^o1^
where
^2^^
"r=o
adding the
on
so
exceedingunityin absolute
6, not
number
of " 7"2,we
and, in the analysis
yrrx
Now
+
[sin{x^lvir^tt)P (^,i^)
similar
(i
"r=o
V)m
(" MV"
"^
\2ixJ
ml
manner
exceed
the
{p +
after p terms
in absolute
l)th term
'
in the
expansion
value,providedthat
2p^v%.
These
results
were
reproduced by Gray
p. 70, but small
Camb.
This
(1859),pp.
xvii.
was
189"196.
Math.
Ann.
in their Treatise
have
been
pointed out
i.
on
in both
"
494, and
were
(London, 1895),
investigations
by Orr, Travis.
(1899),pp. 172"180.
of if^,
{x) we
case
result
Mathews
inaccuracies
Phil. Sac.
In the
given by Hankel,
and
obtained
in
have
the formula
rather
different
mariner
by Lipschitz,Journal
filrMath.
lvi.
731]
ASYMPTOTIC
EXPANSIONS
207
and
and, when
j)'^v
where
^i "$ 1, and
"
\, the
"
last term
be written
may
integration,
so, on
m)
v^^jv,
?H
where
This is
by
the
methods
; the
after the
7'31.
The
(1 +
of
manner
(1 +
" 7'3
"
(2^)pJ
'
.
those
obtained
for P
{x,v) and
why
and does not
^ut/xy~P~iis positive
+ (1
liut/xy^'i
liut/xy~Pi.
reason
Q (x,v)
is secured
oscillate in
is,of
sign
The 7'esearckes
results of
;^
result than
exact
more
same
course,
jj ^
(2^)'"
{v,p)
'
on
of Stieltjes
Jo{x),Y^Xx) and Kq(x).
put into
who
preciseform by Stieltjes*,
in the asymptoticexpansions
associated
the remainders
less than the first terms neglected,
Kq (x)are numerically
were
have the
more
sign as those
same
terms.
also examined
and we
shall not reproduce
Iq (x),but his result is comj'licated
Stieltjes
It is only to be expectedthat /q(."")
is intractable because in the dominant
expansion
the terms
all have the same
sign whereas in the other three asymptotic expansions the
alternate in sign.
terms
itt.
It is evident
from
0)=^r
{x,
Q (x,0)
In these
formulae
" 7 "3
the definitions of
ui
e
f%"
wi
{(1+ m)i + (1
{(1+ iuOi
dv,
V")*]
(1
im)^}du.
replace(1 + ^iu)~^by
2 r^TT
that
d(f)
1 "
^^'
Si^^ ^
'
norm.
(188G),pp. 233"252.
sjyj. (3)in.
by Schafheitliii, Jithre.fhericlit der Deutschen
/^(.r)has also been examined
for tlie
to use
Lagrange's form
129, but he appears
Math.Vereinigung,xix. (1910), pp. 120
remainder
in Taylor'stheorem
when
it is inapplicable.
Ann.
t The
function
"
208
evident
It is then
that
1
i iu)^
+ (
^
^
1 +
(
^
Iiu)~^
=
'^
^
TT.
"
['"{1
xu^
_
2
^ttsin*^
1 +
where
[CHAP. VII
FUNCTIONS
BESSEL
OF
THEORY
()^'(Art^sin" "^)?'i
sin^ (/"
+ ...+
+ 1 '*'sin" 0)}d(j",
iy iiu'sin" (/))^V(1
integer(zero included).
positive
jj is any
Now, obviously,
where
1 ; and
0 and
0 lies between
If
Jo
hence
^^^^f^(in)"...
l^^(iu)^
+
function
positive
the
multiplyby
we
l+^u'sm"f)
e~"*
and
m"^
it is evident
integrate,
that
(^i;
^(,a;,u;
'^ ^
2!(8;r)'^
(2p
2)! (8^)^^
l^3^5^..(4"l)2
where
"
^i " 1, and
result which
had
we
and
integer(zeroincluded);
positive
proved for P {x,0).
p is any
to be
from
Similarly,
this is the
the formula
find that
l.3^52
r
(2) Q(^,0)
+,^
118^+3,(8^)3
"""
()'
l.3^5^..(4^3)(2pl)!(8^)^Pi
l^3^5^."(4p
,
^'^
(2^ +
l)l)!(8a;)^^+i
+
'
In the
case
oi
took
Kq{x),Stieltjes
^'JJ
K, {x)
e"^
and
replaced
by
(1 + lu)~^
^
^
"i'^
By
and
justexplained,
an
obtain the
a
method
"^ (1 +
du,
lu)'
dd)
; the
Jtfsm'")
givesagain the result
TT.o
method
the formula
1+
of
" 7*3.
Bull,
(2)xiv.
732]
ASYMPTOTIC
signsof tJieremainders
The
7*32.
in the
209
asijmptotic
expansionsassociated
Y^ {x).
alreadybeen
functions
two
EXPANSIONS
and
P{x,v)
simplertype.
shall
We
that J^ {x)and
seen
Q{x,i')which
extend
now
Y^ {x)are
in terms
of
expressible
asymptoticexpansionsof a
of Stieltjes
("7'31)so as to
have
the result
shew
; a
{p + l)thterm providedthat '2p" v
restrictions
The
which
2])"v f
"
on
be stated in the
to
terms
of
beingnumerically
result
corresponding
these conditions lay
"
after p
manner:
following
In the
oscillatory
parts of the series for P {x, v) and Q {x, v),the remainders
less than, the first
terms
sign as, and numerically
of the same
neglected.
are
By
modification
slight
"""^ Kl
^^^l^^
f"^~"'
P G'P"
^)
and, exactly
as in
11(1+ iuoi
" 7 '3,we
(1
of the formulae
shew
may
reader will
when
2p
"v
see
that
"
du,
ii")"^!
liuty^p+i (1

the
on
rightis of fixed
dt
^iuty'p^i]
if
can
we
+ (1
'"'O"^'
{^m)l
()^(l^Wi^rY^^
^^,^_, ,^^
The
have
that
m=o
" 7"3,we
(_r(h ^'Uihuy^^
iiuy^ Ji
of
we
can
prove that,
and
its
sign
signis that of
{y.{li'),,auypi(2p)i.
It is
sufficient to
clearly
^1(1
(1
ty^'I i {(1+ iiutY'i"+'^

2pvi^o
is
this
Now
positive.
that
shew
is equaltoij:
expression
I

In
{2pv^)T{2ppl)]o^
li
typ'~
^
^
in
" 73
we
may
take
{2p
"
ru
+ i)JoJo
"
,^y^
1
As
Jo
r/9
1
I^xv"^
\e^"+='"'"'

f f"(1 ^y'""^""^
dt
1iuty'P+i]
{2pv
:r.
i^O without
I V^"^
e^
loss of
^i'^^2^w^)^'d\dt
"
ty"sin (hXut)dtdX.
.'o
^)Jo
proved in g 7"3.
X Since isin (hXut)\^i\ut, the condition
iofiniteintegral.
[(1
rf\dt
e^ '^i'""}
generality,
W.
B. P.
2p"vh
secures
the
absolute
convergence
of the
^^
210
THEORY
Now
(1
second
OF
meanvalue
theorem,
f (1
number
Jo
Since
(2p
I
"
"
2/5
I'
"
into
"
we
^) is positive,
f (1
consideration
'under
succeeded
in
transforming
dt
iiuty'p+^
the
is
positive.
(1
and
integrandis positive,
so
the
expression
is to say,
That
1
0.
ii {(1+ ^iuty'p^i (1
typ"
that
.'0
in which
infinite integral
an
have
hence, by the
1, exists such
r sin (IXut)dt ^
"
"
0 and
f,between
0'^~'sin (iXut)dt=
of t; and
decreasingfunction
typ~'is a monotonic
"
[CHAP. YJL
FUNCTIONS
BESSEL
{(1+ liuy
liuyi]
p^i(r
"
(I
v)Uiur
nZo
0:^0 when
(y.(iv\p{h^y^
^
i^my.
{2p)l
where
stated for P
The
2i
K'
2jw"i/ . And
(x,v).
corresponding
property
i"'^'^ (1

{l"Uuy^
it has
"
The
Hes
for
i"')''i ,!o
=
'"J:t
will easily
be suppliedby
analysis
analysisfails
between
and
the reader.
when
if we
take p
0, but then the phase of
"h"v"^
and
so
"h(v^)7r,
l{{l+liuyh + {lUuyh} has the
the same
signas
manner,
^{{l+^iu)''~i{\ iiu)''~h}/iha,ii
=
"
the
first terms
is true
for
in their
Q {.v,
v) when
7*33.
Weber's
remainders
in the
expansionsoffunctions
Math.
Ann.
xxxvii.
(1890),pp.
404"416.
212
where
functions
of
(z)
(z)^,"''(z)+ B' (z)ZT,'^'
0,
(A'
(z)and B (z)are
^ H/^^ (z)
Y'(z)^ H^^
=^
that
chosen
so
[CHAP. VII
FUNCTIONS
BESSEL
OF
THEORY
e'"i"
(iTT.)^
/(2i^U
i'^"
'
It follows that
and
J'^)
{z) ^7ri^TTzrie^;J"
A'
l^
H/^^ (z),
so
(.
{iTT
tt/J
A(z)==Ai,
J. is
where
S;" {z; p)
for
expression
similar
B (z),and
the
By considering
difficult to
Hence
we
behaviour
J'^)
"^^^
and
write Hankel's
may
l2i(. + 0P
of both
that A=l
see
it follows that
hence
g'X^J"
{^'rrz)\
{z)]
[AH,^'^
{z)+ 5^,'^'
(^J
h^'rrp.{v,p)l
is not
^"^^'
constant.
obtain
We
^"^ ^'
l\^
{2i(z
0}^e^^^^^^i^^
sides of this
equationas
^^
^
it
oo
,
0.
in the forms
formulae
"^
^"'^ ^^^
"
the remainder
where
^"'""^'""''"1"'"
(^
(")"
72^*"may
be defined
the
by
(^
i7rp.(.,^.)j^
i?/'
Since
(z)^ 0,
see
we
inequalities,
we
have
that the
'
i')+ ^i'"'!'
Equation
^^
1_2,"(,_^,)}.
+ i^),and
\z+ t]"^\J{r^
so, by using the crude
modulus
of the last integranddoes not exceed
Hence
+ i2)i(p+i)
dt,
I$ 2'p G'p I{v,p) jr (7'
Ijs^"i'
Jo
when
and
so,
and
similarly
These
the
and
are
p^l,
we
have
analysisno hypothesishas
p;
other writers.
by
been
Weber
made
and
it will be observed
that in
by
734]
ASYMPTOTIC
7*34.
Approximationsto
When
the argument
(with the
in it
the
small ; at
remainders
in the
of
time
to
the
argument
and
Jo ("^^)
to
apply the
We
so
state
be
term)
is not
particularly
sufficiently
largefor the
slowly.
very
converge
may
numerical
An
and
asymptoticexpansions.
remainder
same
ascendingseries
Kq{x)
213
expansionis not
term
EXPANSIONS
in detail
devised
obtained
were
difficultieswas
as
Yf^{x).
transformation
indicated
in
" 7"31
the formula
to
that
e^" du
e^
e^V2
TT
i'*" e'^'^dedu
.',)
.'o "*(! + I'usin^^)
r
p1
hi sin' Oy^dddu
^(
IT
IT
X^ r
Now
when
the value of
is
/Now,
e~^
is
as
increases from
0 to
oo
where
^j)+
(when
increases from
"
oo
to
to
ue^"
oo
,
"
The
about
t Ann.
range
of values
4 to about
of
.r
under
norm.
sup.
nearlyequal to
remainder
that
then
and
zero
and,
=
2x
after the
a,
from 0 up to
write
so
we
maximum
"
"
e'^'\
for similar reasons,
wc
write
e"'''.
contemplation for
(8)in.
the
so
the
functions
10.
Sci. de VEcole
is
increases
^ue~^"'
sin 6
from
choose p
(x),we
=
consider
to
du.
is least
(0,ni)l{2xy"'
where
^T^
,,
in order
large; accordingly,
smallest term
dd du
.'oi""(l+i"/sin^)
for which
^"rnr
v^'{0,ni)
+ {y R,
L".
(2*')'"
=0
."X
K'^xj
iri
"i
x/T
Jo Jo w^l
+"sm^)
(1886),pp. 241"252.
is
^'o(Oi"'i "'"o(''}
.7o("'")"
214
domain
The
(,77)plane; and it is
of the
the whole
becomes
integration
of
[chap, vn
FUNCTIONS
BESSEL
OF
THEORY
that
found
i.^
TT*
00
("%s
00
where
a
by
the
'
It follows* that
arithmetic.
largevalues
for
asymptoticexpansionof R^
^0,2
24'
^,"
tedious
rather
some
^"
"
0,0
x\^e"^
of p
"
'
the dominant
terms
of
are
c^o,2+ cr2,o
R^'^2
'p
ITJ
that
so
(2)
"^' +
_2
TT/
It is easy to
J9
that the
to
stopping at
V)
"
'
of the smallest
one
...
is
terms
roughly half
of the first
omitted.
term
In like
in
due
error
that
theorem
verifyby Stirling's
'{)
so
?V
1,
A~2(V^'7.+
manner
defined
as
" 7*3,then
^X"=^9=;^^()'i^;",
i'(^,0)
(3)
s""'"ff:r^'^()^ie;
.3(..o)
(4)
""=0
where
'''
R^(P)r^(^\^^
(5)
TT/
^""
"
p is chosen
of this character
similar
formulae
have
und
Phys.(3)xx. (1913),pp.
Reports,1913, 1914.
It would
Bessel
be of
functions
to
functions),
J,
^
L2
_2
"""
vw
Vtt/
so
as
be
to
nearlyequal to
and
x,
is defined
to
p.
Eesults
some
1_2
i^^'".

providedthat
\iQ.X
240"244
zero
order
Bessel functions
tabulatingBessel
actuallyused
interest
some
of
useful for
are
been
to
(as well
of
(1914),
pp.
(3)xxil.
extend
as
the
functions
by Airey,Arcliiv
30"43
results,which
for the
order.
arbiti'ary
and
174,
or
the
lemma
which
will be
735, 74]
Deductions
7"35.
If
ASYMPTOTIC
^.
which
6 in the formulae
2 tan
(2^)"+* f*sin"*
Schafheitlin's
resemble
It is obvious
215
s integrals.
from Schafheitliri
replacea by
we
EXPANSIONS
" 7 "32,we
of
^ sin
deduce
(i/ 1) 6/

,^
of "6*12.
integrals
from
P (.'T,
V) " 0,
Q (*",
i^)"
interesting
consequence
(
Q ('^,
v) " 0,
An
that
0.
"
,.
"
f)
(h "
i'
"
f)
"
1)
(_
we
can
"
that
prove
Q (x,v)/F (x,v)
is
function
increasing
an
function
For
of
when
"
of
when
h;"v
"
"h:
and
it is
that
decreasing
^.
"
have
we
Q'{x,v)P{x,v)P'{x,v)Q{x,v)
where
n//i
.N
^^^' ^^
so
(cos^cos.Jj^^^
,
.,
.^
,,
*^"
'"'
^"
"
ix
"
"
that
+ P(c^,^)
F(0, cf")
If
add
we
the
has the
'^)
^Pi(^^"
^^'^"^^^7^
^
^^^
t^^
in the
interchangethe parametricvariables 0, cj)
results so obtained we see that,when
l"v" %,
the
result.
and
this
same
signas I" v ;
pi'oves
7'4.
In
"
^) (^
double
"^)
and
integral
integral
the double
of Bessel functions.
expansions
investigation
ofthe asymptotic
Schlaflis
memoir
which
hardlyto
seems
(2
of
investigation
the
have
received
has
which
recognition
elegantbut somewhat
the
given a very
asymptoticexpansionsof
the fvmctions
of the
third kind.
the
Ann.
di Mat.
is
The
only standard
by
work
Graf
on
and
Bessel
Gubler.
functions
in which
216
Jt,{z)when
in
OF
THEORY
is
[CHAP. VH
FUNCTIONS
BESSEL
the
obtaining
compact form.
Schlafli's procedureconsisted in
^.j
H"
the
selecting
and
of
contour
of
takingintegrals
i7e
in
integration

He
and
being 0
(I) Let
tt
took
two
contours, the
and
it is
supposedthat
firsttake the
us
p is
where
way
is
tt
it,the phcifie*
of
that,on
l/w)
for the
constants
and
positive
contours
respective
is real.
write
pe*",
l +
6 is real,and
and
positive
du,
such
2 +
be
phase to
u
type
" (u ^)
J
exp
ire'"(?/
is constant.
the
then
+ pe'^)
re^'p^e'^/il
is
is
and
negative,
Hence
its
consequently
equalto
conjugatecomplex.
have
we
sin (a + 2^)
..,,
^^
Next
choose
sin
a
sin ^
.".
'
(a + ^)
sin
parametricvariable "^such
new
(a + ^)
that
"/) 2^
=
and
a7r,
then
!("(/))
i (a + 0)
cos
(2)
cos
Now,
from
^ varies from
as
the
originat
at
infinity
angle(tt
an
"
angle
an
"
"
(tt
"
"
ot)to (tt
a) with
(tt
"
laid
(a
cos
a),u
"
a) with the
rsin"^
(m1)2
'
traces
the
"
out
0) cos (a + 0)
contour
real axis,providedthat
positive
on
the
contour
passes
to
emerging
passingto
0 "
"
27r.
more
infinity
once.
We
shall
for
specified
value
a,
as
laythis
now
formula
restriction
on
and
then
we
the contour
give to
and
is of the type
arg
the
same
is permissible.
It follows that
e""'
/_^ (re'*)

e'^^i
I^(re^")
=
'2isin
where
*
The
"method
Chapter
vir
is defined in terms
reader
of
viii.
will find it
of
2^IZ'j'""
(" ")1
1^''''"
% ^'^''P
which
"
"^by equation(2).
to
interesting
steepest descents"
compare
is
the
applied to
general methods
obtain
various
of this section
with
the
asymptotic expansions in
74]
the
ASYMPTOTIC
11 /e'""
L
r 'or"
+ u") exp
) X
(.S)ei""'i/,w (je'("^^)
=
(2) it follows
From
as
0 to
ir
"
a:
and, if we
?e'"'(" lf/u
when
positive
is
the contour,
on
we
write
have
dt
dt
du
0 to +
t,
^'
"
from
varies monotonically
"/)
that t is
^^
d(f".
^]\^^^
from
"re"^{i( 1)/hincreases steadily*
that
so
217
EXPANSIONS
"
'
H
the range
(a
re'"
of values of arg
+ u.i)
^/{rt)
Tfi() eH'^")^("i
being less
than
tt.
Next, by Cauchy'stheorem,
it is convenient
outside
to
take the
the contour
because
must
be
It follows that
iii+ ui i
^Ht1)(^^
_
_
Hence
i/"+, i+)
r
r ("+.
eJ'"^'exp(re''^)
"
rr
/rx
^^
m
"
Now
",
it is evident
2" is any
to
On
making
1
that
fP
()y l;p
^mpn
(^_y,i
that p exceeds
both
R(v
in the last
this substitution
"
(wjththe
will be convenient
h) and R("v
r (i;Im
"^^"^^
notation
of
(9
'^^~r(vm+
i).
4
A)
I (v,m)
i,).(2vil) (2m)!
that
deduce
" 7'2),we
"
quently
subse
integrandand observingthat
1/M.+,1+)
/"("+,
"2^j
^""H? l)"^^c?^
+ ^^/(7e')
(^ 1)^
positive
integer(zero included). It
suppose
gi^r*
27r''?;r^e* JoJ
pi
where
"x
^^
r j'i
\i
("V"
(i'w)
where
^^*'
"
J
2"W(27r),'o
t?
SincG
sin0(l+2cosacos0
sin"*
^^
"
d(j)cos
cos
(T^n:p^(7^e^'M(^^^"^+T^"^}
(p
"
(cos a
+
~"
"
cos
cos"/))
(/")
"'
218
OF
THEORY
[chap. VII
FUNCTIONS
BESSEL
First consider
p is
When
to
contour
so
largethat
be
as
circles tend
If
the two
on
both
R(v
"
^) and R{"v
take the
we
),
and
small
large
"
in
shewn
oo
it exceeds
and
tend
to
zero.
write
we
now
to
^"^pid^
/"("+,1/U+, 1+)
rays
(whichare
()Pcos
contour),we
TT
.kP"*
(1
vir
find that
Jo
tx
xy^'''^d.v
{I
x)/{re^'')
Fig.15.
Now
the numerator
modulus
of the
of the denominator
values of
it is
never
integrandis positive(when
is
less than
never
less than
sin
1 when
is
^tt"
"
and the
real),
7r; for other
!.
Therefore
^ft
d'
do \cos
vir
^
l^7rrV(2
1"
eittPi xP''i(1
dxdt
a:)P+''i
^TJ")j 0 J 0
where
a
see
\accordingas
V^
is negativeor
that
cosi^TT
(7)
cos
i^
6o\{R(v),p)j
(vtt)1
~
cos
'
{27')P
6^I{v,
p) I^ {2r)P,
When
positive.
220
THEORY
and
[CHAP. VII
FUNCTIONS
BESSEL
OF
hence, if now
t
re^''(u"lf/u,
find that
we
have
f7r"arg^"7r,
^.'M.)=Q^"f:!:[i^;^^"i
(13)
as
l{z)^0 or l{z)^0,
02.\does not exceed 1 or secarg^ ]accoi'ding
providedthat v is real and l) + l"\v\; and R (d^)" 0 when I(z)^0. If is
complex the form of the remainder has to be modified,justas in the case of (8).
where
functions
of
"
as
was
that
in this
it is unnecessary
v,
exceed
must
be observed
It should
to suppose
investigation
based on
of
investigations
integrals
in
necessary
even
R {v)
Poisson's type.
investigation*
of asymptotic
expansionsof Bessel functions.
7"5. Barnes
of functions.of
asymptoticexpansions
The
which
formulae
Barnes'
from
obtained
were
r{~s)V{2vs)V{v
6'51.
""6*5,
Let
immediately
consider
us
i){^izyds
"cci"v"p
'
T{~s
(2iz)''i'
J
If
"
r{s
"
cc
Di2izyds.
have
v+2))r(sv+p)
r(sp
i)(2izycis
T'
v+p)r(sv+p)r{sp
\r(s
v+p)r(sv+p)r(sp
i)e^''^y''^ds
is convergent
integral
the last
and
"
and
so
{(2iz)'P\
.
"
"
^,
"
"
%,
"
...
is
" 6"51,the first integral
the
(22^)"]
plus
V"
p +
()"'r (1/+
Tram.
Camb.
\.
Phil.
"
"
^Tvi timcs
The
residue at
^) r (
Soc.
xx.
the
1/
i^
it is
so
the
sum
equalto
of the residues at
sum
"
times
'Im
h)
??i"
is
75, 751]
and
ASYMPTOTIC
when
so,
221
EXPANSIONS
"
(iy,...,.p,;i.g",o(...)this is
and
//^''
(2')
may
The
reader should
obtain
to
possible
been
^ by
by replacing
of
" 7'2. The investigation
throughout.
of the remainders
magnitude
of the
be constructed
in
result obtained
the
equivalentto
is
of the 07'der
of
transparently
simple,it is not
concrete
remainders, which
by
this method
ultimately
suppliedby
are
the methods
which
have
considered.
previously
7*51
not
possibleto
seem
obtain
v.
2e"2*'~THA*+.'+i)'
^
2fx+ 2p'
TTZ
4^12
for
J^{z)J^{z)+Y^{z)Y,{z)
and
for
J^ (z) F, (z)

V^ (z)./,{z).
examine
should
the
integral
/";r(2.+i)r(^"i;..)r(t^.)r(''7
the contour
contour
the
we
and
contour
is to be chosen
the
;
polesof
and
so
that the
polesof
(2s + 1) lie on
functions lie on
the
rightof
not
are
temporarilysupposed that /u,, and fi "
is convergent
integrandhas no double poles.Tlie integral
it is
so that the
integers,
providedthat Iarg (?2)I" 7r.
i^
222
THEORY
First
evaluate
is
m
equal
+
to
minus
^{/x+ v)
lie to the
the
of
sum
round
the
right of
the
residues
at
the
VII
enclose
the
to
contour
; the
originalcontour
poles,and
these
[CHAP.
the
expression
residue
at
is
v)'7r'm\ r{/x
It follows
FUNCTIONS
BESSEL
integralby swinging
poles which
of
sequences
the
OF
')n
l)r{v
l)r i/x+
m+
l)
that
27rt
vir
sin (i;
sin
yti)7r
"
sin
(,a+ v)7r
(/a i/)tt
"
sm(/ji+ v)'Tr
{J,(z)J,{z)+Y,(z)YAz)\
sin
+ v)7r
{/J,
^3gj(M+w"2cosit7rcosi/7r+tsm//i+ i')7r}
^S
^^^
^"7
"
\r
t^
/
\
^
1 Az)ru.
(z)
^
\)
(z)J^ {z)\
TT^
[[/,(^)j,(^)+F^(^)r,(^)}
2sin(/x + v)Tr
cot
F^ {z)J, (^)}]
2cosC+^)J{^^"^("^^("^'^+
By writing
arg iz I and
"
tan
(^) F, {z)
i (/. ^) TT {./,

for i
cot
the
throughout
less than
H/*
") '^
Y, (z)/, {z)]].
deduce
analysis we
"
!^(Z) I^.(^)
tt,
1
,.
that, if both
then
(2)^. (^)l]
751]
ASYMPTOTIC
EXPANSIONS
223
and
results hold
^) TT
[J,(z) r. (z)
.) (^^ .)
("^^
These
J (^
tan
.in
..
(i.r
ds.
"
We
obtain
now
firsttake
the
the
be
p to
J xip
xi
"
either
(when
is equal to 27ri
integrandis inserted)
the polesbetween
the contours.
Since
residues at
the left of
on
tegrands
integerso largethat the onlypolesof the inof
and
then
F
R{s) "2)j are poles
(2s+ 1) ;
an
on
the functions
asymptoticexpansionsof
of " 7'5,
manner
times
the
of the
sum
r~'~'f(s)(izrds=^0{z^Pi),
J
deduce
we
that the
txi
"
when
asymptoticexpansions,
cot
11
Sm
^) 'r
z\
"
ir, are
V
TT
"
"^
H/^
[arg
TT^
r('y
r(^V",i)r5g+,"+i)
,^.(rT(^%."+i)
+,.+i
iTZ
I,
i'^;
\)
..F.(^'+i.
^"+1,
'/+i.
.".^;7"
^
^
2
2
^^y
V 2
I (yu, i^)
sm
"
TT
and
.
(4) [./^
{z)J, iz)+ Y^ {z)F, (z)]+
2
TT^COS
//i+
//A
^{iJb v)7r
"
^'^
IZ
1/
l
1
tan
\{y,v)'rr.
{z)F, {z) J, {z)Y,{z)]
\_J^
^l"V
/A
?'
"
l
1
V
^'
"
\
1
ix+l1
/i+
"
^
/i.
"
1
"\
v
i^
.
.
_
'
'
'
'2'
W*
224
THEORY
the
In
special
in
Formula
(5)
(6)
formulae
is,
pp.
and
der
(4)
VII
to
{1.3.5...(2ml)l^\
(r{1^3^5"""(2.^l)}
by
stated
Walter
to
by
(2.)
of
Camb.
by
A.
p.
Phil.
repeated
(Leipzig,
Gregory
Lorenz,
(1898),
I.
P)oc.
Orr,
Cylinderfunktionen
attributed
however,
discovered
scientijiqties,
transformations
on
der
Theorie
Lodge,
while
Soc.
integrals
1904),
x.
the
(1900),
247
"
British
Selskahs
general
more
p.
by
given
was
245
pp.
Vidensk.
Danske
K.
435],
99.
Nielsen,
the
Association
proof
Hand
expansion
Report.,
(5)
1906,
494"498.
is
not
method
Jy'
{z)
an
to
easy
after
such
[Oeuvres
v^ere
depends
which
It
of
reduces
formula
(2m)!
been
have
to
seems
(1890).
vi.
(3)
(5)
last
JHz)+YHz)^''~
Jo(^)+io(^)^^^^
Shifter,
huch
the
v,
[CHAP.
FUNCTIONS
particular,
m
(b)
of
jx
JH^)+Y^^{z)^^
(5)
and,
when
case
BESSEL
or
is
used.
Yy
estimate.
number
any
An
{z)
estimate
will
exactly
of
alternative
be
given
in
terms
the
these
method
in
magnitude
" 13"75,
of
or
asymptotic
obtaining
and
it
will
the
then
the
sign
of
the
mainder
re
expansions
when
asymptotic
expansion
be
possible
this
to
form
CHAPTER
A'lII
FUNCTIONS
BESSEL
OF
LARGE
ORDER
8"1. Bessel
of descriptive
subjectof this chapteris the investigation
properties,
equalitie
includingapproximate formulae, complete asymptoticexpansions,and inThe
of various
functionsconcerned
are
results
Carlini's
formula
with
with
Bessel
functions ; and
primaryimportancewhen
many
of the
results
the
the orders
happen
to
perties
pro
ofthe
be
true
orders.
positive
associated
of
large,though
are
of all
for functions
We
types connected
will be examined
which
which
are
of
("1'4). Next,
purely formal
we
shall
character,
obtain
certain
The
and
trivial
problem
is fixed,may
of
he noticed
It is evident, by
to the
this
l/v^(27r);
tV
=
large
logi^z){v
that
expansion of " .31,
^)logv}.
V
where
is
here.
theorem
applyingStirling's
result
has
been
pointed out
by Horn,
Math.
Ann.
Lll.
(1899),
p. 359.
for functions of largeorder,
of approximate formulae
physicalapplications
writers may be consulted:
Macdonald, Proc. Royal Soc. lxxi.
(1903),pp. 251
theJi^Howing
A
258 ; Lxxii.
; Phil. Trans, of the Royal Soc. cxx.
(1904),pp. 59"68
; xc. A (1914),pp. .50"61
und
der
Ann.
xxx.
Chcmie,
(1909),
57"136;
Physik
(4)
Debye,
11.3"144;
pp.
(1910),pp.
Ann. der
Rybczyiiski,
(1912),pp. 29"50;
March, Ann. der Physikund Chemie^ (4) xxxvii.
[Note.
For
"
Phil.
Mcifj.(5)xxiii.
In connexion
with
the
(1887),pp.
principle,see
Math.
W.
B.
Ann.
F.
lxvii.
Stokes,
(1883),p. 341.]
(1909),pp. 535"558;
252"255.
Camb.
Phil. Soc.
ix.
ii.
Milnchener
xl.
[5], (1910).
Sitzungsberichte,
15
226
und
Physik
pp. 516"537
of
the
Royal
Soc.
waves
ccxv.
"
The
546"563.
8'11.
Nicholson, FMl.
(1913),pp. 191"208;
[CHAP. VIII
FUNCTIONS
BESSEL
OF
THEORY
the
over
theoretical
works
sui'face of the
with
all deal
quoted
with
earth, and
are
experimentalresults.]
MeisseVs
"
(1)
function
{z)by
if we
define
then
equation(1) transforms
of
now
we
equation
+ ZU
{z)v'il z")
[u{z)Y'\
=
assume
(Z)
VUq +
on
functions
denote
of
which
...
independent of
are
128(12^)
it is
integration,
found
'
(cf." 1'4)that
jlog^'^^
^,^
^ ^
V(l
(16
1 5122
"'"5T60l"{
322^ +
l}i log(1
^^)
42^ + z'
((1^2)^ j
2 + 32^
24i;
U
ISz^
32(12)'
8(1^^)^'
+ ^^
8(1^^)^
(z)dz
series
...,
W2=^
"
2(1^^)'
4^+10^^
j\
2882"
v,
by
zero
z)]/z,Ui=ir7z.
Uo=Wil
on
(z)is expansiblein
find that
the left,we
Hence,
+
Un/v+ us/v^
Ml +
v,
0.
of v, thus
descendingpowers
where
the
i);
into
z''{u'{z)+
(2)
If
v^{lz^)JAvz)
,^^_+._^_
a
be written
equationmay
2322"
z'f
lQv''{l

36542*
375^"
_
(1^^)^
+
132"
z^)
228
THEOKY
OF
BESSEL
where
(1) P.
sec"'/3)
^^(4sec^y8
+
^"^
g"'
288
(768 sec^yg+
/3 + 232
sec^
sec*/3+
41280
(2)
Q,
/3)13
sec"
/3)
14884
^8+
103
375 sec"
yS)
sec^o
sec^^ /3)
'
"
"
"
3sec=/3)
z;(tan^/3)^^(2
+
57601/^
(16
o^^Va
322od0j^*
1512
sec
3654
/3
/3
sec*
1891200
1914210
sec"/S
sec^/3+ 4744640
sec^yS+ 67599
sec^"
/3)
....
J^ {y sec /8)in
To determine
^TT,and compare
type givenin " 7*21
to
the results
;
of these
terms
so
obtained
that, as /3
see
we
P.
we
sec"
4242
+
'
and
[CHAP. VIII
FUNCTIONS
with
take yS to tend
we
expansions,
the expansionsof Hankel's
\'k,
"
", Q.~z^(sec/S^7r),
"
infer that
(3)
(4)
^,*="(i/
sec
/3)
e^^+'^Q.'^'"',
a/(^^)
a/(^^^)
"
e^^"Q+^'''^
"
It follows that
(5)
J, (v sec y8)
(6)
F. (^'^^^^
P^ and
where
("8'41)that
and
Y^ (vsec
Formulae
which
easilybe
values
rigorousmethods
the
reader
(Q,
'"'''''^^
^^"' ^'^)'
"
ivr),
are
equal,cannot
The
eP"'cos
defined
Q^,are
of Jt,(z) and
y/'(?^^)
v/(^^)
are
obtained
of the
from
will observe
valid when
by
this method
that the
8*11.
are
both
largeand
but it will be
variables,approximationscan
Schlafli's extension
correspondinganalysisof "
and
of Bessel's
approximation has
been
be
nearly
are
in
" 8'2
obtained
by
seen
integral.
carried
two
stages further
than
in
82]
FUNCTIONS
The
Note.
dominant
OF
in the
terms
LARGE
ORDER
229
expansions(5)and (6),which
be written
may
in the
form
J^{x)
(7)
M^cos{Q^^7r),
}\ix)
M,sm{Q,^7r),
1'
3f"
where
Qv
"
the
publicationof
Videnskahernes
had
obtained
sin
arc
^'^) ^vir\v
'J{'^'^
been
memoir
two
before
years
on
The
Lorenz
procedure of
has been
which
proved
in
[_
^.^L
then
^
to
the exact
use
whence
the
from
the Wronskian
Subsequent researches on
of the Royal Soc. ccx.
(1907),pp. 697"707
; (6)xix.
(1911),pp. 67"80;
closelyconnected
1906, pp.
8*2,
and
of the result
consequence
.r*
formula
follows without
(1910),pp.
131
been
that
prove
difficulty.
Lorenz
by
144, and
"
(1910),pp. 228"249;
(8),has
{^l}^
of
are
publishedby
A.
due
to
Macdonald, Phil.
Nicholson,Phil.
516"537;
with
in
trxAI^^'
xy.\
Trans,
is
L. Lorenz
'
easilydeduced
by
equation
Q.
IX.
"^'
dx
is
granted that,as
2.4
.'
'
which
paper
SelsJcahs
" 7 '51,
iro:
and
Meissel's
436.]
"
take for
to
was
{vjx),
Proc. London
494"498.
principleof stationary
i^hase.Bessel functionsof equal order
The
argument.
of stationary
principle
phase was formallyenunciated by Kelvin* in
of the principle
connexion with a problemof Hydrodynamics,
though the essence
is to be found in some
much
earlier work by Stokes f on Airy's
("6'4)
integial
and Parse val's integral
and
also
in
a
posthumous paper by Riemann^.
("22),
The
The problem
integral
which
propounded
Kelvin
?/
"/
"In
which
time
to find
[m [x
an
approximate expressionfor
corresponding
Phil.
The
wavelength 27r/??i.
Mag. (5)xsiii.
t Cavib. Phil.
Trans,
Werke
Ges. Math.
the
dm,
tf{m)}]
disturbance
at
expresses the effect at placeand time {x,t) of an impulsive
waves
(0,0),when f{m) is the velocityof propagation of twodimensional
to
cos
was
principleof interference
set
forth
placeand
in
by
water
Stokes
230
BESSEL
OF
THEORY
[CHAP. VIII
FUNCTIONS
and wavevelocity
of groupvelocity
suggested to Kelvin
Rayleigh in their treatment
outside
the
that,for largevalues of .v tf{m),the parts of the integral
a, n + a)
range (/x
of interference if /a is a value (or the value)of m
account
of values of m are
on
negligible
and
"
which
makes
"^[m{xtf(,m)}]
=
In the range
three terms
and
0.
of its
replacedby
the
first
that, if*
it is found
v/[Mm/"(m) + 2/'(m)]'
/"
then
c/o+ 02}
{",i2y'(/x)
cos
7rv^f2r;Mr(M)
+ 2/'(M)}]
M'
C0S,V/'(M) + i7r}
+ 2/'(;.)}]"
v/[27^^[M/"(M)
replacedby
the
case
to
and
oo
o,
which
are
largeeven
though
be
small,have
been
oo
.
that in
foregoinganalysisthat Kelvin's principleis,effectively,
the
the
is
function,
importantpart of
integral
of the integralof a rapidlyoscillating
xohich the phase of the trigonometrical
that part of the range of integration
near
It will be
due
limits for
integralthe
In the last
from
seen
functioninvolved
is
the
stationary^.
The
of the
Let
let ybe
j,M
of Bromwich's
form
to
principle
Bessel functions
be
follows
the
tions
applica
f t'''sin t .dt=
r a;''^F(x)smvx.dx^F(+0)
The
as
adequatefor
"
fji"
method
has
sin ^/jltt;
(+ 0)T (fi)
Jo
Jo
and, if0
is
will be
when x^O;
functionof x which has limited total fluctuation
Then,if"l"fj,"l,
functionof v which is such that vy^ cc as v^ oc
F{x)
a
which
theorem
he
justbeen explainedwill
now
be used
to obtain
an
for a
at m=fjL;
m{.xtf{m)) has a minimum
the sign of the expression under the radical is changed.
maximum
in the writingsof Cauchy. See
search reveals traces of the use
of the principle
t A persistent
16 of his Theorie
de la propagation des Ondes, crowned
Sept. 1815,
e.g. equation (119) in note
21/"?m.presentes par divers savants, i. (1827).[Oeiivres,
(1)i. (1882),p. 230.]
*
This
t Proc.
is the
Camb.
" Bromwich,
appropriatesubstitution
Phil.
Soc.
xix.
when
(1918),pp. 49"55.
Theory of InfiniteSeries,"
174.
82]
FUNCTIONS
which
This formula,
largeand positive.
by Cauchy*, is
discovered
was
is
231
ORDER
LARGE
Jv{v) when
for
approximateformula
OF
r(i)
JA^)
(1)
^2
^1
2^
.
3^ TTV^
of stationary
of the principle
paratively
phase,comby means
investigated
by Nicholson, Phil. Mag. (6) xvi. (1909),pp. 276"277, and Rayleigh,
recently,
Papers,v. (1912),pp. 617"620]; see
Phil. Mag. (6)xx. (1910),
[Scientific
pp. 1001"1004
42"48.
Soc.
Camb.
Phil.
xix.
Proc.
also Watson,
(1918),pp.
This
From
and
has been
formula
that
obviously
sm
vir
77
^^
g_^,j+sinhi!)
rr
Jo
Hence
J^ U)
Now
let
(f) 6
=
I"cos[v(6
,.(0
(l/v).
Imi
But
then
sin 0, and
"
6)}cie +
sin
"
6l*.0
COS
"
6"
and
"
itfollows
from Bromzvich's theorem
cosi/d)
"
^"
0
that
6^
cos
"
then
(1) follows
It stillhas
this result
we
to
be
at
,_a
,,
""
v(pd(p
cos
once.
proved
observe
'
I 9
^'
0
r^x r(i)cos^7r,
and
r*
,,
a9'^"
"^^/(lcos 6) has
that
total fluctuation
limited
; to
establish
that
d
(pismeg{d)
^s
tlcos^J 3(lcos^)'_
d~6
";(^)=illl^^^3(^sin^),
whelT
so
5f(0) 0, ^(7r0)=+oo,
that
^'(^) (1
=
therefore, by integration,
g{d)^0
and
monotonic
'
and
it is
Comptes Eendus,
Cauchy's methods
obviouslybounded.
xxxviii.
will be
(1854),p.
cos
+ cos ^) ^ 0,
^)2/(l
when
The
993.
O^e^n.
result
Consequently 0*/(lcos^) is
(1900),p. 663.]
proof by
232
THEORY
By
and
it may
tedious
some
also be
obtain
proved that
JJ(v)=^^^o(vi);
(3)
associated formula
an
[CHAP. VHI
FUNCTIONS
to
integrations
by parts*,it is possible
approximation,
namely
of
means
second
BESSEL
OF
is
r.w~M).
(4)
terms,
these
which
asymptoticexpansions,of
with the
will be investigated
The
aid of
more
results
in ^ 842.
Meissel's third
8'21.
expansion.
to
integral
just discussed has been used by Cauchyf and Meissel:]:
is a largeinteger.
obtain the formal asymptoticexpansionof Jnin) when
w
obtained by Cauchy and (in
be explainedhow this expansionwas
It will now
of the promore
a
complete form) by Meissel; the theoretical justification
cesses
in " 8 '42.
employed will be investigated
The
Taking the
formula
1
Jn {n)
let
write 6
us
sin 6
"
f'^
{?i
(6
cos
"
sin
"
small values of t,
^t^; it then follows that,for sufficiently
/9_/_l_l/3i
u
i f "^"qI
"
r
_Vx
/5i
r
Y4^^t'
"
Xo
1,
^\, Xa
1213.
7 20 7 200000'
"
*5
Xi
~"
tioo
^^
'
/2m+l
asio^' ^^
A"jt,
""
and
^)cW,
tt^tswuT)'
"""*
It follows that
Jn(n)
r\
'^
.
When
is
^nt^is largeat
large,
J,,(7i)
~
(2m
l)X",tAcos(Ut')^dd.
[ m=0
the upper
(2"i+
1 ) X",
SeeProc.
Camb.
Phil.
t Comptes Rendus,
161"164,
pp.
+
Astr.
formula
Soc.
xxxviii.
(?
.
'7r,H=o
Cit"
r"
cos
(^n f) dt,
.0
1104"1107.
(1900),
167"170.]
Nach.
(1),Meissel
cxxvii.
(1891),col.
stated "Sclion
vor
359"
362;
cxxviii.
dreissigJahren
war
(1891),col. 145"154.
zu
folgendenFormel
ich
Concerning
gelangt."
821, 822]
OF
FUNCTIONS
LARGE
233
ORDER
a
("6'4); and hence, by
integral"
"generalised
signindicating
termbytermand usingEuler's formula, Meissel deduced that
integrating
G is the
where
:i: X.,r("m
/.(n)
(1)
also gave
Meissel
exhibits
approximationfor A,",valid
an
of the
divergentcharacter
the
)
f)
cos(imhi)7r.
when
is
large;and
this
of
The
"Sur
tion
approxima
expansion (1).
Darboux,
(3)iv. (1878),
5"56, 377"416.
pp.
AVe consider
be
the
monogenic) are
and
near*
of 6
singularities
the
which
pointsat
the
"(127r)^
t=
fim
function
of t ; the
2/7r and
where
(12r7r)5,
/=
"1,
"2,
"3,
...
are
}^
t
(367r)3il
+
(127r)^i
approximation to X,h
theory of Darboux, an
jrithe expansionsof the two
fails to
singularities
(where 6
expansion of
in the
terms
the
6^
dominant
"27r
By
qua
is the
comprisedin
functions
of the
sum
coefi"cients of
;
that is to say
that
(367r)*
'^
^
(2/ni)
^
2
1
*.*."...
\,"
"'
(2m
1)! (12,7)*'"
2r(2?n,l")
sfm'
+ 2).(127r
3^r(t)r(2?rt
and
formula,
by Stirling's
so,
("^)
"
in
2j"
(18)^r(f)(m+l)Ml^'r)^"'
is Meissel's
This
loc.
by Cauchy,
an
approximation of
the
same
character
was
obtained
cit.,
p. 1106.
of Kelvins
cqyplication
The
8"22.
approximation;
to J^,(vsec^).
'principle
of stationary
phase has been appliedby Rayleighfto obtain
principle
acute
angle,
an
approximateformula for J^ {v sec /3)where /3is a fixed positive
and V is large
I.
The
in
As
" 8*2
have
we
J,(vsecl3)
fcos[v(6
/^
TJ"
and
(a minimum)
/3sin 6 is stationary
sec
"
Write
"
from
*
These
are
t Phil. Mag.
sec
0 to
the
13sin 6
Royal
lxxi.
"
tan
which
singularities
(G)
xx.
(1910), p. 1004.
Phil.
Trans,
(1903),pp. 251"258;
/3sin 6)}cW+
Oil Iv),
when
j3.
that ^ decreases
so
/3t"/",
sec
as
to zero
6 increases from /3 to
as
6 increases
tt.
nearest
to the origin,
Papers, v. (1912),p. 620.]
[Scientific
of the RoijalSoc. ccx. A (1910),pp. 131"144;
lxsii.
(1904),pp. 59"68.
are
and
Proc.
234
THEORY
[CHAP. VIII
FUNCTIONS
BESSEL
OF
Now
{v(6
cos
"
/3sin 6)]dd
sec
/"T^ + tan^"
dd
^^
tan
"
/3)}
j. dcfi.
JO
_^tan^/3
and
(10
{i^
("^+ ^
COS
as
"^V(2tany8)
rf"/)
/S.
"
from
follows
[v(0
pcos
that
theorem
/3sin 6)]dd
sec
+ /3
[v("/"
cos
vi/ tan
and
f^7r,it
/3)}//gl
tan
[v(tan^
cos
/3
"
^^^
/3)
tt],
so
{v(tan /3
^)
V(i.^tan^)
cos
^
/.(.sec^)^
(1)
The
^tt}
'
formula
F.(.secffl~^'"''";,f^r^^:'"
v(2i''''tan;S)
(2)
"^
"'\
is derived
The
in
similar
reader
r/
from
manner
will observe
that these
the dominant
are
in Meissel's
terms
To
limited
these formulae
have
we
to shew
that
has
(f)^
{dd/d(j")
total fluctuation.
the square
Now
of this
is equalto
function,namely 0 {d6ld(f))^,
^
/3sin ^
sec
3 +
tan
^
_
(1
say.
sec
But
cos
^ (1
cosec
sec
cos
The
and
so
k{6)
decreases
from
B increases
when
/3cos
/3cosee
6)"^2 ((9sec/Ssin6
^ (1 sec (3cos 6)^
/3+ tan ^
as
(9)2
/3cos
0 ^ ^ ^
and
cos
/3cos
steadilyas
^tt to
6 cosec^ ^ (1
B increases
since
k{B) 0
h' {B) changes sign once
tt
from
when
/3cos
sec
to
6)^,
^tt,and
^"^7r,
then
increases
it follows
that
steadily
h'{B)^0
the
range
0t$"9^7r.
Hence
Jh (B)is monotonic
(and decreasing)when 0 ^ ^ ^ ^, and it has one stationary
and continuous
{6)\ is bounded
point (a minimum) in the range ^ ". B "
; since !s,fh
0 ^ B ^ ir, as had to be
when 0 "$ 0 ^TT it consequentlyhas limited total fluctuation when
proved.
tt
236
[CHAP. VIII
FUNCTIONS
BESSEL
OF
THEORY
integranddoes not
oscillate rapidlyon
it ; and so we
expect that an approximate value of
may
of the integrandin the
from
the integral
will be determined
a consideration
neighbourhoodof the pass : from the physicalpointof view, we have evaded
the interference effects (cf.
" 8'2)which occur with any other type of contour.
The
contour
The
mode
has
the
8'6,8"61
that
so
the
will be
asymptoticexpansionsfrom the integral
specialfunctions which will be studied in ""8'4 8 '43,
of
of derivation
from
clearly
seen
selected*
been
now
"
but it is convenient
enunciate
to
this stage
at
be useful
are
Lemma.
when
F{t) be analytic
Let
\t\r^a
8, luhere
"
will
f which
lemma
will be obtained
0, B "0
let
and
00
e"" F
(t)dr
is valid in the
1arg
where
is
!^ ^TT A,

number.
arbitrary
positive
an
It is evident
such
z/
the
largeand
\v\issufficiently
when
of Poincare
sense
Then
are
(m/r)v'^"'
:i:a,nT
'^
Jo
and
that, if M
be
fixed
any
a
integer,
K^
constant
can
be found
that
Ml
whenever
^ 0 whether
^ a
or
+ i2j/,
e''^a"iT""*/^'^dT
e^'F{T)dT= 2
^0
therefore
and
J 0
ni=l
e^^dr
\Rm\^\ \e"'' \ K^r^^^'^^^
where
JO
K,T{Mfr)/{R(v)b]^/^
providedthat
valid
remains
compared
when
even
with
is the
{v)" b, which
have
We
v.
6 is
function
therefore
Jo
For
the lemma
an
Burkhardt's
account
j)i
London
such
cosec
that
A.
R{v)
"
The
analysis
b is not
small
proved that
is established.
of researches
article in the
t Cf. Proc.
of
\v\"b
e''F{r)dT=
so
when
311
/""
and
case
in which
the
contour
der
Math.
Wiss.
Encyclopddie
Math.
Sac.
(2)xvii.
(1918),p.
is the
ii.
133.
real axis
(1916).
see
pp. 1343
"
1350
of
831]
FUNCTIONS
construction
The
8'31.
It has been
with
shall
we
method
whether
steepest descents
with
In accordance
On
contours.
examine
now^
of
function
the
once
sinh
have
seen
these three
(I)
When
that
cosh
find
can
completesolution
iv
it
discussed
that
0,
are
descents,as
viv,
"
equation
v={)\
"
three
distinct
to
cases
consider,
We
equal to 1, respectively.
or
sider
con
iv,where
u,
that
2?i7rt.
attention
our
such
(1) is
+
sinh
lu
to the
"
stationary
pointsf" a; at
the equation
so
is zero, and
vw
is
w
viv)
"
0.
are
cosh
so
and
z/sechct,
/ {x sinh
W^rite
of steepest
number
positive
imaginarypart of
to be
of the contour
of
these pointsthe
functions associated
in turn.
cases
xjv" 1, w^e
the
real.
are
stationary
pointsof
shall have
we
a;
then
the method
to solve the
(2)
and
xjv is
the variables
positive,
of the contours
appropriatefor the
in "6'2,6"21.
types investigated
any
in which
237
hypothesisthat
the
have
of ^v, i.e.we
it is at
when
of
principles
(1)
and
contours*
of the
are
qua
ORDER
be
along suitable
taken
of Debyes
LARGE
in
seen
J^ {x) can
OF
sin
cosh
"
0,
or
vcosha
,
coshw
"
.
(S)
siU'y
/'
paper,
The
contour
contours
Math.
+ The
parallelto
Ann.
(1909),pp. 535
"
are
those
which
were
discussed
effect
the
than
"
would
be to
is
in
Debye's earlier
different;cf. "621.
translate
the
contour
238
THEORY
BESSEL
OF
[chap. VIII
FUNCTIONS
The
tt
"
and
the
so
contour
is
contour
Fig. 16.
If
sinh
cosh
"
(sinhw
"
to 0 and
00
along the
travels
from
contour
increases to +
then
shewn
curves
in the
figure)
arrows.
iri to
"
oc
since,by
; and
the
cosh a),
"
tti,
decreases
from
27rtJoo,ri
have
we
obtained
J^(cc)when
cc
and
from
contours
solution
phenomenon, on
to
"
a:jv " 1, we
find
can
we
take the
acute
positive
(sinhtu
that,replacingiv by
(5)
cosh
10
"
cos
cos
"
yS
of the
second
Stokes'
that
of the
e"uation
0,
i/3.
which
contour
/3) sin /3
sin /3+
angle/3 such
roots
now
are
"
(y
"
sin?;
we
/3cos /3,
concerning
discussion
/9,
sec
pointi/3,the
stationary
/
detailed
tv""
are
so
The
information
this
which
points,
stationary
cosh
When
1.
derive
""8'4,8*5.
a;=v
the relevant
can
iri
of the two
account
(4)
and
we
xlv"
equation;but
of Bessel's
(II) When
largeand
are
which
from
curve
givensubsequentlyin
integralwill be
The
contour
/3)cos ^
is
obtain
is
831]
OF
FUNCTIONS
of
for values
Now,
0 and
between
sin ^ + (v
has
minimum
one
values of
(v
0 and
between
of
for values
of
infinite when
are
The
half of
is 0
t;
or
"
0 and
00
is
; for
zero
other
these
v.
equation(5) givestwo
coincide only when
v
"
iri,T decreases
tt,
sin
givenby equation(5) is as
(sin/3
it is easy to verifythat
directions indicated by the
to
real values
=
/3. They
tt.
sin
and
(equalbut oppositein sign),
"
between
/3
tt,
sin /3+
Hence,
the function
/3)cos
"
/3)at which
tt,
239
ORDER
LARGE
(which is
arrows.
from
oo
As
to
real
w
on
"
cos
in the
then
upper
13),
travels
and
shewn
alongthe
contour
increases to +
oo
in the
from
and
"
so
we
Fig. 17.
have
obtained
curve
when
ZT;,'^'
(.*")
will be
of the" integral
from
x
and
which
v
are
["6"21 (4)]we
largeand x/v "
can
1.
derive information
The
cerning
con
detailed discussion
stationary
point"i/3, we should have obtained the
to
in the lower half of Fig.17, and the curve
oc
shewn
curves
going from
discussed
00
TTi givesan
integralassociated with HJ^ (w); this also will be
obtained
form a fundamental
in " 8"41.
The
two
now
system of
integrals
that there is a marked
distinction between
solutions of Bessel's equation,
so
the case x/v " 1 and the case
xjv " 1.
If
we
had
taken
the
"
"
240
THEORY
(III)
from
The
(I)or
are
in which
case
from
OF
(II)by takinga
as
limitingcase
The
/3 equalto 0.
cosh
shewn
they are
be derived
may
or
[chap. VIII
FUNCTIONS
now
curves
either
to be
sidered
con
0 and
"
(6)
and
BESSEL
in
v/sin
v,
Fig.18.
Fig.18.
from
curves
the
from
to
"
which
curve
"
given in ""842,853,854.
will be
Geometrical
8*32.
the
concerningB.y^{y)and B.}'^'^{v)
by considering
information
while
is
obtained
oc
+ mi,
concerningJ^,(v)
from
vrz'.The detailed investigato
x
Trt
x
+
tion
passes
information
obtain
We
of Dehye'scontours.
poperties
Bessel
which
An
"
to
of
important in dealing with zeros
proving certain approximate formulae
with the second of the three contours
cussed
just disis
that
the
the
branch
question
slope*of
from
in
exceed J3.
in
question,
It is evident
the
that,for
curve
du
sinh u^r
.
sin (v
^)
"
^^
"
(v
sm^
has
sin(i; ^)secv(i;j3)cos/3
"
8) coti
"
V cos
'.
"
do
But
in
(Fig.17
be
to
..
positivederivative
the
cos^tan^v, and
hence
it
follows that
sin (w
"
has the
same
for the
curve
Proc.
"
{v ^) cos
"
V cos
"
/3
are
both
positiveor
both
negative
under
Camh.
Phil.
on
Soc.
xix.
(1918),p. 105.
originand
type
is obvious
from
+ This
^)
exist.
a
figuie.
^/3 immediately on
the
832,84]
Again, to
OF
FUNCTIONS
dvjdu does
that
prove
exceed
not
241
ORDER
LARGE
write
y/S,we
'
sin
that
+ l ^0.
3^/.'2(^")^^2("i;)
the
Now
expressionon
J^
''^
[(t' ,3){sin2(. +
a\
(vB)cos,B\
^
^'
when
positive
has the
has
This
0"v
~z
and
it
since
so,
Ijetween
value
positive
of
of r, there
0 and
^ 8'31
in
signan
same
tt
and
Next
0, it is
v
i^
it is
not
neoative.
obtain
now
the
asymptotic
to
and it is clear that,corresponding
values of w, which
two
w.,
imaginarypart,and
supposedthat
sech
/0"o)"0.
"
77
dr j
^t,
Ami.
lxvu.
(1909),pp.
a,
in
ascendingpowers of r.
in
it follows that the expansionof
this expansion,
a.);by reverting
{w
and
Wi
tu.^ in
"
",=o
B. F.
^^
(dr
J0
expansionsof
drjdtvvanish when lu
a term
a beginswith
lu
of the form
expansions
by Debye, Math.
g*'
^^
'Itti
and
"i=oW
The
a.
discuss the
we
powers of
obtain
we
w.
0
therefore
./,{v sech a)
when
then have
We
SintJe
ixjsitive
is
shall
we
l{w,)"0,
where
beinglargeand positive.
it will be
{v /3)].
/3,and consequently
the order,both
Wo;
sin
"
any
cos
The
From
We
proves
8"4.
5^.,,
(v)has the
Therefore,since y\r'
sin ^
the derivate
+ 3cos2i;
(sini'(3cos^y)
"tt.
signas
same
"
^) has
r
sm^v
^~,
i7sin/33cos vsin(i;/a)
'
i
4sin*";cos^
"
x
positive denvate
the
has
,,
,,
cos
sin2
ly
But
when
535"
m+l
in Si
8'41, 842
were
established
55B.
16
242
BESSEL
OF
THEORY
of
IT
valid for
expansionsare
small
sufficiently
Moreover
I.
dr
mwA
r(0+'0+V^wA
1
a,n
i{m+l)
['d^Jr
27ri
("+)
dw
=JLf
27nJ
The
[chap. VIII
FUNCTIONS
circuit in the
"
"
coefficients a,,,,.
Write
IF and
0.=
"
Co
"
 sinh
a, Ci
and
so
(cosh W
"
 cosh
1)
"
cosh
"
coefficients in this
(sinhTT
Tf)
"
c,3F^+...),
a,
c^
^^ sinh
"
expansionof {co+
have
TFHco + CiTf
where
sinh
"
we
Ci Tf +
expansionwill
Therefore
a,
c,
W^
be called
a", is the
("+i'.
...)*
ao(m), ai(?)i),
azivi),
...,
have
we
ao(m)
Co^("'+^),
+ 1
Gi]
"271! ^o;
m
771
1) (m
'co
2.1!
m
(m
C.2
S)
Cf
2^2!
+ l)(m
(?)i
Cs
3)
2ciC2
"
2^2!
Co'
l)(m
(m+
(1)
+ 5) d^
3)(/?i
3{
2^3!
a,{m)c,
2.1!
Co
V Co'
2^2!
2^3!
(m
CoV
Co
Co'
1) (?H + 3) (m
5) (m
2*. 4!
On
substitution
we
f aQ=a"^
(0)
I Oi
I tto
"!
(1)
do
(2)
(2)
\a,
":;(3)
a,
I tta
(4)
"
"
"
find that
("
sinh
a)~*,
("
coth
I sinh a)~^ {y^^
"
^j coth* a},
'
^%%\ coth^a},
7) Cj^
'c*
244
THEORY
8'41.
[CHAP. VIII
FUNCTIONS
BESSEL
OF
asymptotic
expansionsof J" {vsec /8)and Y^ {v sec ^).
The
" 8"4
obtained
we
the
We
positivevalue
passes from
"
of
there
t,
to
oo
of
it is clear that,corresponding
to any
of
values
two
are
these
+7^^;
go
the
lying on
values
which
contour
it will
and
w^,
supposedthat
be
R
We
e*"
.
except that
r^\dr,
dr
[ar
The
analysisnow
proceedsexactlyon
is replacedthroughoutby i/3,
and the Bessel
v8ec^.
0.
\~
J i)
TTi
(wo)"
have
then
(wj)" 0,
the
"8*4
lines of
function
is of the
third kind.
It is thus
found
that
{div.
^
QXr
determine
To
arg
the
[{iL\i^)lr]
"
"
\dr
phase
5 TT
as
dr]
of a^, that
0, and
^^
a"
af"^^
"t=o
is of ("
we
tsin/3)~*,
observe
that
so
ei'VV(ism/3).
Consequently
(taii/3^)i"
g..i
tan
^'i^vir
In like manner,
in the real axis of
(2)*
If
(4)
is
we
(^)(. sec
B)
have
Aj
)
{\) {\vitan /8)+
^m
"
'
precedingcontour
that
valid when
are
r(m
^ri*!^^^!!^
^
largeand positive,
we
combine
yS)^.^o
by takingas contour
the wplane,
find
we
"
ir,""(i/sec/3)^
(1)
to make
r(m
is
)
fixed
A^
angle
acute
positive
the substitutions
find that
J^ {v sec yS)
^
2
/
^x
1
Z
cos(i/tany9^/37r)
.
vir
tan
/3
m=o
(y"r(2m
r(i)
)
A
2m
sin(.tan^.^l.)J/^^iM).
841, 842]
FUNCTIONS
ORDER
245
^^r
"
7,
dominant
/D
(z/tan /3
sin
"
in these
terms
stationary
phase in " 8*21
()'"r(2m
^
o
V
1
z^/3
1
tt) S
expansionsare
which
formulae
been
have
established
to
argument
and
however, possible
to
the
use
variables to be
and
complex
are
the
nearlyequal. It is,
pansions
determiningasymptoticext
hat
arise
no
ha]3pens
complications
by
are
complex.
numbers
of
large modulus,
such
that
that
z
\z
"
"
v\ is
in
(z^),
be small.
shall write
i'
and
argument
for
order and
""8'4,8"41 obviouslyfail
concerned
method
same
in
large.It
not
principle
Accordinglywe
where
the
function
in these circumstances,and it
supposingthe
by
The
A^^.
those obtained
8*42.
are
i)
^
=^
"
of
LARGE
F"(i'sec/9)~
(5)
The
OF
it is convenient
to
z(l e),
temporarilythat
suppose
arg^!"7r.
We
then
iy"^'*
(z)
(1)
where
and
have
".
is that shewn
the contour
in
Fig.18;
w)
dtu,
zeiv]
this contour
on
sinh
"
is real
negative.
write
We
and
the values of
and
W2,
[z(sinhlu
exp
real
We
(2)
of which
w^
"
sinh w,
to any
corresponding
is a complex number
negativenumber.
then
have
H^^''
(z)
e'"
"
jexp
(zeiu^)
~
exp
{zew.^j^)"dr.
246
THEORY
The
obtain
OF
expansionof t in powers
expansionsof the form
of
{zeiu^)
^
exp
BESSEL
beginswith
Ts
ttr
don
valid when
To determine
7H
we
h,nt^"*,
small.
[t jis sufficiently
observe
that
^^
^^yjS
^^P^"^^^^"(l^)r
^
Gtti
^""P ^'''''^
67ri]
hence
'^
(IT
are
in lu^,
and
term
2 ei('"+i''6,"TH
these
,"=o
T3
exp(^6m,)5^'
and
[chap. VIII
FUNCTIONS
(w
(m+i)
"'"+^)
iv)i
sinh
"
in the
equalto
igJc^+D^i
multiplied
by
expansionof
exp
"
expansionwill be
w)/^'}"*^"*^^).
called
6o(//i),
6i(m),b.^im),
...
that
It is easy to shew
fbo{m)
lu
(zeiu){(sinh
6^^'^+'\
~2~
J'
60
(3)
o.K^u)
For
brevitywe
e^z^
(vi+ l)ez
60
124
120
write
b,,{m) m^+'^Bm{"z\
=
.50400
J"
so
that
842]
that*
so
By {ez)
ez,
B,{ez)
h^'z'j'Eez,
B, {ez) j^^z^
=
[Bs{0)
We
+ "toe^"
ij^e'z^
Bs{0)
^^Sjjj,
"
jjiisooo' '"io(0)"
"
6 5
5ioOOOOJ
have
then
diUi
ex^(zewyp
dr
00
e^^+'^^6''"'+'^
B,,,{ez)Ti''\
lTi
"i
dw"
00
p
exp (zew.)
e"'"+i)''
6i('"+^"
5"
T' 2
(zeiv)(dw/dT)]satisfies the
[exTp
and
+ ^^,
^B,{ez) i,^'z^i^e^z'
(4)
conditions
(e^)r^'",
of the lemma
of
i"
^,w (^)
(5)
and
00
o^
"8'3.
of 5 8'3 that
the lemma
It follows from
,^1'^
e3"+"'^^B,, (ez)
smh{m
e3(+i)5,,(6^)sini(^"iHl)7r.
l)7r.
similarly
H^^H^)^^
(6)
deduce
We
at
that
once
ram
'^
(V)
J.{z)
(8)
i^(^)~o;l^ (r^5,"Msin4(m
From
1)1
247
ORDER
LARGE
OF
FUNCTIONS
is
the
1)
l)7r.4^^^
be inferred that,when
large,
^^"'^^^
^^^
(_)m ()s
""
but there
to
seems
dominant
The
be
terms
no
very
in
(7) were
'
r(").(7/i+ i)Hl27r)3'"
simpleapproximateformula
by Meissel, in
obtained
for
Kiel
5"i {ez).
Programmi,
1892;
obtained
which seem
by
similar results,
" 843,
some
terms
in (8) as well as in (7) were
Koppe in a Berlin Programml, 1899. The dominant
also investigated
by Nicholson, Phil. Mag. (6) xvi. (1908),pp. 271"279, shortlybefore the
ap^aranceof Debye's memoir.
to resemble
and
The
values
the
same
the
as
integration is
The
values
of
apart from
col. 3.59"362;
of the contours
use
analysisgiven
to evade
of
the
in this
section.
those
stated
in
were
(1891),
given by Meissel, Astr. Nach. cxxvii.
Meissel's analysis (of.
" 821)is substautially
The
object
of
.Bo{ez),
B,[ez]and
(1916),p. 524.
t See the
See
Jahrhuch
the Jahrhuch
of
contour
the difficulties
der Math.
Math.
421.
248
OF
THEORY
We
has
consider the
next
far been
so
BESSEL
extent
imposed on
which
to
formulae
[CHAP. VHI
FUNCTIONS
which
jarg2^"^7r,
condition
the
The
dr/dw
They
therefore the
are
points
T
where
all
assumes
0.
2u7ri,
values.
integral
It is
"
"
"
TT
"
If
confine
attention
"
"
arg
TT.
to real
our
have
not
determined
i*
"
formidae valid
Approccimate
8'43.
The
Nicholson*
to
second
investigate
manner
following
In the
""8*4
in the transitional
8'42
"
regions.
approximationsto
Bessel's
regionsled
integralin the
of functions
case
of
Jn (^)
and, when
of
in the transitional
COS
{nd
"
n,
sin
6) dO,
and
and
order
integral
under
are
consideration,
Jn{x)'^IT
cos
{nd xd
IxO')dd
}Q
rQos{nexd^lxe^)dd,
TJ" Jo
TTJO
XXIV.
Phil.
(1916),pp.
239"250.
(1910),pp. 247"249;
see
also
Emde,
Archiv
der
Math,
und
Phys. (3)
843]
and
FUNCTIONS
the
when
is
expression
last
"
n,
and, when
"
OF
of
one
LARGE
ORDER
249
Airy'sintegrals
("6*4). It
follows
that,
n,
Jn{x)^^\^ ^j{/_i
(2)
J:.i,
where
the arguments
The
Nicholson
the
on
rightare ^ {2{x
)i)=/a,'
"
also found
was
by
it is
F,.(.)~j^i^l'{J_,J,}.
3^
(3)
chief
With
view
and
integrals,
remedying
to
discovered
this
method
defect, Watson*
which
method
of
upper
iunction whose
Bessel
be written
i^sech a) may
in the
J^ {v sech a)
where
"
sinh
beingchosen
the contour
Debye.'s
theoretically
simple (though
which
formulae
analogousto
errors
involved.
:
employed is the following
for
Debye'sintegral
x{=
examined
is
"
"
its argument
e"^'' div,
exceeds
formf
"
(coshlu
that
so
order
"
is
iTTt
1)
cosh
"
IX, TTI
on
positive
(sinhw
"
iv),
it.
is
"
"
suggest that
considerations
These
first two
terms,
givean
not
The
^w'sinh
Proc.
Camb.
Phil.
is deducible
shall
we
where
t This
^vf
"
cosh
the
a,
approximationvalid throughoutthe
which
integral
whether
namely
"
nlay
to examine
it is desirable
"
Soe.
from
region.
is therefore
investigate
 IF sinh
xix.
first transitional
(1918),pp.
"831 by making
^ W'^ cosh
a,
96"110.
a
250
THEORY
and
in the
the contour
If TF
it.
on
positive
hyperbola
and this
that
is
the
it^^=iF^
has contact
curve
[chap, vin
FUNCTIONS
the
planeof
BESSEL
OF
Debye'scontour
at
the
origin.
approximationto
an
/"ocexpCaTrO
+7ri
e^'Uhv
e''^dW.
is
differ by
integrals
These
ro
Jo)
for
of an upper bound
problem is reduced to the determination
\[d{tu"W)ldT]\. And it has been proved,by exceedinglyheavy analysis
which will not be reproducedhere,that
and
the
so
{lu
W)
Stt sech a,
"
di
and
so
(div
dW]
dT
{dr
Gtt
i
,
Hence
xexp(i7r2)
dW^^,
V
where
^j"
To
1.
evaluate
the
tanh
"
If we
making angles"\'ttwith
and
tanh
{\vtanh^ a) f
Jo
"
into two
contour
write W""
e^"^exp
the
on
integral
becomes
the respective
on
^q^I^^
rays, the integral
tanh o}d^
{\v^'\ v^e^'""'
exp
e~^''exp
(^V
tanh^
a) / exp {"^v^^
I v^e
"
^"^
tanh'^a\d^.
Jo
"
"77*tanh
and
hence
we
exp
(4)
sech a)
Jt,{v
7r\/3
exp
[v(tanh a
^ tanh=^a
+
where
[^i "
I^(^vtanh^*a)],
"
1. This is the
more
form
precise
"
tanh^ a)
"x)}K^(lv
oc
a)},
{i/(tanh
8^ii^~'exp
of Nicholson's
"
approximation(1).
252
[CHAP. VIII
EUNCTIONS
BESSEL
OF
THEORY
and
of tan /3,integrate
termbyterm,
powers
it is
that
eXp jTTt
OO
g^"" dW
00
"
"
V3
equatingreal
and
itan
:3Han
F^ (i^
sec
13)
(6)
/Q)
vi tan*
/i (^i^
tan* yS)]
[ei'
J_j (ii/tan* /S)h e*'^'
Tre^^ tan
On
/ tail ;3
"
* tan
tan
^^^ ^_
^^^^ ^, ^^,^,
^^^ ^,^^3^^_
^^^.
imaginaryparts,it is at
found
once
that
/3cos [v(tan/S
/3sin {i/
(tan/3
yQsin [v(tanyS
tan*
1
/3cos {1/
(tan/3
tan*
tan*
yS)[/j
/3
J{\+ 24^^/^',
/3)}[./_H J^.]
/S /9)}[/_
J^]+ 24^3/1^,
/8
rightis
tan* ^; and 0.^ and j^gl are both less than 1. These are the more
precise
1^1/
forms of Nicholson's formulae (2) and (3); and theygive effective approximations
the right.
terms
on
except near the zeros of the dominant
where
the
It is
argument
of each
of the
functions
J"i
highlyprobablethat
in
largely
Bessel
excess
the
8*5.
of J^ {vx)luhen
Descriptive
properties*
The
contour
which
integral,
"
obtained
was
a;
in
on
the
for the
are
errors
1.
"8"31(I)to represent
Jv {v sech a) was
shewn
in
" 8*4
to
In the contour
take
integral
%u
so
that
With
logr,
the contour
equalto
its
and
positive
write
log{?'e'^,
0.
selected,
X
is
be
to
sinh
conjugatecomplex,and
"
the
path
of
is its own
integration
flexion
re
qv
The
(2)XVI.
(1917),pp.
150"174.
are
(X sinh w"w)
^y
in rather greaterdetail
investigated
in Proc. London
Math.
Soc.
85]
FUNCTIONS
Changing
the notation,we
is
"
sin 6
that
x^md{
log
\
X
last
This
6
is made
this substitution
and, when
so
the contour
equationof
so
253
2^
1
+
ORDER
LARGE
OF
'
cot ^
sin ^0
be
expressionwill invariably
V(^'
denoted
"
*' sm^
the
by
x'sinh w) is
6).
symbol* F(6,x),
that
re^'P^''^Ue,
J,(vx)
(1)
under
by differentiating
it is found that
justified)
.//(")=
(2)
is also
Before
from
J^'{vx)
proceedingto
is convenient
easilydeduced
=
to set
^.
'liri
the
X
"
easily
sm
equation
''"''
e" ^"'^''"'^
sinh
lo
dw.
further results
obtain
concerningBessel functions,it
oi F(6,x). The reader will
properties!
record various
on
is
'\J{U'
^p^^ldff.
ifV"..
u)
TT
This
integralsign (a procedurewhich
the
and
easilyverifythat
4^,o,.)
^^.o.
(4)
SO
that
F{e,x)^F(0,x)^F(0,l)
(5)
0;
also
and
^
.
n/n
"
Next
we
^'
sin 6
more
abstruse
cos
property
F(e,x)^F(0,x)\^(e^x''sm'e)/^(l^x').
'
(7)
To
"
prove
it,we
shall firstshew
^
,a
This
function
will not
"
that
a;^sin ^
COS
be confused
with
Schlafli's function
defined
in
0^0
" 4'15.
^tt.
254
BESSEL
OF
THEORY
[CHAP. VIII
FUNCTIONS
It is clear that
"^/(l+x%
g(7r,x)=l
that,if g{d,x),qua
so
that
value
6 had
that, no
not
at
or
"
(^o'

tt,
its
then
tt,
/^
sin^ d^f
therefore
g
so
0 and
(^0
sin ^o)^
X
6q between
2^0
A' cos
(6,^
value
less than
1"
and
of 6, attained
function
be
would
where
matter
exceed
g(d,x)
afcos
value
does
V(l +'^'')
Hence
dF(0,^)
dx^sinlcos.e
_
and
so
whence
(7) follows
at
once.
of the
Another, but simpler,
inequality
prove
this,observe that
^{0'
^^^^^
"
and
type is
F(d,x)^F{0,x)+^d'^{lx').
(8)
To
same
integrate
; then
From
the
these results
and // (px)qua
J^{i"x)
we
x^
sin^ e)^e
V(l
^),
is obvious.
inequality
are
now
in
functions of
to
position
obtain
theorems
concerning
v.
Thus, since
dJ^(vx)
i1
dv
rF(d,
dd
x) e"^^''""^
0,
TTJO
decreasing
integrandbeing positiveby (5),it follows that Jt,(vx)is a positive
is a positive
// (I'a;)
decreasing
function
functionof v\ in like manner,
ofv.
the
Also, since
OV
TT.'0
integrandbeingpositive
b}^(5),it follows that e"^^^^'J^{vx) is a decreasing
is e"^'*^*)
//(i/a;).
functionofv; and so also,similarly,
the
851]
OF
FUNCTIONS
LARGE
ORDER
255
have
Again,from (8) we
Q"vF[0,X)jir
gvF{0,X)jir
exp
J, (vx)^
"^
1
^')1cie
[ i z;(9V(

{}
r
gvF(0,x) /co
CO
exp[^ve\/(lx)]dd,
"
A
SO
that
g"vF(0.x}
(1
The
\/{2'7rv)
a;^)*
expressionis easilyreduced
last
so
values
positive
o^
for all*
The
v.
for JJ
result
corresponding
approximate expression
expressionis always in error by
Carlini's
Carlini's
to
{vx) is derived
from
(7). Write
ex^ine=G{d,x),
G for
replaceG {6,x) by
and
brevity.
Then
^
2xJ: {vx)
fV^^(^ 'Ei^
[G (6,x)]icW
'
cL"
Tr.'o
fv^
gvFtO,:r)
T
.
exp
G^dG
I ^vG/'^il+ x'^)]
exp
[ ij.{?/^(l
+^2)1 QhdG,
gvF{0,x} rao
^
and
so
(10)
The
of the factor
absence
It is
in
to
possible
very similar
This
Wfi shall
large values
t Cf.
^^^^'"^
will be
It is evident
of
Froc.
is remarkable.
shall establish
we
is less than
concerninga single
its order.
that, when
the lemma
prove
the rate
*
argument
16^
lemma
the denominator
F {6,x).
concerning
now
^^^
results which
the
whose
Lemma
8"51.
the formula
,^"2)V^/(27^I^).
manner.
concludes
Bessel function
The
prove
\/(l"a;)from
used
^^'^^^
immediatelyto
0^0
^tt,
then
^ ^
^^^"^sin^
prove
an
importanttheorem
cerning
con
of increase of J^ {vx).
from
the
expression is in
v.
London
0 ":a;^l and
Math.
Soc.
(2)xvi.
(1917),p.
157.
error
b^excess
for
siificientUj
256
OF
THEORY
If
sin 6)
\J{"^ X"
BESSEL
H{6, x),we
dO
is
function
nondecreasing
function
nondecreasing
{6
sin 6
X
dd
6?A'sin^
sin 6
of
"
cos
of 6.
The
sin^ d)(1
cosec^ Ol^
d)^[{d^
cos
that
(l^cot^)is
[CHAP. VIII
FUNCTIONS
2a;2(1
^ cot
a^)
^='cot ^ cosec'^ 9
6*
(^2cosec
of 6 is
6){d cosec
i

Of
cos
in this expression
is positive
and every group of terms
(or zero)in consequence
of elementarytrigonometrical
inequalities.
first observe
we
trigonometrical
inequalities,
establish the
To
(9+ sin ^
(i)
(ii) 6 +
sin (9cos
(9
26
0 $ ^ ^ tt,
sin'(9^0,
(92(91
cos
that,when
cot
"9^
0,
(iii)sin^^cos^^sin^'^^O,
because
the
the
expressionson
left vanish
when
and
have
the
positivedifferential
coefficients
(9cosec
^)2, (iii)sin
(9((9sin ^
cos
^),
then
(92cosec2 66'^ cot 6
61
cosec
{6cosec2 ^
sin^ 6
1)(1
^ cot
^)+
cosec
(sin6
^)+
cosec
(sin^
6
con
6
1 sin"*
6) ^ 0,
cos
^ sin^ 5) " 0,
^2cosec2^lJsin2^
6 cosec^ 6
so
{6+
sin 6
cos
sin^
626'^
are
proved.
inequalities
that the
consequentlybeen
It has
shsAvn that
re
de
where
the variables
entiations with
understood
are
regardto
d
^ "'
\m
bo 6 and
to
^. It is
now
[FH
obvious
d
x,
and
primes denote
differ
that
{F')
rj
dd
this inequality
from
integrate
and, if we
0 to
6, we
get
F'H
0
_
Since
and
of H
the
F' and
truth
{6,x)
HJH'
vanish
of the lemma
in the last
when
becomes
inequality.
is equivalent
to
0, this inequality
obvious
when
we
substitute
the value
852J
FUNCTIONS
The monotonic
8"52.
OF
LARGE
property of J^(vic)fJ^(v).
shall
now
is positive.
will
[The actual proof of the theorem
since
some
small
n
umber),
positive
arbitrarily
X
257
ORDER
is obvious
in their
lie valid
true
in
seen
for values
(1)
'J
,
dJ^,{vx)
^Te'Fi^'^^dylr,
f'^
SttaJo
[G^l^"^')}"^^^"
e"^"'^')
dO,
dd
'
differentiate under
the
integral
sign,
F{ylr,x)e''^^*'''^dAlr,
dv
"n"
cKjivx)
dvdx
as
it is
Ov
ox
J,{vx)=
we
; moreover,
fact that
" 0,
^
,
dpooc
dx
an
and
^ 8 since e"^*"^) J^ (i/.r)
that
{yx)
dJ^iix)
.r
and, when
0 ^
functions of
when x is sufficiently
small
nonincreasing
its real importance to the
Chapter xvii, the theorem owes
of x in the neighbourhood
of uniiT/.]
e''F(o,ce)iJ^
(^)are
will be
when
an
27rxjo
27rxj
^^^
j_.d_G{ex)^_^,^,^^^
^"'
dO
^"''^^''"'
"fj^^
"l^
F{0, x) {G (6,x)]i
0
_,dG{d,x)
{G(e,x)]i^^l^^,F{e,x){G{e
V
TTX
'
dd
J 0
.xe'"f"'."(W
by parts the
integrate
if we
of the two
integrals.
it follows that
Hence
'
former
dx
dvdx
ztt^xJoJo
dv
where
'dF(e,x)
n{e,ir) 2{Gid,x)]i
dd
[dF{d,x)
:^2[G{d,x)\^
dd
F(ylr,x)F(0,x)dG{9, ^
2G(e,x)
dd
^0,
by usingthe inequality
x) ^F{0, x) combined
F{\\r,
W.
B. F.
of
^ 8"51.
l?
258
THEORY
Since
(0,yjr)is
that is to say,
BESSEL
[chap. VIII
FUNCTIONS
the repeatedintegral
cannot
negative,
proved that
be
not
have
we
OF
.d'~Ju(vx) dJv{vx)dJ^(vx)
T/
dx
negative;
dv
that
so
J^ivxyr^0.
this inequality
between
Integrating
dJy(vx)
the limits
1^
and
1, we
get
/^
dv
that
so
dJy(vx)
are
J^{i'x)and J^"(t')
Since
this inequality
positive,
may
both
be written
in the form
3
(2)
dv
[J,(vx)/J,{v)}^0,
and
is
function
nonincreasing
write
If,for brevity,
we
F(e)^ log
(1)
the formulae*
The
be
v.
8 "53.
(2)
of
to
was
for
F{6)
in
^^r"
"'
^(^'

that
^'"' """
are
Jv{v) and Jv'{v)
.;(.) lj7^^^^ia^^.."
,/""4/"....,
=
in the
first term
expansionof
^^'^
of 9 is
to
the
'
We
that
shall firstshew
dd\
To prove
this
we
observe
cot
value
It is to
V.
be understood
e)id^Y
,
P^
that
\{\e
F' id)
e^
that Jl,'(v)means
ua,
.,
the value
of
,i". Q
when
dJ" {.r)ld.r
.r
lias the
particuhir
260
THEORY
[CHAP. VIII
FUNCTIONS
Monotonic
8"54.
BESSEL
OF
It has
alreadybeen
functions of
decreasing
("8"5) that
seen
It will
v.
the
functions
be shewn
now
J^ (p) and
JJ (v) are
v^JJ{v)
steadilyincreasing functionsof v.
are
To
prove
dv
StT J
observe
we
that
TT
Oe^P^^)
"Stt
^ I
(^)
dd
(^)l^""^'^'^
3^
.' 0
"J7'
"0,
since the
integrated
part
positive.
v^ Jv (v)is
Hence
vanishes
each
at
function
increasing
an
of
("8"53)the integrandis
; and
therefore
044731.
v^J,{v)"lim {i.^
/,(!/)] r(i)/(2^3^7r)
(1)
In connexion
with
be noted
Ji (1) 044005,
the second
To prove
ene)
Stt
so
the
result,by following
\v^j; (v)]^2i'^
dv
that
limit and
method
same
we
find that
sin2 0)
^(^2
_
v^ J^ iv)is
function
increasing
an
of
v.
Hence
v^ J:
(2)
It is to be noted
J J (v)]
{v^
lim
{v)"
is that the
is
041085.
which
is
032515,
4^8'(8)
0.38854.
The monotonic
A theorem
()/(2*
tt)
that
Ji'(1)
8"55.
3^ r
more
slightly
justproved
quotient
functionof v.
steadily
increasing
It is not
asv^Qo,
possible to deduce
and
f (v)~(p{v),
propertiesof/(j')in
if
these monotonic
is monotonic,
(j){v)
the absence
of further
propertiesfrom
nothing
information
can
be
the
inferred
coucerning /(j*).
coucerning monotonia
854, 855]
FUNCTIONS
To
8*54
OF
the
use
LARGE
261
ORDER
integrals
alreadymentioned
dv
in
"" 8"53,
dv
third
be ^ in
to
integrals
where
n, {6,^)
sin^ 0)
IF' (0)V(^'
l^~^^^ (6)
F
sin ^
cos
^
,
"
M^__^_^)
The
by " 8'51.
(cf " 8"52);
0 and
to
function
overcome
XT/
'j^^ \ifr(f)
CT
F(n.
it will be found
when
yjr,
that
Hi ("/.,
d)
"
2 sin ^
^2
^^p'
,.
p,
ti,,\)
^*^^ ^^^
P/Z3M
/zdn
^sin^cos6^2sin^
,
^^^^^""
^V(^sm.)
Since 0^
of
in the
sum
functions
("853)increasing
or
the rightare both positive
both
on
both
which
""851,853, the
second
arc
both
262
THEORY
OF
BESSEL
[CHAP. VIII
FUNCTIONS
8 '6.
The
"
supposedthat jarg
It will firstbe
where
and
between
and
TT,
i^ and vjz if
real and
/3 are
while
"
to
integrals
The
is
be
that
cosh 7
to
sinh
"
(v
The
replacew by
we
/3)cosh
shape of
a cos
the
the
integrandis
equationis
slopesof
(u
curve
sinh
a.)
"
the
as
moves
away
and
Rf(w)
has
the two
from
As
rcc
"
e^/(""dw,
at
sin y8
sin /3+
branches
shall therefore
we
vestigat
in
be written
cosh
sin
in the form
cosh
sin /3
0.
(u a){v y8)sinh
cot
(tanh o
cot
acute
an
cos
/3
0,
denotes
and
7,
Ifij).
/3),
y8),
creases
angle,positiveor negative; Rf{iu) in
tends to +
(or
"
oc) as
tu
moves
off to
unless
infinity
the
curve
doublepoint
J.
Miinchener
That
"j+
tan
moves
second
stated
were
arc
(a,/3)is
near
"
where
iv,this equationmay
the
to
ic.
cosh
{(u ay {v /8)}
so
correspondence
one
whose
curve
ezf{w)^^^
If(w)
If
one
/3 is restricted
rccH
stationary
point of
the
_oo
t
=
is
".r^^\'f^'^'^
dw,
i7;2)(^x
=
complex. There
we
TTlJ
f(iv)
1/3),
are
investigated
H,^'^{z)=
where
cosh (a +
shall write
we
lie between f 0
suppose
may have any real value. This restriction prevents zjv from
has already("8"4) been investigated.
1 and 1, but this case
lyingbetween
cosh 'y
"^Tr, and
and AV(.r)
xl.
Sitzungsherichte,
[5],(1910);the asymptotic expansions of /^(.r)
explicitly
by Nicholson, Phil. Mag. (6)xx. (1910),pp. 938"943.
is to say 0"/3"7r.
will be
seen
86, 861]
(i)and (ii)denote
If
marked
in Fig'.19,
givenby
the
that
of which
contours
that of
portionare
shall write
we
"""* J
identical with
analysis
by
263
ORDER
(i)
by 7),it is found
LARGE
of the
the whole
those numbers
with
TTi
and
OF
FUNCTIONS
(ii)
(exceptthat 2/3is to be
" 8'41
replaced
(z) and S^,''
asymptoticexpansionsof S^^^^
(z) are
the formulae
(1)
"SV'^'
(z)
(2)
S,"{z)
"where
'
'
(^)
()
y
_
'
arg
("
7) which
sinh
(" i
+ arg
arg
'
lies between
^tt
"
7),
and
^ttis to
be taken.
(i)
Fig. 19.
The
values of ^4o,A^,A.^,
are
...
^i
^0=1,
4.
(3)
It remains
and
tIs
to do this
to express
coth=
5"ff
7 +
iff^ coth^
if^,'"
(^)in
{z) and ff^'^'
study of
intensive
an
iAcoth^7"
the
If{^)
"SV'"
(^);
of "S^'i'
(2)and
terms
which
on
curve
7,
^/(7)
is necessary.
861.
The
The form
equationof
(1)
{v
"
the
/3)cosh
curve
cos
"
a) sinh
"
where
{u,v) are
when
sin 8
cosh
coordinates
sin
and
0"
cosh
/3"
sin /3
TTv
and
acute
tt
y8 are
written
though many
angle are
stilltrue
for
and
/S,we
^ is
an
obtuse
shall also at
will be
angle.
0,
tt.
the
that 0"/8"i7r,
an
Cartesian
Since
shall
current
complex.
are
introduced
y8+ {u
the variables
when
of Debyes contours
and
a,
we
unaltered
first suppose
proved when
(3 is
264
THEORY
the left in
the expression
on
brevity,
For
d(f){u,v)
=
~
sinh
(1) will
.
B^
sm
[chap. VIII
FUNCTIONS
BESSEL
OF
v).
(f)(u,
Since
smh
"
be called
sm
v,
ou
is
vanishes
given,dcp/du
has at most
two
0 "
?' "
0,
one
is a
multiple
have*
we
TT,
(f"{X ,v)
(a,v)
(f)
and
root
one
so
of the
cosh
(f){+x ,v)
OC
"
is less than
and
"
"
equationin
finite root
of the
(^(w,0) 0,
seen
that, in each
to +
OC
as
tends to + 0
When
is
minimum
"
the
a,
becoming equalwhen
both
0.
is less than
to
tt
"
0, and
a,
so
for values of
when
configuration
vanishes
^,d(f"{u,v)ldu
the
largerroot
tends
at
li
0 and
lies between
o, and
"
hence
"
tt.
value
2 cosh
It
0,
consider
or
tt
curve
Next
/3" 0^
greater than
of the
+ sin
"^(;^,7r)0,
this root
case,
CC
"
equations
it is
u,
the
By considering
sin
{{v /3)cos fS
4"(% v)
a.
"
There
are
now
sin /8(1
two
is
so
TT.
When
at
value of u, and
only one
equationin u,
(p(w,v)
of
for
cases
"
/3cot /3
"
to consider
/3cot y8
"
"
tanh
tanh
a)
accordingas
a
or
(I)positive
(II)negative.
*
minimum
Since
value
zero
at
/J.
cos
v), and
this has
the
same
sign
as
i"
861]
FUNCTIONS
The
domains
OF
of values of the
1
is
/3cot /3
"
numbered
in
"
for the
tanh
cosh
in
Fig.21; in
expressionis negative;the
the
complex v/z
265
numbered
are
domains
ORDER
complex y
domains
LARGE
1, 4, 5
(a + ^yS)have
the
the
responding
cor
numbers
same
Fig.22.
N^
6/"
6c?
Fig.21.
When
(I)
y8cot /3
"
that the
curve
never
is that the
curve
after
so
dotted
upper
has
real root
no
between
0 and
(f)("a,v)has
that
so
negative,
Also
so
h (a,
that the
/3
"
27r) has
^V'"'
{z)when
Next
=
we
"
have
("
negative,the equation(f)
a,
v)
(cos /3
at
at
does not
cross
pass off to
a,
v
its value
/3,and
"
0 and
lies between
v).
cos
"
there
/3
"
is
27r.
and
jB
"
irl,as shewn
by
crossing
the dotted
curve
discussion
the
the line
0, 0
to
"
associated
curve
with
/3$ Itt.
consider
"/"
(a,v)
on
expression
u
what
happens to
the
curve
crossingthe
after
TT.
Since
and
cosh
maximum
0
"
27r,for
"
must
Tjiiscompletesthe
therefore
onlypossibility
shewn
off to
x
as
by the
rightof Fig.20.
the
line
/3. The
"
singlemaximum
v) is negativewhen
"^(" a,
curve
is
v)jdv
a,
(p(u,v)
purve
tanh
"
/S)is essentially
positive,
"
the line
/3cot /3
"
is positive,
"^(u,
crossingthe
Fig.20.
{"
d(f)
Therefore
tanh
"
crosses
in
curve
When
(II)
Fig.22
the
cosh
[{v /3)cos /3
when
rightis positive
a
"
"
sin
/'
sin
(3,the
/3},
curve
never
crosses
a.; also
0 {u,iitt) {u
=
"
a.)sinh
jS)cosh
a cos
y8+ cosh
sin /5,
266
and
this is
when
positive
the rightmust
on
infinity
When
i.e.when
(a,/3)lies in
found
that the
passes off to
7r
curve
BESSEL
OF
THEORY
"
numbered
any of the domains
27r
does not cross
v
^, and
Fig.23.
Fig.23
Fig.21, it is
after crossing
1, 2 and 3 in
the
so
"
in
shewn
as
tti
corner
go off to
"
of
which
curve
in the northeast
shewn
as
tanh
a, so
lie
[chap. VIII
FUNCTIONS
by
curve
broken
curve.
Fig. 23.
We
have
now
numbered
6a in
to
consider
Fig.21.
1
and
("
(f)
a,
v) has
negative.The
u
"
Now
In such
tanh
"
maximum
after
curve,
a,
happens
(a,/8) lies in
when
the domain
circumstances
"
2tt
v
crossing
v=27r
0 ;
"
at v
("
"f)
what
tt,
"
"
a, 'Itt
remains
consequently
/3)being
the
on
rightof
y3.
in the intervals
v) is increasing
/3),
.
be
positive
it becomes
+ /8,2i/7r+27ryS).
(2il/7r
Then
^ (u,^Mir
and
positive,
so
the
therefore go off to
2ir"
curve
has
^)
cannot
meet
minimum
cross
the
the left,and
on
infinity
00
it cannot
lower
go to infinity
horizontal line in more
at
line
"
v=
a, at
which
2M'Tr + 2Tr
consequently
goes
"
its value is
it must
to
+(2M+l)7ri;
than
this,for then
than
two
points.
the
complete curve
would
268
The
reader
pass from
the
region 1
regionsla
Soc.
to
interesting
iri and
cc
from
The
differences between
and
76 appear
/3 7r,the contours
expansions appropriateto
that the
so
for the
the formulae
been
have
to
overlooked
Royal
91.
argument is
that, when z has
the
real
go
of Carlini's formuhi
extension
shewn
7^^'to
for J^ (nz).
Kapteyns inequality
An
which
prove
qc
"
[CHAP. VIII
FUNCTIONS
valid.
are
A, (1918),p.
xcv.
8*7.
to
oo
"
Note.
will find it
'BESSEL
OF
THEORY
"
then
numberf
positive
z''eKp{n\/(l
z^)}
{1+ V(l 2')]^
\Jn(nz)\^
(1)
This
not
formula
precisethan
in the denominator
appear
powerful for
To
is less
the purposes
obtain
Carlini's formula
right,but nevertheless
it is required;]:.
for which
in which
the contour
be chosen
If
formula
integral
the
r'*i
^^.
{Inz{t
exp
e"^'^,we
J^ (nz)
1/0}dt,
is
positivenumber
to
get
[n [^z(e^e'" e"e'")
exp
iO]]dO.
value of
id]\
on
{irrn)"^
(1"z)* does
inequalityis sufficiently
subsequently.
write t
we
is
the
/'""+'
J,^(nz)
the factor
the
on
consider
inequality,
the
because
IJn {nz)I"
But
if ^
where
/je'",
and
positive
p is
is real,then
\z {e^e'^ e"e'^)

is
p fe"cos {a+ 6)
this attains its maximum
and
"
"
e~"
cos
i9
(a
6)]
"
u,
value when
tan
coth
"
tan
a,
and
p
*
Sci. de I'Kcole
Aim.
t Since
both
sides
J See
norm
(1)are
when
z
sup.
of
V(sinh^u
sin a)
(3)x. (1893),pp.
continuous
1 is
when
: for such
positive
in which
"
u.
91^120.
approaches the
values
real
of z, either
that
the
given to
the
axis it follows
sign may
be
87J
OF
FUNCTIONS
Hence,
choose
now
u
[np v/(sinh
exp
minimum,
the
equation*
sin a)
// +
/v/(sinhof m, when
function
qua
sinh
as
small
as
this method.
this choice of
2
and, by takingz
it may
be
"
is chosen
cosh
u
\/(sinh
"
"
root
positive
of
'
+ sin a)
cosh
(cosh2ii
"
to
be the
to
proved that
\/(l "s^Osinh
e''^),
"
positive
sign must
be taken
in
Hence
ambiguity.
and
be
expression
has
the
nu].
"
With
sin a)
that the
so
get the
in order to
possible
The
269
ORDER
values of a,
for all positive
j^
IJji(npe"^)
We
LARGE
sinh
[1+ x/(l z"")]
cosh
e"'
e"'^
so
z
log
exp V(l
i^^"
log
1 +
V(l
V(sinhu
2^)^
2')
g2M
sinh^
'
"2")
g2la
sin a
sinh
=
and
it is
now
V(sinhu
as
both
iz exp
of this
interesting
consequence
1J I$ 1 and
I1
To construct
=
the domain
pe'",and define
by
z'^)
the
at
;Jn
(nz) i ^
the last
cosh
write
is satisfied,
inequality
p'
that,when
l+^/(lz')
then
p
This
sin a)
u +
\/(sinh
equation is
long
sin a)
once
so
"
equation
u
"
'
u
+
\/(sinh
shews
previousanalysis
"
V(i^')
in which
u
\/(l "2")
I
"
sinh
The
u,
"
is that
inequality
"
sin a)
( 1 +v(i^T'
\z exp \/(l
^^
before
li
clear that
/h (n^) I^
An
cosh
quadratic in sinh
"
with
0.
one
positiveroot.
as
270
[chap.
FUNCTIONS
BESSEL
OF
THEORY
VIII
It
that
follows
2u
As
sin^
p
sinh
increases
from
sinh
{u cosh
sinh
"
u).
'
2u
sin
11997
to
increases
from
0
z
from
creases
and
to
the
on
Fig.
in
is shewn
theory
When
the
take
TT
is then
It
06627434
arc
of
The
24.
Fig.
24
tan
of
(coth
in
; it
will
of the
order
contour
domaiu
series
Kapteyn
the
of
boundary
Bessel
integraiion
w
a)
tan
clear
exp
that
\/(l
de
^^)
"
^1
be
real
/""
\J
exceed
considerable
but
positive
radius
of
If
axis.
take
we
cosh
'
1 +
is
circle
of
not
This
origin.
curve
unity.
in
importance
(u
not
6"
to
cos
6"
on
be
these
2a cosh
(v
rays
get
"vv
do
u)
ex^
"
{v
u)]
dv\
)
vahie
is
given
by Plummer,
Dynamical
Astronomy
(Cambridge,
1918),
p.
we
inclined
we
rays,
integer
an
b\ two
terminated
^ 
v)
iestricted
so
This
the
xvil).
function
to
be
to
prove
the
containing
curve
which
the
to
sini/TT
=$3/"
oval
an
(Chapter
\J^{vz)\4:M''{
and
....
inside
and
to
...,
47.
CHAPTER
POLYXOxMIALS
The
objectof
in various
occur
ASSOCIATED
WITH
definition
of Neumanns
The
9'1.
IX
EESSEL
FUNCTIONS
On(t).
polynoynial
this
first of these
The
in Neumann's*
polynomialsto appear in analysisoccurs
function /(^)
problem of expanding an arbitrary
;inalytic
into a series of the form Xa^.Jni^)The function On{t),which is now
usually
is
defined
called Neumanns
the
coefficient
of
as
enJn {z) iu the
jJolynomial,
expansionof l/(^ z) as a series of Bessel coefficients f, so that
of the
investigation
"
.^
(1)
this definition
From
it will
and
...
^nJn{z)Onit).
we
an
order
In
l/{t z)
"
to
in
coefficients
This
proceduregives
1
^ ^_
1
=
7I
Assuming
*
Tluorif
dcr
2M
"
e2m'J2m{z)+
ni=0
l f'
Maih.
Lxvii.
deriv^tlie
"
'6\\.
Neumann's
equation which
will
ml)l
Js^2m{2)l.
'"i
repeatedseries
(Leipzig,1867),
Functioiicn
"
(./n0
that the
BeascVschen
(s + 2m).(s
f^j :i
pp.
is absolutely
convergent
"
lo, 83
see
also
Journal
:',
fiir
to
in
series.
f In anticipation of " 16 11, we observe
by substituting for l/(( :) in the formula
that
the
expansion
of
an
arbitraryfunction
is obtained
{z^)f[t)(lt
X Cf. Pincherle's
pp. 224"225.
rather
more
general investigation,Reiuliconti
Jt. Lst.
Loiiibardo,[2)xv.
(1882),
272
effect
we
is
BESSEL
OF
THEORY
s by
rearrangement by replacing
1
=
Accordinglythe
functions
e"
0.(0
(3)
It is easy to
(4)
We
("
the
equations
1):
"^
(2"
2)
4
.
(2"
2) (2n
"
"
"
4)
denominator
of a
possibility
r
factor
negative.
or
have
"
by
l/".
i +
^^;^^
being zero
defined
that
see
On (t)
e.
^,,
I ^n {z)
'
,n2m+i
It**"
series
2m, and the rearranged
"
n.(nml)l)
"i(.i)2"^r"i
^ ".
",
On{t) are
1
^x
thus get
we
..
f2m^2m (^)+
[CHAP. IX
FUNCTIONS
to
now
consider
"
2"
should
be convergent.
(4),we
have
,"!o
r,i
r7i"+"i1 \
To
for
the
prove
'"'''+2'''
f.^/
If
^\
that this is
I''**
2
^'"
"
actuallythe
^,"!o
n^Hs
case,
observe
we
^ir^l) !
that,by "
2*11
^^^iil^l)
"2(^l2i)' + 2"'{exp(i0P)}/(2m)!
"(i.i)"exp(il^2).
Hence
2'
"
^,I7^I
s=l
''
f"
^
\,m=0
+ 2?w).(s+ OTl)!,
(.s
^r~
"'
,,1
\z\'
"
^l"^..2m(^)U2
^iexp(i0p)
,
"
I'
s=l
,,,
",
Ig Iexp (^ Iz P)
^
"
I^Ki^lMI)
The
under
absolute
of the
Bessel
functions
in the
expansionare
defined
of the
pansion
ex
91]
ASSOCIATED
When
these
POLYNOMIALS
the
satistied,
are
inequalities
273
moduli
of the
sum
of the terms
does
not
exceed
Since
the
i ^
the
follows from
convergence
right is independent of
the
expressionon
(^r)"^2'"exp
(/2)1
exp (ir^)
and
", the
uniformityof
the
of Weierstrass.
test
a Bessel function
by Neumann
of the secoyid
used (cf.
kind*; but this tei'm is now
""3"53, 3*54)to describe a certain solution
of Bessel's equation,
and so it has become obsolete as a description
of Neumann's
of degree n + 1 in l/t,
function. The function 0"(0 is a polynomial
and it is
polynomialof order n.
usuallycalled Neumanns
The
function
called
0"(Owas
in Neumann's
\n
"
\{yi
or
"
found
once
for
\)"m
S^(l,_,.)!(iO
(6)
(n~
t^
The
^^
I
results
in
^"
the methods
" 21
of
(8)
1 ""^)
(n
t'
3^
in the formula
be combined
mav
Ctf
(n odd)
^^ '^'"^
/,)_l^^V^^,Jii(iZi+"^i)'
These
in
that
0" it)
5
(5)
givenby
Neumann.
provedthat
easily
1, it is
\enOn{t)\^i.{n\).{^\t\)"^exip il\t\%
(9)
(n"l)
"
where
^ j^ [exp(^ \t f)
From
the series
l]/(2/;2).

these formulae
whenever
is absolutely
convergent ; and, when
an{zjt)"'
is outside
to
prove that,as
*;
en
By analogy with
oo
^
the
W.
B. F.
"
Legendre function
'
Cf. Modern
^"Sl
l^^
Jn {Z)On {t)
"
71
of the second
(/^^)
,
is such
that
274
OF
THEORY
and
[CHAP. IX
FUNCTIONS
BESSEL
which
hence
it may be shewn*
that the pointson
the circle of convergence
at
either series convergesfare
identical with the pointson
the circle at
which
the other
series
the
functions
analytic
the
on
when
()i.{p + qV._
,.r..
^ ^
where
p, q
It may
are
dPJn(2)d"iOn(t)
"
^^/n
{tzf+9+i
be convenient
to
l/f;
Os (t)
+ 24"/t*,
S/t'
0, {t)
We
0, (0
V^
0, (0
4/^^
The
shall
obtain
1)0.^,(0 + {n + 1) 0,Ut)
0,^, (0
(2)
been
calculated
by
^^^"^B!W,
^''Onit)
^"\~
(,,,^1)
=
0"+,(0
20,/ ( t),
(n ^ 1)
0,(t)=Oo'(t).
(3)
The
15, have
...
the formulae
^
(1) ("
0, 1, 2,
formulae satisfied
hy On(t).
recurrence
now
following
expressions:
0, (t)
coefficieuts in the
9*11
'
^^q
record the
placeon
Otti,Bern
^^p
positive
integers(zero included).
any
The
series of
first of these
stated
Math. Ann.
iii. (1871),p. 137, and
proved b}by Schliifli,
LXV.
(2),(1872),pp. 33
35, but the other two were
Sitzungsberichte,
was
Gegenbauer, ^Viener
proved some
years earlier by Neumann,
"
Functionen
(Leipzig,
1867),
p. 21.
Since
them, but
are
Bessel coefficients.
Taking ^ " ^ ,observe that,by " 91 (1) and " 222 (7),
{tz)^ enJn {z)On (0
"=0
It is sufficient to
use
=

e" COS*
the theorems
Analysis, "
n7r Jn {z),
.
n=0
o*33.
so
also is
(4)iii. (1881
"
"Zbjn, and
2), p. 160.
that
then
276
BESSEL
OF
THEORY
at
(4)
ntOnx (t){nl)Onit)
(5)
ntOn+^(t) (n^

If ^ be written
1) (^ +
(w
(7)
(/I+ 1) (^
The
the
by
equivalentformulae
(n
(0
formulae
1) On (0
1 ) On
(t)
sin' i?i7r},
[tOn+^
(t)
sin^ Ititt.
become
{iOn,(0
^i
sin Inir,
l) tOn (t)+
sin^ l^iir]
order
integral
polynomialof negative
Neumann
by Schlafli*
defined
was
equation
0.n(t)
definition
this
With
values of
From
?i
formulae
(1) (7)
valid
are
"
all
for
integral
equation^satisfied
hy On(t).
differential
The
the
the
irOn(t).
n.
9*12.
1) (^
formulae
recurrence
1) On (0
1) { ntOn+,{t)+
(^
{tOn(t)
"
sin''n7r}
j~ X
that
r(^
ft
and
the
(8)
(^
obtain
once
these
{djdt),
for t
(6)
1 ) 0"
[CHAP. IX
FUNCTIONS
2) On+i(t)+
cos^
"
+
2^7r}
sin^ ^mr
sin^ ^nir,
the differential
On (t)satisfies
equation
consequently
(^
On(t)
1)^On (t)+ (t^ 71')

d^y
dy
/,
n
"
is
and
so
the
only solution
sin ??7r.
7?
sin hiir
t'Wn(t),
of (1) which
equation
"^^^^
y=On{t)
+
^/iTT
cos^ hiir
1\
d'tIV^)y
"i"
cos
of the differential
generalsolution
is
as
expressible
terminatingseries
is On (t).
convenient
It is sometimes
^^^
to write
dt'^tdt^V
(1) in
f
the form
^"^^'
where
/ox
^"^
(**"^^")
Moth.
Ami.
t Neumann,
Lxvii.
/A_i^/^'
^""^^^
(1867),p.
Tii.
(1871),p.
Theorie
314.
der
[nit'.
(71odd)
138.
Bessel'schen
Functionen
(Leipzig,1867),p. 13;
Journal
fiirMath.
912, 913]
method
Another
and
ASSOCIATED
of
POLYNOMIALS
f (J^
'
^^^^" ^^^
i^"""^*^"
so
277
+^
a;
2z^
f2"'^2"
(2), 2=
"2
22
e2n
that
r^2
'"'}
("2)3 ("2)2
Now
observe
to
"Z
+ l)"^2n l(4
l(2^i
00
and
hence
t+
fi
"/"(2).
e",9'"(0
'2
"i=0
Therefore
^'
e",./"
(2)
5 ^4
"""
^ "*"^'
"
7(=0
On
as
equating to
" 9"11,we
in
the coefficient oi
zero
obtain
at
Neumann's
9'13.
It has been
the difterential
once
shewn
by
with
On{z).
Neumann*
\ 0^{z) On {z)dz
(1)
just
identity,
equationsatisfied by On (t).
associated
integrals
contour
side of this
lefthand
the
J^iz) on
^"
{m
0,
and
i^n)
Jc
! J^{z)On{z)dz
(2)
(m?^n')
0,
J c
(3)
k is the
where
the
The
firstresult is obvious
of
Om{z) On{z)
is
Cauchy'stheorem,
and the residue
origin,
is at the
simplepoleat
prove
the second
similar
and
origin,
the
manner
of the contour
because
the
there is
zero.
the
the residue at
larity
onlysingu
grand
onlypole of the intethis pointis l/e".
0,
and
and /,"(z)respectively,
by zOn (z)
subtract.
If U {z) be written in
.dJjAz)
,.d{zOn(z)}_^
(
''^^
^""^^^
the result of
dz'
(Z)+ ZU{Z)
*
Theorie
{W?
dz
'
the form
assumes
subtracting
Z'U'
round
result,multiplythe equations
V,,J^ {z)
/
of
from
The
To
of
the number
originover
27rikl"n,
circuits
positive
negativecircuits.
of the number
excess
der BesseVschen
Functionen
(Leipzig,18G7), p.
!!".
placeof
278
THEORY
and
BESSEL
or
[CHAP. EX
FUNCTIONS
hence
The
hence
(2) when
deduce
we
Two
due
corollaries,
(4)
^.
(5)
^ n^.
Ann.
Jn {X + y) 0^ (y)dy
"
The
m^
Schlafli,Math.
to
+ )
/"(0
/"(0
first is obtained
the second
9*14.
It
was
follows
by making
Neumann's
stated
by
Neumann*
'"
=/;
We
shall
now
prove
by
where
is any
of (1) will then
a
"
24
{x).
"
(1),namely
of variable.
change
that
^""' +
^^'^^^""'

induction
^'"'"
e'du.
formula
equivalent
the
ia
/"ooexp
l\
On {z)
(2)
the formula
QC
obvious
an
)"J^
Jn+p{x)J_j,{y),
2
"
(^)+ (
,,
("^),
integral
for On{z).
0. (.)
(1)
J^,
that
are
Jr,m (*")
+ ()'"^n +
by applying(2)and (3) to
P=
(1871),p. 138,
iii.
0^ (^ +y) Jn Lv)dy
"4("+.y)=
and
(z)dz.
integrated
part vanishes because U(z) is one valued, and the integral
for all values of z ; and
rightvanishes because the integrandis analytic
the
on
dz=\
{z)J^
z^^g^
J
[[t+ V(l
anglesuch
that
a. +
+[t V(l
"^)}"
arg
2^
" ^tt;
on
e' d^,
r'))"]
writingt
u/z,the
truth
be manifest.
modification
equation(2) is
of
""
On (z) I
(3)
To
prove
(2) we
cosh
e^sinhfl
f '"{e""
+ ()"""*}
observe
that
foaexpia
"
te'^dt;
Jo
Jo
by usingthe
ia
fee exp
e''dt, Oi(^)=
Ooiz)=
and so,
Odd.
Jo
formula
recurrence
Too
that
we
may
write
expia
"\in{t)e''dt,
On(z)=
J 0
where
(4)
(0
it) 2t"Pn
(t) (t"ni
"\"n+,

0,
and
(5)
*
Theorie
p. 312.
"^o(0=l. "PAt)
=
der BesseVschen
Functionen
t.
(Leipzig,1867),p. 16;
Journal
fiir Math,
lxvii.
(1867),
914]
The
4",(t) A[t
=
where
and
equation(4) is
+ 1)}"
\B\tV(l + ^0}".
^{t^
independentof
are
conditions
The
279
POLYNOMIALS
ASSOCIATED
n,
functions
formula
of t.
(2) is
established.
This
given in
proofwas
/"oc exp
written
have
symbolic form
by
Sonine*
who
wrote
where
(^"(Z)) {\lz)
/
'/:
whose
we
ia
to
now
Kapteynf,
write in
the form
When
j^ i" !2^ i we
"
"=o
have
r,=
if p be
so
chosen
exp
J0
ii\ du
\^
("=oo
that
1
=K^^)
w
z
It follows that
^r
shall
We
now
will be sufficient
shew
to
=r[
be made
du.
i^i"4^:"i2i!.^"(f)
e~"
interchangeof summation
that, for any given values of ^
shew
and
is justifiable;
it
integration
(such that  C 1" I^ ),
Z"'
small by taking
arbitrarily
large ;
sufficiently
\u"s/{u^+ z^)\^^{u
and
and
that the
n=N^\
can
now
\z\),
so
2!" Jul
Math.
t ^rm.
Ann.
Sci. de
xvi.
(1880),p. 7. For
VEcole
J Cf. Bromwich,
norm.
sup.
similar
investigationsee "
syinbalic
(3)x. (1893),p.
108.
Gll supra.
280
OF
THEORY
BESSEL
have
{u"J{u^ + z')Y
the
and
when
expressionon
and
[CHAP. IX
FUNCTIONS
be made
small by taking N
arbitrarily
sufficiently
large
fixed.
are
^ j" ^^  we
Hence, when
have
"3
.'0
b"=""
ienJniOOniz),
"
is defined
0" (i^)
by the equation
where
.
and
it is easy to
?i+
1.
the
that 0"
see
{z),so defined,is
9' 15.
integrandis expanded*
Sonine's
investigation
of Neumanns
by
(4).
integral.
An
and suggestive
of a generaltype
extremelyinteresting
investigation
of expansionof l/(a z) is due to Soninef; from
this generalexpansion,
Neumann's
formula ("9*1) with the integral
be derived without
of " 9'14 can
Sonine's generaltheorem
is as follows:
difficulty.
"
Let
so
that
(w) be an arbitrary
functionof w
a/t
is the functioninverse to yjr.
//v
Let Zn and
and, if yjr
{w)
cc, let lu
beingassumed
on
the
^nAn,
rightis convergent.
Cf. Hobson,
t Mathematical
X This
Wiss.
II.
Plane
Collection
but
slightly,
modified
^ (x),
"
Then
it
is connected
323
"
382.
Sonine's
notation
o.
closed
closed
has
been
the
and //i
his.
symbols \f/
are
with Laplace's transformation.
(Analysis)
{m"),
pp. 781"784.
See
Math.
9*15, 916]
curve
surroundingthe originbut
'
n=OJ
'"^,f^' f
Then
W'^
J r]
[JC
"
the pointz.
enclosing
not
J C
27ri Jo
281
POLYNOMIALS
ASSOCIATED
tu
/fi{x)
"
QZ"il(W\"aiX
2'rriJ J
"
jf^{x)
Jo
provided that
(w
take
expansion,
1/w), ^ (x)^x"
if it is assumed
permissible.
are
Neumann's
yfr{iv)
and
(a); and
R{z)"R
^(x" +
),
then
""
11=
'X
QO
1,
Since
^"
()" ^n
dx,
+ 1)}"]
^(ar + 1)]"+ ()" [x" V(*''
e"" [[x"
we
at
Sonine
so
notes
the
that
he
memoir
328) that
(p.
The
9*16.
series
The
intesfral
o'
obtain Neumann's
once
(2),which
( )"e"i!"0"
is
generating function
of t except zero.
Kaptejn*
converge for any value
of Borel, in the following
:
manner
series after the method
1
'""
,
part of his
generatingfunctionof On {z).
does not
in the later
/^
'""
"^
n.(n +
"
'^
"i=0
n=()
inj
however, has
with
"summed"
ml)\t~''
.
(^2*/
{n + ^).{n+m)l t^"^'^
"
\i''
"(=o
associated
'''^
_1
_1
Nieuw
1 + r^
Archief
^ n.{n
""
ml)\
f^"'(l+t^)_\
{2m)
voor
Wiskunde
t'"'
'^
+
'(l+i'^)
(2TO+ 1)! i!^'"
pp.
(2),vi. (190.5),
49
"
55.
0"(2),
the
282
OF
THEORY
BESSEL
[CHAP. IX
FUNCTIONS
"
57
Tj
is
convergent
long as (1
so
fi)zjtis
"
"
and
"
this
integral
negative.
not
00
There
is
no
"
)"f"^"0"(3)is
an
asym
n=o
ptoticexpansion of the integralfor small positivevalues of t when arg 2 1" tt, and
integralmay be regardedas the generatingfunction of On (2). Kapteyn has built up
of the
theoryof
The
9 "17.
function
Neumann's
the
much
ihis result.
from
We
so
Neumann's
satisfied
integralan inequality
satisfied by J^inz) obtained
inequality
the
have
"
^" (^^^)
=
the
2^ f 1^^^^^'^^^'
^
being a
path of integration
where
that
+ {w
^'^^"
in the
contour
e"" dw,
V(w^ + ^)}"]
wplane,and
which
so
givesthe integrandwith
the
greater modulus.
Now
is
the
pointof
stationary
and
\/(l "2^),
so
"
where
is one
path of integration
stationary
point.
If
the
ta
the
stationary
point is
+
for which
cc
are
at
lower
the
only pass
level than
z
(2)
Hence, since
" 8*3
in
on
the
integrandis greatestat
is constructed
over
both
the
w
the
typlane,
=
and
the pass if
exp V(l
Z)
be drawn when
can
(2) is
joiningthe originto infinity
and since the integral
involved in (1)is convergent with this contour,
satisfied,
it follows that, throughoutthe domain
in which (2) is satisfied,
the inequality
a
contour
^')
V(l
On(nz)"r^^
\/(l 2^)
1 +
(3)
is satisfied for
character
as
some
the
constant
value of A
of " 8"7.
inequality
exp
;
""'
"
and this is an
of
inequality
the
same
284
THEORY
The
differential
OF
equationof
BESSEL
which
[CHAP. IX
FUNCTIONS
J." "(")is
solution is
where
The
generalsolution
of
'^^+"(0
1"'
"
Of these results,
(3),(4),(8) and
due
(9) are
Gegenbauer ;
to
he
and
also
proved that
(10)
where
"
An, (t)e* dt
formula
corresponding
The
a"
in the
I
"tti J
"
formulae
following
for Neumann's
On (t)e^^^dt
may
polynomialis
i^ cos
\narc
also be mentioned
I Ajt,
"{z) An
Jc
(12)
"
;*"""""*
(11)
The
formula
2" i r
y{z)dz
cos
z],
(m
0,
and
^ n)
'
[2''J,^,n(z)An,Az)dz0,
(13)
(m^ :^w=)
J c
( z''J,+niz)An,,{z)dz27rik,
(14)
.'c
The
firstand
the second
is derived
from
the
^i'+mdv+m{z)= 0,
whence
(m
we
are
the method
provedby
of
" 9'13
equations
^v+n{z^ An,v\Z)\= Z
"
gn,v\Z),
find that
n) {2v\ m
n)
z"
J^+ni(z)A
J c
9*3.
n,
{z)dz
\ z''" gn,
{z)dz
{z)J"^+,"
0.
J c
polynomialSn (t).
Schldfli's
93]
t" ^:^^l^l^)}(lt)^m^
(u^l)
S,"(t)
(1)
polynomialis
of the
Schlafli's definition*
So(t)
substitute
we
the former
l)Sn^ (t)^(n
2)H'
the
by using
Neumann's
(0
l) .9"+,
cos
nt'
of course,
Sn{t),without
of
definition
nTT,
S,,(t)

2t' cos^
Other
get
be
proved by elementaryalgebra
of
appealingto the properties
is
polynomialof negativeorder
true
for all
from
values
integral
of
w.
forms
of the
formulae
recurrence
which
be derived
may
(5) are
(t)
nS" (t) tS,,'
2 cos^ Imtt,
(8)
tS"_,(t)
(9)
(t) 7lS,,
(t)+ tSn (t)
tS,,+,
wfc
these formulae
for t (d/dt),
write ^
(10)
{^+77)Sn(t) tSn_,(02
(11)
(^
n) Sn (t)
=
UTT.
become
i
COS'^
7l7r,
2 COS^ i
tSn+,(t)+
2 COS1
WTT.
Jtfollowsthat
and
/^tt.
easilyderived
If
polynomial.
definition of Schlafli's
The
and
nS^'(t)
is
U'
S,,(t)
add
2 and
formulae
The
The
formulae
recurrence
the latter,
multiplythis by
we
hmr.
cos2
that

and from
that
once
0,j(t)in the
Sn+^it)+ .S;_i{t)
(4)
If
find from
and (2),we
i (n
at
see
('3)
If
0.
On
nil
"=o
(2)
285
POLYNOMIALS
ASSOCIATED
so
(12)
Sn{t) is a
"
l
n) Sni (t)+
In
2t sin'^
^ UTT
4
{t)+
^'*S'"
Math.
Ann.
in.
2u
mr
cos
i nir,
cos
1 ?i7r.
equation
'',+{PH)u^lt sin^ \
t'^i^^+t
*
cos^
mr
(1871),p.
138.
2n
from
(4)
286
It may
be convenient
BESSEL
OF
THEORY
to
the
record
placeon
S, (0
+ 768/t',
S, (t) 2/t+ 48/t'
S, (t)
:
following
expressions
8/t'+ 96/f,
+
12/t'
[CHAP. IX
FUNCTIONS
384/^^
7680/^.
by Otti,are
generaldescendingseries,given explicitly
The
(n + ml):
^
2 ,il_.^.i..,,n
(lnm)l{ity
Sn{t)=
(13)
(neven)
,=1
_2
coefi"cients in the
{ii" 1^)

^^
"
"
1,2,
formulae
...
obvious
reproduced (with some
Funktionen,ii. (Bern,
are
der BesseVschen
Theorie
24.
1900), p.
9"31.
Formulae
alreadyencountered
and Schlatli,
namely
have
We
for
polynomial "S'"
{t),
14; Otti's
1898, pp. 13
Mittheilungen,
Gubler, Einleitungin die
Bern
(/?.^1){n? 3)
+""""
^i
.
^+
'
t
The
2n{n"2')
2n
Neumann
formulae
two
"
and
Schldfli.
connectingthe polynomialsof
cos'^ ?l7r,
of which
is
the former
an
immediate
from
connectingthe
formulae
we
eliminate
cosw7rfrom
definitions
formulae.
due
are
we
either
of the
number
shall
now
discuss
find that
(1)
SnAt)Sn'{t) 20nit),
(2)
Next,
on
summing equationsof
(3)
and
.Sf"
{t)
=
2
^^T'^*Sf'"_""_i
(t)+
sin^ i
UTT
find that
: S, it),
hence
(4)
Sn {t)+ S,,_,(0
's'^
2
m
the type
Comptes Rendus,
cxxv.
(1897),pp. 421"423,
nmi
(t)+ S, it).
860"863;
of
to
alreadyobtained, and
functions
two
of the
consequence
the recurrence
931, 932]
ASSOCIATED
POLYNOMIALS
287
that
SO
(5)
is the most
This
of
interesting
formulae
summing
Again,on
(6) On {t)
2
of the
0'"_.","_!
(0
0"(t)+ 0nAt)
2
9'32.
The
type of "9'11(2),we
sin^1
Sn(z)
'rr
III
stated
Gubler's
by
Graf*
nir
0, {t)+
when
obviously
the
7i
the
+ 0,{t)+0,{t).
0',,_,,,_,(t)
sum.
is most
IT
temporarilyby
Y,n {Z)
"n
is
the
,"
{z)
"ft="l
nl
irJ.n,{z) S
m,=
it
Yn+i{z)
n"
TT
now
and
it is clear that
(f}n{2),
?il
"
If
l.
n+1
Jn+i{Z)
in Graf
readilyproved by induction;
also,by "3'63(12),when
0, and
m
Y,,{z)'7TYn,{z) 1
+ l
{2n7rlz)Jn(z) S
in
we
Oo (0,
nfl
at
 nTr
cos^
[Jn(^)ym(2)J"n(z)Yn(^)}
formula
rightbe denoted
Now
find that
n
in 1893,
treatisef.This
true
on
Graf'sexpressionof Sn(z) as
peculiar
summatory formula
(1)
sum
Crelier.
by
hence
(7)
was
obtained
.11=
and
the formulae
"
J ,,{z)
)i+\
Y,,(z)+ ('Inrr/z)
Yn{z)
"
m=
I

/,"(4
n
vanish.
It follows that
(z)
{z) {2n\z)
(f)n
(2)+ "/)"_!
"^"+,
7r/"+,{z)\F"+, {z)+ F_"_j {z)] IT F"+i(2){./"+j
{z)+ /_"_, {z)\
^
IV, ^z) [J,,
J"_j {z)[F" {z)+ Y_, {z\\+'TT
+
(z) J_n {z)]
i^ (_ i)"}!/"_^(^)r,^(^) /" ( .) F,_^ (2)}

TT
4^~^cos^?i7r,
formula
by "3'63(12);and so (^n{z)satisfies the recurrence
by Sn{z),and the induction that "i"n(z)Sn{z) is evident.
which
is satisfied
Math.
Ann.
xliii.
(1893),p.
dcr
138.
Besserscli'm
34
"
41.
288
THEORY
9'33.
If
Creliers
r X
On (^)
and
ia
exp
[[t+ V(l
o
1z\
exp
"_ f"
Hence
/a
e^^
[{^+ v(l
dt
;^+
P)Y'\e^' dt,
t^r] dt
V(l+^^)]"^_^(l+f2)j"_^^
^
V(l+"0
rfi.
'^^^^Jo
equation,which
Sn{z)=
write
^=')
Ann.
iii.
(1871),p. 146, in
the form
"{enB^y^ene^eZBinhdcld^
in Crelier's researches*
is fundamental
We
v(i
given by Schlafli,Math.
was
(2)
of which
we
shall
give an
now
outline.
temporarily
Tn
and
it follows that
(1)
This
"^2^Jo
t^)Y+{t V(l
find that
^'
''I
[CHAP.IX
FUNCTIONS
"9'14(2),namely
by parts,we
integrate
On {z)
BESSEL
integral
for Sn{z).
the formula
take
we
OF
t')Y\
then
T
*"
71+1
"^fT"T
t
*
0
'')
"
* n"
"
that
so
"in+i
=
1
..
2t +

*
and
^^
2^ +
continued
quotientof
fraction
having
so
the suffixes n,
It follows
"
It
follows that
...,
number
2vXl
the
2t}n
of elements
thatTJK(2t)ni is independentof
r,
Tn^^jT^is
K{lt,2t,...,2t)n,'
denotingthe
..+2r
that
Tn+i_ K{2t,2t,
Tn"
+ 2^+.
elements.
simplecontinuants^
two
^'^2^
^;
the
n/ Jn"i
therefore
in the continuants.
; and
since
K{2t\=\,
have
we
T,,
=
Comptes Rendus,
cxxv.
t Chrystal,Algebra,
X Since
ii.
this abbreviated
notation.
l^{\+t^).K{2t)n,,
860"863
(18!)7),
pp. 421"423,
; Bern
(1900),pp. 494"502.
of the continuant
are
the same,
the continuant
may
be
expressedby
933,934]
ASSOCIATED
289
POLYNOMIALS
and hence
exp ia
/"a3
K{2t)n^e''dt.
Sn{z)=2
(3)
Jo
to obtain
possible
of continuants.
Sn (z)by usingproperties
From
this result it is
9*34.
expansionof Sn{t + z) as
Schldfiis
We
shall
to
series
recurrence
formulae
for
of Bessel coefficients.
Schlafli*
that, when
\z\"' t\,
be
Sn (t+ z) can
result due
the
obtain
now
all the
I S,_",{t)J,,(z).
Sn(t + z)^
(1)
00
"
values of n
this formula for positive
simplestmethod of establishing
It is evidently
true when
n
is by inductionf.
0, for then both sides vanish ;
the rightis equalto
when 7i
on
1, the expression
The
I {^",,_i
(0 +
20o (t)./"{z)h
J,,( z)
'SV, (t)}
m=l
e",0,n{t)Jra{z)
0
2l(t+ z)
8, (t+ z),
n,
...
the
assume
we
we
have
we
induction
"
? {Sn,a^
it)

the
"
is established ;
Math.
Ann.
t The
W.
extension
B. F.
to
"
Qo
J,",
2.S""_",
(Z)
{t)\
to
line in the
analysis,
result that
(1871),pj:).139
(of." 91).
iii.
z).
z)=^^s,,(t
s,:{t+
*
of orders
(1) for Schlafli's polynomials
have
S,,+,
{t+ z)
and
of
truth
"
141;
negative values of
tlie examiuation
follows
on
the
of the convergence
of the series is
290.
THEORY
BESSEL
OF
[CHAP. IX
FUNCTIONS
The
expansion was obtained by Sclilafli by expanding every term on the rightof (1) in
ascendingpowers of z and descending powers of t. The investigation
given here is due to
concerned
with a more
was
Sonine, Math. Ann. xvi. (1880), p. 7 ; Soniue's investigation
as
generalclass of functions than Sehlafli's polynomial,known
hemicylindrical
functions
(55108).
When
make
we
of
use
i Onrn{t)J,niz).
On{t + z)=
(2)
m=
This
[^^ " ^ ,
00
"
Lxvi.
proved directlyby Gegenbauer, Wiener Sitzungsberichte,
(2),(1872),
in
of
220
z
ascending powers
by Taylor'stheorem, used
223, who expanded 0" {t+ z)
obvious formula
[cf.j^9'll(2)]
pp.
the
was
"
(3)
and
2"
"^'
dtp
( ) ,C", 0"_p+2,H{t),
^^2^
,"=(
rearrangedthe resultingdouble
Graf's
It is easy to deduce
series.
results
\z\ "
(validwhen
\t\),
00
(4)
Sn{tz)=^
S"^,"(t)J.Az),
(5)
On{tz)=
On^,n(t)J,n(z).
m=
definitionof Neumann's
9'4.
The
The
problem
of
polynomialiln{t)
analyticfunction into a
arbitraryeven
coefficients was
f by the
suggestedto Neumann
expanding an
of Bessel
series of squares
formulae
of
^00
" 2'72,which
express
even
any
of
power
as
"
"
,T^
(1)
Jo'(^)^0 (0
"i
To
obtain
^J^ (^)^1(0
2/2^(z)a
(0
and, after
" i ,
explicit
expressionfor n"(^),take ^'j
in ascendingpowers of z, substitute for each power of z
l/(^^ z"^^
an
"
mil
pp.
'Math.
Ann.
BesseVschen
xliii.
(1893), pp.
Functionen
Ill
"
142;
see
also
Epstein, Die
die
vier
Fortschritte
liechnung"operationen
1893"1891,
der Math.
845"846.]
t LeipzigerBerichte, xxi.
(1869),pp.
221"256.
[Math.
Ann.
in.
panding
ex
the
(1871).pp. 581"610.]
292
By reasoningsimilar
that the domains
the
are
BESSEL
OF
THEORY
that
to
it is easy to shew
of the series Sa^ J^ {z)n,i{t)and 2a,i{zjty^
given at
of convergence
the end
" 91,
of
same.
The
have
reader should
in verifying
the
difficulty
no
Kapteyn*,
to
n"(o
(10)
The
9*41.
The
2^/;'o..(J,)rf^.
recurrence
formulae
n"'(o
^H^5^??4",
(1)
"
(2)
(2/0n/ (0
^
(3)
(2/0Ho'(0
There
to
seems
Neumann
Take
and
be
2z/{t' zj

t^
2n, (0
is that described
zi
(z)
The
in
method
by
which
 9'11.
observe
that
z,
that
Jo (z)/"'(z)Ho {t)+ zl
zl
[J^^.,{z)J\+,{z)]{n^{t)n,{t)]n.
(0
m,
differentiations with
"
Tn}
2 J"o{z)J:
by
these formulae
the fundamental
find
71
no
obtained
that,by Hansen's
On
("^2)
We
[CHAP. IX
FUNCTIONS
e"Jn'{z)^n{t)+
n=0
that
0.
M1
On
Ann.
LtipzigerBerichte, xxi.
Sci. de VEcole
norm.
iii.
equating it
(1871),p. 606.]
to
zero
941, 95]
ASSOCIATED
POLYNOMIALS
293
Oegenbaner's
generalisation
of A^eumanns
polynomialI^nCOIf we expand z'^'^^l{t
z) in ascendingpowers of ^ and replaceeach power
series
of productsof Bessel functions given in " 5"5,
a
z by its expansionas
find on rearrangement (by replacing
s hy n
2m) that
9*5.
"
of
we
"
2'"+" +
"
t'"'
s^o
00
()
JfjL
+ ^s +
(ft+
2?n
"i"
(w=0
\^)
+ As +
??i
then
are
consequently
equation
(1) Bn,^,,{t)
=
the
m)
+ ^nm+l)T(fj,+
) r (i/
n
'Im
v{n
m)
l)
of
greater
" 9"1.
defined by
polynomial5".^_^(^),
the
^3
formulae, none
be noted
l)V{v + \nm
l)V{fi+ v+nm)
by Gegenbauer*; it
investigated
of which are of a simplecharacter.
polynomialwas
It may
ml
corresponding
rearrangement
^''V{lx+ \nm
recurrence
2m)V inVv
led to consider
We
This
2m
the
+
m\V{iJi,^v
it is
\^) f
1/
"
"
i'
satisfies various
that
B,n.,.At)=^nt^n{t).
of Gegenbauer'sformulae are worth placing
generalisations
following
record. They are obtained by expanding the Bessel functions in ascending
on
series and calculating
the residues.
(2)
The
^. \^'''^\^
J,{^t%m6)B,"
(3)
(4)
^.^
J. {2tsin
t"
2'^+"
(/i+
t;
,,^,At)dt=i).
At) dt
(l")B,n.,,,
1 )r
2/0 r (/x+
(/A+
1/
w) sin" (f"
_
~
n\ r(/i +
X
In the
(5)
3^2(
n,
1)
sin "/)).
+ \,\^JL^\v^r\\
^l^\,ii.^"V'^n\\^l"\"\v
in which
case
special
i^+
/x
i', this
reduces
to
^ r"V''/,(2"sin(^)i^,";...(0rf^=2=''(
LlTl J
This
formula
may
*
be stillfurther
Wiener
(1877),
pp.
lxxv, (2),
Sitzungsberichte,
218"222.
294:
9'6.
The
The
genesisof Lommel's*
the
which
are
obtain
for
explicit
expressions
The
'polynomial
Rm,v{z).
known
result of
J^ (z) /,_i(z)
{2vlz)

obviouslybe
J"i(z); and
[CHAP. IX
FUNCTIONS
formula
recurrence
.7^+1
{z)
may
BESSEL
OF
THEORY
as
LortimeVs
polynomials. We
shew
proceed to
how
to
them.
the system of
.Z^+i
{z),J^+2i^), Jv\m\
i^)from
eliminating
"
"
"
equations
7^+^+1{z)
is
seen
easily
1,
1,
22i(i/+ ffi2),
0,
0,
1,
0,
0,
0,
0,
0,
0,
0,
2z'^{v+m\\
By expanding in
Jv+m (2)is unity;
cofactors of the
and
1,
0,
1,
0,
0,
0,
0,
cofactor of
row
1)
cofactor of
we
see
that
the
cofactor of
0,
1,
23i(i/+ m3),
2zi{v
0,
0,
1,
22i(v+l)
J" (z)is
(" )"'~^
2z^{p+m2),
1,
of the last
first column,
the cofactor of
2?i(j/+ ml),
modified
l),
2z^v
by the suppression
column.
("y"~^J^(z) is denoted
771
...
0,
Jy{z\
J,_i{z){2v/z)J,(z),
The
0, 1,
be
to
Jv^m{z\
The
(p
and
by the symbol ("y'^Em,y{z)'"
polynomial.It is of degreem in \jz
effect of
Hence
it follows that
"
Math.
Ann.
iv.
(1871),pp.
108"116.
0,
96, 961]
ASSOCIATED
295
POLYNOMIALS
that is to say
2z'(p+ ni1)
The
He
function
by
somewhat
coefficients
which
way
It had
recurrence
'
2z'
elaborate
(v +
2)
2z'
(i'+
induction
8)
by
of
means
equation(1).
polynomial
to determine
simpler
the
two
962
2^'
coefficients in the
; it is,however,
been
[cf."
where
numerator
defined by Lommel
was
R,n,^^,(z)
for the
an
explicit
expression
derived
then
is the
R,n^^{z)
consequence
of the
(8)]
^nl (z)B,,{z) A,,(z)B"_i{z)=

"
^^
^,
,^^^
It
should
Lommel's
be
that
noticed
notation
they
(^0
the
same
shews
P"
"
(x)J
It is easy to
see
Crelieruse
ix)
notation
which
differs from
P"
,
ix)J
{x\
liolynoviial.
J_^_,"(^),qua
)'"
formulae as /"+,"{z);
that ("
recurrence
,/
9'61.
and
Graft
^y,g^^
integerm, satisfies
of " 9'6 also
analysis
function of the
and
hence
the
that
{Z)
()'"./_,_,^
(1)
(z).
./_,{Z)R,n.,.(z)
+ ./_,+,
(Z)Rral,.+l
and
(z),
(z)and " 96 (1) by ./_^+i
Multiplythis equationby ./,_i
add
the results.
It follows that
[Ju(z)/_,+!(z)+ ./_,(z)/,_,(z)]
R,n,u{z)
2 sin
VTT
Rm,v{z),
TTZ
Cf.
t Ann.
Chrystal, Algebra,
di Mat.
(2) xxiii.
11.
(1900),p.
(1895),pp.
502.
45"
fi5; Einh'ilang
di
Mat.
(2) xxiv.
(1896),jip.
131"163.
in die
Theorie
der
BesscVschen
Funk
296
have
when
Ave
^Qn\V{
in
1) r(i/+ n)
?i +
last summation
in the
replacen
[CHAP. IX
FUNCTIONS
BESSEL
OF
THEORY
b}m
Now
p + 1.
it is clear
that
+ 2j)+ 1) !
{V+})m+p+^ (??t
(m+jj
and
when
so,
combine
we
2)p
productsof
find that
2 sin
vir
"
izT^Hjn
")" (i^)'"+^^i
sin
()"(m n)\r{v+
""'
vir
n) (^)^+^*^
,
_
~
for which
the terms
("
on
V~
"to
vanish
n"^m.
! (m
n)
of the presence
account
on
'
2n)ir{v
of the factor
When
is not
7?
n^
^s"(r On
f.\
ii,,,,{z)
^d;
infer that
we
integer,
an
^^^^
^^"(^Y
n)l r (v + m
n\{m2n)\r(v

^
c
n=o
But
the
(^ +
definition
original
of
"^
n) (^)'"+^"
n)
''""1
(
,)^n^^n
(t*+ ";
R,n"iz),by
of
means
determinant, shews
that
or
not;
R^^{z) is a continuous function of v for all values of v, integral
.and so, by an obvious limitingprocess, we infer that (3) is a valid expression
for Rjft"(z)
when
is an integer.When
even
z/ is a
negativeintegerit may
be necessary to replacethe quotient
v
^(^
^n
n)
r{v+n)
nvn
r{vm
^^
^_^",
^
^
^
+
+
l)
+ l)
series
(3) was
result,in
Archiv
der Math.
different
7md
Phys.xxxvii.
(1861),pp.
354
"
of
result,dependingon the equivalence
interesting
firstnoticed by Graf*, namely that
was
(4)
R,n,{z) ()'"Rm, .",+! {z).
mentioned,
Ann.
di Mat.
(2) xxiii.
111;
an
ten years
valent
equiearlier,
355.
An
"
(1895),p.
56.
the
quotients
just
962]
(Iz)'" oF, (I
(5) 72,"_
(2) (v)"i
=
orders
[^^ 2{{v
where
and
+
i"
mf
(v
and
(d/dz);
is
i?", (2^)
so
+
+ 4"z^(^'^
If}']
2v +
2)(^
2i;
m) (^
,u
p. 251
pp. 332
2) ;
equation
4^^^(^+ 1)^
0.
Ann.
stated by Hurwitz, Math.
xxxill.
(1889),
equation equivalent to this was
a
given by Nielsen, Ann. di Mat. (3) vi. (1901),
lengthy proof of it was
; and
from
be obtained
from the proof just given,may
334 ; a simple proof,differing
"
fornuila
(5).
Various
9*62.
of LommeVs
'properties
We
proceedto enumerate
in his
publishedby Lommel
polynomial.
which
concerning Rm,i'{z),
theorems
some
functions
the
satisfying
=
replacedby any
and, in particular,
are
r,_i (z)E",_",
,+, (z),
F, {z)R", {z)
};,+",
{z)
(1)
formulae
recurrence
same
were
of 1871.
memoir
In the firstplace,
" 9'6 (1) holds if the Bessel functions
other
3^
2)]y
+
An
z").
"
[(^ + m) (^ +
(6)
+ my {vIf]^'^ + {{i'
in, \ vm;
of
"
v,
functions of
productsof cylinder
that it is annihilated by the operator
linear combination
is a
R,"^v{z)/2
Since
I m, \m;
have
(cf."4*4,4*42 ), we
of Pochhammer
In the notation
297
POLYNOMIALS
ASSOCIATED
it follows that
whence
Next, in
vhy
m.
be
to
J, {z)F,_,(2)= 2R,nA^)l{irz).

integer; replacem
even
an
becomes
equationthen
2 ()'"sin
+ J.,. {Z)j_,n.l+.{Z)
(3) J,+,n(z)Jm+i.(z)
VIT.
and, in'the
speciafcase
v
}2,we
R.^,n,.m{z)l(7r
get
{z)
J%n^,(z)+ J^_,"_i
(4)
by 2//",and
() i?,,,,i_,"
iz)l(7rzl
that is to say
(2^r""(2mn)!(2m2")!
^,
^
^"
.,,,
(5)
"
"
"
This
is the
order is half of
In
we
particular,
have
J%(z)
JU(z)
,
irz
/,
/,
(6)
45
225,
when
the
298
Formula
direct
(5) was
[CHAP. IX
FUNCTIONS
BESSEL
OF
THEORY
derived
who
it at that
time
by
of the
multiplication
^...iWT()".^,i
by
followed
of
cases
special
As
/ 2
\*
(7)
\5
2 \^
={~)
()"^J_rni(2)
j sin
(^^
R"t,
J (^)+
from
deduce
By squaringand adding we
2 \^
/
^
cos
product.
have
to determine
lengthy induction
somewhat
w(i)*(T.T^.";i/'"
R.^i,
I (z).
(4) thatf
(8)
replacem by
integer2m
the odd
1 and
then
"
J^^m+i \Z)J
(9)
\Z)
v+m+i
J^^jn^i(z)
i^z)
J_i,_^_i
"
di Mat.
An
sin v7rR2,n+i,",n
{z)l{'rrz)
()"""
if
we
have
of
identity
any
the
type
the
where
functions
"
/,"(2)are
m=o
algebraicin
z,
we
at
can
infer the
once
identities
two
0,
f,n{z)Rm.v{z)
l(2)sO,
/",(2)/i!".l,"
m=0
7rt=0
the form
in
identity
by writingthe postulated
(2)} 0,
/,"(Z){J^{z)R,n,v{l)J.\{z)Rml,v^i
"
7)1=0
and
with
observingthat,by
algebraicfunction. Nielsen pointsout
pp. 331
"
in this
to
many
(3),the
" 3*2
memoir, and
9 '63. Recurrence
by
in his
to
seem
series of Lommel's
der
Handhuch
be
Theorie
of sufficient
polynomial.
1 and
i^
"
1 ;
on
Jv\{z)Rm\
v+i
comparing the
(z),
two
for
expressions
that
=
Math.
t This
Ann.
result
11.
was
der
practical
(^)lR,n,(z).
+ i?^+i_
JyX{z) [R,n_,^
(z)} [Jy(z)+ J"^_2
^_i
y+, (z)
*
an
formula
In the fundamental
replacem and
Jv+m {z),we see
its sequel,ibid.
expansions in
interesting
will be found
of these formulae
polynomials; some
Cylinderfunktionen(Leipzig,1904), but they do not
importance to justifytheir insertion here.
"
(2)is not
quotientJ^i {z)lJv
(1870),pp.
obtained
627"632.
by Lommel,
Math.
Ann.
iv.
(1871),pp.
115"116.
300
THEORY
9"64.
Threeterm
It is
possibleto
which
the
from
theoryof
the
from
deduce
continued
polynomials.
formulae
recurrence
by Crelier*.
[CHAP. IX
FUNCTIONS
Lommel
connecting
relations
discussed
has been
BESSEL
OF
relations
The
class of relations
by Crelier
obtained
were
fractions.
"
(^)(^)Rni.f+m+i
Rm+u,i'{z)Rm,^{z)Rn,v+m(^) J^mi.f
(1)
Next
that
"
in
and
then
eliminate
and
by v+l,
that
seen
"
and
so
1.
"
is
the value
It is
on
independentof
consequently
(^) 1,
Rm,Az) Rm.f+l(^) Rm+hA^) Rml,^+l
due to Bessel (cf " 96) in the special
case
v
essentially
\^)
Rm, \Z)R^nn+i,
v+n
so
replacedm by
had
and
we
i/
by
+ n,
and
into
by changing m
m
"
givenin
Replacem
If
and
result
(4)
"
0.
R,n,("2')
Rmn+\,v+n {^) J^m+i,{^)Rmn,v+n \^) Rn~i, \Z),
(3)
a
on
It is
1.
"
\Z)
+n
consequentlyindependentof
find from " 963(10) that
is Rn,,,{z),
we
result
we
?";
into
by changingm
Crelier's formula
have
unity,we
(2)
of the function
and
different form
n
by
Lommel
by
1 and
f.
1 in this
?n
it is found
and
equation,
that
Rn,v\2')Rm,v{z)Rmn'i,v+n+\{z)
l^mn\,v+n^i{z)
Rin'i,v{z)
tween
rewrite this equationwith p in placeof n and eliminate Rm\,v{z)be=
"
the two
we
equations,
that
see
\^)
{^)~ Rp, {z)Rm^ni,
Rn, (^)Rm2}i,v+p+\
v+n+i
{z)Rmpi,v+p+i
(^)J
(^) Rmni,v+n+i
(^)Rmn\,v+n+i
R,n^^{z)
\^Rmp2,v+p+\
V
""
by (3).
we
If
obtain
we
transform
the second
{z)
"
Ann.
di Mat.
(2)xxiv.
(1890),p.
Rp, iz)Rn^mi,v+m+i
v
136
of
143),
by means
et seq.
{z)
\Z)Rm, v\Z) tl^;"jii,
f+THl
^^atJi. Ann.
iv.
(1871),p.
115.
964J
ASSOCIATED
POLYNOMIALS
301
any
parameter
the
and
argument
same
The
z.
formula
be written
may
more
symmetrically
that is to say
S
(7)
^"
Rn,A2)Rpm^,pJrm+\{z)
=
1)1, n, p
similar
functions
which
be obtained
may
orders differ by integers.
If we
result
whose
connects
three
any
eliminate
Bessel
'/"+mi(z) between
equations*
the
\^)
v+n
]''
'J
\Z)
v+p
^^
'J
'J v+in
i^n"m,v+m \^)
'J v+in"i
\^) "ti'n"m"i,v+tn+\
\^)"
\^)
\^) ^^p"}n,v+7ii
'J v+m"\
\^) '^p"m"i,i'+m\i
\^)"
v\tii\^)
find that
we
\Z) iip"),i"\,v+m+\
(2') "' v+p \^) ^n"m~l,v\m+i\^)
"
"v
'J
^^
'J
the last
m,
",
n,
v+m
v+m
\^) ti'p"n"l.i'+n+i
\^) i
is obtained
expression
V by 0, n
m,
m, p
"
"
from
i"
It follows that
n, p
m,
and
obviouslywe
can
the
prove
S
(9)
generalequation
more
^,
'^^+n{2)Rpjni,i'+m+i(^)
=
'
m,n,p
where
^denotes
The
Graf
last two
and
Gubler
BesseVschen
[Note.
formulae
hint
use
have
to
never
seem
If
(2) to
we
eliminate
and/SO, replacingv hj
Jvm\Z)=
resultingequation,
"j
positivevalues
result is
the
of the
{z),
(z)I^m~\,v
\Z)i
have
we
(z)Rm2,
deduce
vm
equation
parameter
()+"i'l ()"?n
1,
+ \
vm
{Zj
that
"
that
(^)+ "^i/
+ m1
(z)Rin~",
v+1
find that
we
"^'v
equations
m,
109.
J^ 4.
"
the
J^i {z)from
ml
simplifythe
J" (2)
It is
though
previouslystated explicitly,
equations,Einleitungin die Theorie der
been
of such
the existence
at
W^
and
cylinderfunction.
any
m,
i^96
(z)J^\ (z)Rml,
(1),which
may
for
is the snmllest
be removed.
has
hitherto
v+1
(^)"
been
negative values.]
of the
intepiers?;(, ",
p;
302
shall
We
limit
Hurwitz
9'65.
Lommel
of a
[CHAP. IX
FUNCTIONS
polynomial.
that
prove
now
BESSEL
OF
THEORY
(iy^^".i(^)
j^ (^).
lim
(1)
252, to discuss
(1889),pp. 250
appliedby Hurwitz, Math. Ann. xxxiii.
has an
of the zeros
assigned real value (" 15"27). It has also
the reality
oiJy{z) when
been examined
52, and by Crelier,Bern
by Graf, Ann. di Mat. (2) xxiii. (1895),pp. 49
result
This
was
"
"
pp. 92
1897,
Mittheilwngen.,
have
From
96.
"
'
"=o?'!r(z' +
r(i/ + 7?i+l)
Now
?i
l)' (m2w)!r(y
l)
write
{m
n)\ r (//+
"
"
1)
{m2n)ir{v
so
^"''''"''
l)
that
6
If
of 6
numerator
n){m
m){v +
"
{v +
"
"
"
(m, n)
is
numericallyless
"
...
denominator, providedthat
Hence, when
7i "
N, and
1)'
the
in the
in the
N.
"
"
in
than
1)
2?/ +
(m
1) ...{v+ m
1)
now
(m
(m, n)
2N,
"
I6 {m, n) \" 1,
while,w^hen
has any
fixedvalue,
lim
in*
is
the theorem
and
Again, since
of values
of
the
(by the
from
'
"=o
!T
(j/+
/I
1)
is established.
of 2
convergence
test due
that
Tannery'stheorem*
"!r(l/+7l+l)
of Hurwitz
1,
");"^^""'",
absolutely
convergent, it follows
m*x"n
{m, n)
Since
to
'
^^
in any
is uniform
"
bounded
it follows
Weiei'strass),
domain
of
+ i)
(i0)''+'"i?,",,+i(2)/r(v+'/"
to its limit is also uniform
Cf.
t An
excluded
in any
bounded
domain
of values
of
z.
Bromwich,
from
this domain
when
[v]^
0.
is
an
internal
point
must
obviouslybe
965, 97]
ASSOCIATED
the theorem
From
POLYNOMIALS
of Hurwitz
it is easy
VI*
On
carryingout
JXo
,/_1'"h
"
derive
to
./"{z) ^ 0, we
2pz'
inn
303
have
^'m,
v+i \Z)
y.
\Z
infinite continued
an
and
that
noticing
"^2{v+ml)z
"
9^1
'"'"i.v+m
v^y
(I'+ m)
find that
we
1
=
2vz'
and
+ 1) ^^
(i.
(2/+ 2) ^1
(v + m)
...
'
^1
hence
1
(2)
This
procedure avoids
of the continued
J.^{^
be
neglected;
9"7.
The
In order
convenient
the
"^V+
is due
to
Graf, Ann.
to discuss
of the
properties
di Mat.
the
wisoo,
last
modified
miv^n
^
(2)
(1895),p.
52.
of Lommel
zeros
it
polynomials,
is
define the
"
polynomials.
by making a change
polynomialscontain onlyalternate
gm,v\Z)
7(i
(2)xxirr.
follow Hurwitz
{yV
(1)
to
(i.+ 2)^1
fraction
the method
Accordinglywe
equation*
so
(17+ 1)^1 2
2vz^
that Lommel
reason
element
may
2i.^i
Lommel
{v +
r{v
powers
of the variable.
polynomialgm,v{z)by
+
m
the
l)z'''
n+l)
that
(2)
g.n+,,Az) {v +
(4)^
gm+^,.l {Z)
""9"63,9"64,the
reader
vg,n,Az)
in
["^'OS (1)]
()"
^5''mi,.'+i
^^...(^)+i/".i.,.:(4["9(^'K7)]
^^{^''i/,.,.(^)
(5)
ym+2
(6)
{z~"''
g,u, (z)}
=
dz
g,n+,,.1
{z)
{z)
(7) gm,Az)g,"+,"+,
{z)g,"^.^^{z)g,ni,y+i
=
grn,:, (z),
.
z'''go,v (z)g,^^+",+i
(z).
case
[A special
This
notation
differs in
["963 (4)]
the notation
used
of
by Hurwitz.
304
OF
THEORY
These
results will be
down
the
BESSEL
requiredin
the
sequel;it will
formulae
eliminatingalternate
importance.The eliminant is
The
some
result of
{if+ m)
where
c,n
(z)
{v +
C,n {z)ffm,
{2)
gm+2,u
We
{z) {v +
+
from
2)
the
2)Z'
iU
of
(z),
1z].
"
equations
:
(^)
{v + 4)^G,.
write
(3) is
system
g"t_o^
c, (z)g,^,{z)(u +
to
9'64.
"
(8)
functions
be necessary
not
"9*6
of
I) [(v+ m){v
[CHAP. IX
FUNCTIONS
4")z'g^,{z),
.
"
=
2m
(v+
2) g^^
c.^rn^(z)g^_^^
{z)
^(z)(v+
c.^ {z)g^^
(v + 2s) (/2S+2,(z)
2s +
2)z^g^^o,{z),
"
{z).
^{z){v + 2m) z'^g.^^ni,
v
The
9*71.
shall
We
1/ "
"
cdl
2, in which
u'hen
ofg.2m,v{z)
zeros
giveHurwitz'
now
cl^'^
of gzm,v(z)
zeros
"
reality
of the
case
all
theyare
negative.
is
2.
"
that luhen
also that
of them
one
his theorem*
proofof
real; and
exceeds
"
positive,
except when
is a polynomialin z of degree m, we
observingthat g2m,v{2)
that the set of functions g."m,v{z),
form
"7m2,.'(^),
g2,v{z),
ga,v{z)
After
shew
"""
of Sturm's functions.
the real
To
Sufficient conditions
existence
oi
zeros
prove
that the
We
with
case
are
set
(i)the
(ii)the theorem
that
(/2ot,v(^)
function
the
except
at
the
quotientis discontinuous.
l/'"''"
tA
^^2m,2m2,
g'^m~2,u(z)
dz [g.an2,v{z))
have
r
W^
where
from
(8),combined
shall
zeros
zeros
" 9"7
is a monotonic
g2m,v{z)lgim2,v{z)
and
2, the
"
r, ..
{z)
g,, (z)g's,
y
g^,u
(z)g'r,{z);
"
that
+ (v + 2m) 5l21,"il.2"n2,
^^""m,2,n2
g2m~2,A^)

Z" S(?B2m3,m4
+ (r +
^512R.,,"_i.2m2
=
SO
2""
2) g%m^,y{z),
that
^^"m,^n2 g'^2A^)
=
and
when
therefore,if
V
"
"
is expressible
as
^ 1, ^^2m,im2
2.
*
Math.
Ann.
xxxiii.
(1889),pp.
254"256.
sum
of
positiveterms
971, 972]
The
ASSOCIATED
of
zeros
.
Sturm's
theorem
The
reason
quotientg^m,
I.
(1918),"
The
of
on
g^m^vi^)
of the number
of alternations of sign
end of
at the righthand
i^),
(2')
^'o,."
"
"
zeros
of zeros
is the excess
and not the deficiency
is that the
why the mimber
is
and
function
a
not
of z,
an
function,
(^)
decreasing
increasing
{^)/g2m2,
version of Sturm's theoiem. See Burnside and Panton, Theoryof Equations^
v
96.
0, oc
of
The
"
in the usual
as
the number
over
g.2m2,i"(z)
separate those of ^a^, (^)
305
monotonic
It follows from
POLYNOMIALS
are
or
upper
negative
; and
as
follows
lower
of functions when
signsare
to
be
taken
of Hurwitz'
the truth
set
accordingas
from
is obvious
theorem
I1
is
or
positive
inspection
an
of this Table.
9"72.
Negativezeros
Let
be less than
^"
when
ofg.2m,^,{z)

"
2.
"
integers
2, and let the positive
defined
be
by
the
inequalities
"
It will
has
no
has
Provided
zero.
negative
2m is positive.
that*, ivhen
negative
zero; hut that,when
one
that
be shewn
now
This
2s
2s"v"
that the
"
2.
liesbetween
liesbetween
that,in each
negativezeros
2.s and
1 and
2s
case,
25
2s
1, g^mA^)
2, g.im,v{z)
is taken to be
so
large
g2"i2,v{^)
proof differs
from
the
see
Proc.
London
Math.
Soc.
(2)xix.
(1921),pp. 266"272.
20
W.
B. F.
306
THEORY
By
i(^)f
"'('2^)
+5'2w+i,i'"
9'^^^,''\^)
1^5'aOTi,
that
"
[CHAP. IX
FUNCTIONS
of the formulae
means
BESSEL
OF
^ go,n^2,v{^)92^n^^,vi{z)g2m~i,vi{z)92m,
(v + 2m) g\n_^^^{z)
^(v
27n){g\,"^,,^{z)z"'^'']
"0,
and
providedthat v + 2m is positive
the
postulated, quotient
is
The
existence
negative.Therefore,in
the alternation
decreasingfunction,and
is
of the system of
of the
the circumstances
is evident.
zeros
shews
of functions
+92si,M,
92s2,A^)"
form
The
functions.
of Sturm's
set
these functions
signsof
+, +,
and
there
are
functions
when
alternations
of
is
^^
+, +,
....
,
sign.
oo
+,
are
()*,
...,
When
is zero,
the
signs of
the
are
", ",
the
(y9o,,(z)
..,
signsbeing
upper
",+,
...,
when
taken
...,()*,
+,
"2s
"
"
1, and
2s"
"
the lower
signs
there are
2s"
1 "v""2s"2;
s and
s + 1 alternations
being taken when
2s
has
of signin the respective
Hence, when "2s"v"
l, 92m,v(z)
cases.
2s
2s
has one
1 "
"
2, g2m,vi^)
no
negative
negativezero ; but when
therefore
stated
is
The theorem
zero.
proved.
"
"
"
"
9*73.
Positive and
complexzeros
As
" 9"72,define
the
in
It will
be shewn*
now
"
"
when
of g.^^t,{z)
positive
integers by

2s
"
that when
7/ "
2s
"
the
paper
This
lies behueen
"
proof is
of
more
elementary character
than
"
2.
inequalities
2.
2s
"
"
"
2s and
"
the
"
2s
2s"
"
"
each case,
1, gim,v{z)
and
m
2s
"
is so
"
2,
large
see
the
CHAPTER
The
and
functions Ji,{z)
FUNCTIONS
BESSEL
WITH
ASSOCIATED
FUNCTIONS
10"1.
H.
and
E^ (2^)investigated by Anger
F.
Weber.
the propertiesof various functions
chapter we shall examine
certain
definitions are
representationsof Bessel functions.
suggested by
defined by integralsresembling Bessel's
shall first investigatefunctions
this
In
and
Poisson's
integral,and,
functions
connected
with
of which
by Lommel,
The
It is defined
the
by
J, (^)
This
function
It follows
from
distinct.
took
function
the
of the
limit
upper
investigatedthe
(1880), pp.
cussed
^TT
noted
by Anger
B in the
"
is
that
the
i
=
I"sin(v0
should
reference
function
"
terms
of
co"{v6ziim6)dd=z
der
la Conn,
give Anger's
t Zurich
of
name
des
to
cos2
Naturf.
V"
Additions
vn
range
of
cos
E"
J^ (2)and
integration,
by Lommel,
to researches
cob
6)dd
(vd zsin
Jt,(z)+ sin
(j/^2 siu ^)
p. 15
vtt
(1855),pp.
v.
"Z^
2iT
cos
vn
(2
(cf." 1012),but
E^
"
f) siu
as
actually dis
was
(2); for, if
/""^
I cos

'
which
replace 6 by
we
get
we
he
(21/771/^ +
sin
^) 0?^
(z).
"29. It
was
shewn
by Poisson
that
I'TT,
did
no
more
it
seems
reasonable
function.
xxiv.
I'iirteljahrsschriJ't,
(1879), pp.
Hv(z).
also
0) dO.
(i*^ 2 .sin 6) d6
cos
Ges,. in Danzig,
Temps, 1836,
the
sin
also be made
27r_/o
Schriften
he
equation
/""
Neueste
but
v.
and
Weberf,
are
/'2'r
1
half of the
to
the
by
order
n.
J"(^) is
function
and
F.
H.
by
by Anger*,
the
27r; and
functions
two
studied
was
of argument
later
defined
integer,the
be
integralvalue
the
has
J" (^)
as
function
easilyexpressiblein
righthand
27r_/o
integral.
183208.
/"Sn
1
"
be
may
Bessel's
^) f/^.
when
an
integralto
E^(e)
this function
with
Ann.
type
discussed
was
connexion
is not
It
suggested by
sin
Jn(z)
to
when
the
E, (z)
xvi.
J^ (z),is
Anger's
function
(2)
Math.
several
propertiesof
particularcase.
1'cos(i/^
same
of
as
function
similar
obviouslyreduces
convenientlydescribed
In
examined,
gral
inte
study a
are
We
equation
(1)
he
functions
be
to
discussing the
shall
!'"(z) we
Bessel
first function
after
whose
33
"
76.
Weber
omits
the
factor
l/iriu
his
nition
defi
101]
To
in the
ASSOCIATED
FUNCTIONS
309
cos"*
^VTT
sin
cos
(f)
v(f)d(j)
cos"'
0
TT
!sin
^j/tt
2'"r(imi/ + l)r(im
a
formula
due
by
^tt+ (}ifur
hw
"
of z, write
ii.+ l)'
Cauchy*.
to
In like manner,
'^
"
n
sm'"rn d
aja
/'^cf^
cos
Jptt
! COS
'"
"
^i
"
=
z,
"
But, evidently,
I
J,(^)=so
00
\i
\m,
^lin fn
( _\tn
sin^"*^cosi/^(^^+
^2m+l
'^V
:i
,,
fn
Tvr
that
(3)
J^ {z)
{y(^zr
^vrr X
cos
=0
(m
j.+ 1) i' (m
sinii'7r S
r
=0
and
^2/+ 1)
(m
ij/+
1)r (/w+
1;/+
1)
'
similarly
()(l^)^
+
or(miz/+l)r(m
cos
"
1
z/7r
r (m
,"=o
These
results may
be written
J^{z)
sin
22
"
_
i;2
22
("
Ll'^'
1
"
COS
(6) E.(^)
(l'I^)(SZ^2)(12_j,2)('32_j,2)(52_y2)
vir
Z*
2
1
9i_
VTT
T.+,^
J/
(2i;^)(42i;)
^""'
I'TT
The
memoir)
equivalentto
formula
in
17, 1854;
see
Mem.
(l^I/^XS^V^)
_rV
IT
Results
these
were
letter
ComptesRendus,
sur
...
^2)(42^2) {2?v^)(^^^
(G^j,^)
j.2)
vir
TT
COS
"
s^
VTT
1 +
(r (W^^'
+ f)
1) r (m + ii/
1^^+
smvir
(5)
ij.+ l)
les
xxxix.
""
(12_j,2)(32_j,2)(52_j,2)
givenby Anger
and
Weber.
(1854),pp.
to
the French
Academy
128"135.
integralesdefiniea (Paris,
1825),p. 40.
Cf. Modern
Analysis,
p.
263.
on
July
310
For
it is convenient
("10'7),
subsequently
will be apparent
which
reason
[CHAP. X
FUNCTIONS
BESSEL
OF
THEORY
to write
z^
z^
"*"
(7)
Sq^v\Z)
(8)
s_,^,{z)
,.2\/Q2_,.2\
/'12_
(p_j;2)(32_j,2^(1^7^0(3"
i/2^(52I/^)
.^
I2_y2
"""'
1

,
z^
^
^,,^22
^2)
(z)
s_i
E,
(z)
^
(z)
So,.
7r
(11)
v6
cos
from
formulae
following
the
(^).
5_i,,
TT
It is easy to deduce
(^'X
i;(lcoSi'Tr)^
l4cosy7r
ci
'
TT
TT
(10)
"
5o,
/iA\
"
j^sini"7r
sini/TT
/
\
T
J,
{z)
(9)
"
^2)
^2)
(42
have
(22
^2
cos
(z sin 6) dd
cos
sin d)dd
(2^
sin
(^ sin 6) dd
sin
sin 6) dd
(2;
"
sin
(1
i^tt
these results
s_i
(2),
Jo
sin vd
(12)
"
vrr)
cos
"
s_i
(z),
j,
Jo
(13)
sin vd
sin
i'tt
""
(z),
Jo
(14)
vd
cos
(I
cos
1/
sin
i/tt)*" (2^),
.
"/
riff
(15)
(16)
cos
cos "^)
rf(^
i'(^cos (^^
cos
sin
(1906),pp.
158
6)
(v^2sm
sm
10*11.
"
is
positive,
zero,
or
equal to hn
is
r
."
COS
fi"^
wI/TT
Jt,{z)+ J^t,{z)=
"
COS
,\
r
J^{z)
"
"
)j"
is 1, 0
or
Anger'sfunctions.
COS
{z COS d")d(p,
Jo
,
J_^{z)=
vd)
4 sin Ai/7rr*''
/
where
(2),
{2)
?;" Jn
negative.
the formulae
from
4
/I
(1)
3,
his functions
with
Webe7's formulae connecting
It is evident
620.
"
real,it
is
611
the integral
166, has investigated
"
Jo
namely
section,
LVii.
(2),(1868),pp.
by Unferdinger,Wiener Sitzutigsberichte,
examined
accordingas
in this
(n6cosd)dd,
has
COS
lesin*
J
and
discussed
resembling the integrals
Integralssomewhat
been
i/7r
(^'X
s_j
^vir ^o (z).
cos
Jo
have
"
'
"
,.7,
cosv(f"sin{zcos(b)d(p,
"
TT
.
1011, 1012]
ASSOCIATED
(3)
E^(z) + E_^(2)
(4)
E^ (z)
It follows
on
J, (z)
cos
"
^^
I
'
addition
cot
E_^ (z)
311
FUNCTIONS
(zcos 0) dxf).
v"b cos
cos
that
IvTT[E^(z)
E_^
that
so
sin
(5)
and
I'TT
J" (z)
cos
i'tt
E^ (z)
E_^ {z),
similarly
sin
(6)
The
formulae
The
Weber
recurrence
have
been
It is evident
cos
"
due
i^tt
J^ (z).
Weber.
to
Recurrence
10'12.
vir
which
formulae
determined
by
functions of
Anger
J^ (2)
=
(cos
TT
j0
{v6
cos
sin
dd
6^)
Zj
f":^{sin(i;^^sin^)}r
"
2 sin
vir
TTZ
and
"R^{z)=~V
f
")sin {vO
6'
cos
^\^^.{cos{vO
TTZ
sin
sin 6) dd
d)\de
f'C'
2(1
coSfTr)
"
TTZ
that
to prove
j._, (^)
(s)
j.,+,

j; {z)
1e,_,(^)e.+,(^)2e;(^)
From
these results
we
deduce
the
2i/
,
(2)
j,_,(^)j,+,(^)2j;(^),
I/)J, {z)
(^
(4)
0,
o.
sm
TTT
(3)
eightformulae
(1)
and
that
integrals
(2)
J"_i (z)+ J".+i
by the
Weber.
the definite
from
satisfied
are
J,_i (2)+
^^
(sini;7r)/7r,
312
OF
THEORY
E,_,(^)E,+i(^)
(6)
(^ + z.)E, (2)
(8)
(^
^,
Next
E,_i (^)+ (1
v)E, {z)
=
[CHAP. X
FUNCTIONS
2E;(^),
(7)
where
0E,+, {z) (1
i/7r)/7r,
cos
i^ttVtf,
cos
as
the differential
construct
we
y2)j^ (^) (^
(^2
so
BESSEL
""
equations;it is evident
that
(^ +
{vsin v'Tr)l'Tr
J"_i (z)
z)
"
"
z'^Jy,
(z)+ (zsin v7r)/Tr (vsin z/7r)/7r,

"
that
T7
/ \
V^J^(^)
(9)
(^
sin
I')
7"7r
.
TT
We
also have
so
"
(^ +
^^
E^_i (^)
i^)
2^
E^ {z)
"
z(l +
cos
i/7r)/7r}
cos
(1
i^7r)/7r
cos
y (1
i/7r)/7r
"
cos
"
v'ir)l'ir,
that
V,E,(^)
(10)
vr
TT
Formulae
obtained
equivalentto (9) and (10) were
by Anger, Neueste Schriftender
and
xxiv.
Danzig, v. (1855),p. 17
by Weber, Zurich Vierteljahrsschrift,
formula
(9) had been discovered earlier by Poisson (cf." 101).
47, respectively;
Naturf.Ges. in
(1879),p.
10" 13.
in
Integralsexpressible
terms
of
the
functionsof Anger
and
H. F. Weber.
It is evident
from
rex^{"i(vdzsme)}de.
J^(z)"iE,{z)=
(1)
(2)
when
larg^
e''""inh"dt
the
"7r;
result
^
is valid
in
(3)
when
arg^
7r,provided that
have
r
0
e'^^i''
dt
^
sin
I'TT
622, it
{J,(z) J, (z)],
"
of the functions of
R{v)"0.
Again,we
""6"2
1013, 1014]
SO
that, when
ASSOCIATED
combine
we
FUNCTIONS
313
"
f e2"i"h"cosh
(4)
dt
vt
h7r tan
vtt
(5)
cot
[E,(^)+ F, (z)].
tt
Jo
I e~^^"'^^^
cosh
integi'al
The
pt
dt has
aheadybeen
but
("6'3);
evaluated
Jo
^
.'0
does
not
powers
of
be
to
appear
be obtained
can
2 sin
2 /"'^
f"^
VTT
g^^^o^'^*
sinh vtdt,
;'^f^^+
e^"="*^
cos
but, since
T"
i"
/I
..
"'""'"'"
The
9"33
formulae
i^TT
"
I'
"
7/i
,\
is an
2
'
be evaluated
cannot
nugatory when
(2) (5)are
'""
"
consideration
under
integral
the
(" )*"sin
W(ir+^=^'('
7,1
"" ''"
^"^
in any
simpleform
but
integer,
from
"
*.
""6'21,
have
we
f'e"f"
(6)
i"h'
dt
TT
Y, (z)},
Jo
gnlz.uAU ^^
(7)
(_y.+
TT
F" (^)}.
io
The
integrals
associated
'^
./0
been
have
noticed
sinh 0 rf",
.' U'
'
Whipple,
Proc. London
1014.
"in
COJS
these types
Jo
sui
Math.
Soc.
(1885),p.
in researches
occur
(2) xvi.
cosh ")c/i!
(.f
e""^
by Coates,QuarterlyJournal.,xx.
of
integrals
Various
COS
e"'
(1917),p.
on
diftVaction
by
prism ;
see, e.g.
106.
oflargeargument.
of Anger Weber functions
expansions
Asj/mptotic
It follows from
" 101
(2)that, in order
to
obtain the
260.
when
gTvt
"
zsmh
asymptoticexpansion
is sufficient to
obtain
the
^Jf
Jo
To
carry
sinh
*
out
t in
i^f/cosh
See
shall
we
investigation
of
series
ascendingpowers
this
a
expand
cosh
t
vt/cosh
and
of sinh t.
1911) [Jahrbuchiiber
Journal,
first
xviii.
(1920),pp. 295"296.
314
If e^^=
u, we
SO
II
*"
^"
" 7"4,
of
manner
^h
^'"^\y
"
[CHAP. X
FUNCTIONS
f(u + .llu+)
W*" +
BESSEL
OF
THEORY
l/uh ]
v\t
\d^,
that
coshz.^
^i"'^{^l)d^
r("+.i/"+.i+)
c?r.
"
(2m)!
TT
and, if
to
take
we
so
in
be that shewn
(wH,l/M+.l
i''~i
^P+
then
take
the contour
d^
2iri]
Jo
TT
If
and
{)Pqo^Ivttr(p+i
^i ^1, since
0 ^
1 + 4ic (1
"
TT
in the form
^i/)r(p 4^^1/)
a;)sinh'^ ^
R{p "\\"\v)^Q,
COS^I'TT 'i'
(rr(m
cosh t
"
(2jO)!
TT
where
4a;(l a;)sinh2i
be written
t are
1 +
1.
we
have
KWr(m
(2m)
m=o
^i.)
^2 ,i"h ^""
(2;?)!
For
complex values
the condition
reader
0 ^
will be
sections of
^j :";1
familiar
Chapter
Similarlywe
of
and
this
vii.
have
1
nu+,iiu+)
316
OF
THEORY
BESSEL
[CHAP. X
FUNCTIONS
ofAngerWeber functions
Asymptoticexpansions
oflargeorder
10*15.
and
argument.
We
obtain
of a type similar
asymptoticexpansions,
in Chapter viii, which represent J^ {z) and
expansionsinvestigated
when
iV \and z \are both large.
shall
view
In
now
asymptoticexpansionsof
in
" 1013,
integrals
the two
it will be
the
to
adequate to
E" {z)
obtain
f
TJo
in
As
Chapter viii,
write
we
where
/3:$ tt and
0 ^
(I)
We
is not
first consider
/
cosh
1/""
zsinh"7/
j g"
'""Jo
increases
steadily
of ^
that
"
T
as
z("coshy+sinh
from
0 to
00
variable
new
t) ^/
When
vizis positive.
it is supposedtemporarily
that
t cosh 7 + sinh t
iri.
integral
ttJo
in which
cosh 7,
nearlyequal* to
the
g"
(a + t/3)
as
cosh 7 is positive,
^ increases from
0 to
00
we
t.
is
of t, except possibly
when
a monogenic function
(2%+ 1 ) Trt cosh y+ sinhy+ y cosh y,
where
is an
of these vakies of t is a real
n
none
integer;and, when coshy is positive,
positivenumber ; for,when y is real,(2?i+ 1) Tr/cosh y does not vanish,and, when y is a pure
the imaginary axis and the originis not one
the singularities
on
of
are
imaginary ( 2/3),
them
since y is not equal to iri.
=
The
a "m
;(o+)
where
and
a",
'"
so
powers
a,"
"
liri J
.
rrrr,
we
particular
l/t in
expansionof
cosh
2(1
of
in
cosh
7)^'
'
24(1+
cosh 7
cosh 7)7'
" 83,
we
are
now
in
positionto
write
expansion
(1)
fV''*^"*"h"(^"
i lML?i"
~
Expansions valid
near
ascending
54 cosh 7 + cosh 7
720(1 + cosh 7)10
225
'3
general theorem
'
7'
'
t"^*"!
the
the
1+
the
2iri
dt
/"(+")
j
t^'"+"
have
1
_
From
T""+i dr
is the coefficient of
of t. In
'
^
dT
T
.
"
is
T
dt
"
r^
of
Tri
are
obtained
at the end
of this section.
down
1015]
317
FUNCTIONS
ASSOCIATED
far,been established
; it has, so
expansionis valid when vjzis positive
that jarg^j
"
the hypothesis
^tt,but, by a process of swinginground the
on
the range of validity
the
in the rplane,
to cover
contour
may bo extended
domain in which arg z \" it.
This
Next,
If
sinh
modifications
the
consider
we
write
we
sin y8+
It
sinh
studythe
in which
curve
cosh
by
"1"(ti,
v) is unaffected
Since
cosh
cos
cosh
f
which
on
curve
sin
by methods
is real has
0.
resemblingthose
write
sin /3 +
u+iv,
by abandoningthe hypothesis
the
has to be examined
of
caused
cosh
of
change
It is evident
" 0.
cos
sin
cf"(u,v).
sign of
both
that the
curve
and
has the
first
we
o,
originas
its centre.
Since
has,
at
most,
multipleof
0
When
the
so
has
and, when
"
"
"
/B
ir,
00
t')
=
value of
the maximum
cosh
(J)(+
"
sin /5 {1
tanh
"a
contour
does
"
not
the
meet
00
,
y)
CO
"
line
"
tt)
=
"
/3
(tt
is at
u,
"
ir
/3)cot /S}.
0 has
or
no
so
the
(by symmetry)
the
line
fB.
Hence
the
is
being
TT
only one
is infinite whenever
of these
one
If this is
for
have
TT, we
"
"
sin v,
tt.
a,
two
sin /3 + sinh
any
equationin
"I"("
sinh
9"I"{u,v)/du
the domains
lies as
when
bered
num
in
a
Fig. 25,
is positive
Fig. 25.
and
the broken
curve
increases is marked
the
by
an
shape when
arrow.
a.
is
negative;the
direction in which
318
OF
THEORY
It follows that
domains
the
BESSEL
[CHAP.
FUNCTIONS
is valid when
expansion(1)
1, 2, 3.
Next,
have
we
consider
to
the
asymptoticexpansionwhen
(a,/3)does
not
origin.
Consider
'^
first the
at
"y =
V
the
cannot
curve
to
the
is the smallest
strip
"
a "
cannot
curve
line
/3 and minima
"
and
when
positive
line
the
cross
cross
goes downwards
until it gets below
tanh
cross
goes off to
function
the
the
the
below
the
tt.
"
originis therefore
v=
^Ktt
"
which
point at
pointat
+
"
which
confined
/3,where
which
{(2K + 1) tt
line
(2K
"
in
infinity
/?}cot /9"
1) ir
0.
^, and
it
so
"
crosses
the
^Kir.
get
we
(ML?^
r'^^',.t.sinh.^^^ L 5
get
we
(2)!a.
l[^^^^%."i..h.^,^l
V
(3)
TTJo
7r""
the
L
is
the
"
atanha{(2Z+
e"^
"'^
/"x+(2i+i)7r;
in
" 8'61,
below
(a,tt
"
line
/Sjcot y8"
"
(2L
0.
get
S
^dt^
l^'''
,
get
1
the
which
branch
along the
obtain
we
7a.
and
1) tt
l\
z"^"'
obtained
and /3 is obtuse, we
Hence, if a is positive
the
positive,
at
(5)
"
the line
(4)
"
where
at v
above
at
(2)
cross
the line
and /3 is acute,
Hence, if a is positive
axis of
The
is greater than
which
integerfor
1
The
that "^(a,v) is
branch
The
TT.
it cannot
similarly
and
TT,
"
1) tt
and /S is acute.
positive
"
it follows
positive,
Hence
{2n
is
(2??+ 1) tt + /3,
fi tt)is now
being greater than the preceding;and since (f)(a,
minimum
each
in which
case
/9mV
..""i..^'*~i
S "i^".
00
1) tt,
1015]
ASSOCIATED
FUNCTIONS
319
give the
not
formula
consider the
(II) Next
Qvtzsm\it
^^
1106.
r*
/
gzi"coshy+sinh")
(^^
and
7
the
lies in
cosh 7
'
be
cosh 7,
9
this
deal with
of
(1 cosh
7)^'
^'
"24(1
" 842.
"
so
cosh
that
cosh
7)
the
'
pansion
previousex
write
we
case
vrjo
when 7 is small,justas
significant
was
nearlyequalto iri.
z{\
"
e),
It is thus found
"
sinh^,
that
oC^
TTJo
'Sir ' 0
and
namely
^'
expansionfails to
To
(1854),p.
".
This
y is zero,
a",
,_
_
shall
TtJo
The
the
integral
TTJo
^"
we
practical
importance,
largeand
xxxviii.
i"^'
where
is
obtained
obtain
^^^'"^(^)
was
is of
" 8"61, we
76.
other
approximate formula
An
which
in
m=0
hence
(7)
A
p. 313.
result
e"'
equivalentto
S
"""'^'rfi~^
.i^a,m+i,
"
xciv.
A, (1918),
320
THEORY
10*2.
Hardy
OF
BESSEL
generalisations
of Airys integral.
considered
by Airy and
integral
manner:
by Hardy* in the following
The
If
sinh
Stokes
has
("6'3)
been
generalised
"^,then
{2
1
cosh 20
46'+ 2
2 sinh
3"/"
85=*+ 65
2 cosh
4(^
16s* +165^
I,2
and
[chap. X
FUNCTIONS
sinh
h"\)
=
32s" + 405=* +
10s,
generally
2
^?'jj
nc^ {2s)\F,( ir.,i
=
In ; 1
l/s%
SI
the cosh
sinh
or
Now
is
even
odd.
or
write
Tn (t,
a)
si^,( in, 1
P.
1

;1
7j
4a/"0.
that
so
f^ +
r,ao)
T.,{t,a) t^ +
T, (t,a) P+
Then
the
2a
f]at
iaf
three integrals
are
following
"
Gin
(1)
'2o?
generalisations
f of Airy'sintegral
:
Jo
Sin(a)=
(2)
sin
Tnit,a) dt,
Jo
Bin
(3)
be shewn
It may
;[that
(")=["
a)}dt.
exp { Tn (t,
the
first two
or
negative)if n
(whetherpositive
is complex ; and it is
a
converges when
function of a.
an
integral
real
When
is
of Bessel
functions
other two
involvingthe
Before
which
; but
when
function
to
the
obvious
fairly
third
is
integral
that Ein
(a) is
in terms
expressible
first only is so expressible,
the
are
of H. F. Weber.
we
evaluatingthe integrals,
reduce
indeed
is odd, the
But
2, 3, 4
three functions
the
integer,
even
an
convergent when
are
integrals
observe
a
functions
integral
exist
exp
that
{iTn {t,a)}dt.
Jo
*
Quarterly Journal,
t The
xli.
in
sineiutegral
pp. 168"182.
[3Iath.and
the
(1910),pp. 226"240.
case
"
was
examined
by Stokes,
Camb.
Phil.
Trans,
ix.
(1856),
102, 1021]
ASSOCIATED
when
taken round an arc of
integral,
the origin(the arc being terminated
by
By
with
radius R
at
centre
tends
complex coordinates R, Re^'"'"'),
with
321
FUNCTIONS
to
zero
circle of
the
points
R^^oc
as
therefore
And
rooexp(j7r?7")
+ iSin (a)
Cin (cc)
ei^'/n exp
where
te"^"''"; and
"
of
integralfunction
an
be treated
combination
dr,
{ T" (t,oLe"'"'^)]
integralis
last
the
{i1\ {t,a)}dt
exp
in
similar manner,
The
a.
and
the
ofAiryHardy integrals
of even
'The evaluation
10'21.
To evaluate
the three
that
temporarily
suppose
in the
we
integrals,
order.
2a* sinh
find that,by
we
{ujn)
2a* r""
sav
we
In
^^^
{e*"^'/"
Jvn (2a*")

e*V" J,^^
(2a*")}
.
have
similar manner,
""4 (a)
2a* T"
that,by
exp
"
"
so
du
i cosh u) cosh {ujn)
(2a*"
iriain' e*'''"
iTi/^^^'
(2a*"),
that is to
exp
"
(3)
^V"(a)
(2a*/n)iiri;."(2a*").
on
the
that
hypothesis
is positive;
and
the
we
have
^*" ^"^
"
whether
W.
vilT(,n + llln)
2wsin(j7r/r0,,?o
a be positive
or
negative
B. F.
"
"
J,,
pil r{"u
l +
Vn)\
2T
'
322
OF
THEORY
Hence, replacinga by
"
BESSEL
/3,we
that, when
see
[CHAP. X
FUNCTIONS
and
/3 is positive
is even,
then
It follows from
8i,i(a) are
and
that
Einia) is annihilated
the
of the
case
because
the definitions,
from
directly
the
twice under
evaluate
it is difficult to
the
not
obtain
obtained
integrals
is odd,
and
Gin{oL)
this result*
by differentiating
convergent.
of AiryHardy integrals
of odd
The evaluation
10"22.
To
signare
integral
functions
^,2Qn2
functions
first two
the
the operator
by
Z
In
is even,
we
suppose
order.
temporarilythat
is
Gin (a)
r^
cos
"
n
.
du
(2a^"sinh n) cosh {iijn)
That
is to say,
ft"(")
(1)
??^^2ilW!0^.,"(.2".")
j/_""(2ci") /"" (2al")i.

2n sin
device
Using the
and, whether
be
(^tt/t?)
even
see
yS is positive.
that, when
whether
by
be
even
or
odd ;
the operator
J^^()"n=a"^
+
It has
been
integrals."
o.
proved by Hardy,
loc.
the
aid of the
theory of "generalised
324
THEORY
and
OF
17"2
(7)
This
It should
be noticed
'^^'^
(")
"*'~i
^'
Stokes
in the
^'
case
w\
{sin(Uhi)
'
X
=
The
a, and
"
formulae
his methods
in the
of
v
Cauchys
In connexion
( l)^"'^+''
}
( 1)*'"+''}
(2/3i")J,/,,
{/_,/"
(2y3i")l
precedingthree sections
obtainingthem were different and
n
real.
/3 are
of the
case
special
10'3.
and
3.
X
{Tr/n)
nsm
"
{sin{^M
^^^^^^
where
"* '""'*
that
(8)
[CHAP. X
FUNCTIONS
of a,
givenby
equationwas
BESSEL
due
are
he gave
to
some
Hardy, though
of them only
3.
numbers.
with
of Bessel's integi'al
which was
defined
generalisation
studied by Giuliani (see " 10"31),
it is convenient
by Bourget,and subsequently
class of functions known
to investigate
a
as
Cauchy'snumbers.
The
the term
in
of t.
ascendingpowers
are
Cauchy'stheorem
1
(1)
supposedthat
n,
k, and
are
the coefficient of
of
integers
which
negative.
not
It follows from
It is
as
^..M.
,"(0+)
that
1 \^" /
\""
t''lt+^){t~)dt
2;".J
27r
cos*
+ {y e"^*}
I [e'"^
Orn+k
rrr
cos
TT
It is evident
if it is
*
pp.
from
d sin'" BdS
(^niTT
"
nd) cos*
6 sin'"Odd.
Jo
is zero
iV^_n,fc,m
if "n\k
is odd
or
negativeinteger.
Comptes Rendu"",
682"687,
850"854.
xi.
(1840),pp.
473"
475, 510"511;
xii,
(1841),pp. 92"93;
xiii.
(1841),
103]
ASSOCIATED
From
results,togetherwith
These
numbers
The
formulae
recurrence
(3)
('*)
'"'"",t,m
_n,
immediate
they are
formulae
k. in
^^nrl,
k1,
^' n+i,i,m"
^^
"
t'''(t+
ijtf'(t
r"
(t+ ijtf{t
1/0"'
"'"''(t +
1/0^'
{t
of the
of numbers
terms
different class of
existence
to
)ii "
"(i"
i,fc,
n"
"
+ r"i
i/t)""
1/0"~'
1'""'^
Cauchy'snumber
^n,o,mtypes H^n.k.O'
of these formulae
successive
of the identities
1/0'"
means
^'
By
^ni,kl,
{t+ i/tf(t
which
are
r"
from
givenby Bourget*.
consequences
=
()""*N^Xm
recurrence
be calculated,were
may
325
that
(1) it is seen
(2)
and
FUNCTIONS
is
any
1/0'^
(^+ 1/0*(^
I/O'""'
in
ultimately
expressible
recurrence
{t+ i/tf'(t
Bourget,owes
to
equation
the
d f
l\
It follows that
+7) }*
h^)\ {'7)s {'"('
27ri (1
by
{m
(5)
and
differentiation
On performingthe
integration.
partial
1 ) N_n^k,m
nNn,kl, m+i
nN_n.k+i,m~i
(A'

see
we
1 ) i\^_",
k2.
that
m+2,
similarly
1 ) ^^n,
m
/t,
+
(^"
(6 )
Developments
due
of Math.
Chessiu, Annals
to
(m
x.
1 ) iV_",
^.+0
6), pp.
(1895
"
"
",_2.
2, are
r=0
.s
^ n,
(8)
These
may
Another
be deduced
formula
by
due
k, ?rt=
induction
to Chessin
)'gC^. iV_"
"
3_2,,
fr, ))i8'
from
is
A^n,k,.n=
(9)
iYkCprmOr,
("=0
where
hU+m
"
the coefficient of
n). This is proved by selecting
{t+iiifxiti/ty".
*
Journal
de Math.
(2)vi. (1861),pp.
33"54.
t"
in the
product
its
326
OF
THEORY
The
10"31.
The
JnA^)=
is
Giuliani.
the
of Bessel's integral
generalisation
2^.j'"^'r"(^
^)'expji^(^^)
+
and
integer,
an
[CHAP. X
FUNCTIONS
get and
our
is defined by
Jn,k{z)
function
(1)
where
functionsofB
BESSEL
k is
positive
integer.
It follows that
1
Jn
(2')
=
jfc
f'"
^r
Ztt
and
J,,^
(,)
=
r(2
The
pp. 42
^(2) has
"/",
Jo
(1888), pp.
151
satisfied
the function.
[Note.
contains
by
An
171, has
"
earlier paper
propertiesof
another
studied
been
"
XXVI.
order
function
by Giuliani, Giornale
of
generalisation
1

we
from
(1887),pp.
integral,
namely
xxv.
198
"
202,
to be
seem
incorrect.]
powers
of 2^,we
deduce
from
" lO'B
that
(1) that
(4)
= J"(4
J",o(^)
Again
from
evident
that
J_,,,(2) ()^J",(^),
(5)
(6)
(z)
Jn,k{z) Jnxki{2)+ Jn+i,ki
',
and, if we
take ^'
1 in this
(7)
These
Bessel's
Mat.
it is evident
di
/ cos("(92PsinP^)(:/^,
6'/cos
(?i6'^sin 6*)fZa
cos
TT
and
sin
"
"
therefore
(2)
but
{" i {nO
exp
formula,
J",,iz)
=
results
obtained
were
^J,,(z).
and
by Bourget;
the
reader
should
have
no
in provingthat
difficulty
(8)
Other
(9)
(10)
2/Va^)
formulae
recurrence
J,,,+,
{z)
=
Jn,,ic{z)Jn+,A').
(due
(z)
^ j:,,,^,
to
Bourget and
^J^"}1
Giuliani
(^)},
{^,^_,
/,^^,_,
, (^)
_
are
respectively)
1031]
The
ASSOCIATED
differential
FUNCTIONS
equationis most
327
simply constructed
the method
by
used
Giuliani ; thus
by
^n Jn,k(^)
f'"d
{ (n +
IT
;Tn
dd
2k
in
and
cos
(z)"
IkzJ'n^j,
z^\u
^ [ \jQ {nd
{z)+
2kzJ'n^k
6) sin {nd
cos
sin
6)](2 cos df
dd
6) (2 cos
6) sin {jid
cos
IT
{nd
cos
sin
sin
6)1
(2
df^ sinj^f/^
cos
6')
;^ {(2cos
sin d]dd,
^)^^
so
V, Jn,k{Z)
4.k (k
1) /,,,_,
(z).
d^
this
Operatingon
equationby
(^,l)IV, ./.,,(z)
+
and
hence
(11)
we
2^
was
1, and
using(10),it
k
Giuliani's
follows that
(k
1) /,,,(z),
equation
(2^"+ 5) zJ'n^k
{z)+ {z'+ k
It
(z)+ k^Jn,k
{z)\
2kzJ'"^k
have
;7^,
also observed
by
Giuliani
'2
{z)
n')J^,^.
0.
that
S e,",Ln,k{z)
2nd
cos
(12) e'"i""(2cos6?)^=
rt
this is verified
by applying Fourier's
i S
rule
e.n+iJ2n+i,k
{z)sin {2n + l)d;
on
the
right.
A
somewhat
(1883),col.
The
most
"
similar
8.
n^N
^^^^
function
it follows
J{z;
V,
by Bruhns,
important property
(14)
whence
This
function
{z;
v,
of this function
k)J{z;
V,
J^+l)
is that
j^^^^^f^:^^ff^f:^y
that
//
"^^''
z^_
Astr. Nach.
"2vJ^^.2m{z)
''''^^,"?,(v
+ 2".2)(.
+ 2m
2)'
civ.
328
THEORY
10*4.
OF
BESSEL
[CHAP. X
FUNCTIONS
definition
of Struve's function'H.^{z).
The
that
have
we
Struve's function
H^ (z),of order
v,
is defined
2(izy
r(i;+ i)r().io
providedthat R(v)
"
by
the
equations
sm(zcosO)sin'''Odd,
h.
similar
By analysis
that of
to
(1^)"
" 3'3,we
have
()"*227ft+".m!
r(i),"=o(2m + l)!r(^ + m + f)'
that
so
(2)
H,(^)=
The
R(v)
function
exceeds
"
H^ (z)is defined
this
It is evident
not.
or
by
It is easy to
all values of
v,
whether
function
integral
resultingexpressionis also an
that
the
and, if the factor (^z)"be suppressed,
function of
equationfor
H^(z) is an
of
tegral
in
z.
see
^'^
"'W=IWPT?Ti)"'^'*'
where
(4)
and
*
I^0
Mem.
de VAcad.
Imp. den Sci. de St Petersbourg, (7) xxx.
(1882),no. 8; Ann. der Physik,
und
1016.
See also Lommel,
Archiv
der Math,
(1882), pp. 1008
(1861),
Fhijs.xxxvi.
(3)XVII.
+ fl,li'
+ li,
+ f,li'
i/
"
"
p. 399.
t Prograinm, Luisenschule
pp.
X The
this
Berlin, 1890.
der
Math.
1890,
340"342.]
892
"
there
895.
The
given.
results contained
in
104]
We
and
can
obtain
thus
formulae
recurrence
329
FUNCTIONS
ASSOCIATED
similarly
^
c?^
bH
^
"
()(2m + l)^^
^^to2''+^+ir (m + f) r (v +
(5V=
^
^^
^)
/_y"+i22m+2
"
1^ (m
^,""_i2'^+^+^
I) r (i;+
1)
l)r(i)"^"H.+iC^
~2''r(z.+
(6)
H._.(.)H."(.)
(.)+
2H,^,(2),
have
we
particular
^ {m, (^)]
(9)
J^llV^^^
2H/,.)p^(i]l^^.
=.
(a + WH,(")
(7)
^ H.
(.)
(5)
In
find that
On
zU, (z),
{Ho(^)}
=
v) ^H,_i(z)}
(^
z('^v
l)II,_,{z)
to
V,H,(^)
p. 218.
been
This
bears
L^ (z)which
function
J^(s)has
studied
function
(in the
is defined
L. ^^ (2)=
(11)
'
should
reader
case
by
the
^(^'+ i)^()"
have
to
Struve's
function
Journal^
0) by* Nicholson, Qxiarterly
XLn.
See
also
(1911),
equation
#)r(:.+m
+ A) r (1) / 0
(,.
in
difficulty
f)
^
"'^"''''
"'^^"^^'''*^'* ^^
^^'
"
{%")
"\.
obtaining the
fundamental
propertiesof
function.
*
/^ (z)bears
as
*^^^
no
relation
same
integralformula
The
the
",=or(w
the
^"""'*^^^'
(10)
The
(^).
H,
r(i.+ )r(i)
that H^
have
so
Gubler, Zurich
xlvii.
(1902),p.
I'ierteljahrsschrijt,
421.
this
330
10*41.
The
It
noticed
[CHAP. X
FUNCTIONS
BESSEL
OF
THEORY
for H^(^).
loopintegral
in
"
Let
take
us
(f
ly^sin
zt
dt,
Jo
where
the
phase of
the contour
t
f^
l vanishes
"
the
at
crosses
the
pointon
rightof
does
the contour
1 at which
enclose
not
the
point
l.
If
"
r(i+)

dt
zt
2i
cos
the
phase of
(1)
^^ is
"
R(v)"
H.
zt
.
dt,
^^
{z)
have
^, we
"
"
;Vil
(2 )
1
"f' ^y""i"
'i
dt
'
"' 0
sides of this
by
the
all values of
From
v.
this result,combined
(2)
To
ty^sin
zero.
in
so,
Jo
Hence, when
Both
(1
VTT
Jo
where
ment
seg
lyi sin
{t
and
into the
deduce
that
j^{z)+ iH,
transform
with
this result,let
be
"
any
1 )"'dt.
or
angle(positive
negative),
acute
We
then deform
+ w.
^ttf "" and 7r
the four parallel
lines
the contour
into that shewn
in Fig. 26, in which
make
with the imaginaryaxis. It is evident that, as the lines
an
angle
the
real
axis
the integrals
to
off to infinity,
move
parallel
along them tend to
The integral
zero.
alongthe path which starts from and returns to 1 + so ie~''"
is equal to i/^w {z); and on the lines through the originwe
write t
iu, so
and
let the
phase
"
of
lie between
"
"
that
on
them
(f 1)"*
=
eT {"'h)W
(1 + ^c^yh,
It follows that
The
isolated
undetermined
values
form.
i/.a)(^)+
,
,
...
are
jT^^y^p
^^^j^
excepted,because
the
e'
(1 + u^^ du,
expressionon
the
rightis
then
an
332
OF
THEORY
If
write
we
ix in
(3),where
BESSEL
we
positive,
is
deduce
which
R{v)"\,
that
sin
du
{xu) (1 +i{2)''2
.
jo
r(i/+*)r(i)
result
that,when
see
{W
lty{x)=I_^{x)
(6)
[chap. X
FUNCTIONS
(1911),p. 219, in
XLii.
the
specialcase
in
0.
Tlie
10*42.
asyni])totic
expansionof
jz \is large.
lating
asymptoticexpansionwhich may be used for tabuthe argument z is large,
the order v being fixed.
Struve's function when
Since the corresponding
asymptoticexpansionof V^,(z)has been completely
in Chapter Vil, it follows from  10"41 (4) that it is sufficient to
investigated
determine
the asymptoticexpansionof
We
As
shall
in
now
obtain
{z)when
H^
an
^ 7 '2,we
have
^2svJ
P^^iy^'.ikvXr.U
(1)
am
mlz''
uHyp^
r
f^5^//')^?)
()^.a^)pw^
+
(pWe
take p
for which
so
largethat
R (v
"
"
S, Iargi:
/3$^7r"
so
that
is confined
then
yS$ Jtt S,
"
"
^7r
"
28.
have
1 +
so
be any
2S ^ arg
TT
"
We
of the
the sector
to
to
ill\/t\,
1! ^
sin
"
5V
6,
arg
{I "
ill\Jt
"'rr.
that
1 +
say, where
~Y
I
^
A^ is independentof
It follows
on
e^i/WI
(sin8)2i2W2pi A^,
=
z.
that
integration
/"
J
^
7)1
mlz^
ao
where
^p
^
"1^
0 (^2^).
exp ip
e"
c?w
it'^P
dt.
positive
angle
1042, 1043]
We
{arg z\"Tr
that, when
deduce
providedthat R{p"
333
FUNCTIONS
ASSOCIATED
and
in
[\)^0;but, as
is
^
large,
be
removed.
This
asymptoticexpansionmay
'
p,
^1
7r"i=ol (^ + 1
"
in the form
"
^\
4
'
Tm
F,(^)+
V (m
/'I
H,(^)
(2)
also be written
"+1
v^n..+i
w)(^2y"*
Q(^'^~^M
the
that, if is real and z is positive,
difficulty
in the asymptoticexpansionis of the same
terms
after
sign
numericallyless than the first term
neglected,provided that
as, and
established
by the method used in " 732.
'R{'p\\"v)'^^.This may be
It may
remainder
be
proved without
'p
in the
p. 504
i'
that, when
is half of
...,
then
is expressible
(1 + u/^)""as
in a finite form.
It follows
expressible
odd positive
in terms
H^ {z) is exjDressible
integer,
In particular
an
of elementaryfunctions.
[Hj(^)=()"(!^),
cos
^^^
lr,r
.X
10"43.
^^^
2\
/2\V
"
COS^
order.
asymptoticexpansionof Sti'uve'sfunctions
of laige
The
obtain
We
now
As
usual, we
shall write
V
cosh
(a + t/3)
=
cosh 7
which
of
no
see
generalcase
" 8'6
used in
importanceand it involves
great practical
For
an
asymptotic expansion of
the associated
(1904),pp.
481"487.
some
in
in which
and
cosh 7 is
" 10' 15, but it is
rather intricate
analysis.
integral
Papers, v. (1912),
[Scientific
pp.
20G"
211.]
334
THEORY
The
method
t3"pe,and
steepestdescents has
of
not,
be
to
of
of the formula
In view
consider
of
integral
an
of Bessel's
the
Poisson's
type.
integral
dw
L^z(l
+u'y
which
[CHAP. X
FUNCTIONS
appliedto
to one
previousinvestigations,
in the
as
BESSEL
OF
we
div
f'
"ZT
where
cosh 7
that
It is evident
so
log(1 + tv^).
r,
function
qua
of
has
w,
stationary
pointswhere
two
7 is equaleither to a or to lyS,
points
give rise to the stationary
that, since
which
have
cases
ey,
be considered,
to
Accordinglywe
(II)in which
(I) When
increases
is
from
real
to
oc
,
decreases
then
the
separately
to e"^
In order to obtain
a,
first increases
cosh
"
which
zjvis less
is real when
from
0 to e~"
"
1, and
is real,and, as
cosh
increases
log(1 + e^")and finally
than
1.
number
positive
(I)in
cases
alongwhich
iv
o.log(i \e~^),
to
ao
increases,
we
continually
suppose
the
that w
moves
originto the pointe~'^,and
leaves the real axis at right
then starts moving along a certain curve, which
and increasing.
which t is positive
on
angles,
To
variables
in the
it has
We
now
double
sinh ^,
on
^plane,
cosh
and
of this curve,
^ sin
1^+
?;
which
2 cosh
make
6""
^'7"
sinh
^0,
tan
arc
equation
write
2
arc
tan
J,
cosh ^ sin
examine
the values of
0, A, B, C have
^goes from
increases from
i^(f,r})as ^
traces
t]
out
the
whose
rectangle
corners
complex coordinates
0,
As
to
point*at ^o
"
and
it is convenient
real.
^, rj and ^0 are
curve
by writing
w
The
destination
change of
where
contour
first
arc
0 to A,
sinh 1,
arc
sinh 1
F{^, t])\s,
equalto
 tti,
2 sinh
^iri.
f,and
/cosh'
0 to 1.
*
Except
when
0, in which
case
it has
triplepoint.
this
steadily
1043]
When
^ is
this
increases
steadily
establish
To
Note.
this
U(l+2fi)
r~
1
"
dt
t+
because
2t^
5
^j
When
from
is
tt
as
cosec
tan
r]
rj
observe
^ *"'
2fi (2 + fi)
derivate
t,has the positive
C;
to
''"
"'"
with
^tt.
\t+7^
vanishes
0 to
that
(t + 2fi
t^Tiu^)
77,
increases from
J2 and
^ goes from
7r/\/2as
1 to
\
^
'^''
^''
"
7^^
V \/2
^is on
to
irls^'I
tan
arc
result,write
t, which
tan
arc
from
335
on
\/2
and
FUNCTIONS
ASSOCIATED
sech
ir
and
zero.
the curve,
Hence
on
part of the
inside the
curve
rectangleOABC,
the
which
rectangle
must
a, cannot
pointon
the side OA
pass from
this double
emerge
; and
from
so
point
to
the
the
singularpointC.
The
contours
and
broken
in
the
continuous
for
2t'plane
curves
which
has
the
0, i
values
shewn
are
in
Fig.27 by
respectively.
Fig. 27.
Cdnsequentlya
in the
contour
part
the
singularpoint i; and,
0 to +
joiningthe
as
on
tfplane,
to
e""
origin
traces
out
which
and
is real,consists of the
from
curve
this contour,
00
.
expansionof d^/ch in
^i=
ar
"i=o
r'"
powers
of
is
this
pointto
increases
ft'om
336
THEORY
BESSEL
OF
[CHAP. X
FUNCTIONS
then
o"j
and
104
hence, by
have
(1),we
/
XT
(1)
"
(II) When
0 to
CO
62
2 cosh 7,
6i
^^^"
V
S
6 cosh 7
"
63
20 cosh^ 7
4 cosh 7,
"
a
pure imaginary(= i^), t is real and increases
travels alongthe real axis from 0 to 00 ; and so
";
.
Hence, from
''^"^
2(*^)''
is
7
as
that
It is easy to prove
bo= I,
r
\
H,(^)~i/,(^)+p"
/.x
from
(1
dn,
".)'"
steadily
/;."
[^^^ *"
4r.
" 1041
i ^'^H.(.)~F.(^)+^//^/";,,,
(2)
providedthat jarg
result
domain
From
results
corresponding
the
expectedthat
these results
be extended
can
of
manner
in the
somewhat
wider
" 8"42.
theoryof
are
to
Bessel functions,it is to be
domains
of
complex values
of the arguments.
In
we
can
pcirticular,
that,in the
prove
Ii"(vx)
(3)
when
1 1is large,arg
1
expressionon
[Note.
should
we
that
we
get
10"44.
When
"
lO'l
is
If in
have
a
(I)we
obtained
case
"
right.
had
taken
order
?;
is
two
as
from
magnitude
of
..,^
^^
''""^"^*
w"0
crosses
H,i (z)and
of
to
?"; =
e~" and
placeof
the line
thence
iJy(2). This
to
w=
"
i,
indicates
/3=0.]
E" (z).
the
negativeinteger,
is of the order
containingiJy (2)in
phenomenon
purelyimaginary argument,
.,,,7
.^
the contour
the formula
error
^''i''
"
of
I^ (vx)
fixed,and the
"
the
of Stokes'
of functions
ri+j(i+x^)
the
is
x
" ^tt,
^
times
case
"
1044, 1045]
For, when
is
positive
integeror
337
FUNCTIONS
ASSOCIATED
have
we
zero,
r{hu
\)T{\m
\)
'
and
CO
"
"=o
and therefore,since
Jn(z)
,"
{\m
(1
1)r
pn) r (?i+
(i//i
+
1)
'
have
Jn(z),we
\"mri (l"\n+m
"
m)
that is to say
(1)
E,.
In like manner,
=
??
"
L)"ft
10'45.
We
when
E_. (.)
(2)
{s)=l%
ii^""^Ml"L^H,. (.).
shall
is
negativeinteger,
H" (4
^"'"^Vtf""'"'

function.
prove the
i^
we
see
by
elementajymethod, we integrate
" 10'4(1)by
that,for values of exceeding,
an
iw"
cos
cos
(.a;
6) sin""^6
V{v + h)V{\) \i
(2z; 1)
'
/=
^^"^'fx
1
1
(2^' 1)
n
/
/ 1 X
(^ + 2)^ (i) I
4^
"
tvWtt
COS
['"cos
{x
cos
d) sin"^ cos
Odd]
h
sin^'''6'
^ 11
cos
ddd"^
J

cos
{x cos 6)}dO
^0,
since the
*
Mem.
integrandis positive.
de
VAcad.
B. F.
de
St
extension
Petersbourg, (7)xxx.
of Struve's
no.
(188'2),
8, pp.
100"101.
The
proof.
22
338
OF
THEORY
When
be
cannot
h, the partialintegration
is less than
[CHAP. X
FUNCTIONS
BESSEL
,we
have
(^.)*(lcos.^')^0,
Hi(.^")
=
is
the theorem
and
completelyestablished.
j'
1/
^
(
I sin (x
'
\lTXj
or
accordingas
i/
"
or
i^
The
"
theorem
function
is positivefor
sufficiently
largevalues.
functions
of x,
values
for the
an
essential
positivevalues
difference
between
i and
"
i/
Struve's
extended
more
function
result
not
merely
and
Bessel
shew
J^ {x)and
take the
we
proves the
of x when
integral.
Theisinger's
10 "46.
If
indicates
theorem
The
of this section
all
in)
that Struve's
for
Ivn
"
"
r(.'+*)r(i)
equation
7r2
/"in
J hn
f
/"*
r.
JUi'piQ
te'e
A
1\"1
l + iz dz
'
IZ
and
the
choose
+itau
z=.
be
the
imaginary axis,indented
the
at
then
write
di"
pT
"
{h (^) I"oix))
=
+ *0)
{x cot ^) logtan (iir
cos
^^
so
"
/o (^) Lo iv)="i
(1 )
a
origin* and
find that
1^, we
TT
and
to
contour
formula
If
order
cos
given by Theisinger,MonatsheftefUr
^^
{x tan "/")
logcot {h"i")
Math,
und
Phys. xxiv.
(1913),p.
341.
we
find,on changing
replacex by .vsiu 6, multiply by sin 6, and integrate,
i
n
the
the
on
integrations
right,
absolutely
convergent integral
we
the
of the
^  f
'"
I
so
6de
that
'"
(2)
cos
on
The
presence
indentation.
of the
^
the
rightin
logarithmic factor
powers
ensures
of
the
(f)
(p
x.
f
2'
\e'
'
This
curious
convergence
of the
integralround
tlie
340
is thus
function
The
uUr L
/cos
_
equalto
/,
vw)
'"'
'""
"""^''^'^
t=l,
I r(mi/
i^Try
(m
(^^) 2"/r
jlog
and
be
" '"*
^"""".^'
that*, near
it is known
Now
to
seen
[CHAP. X
FUNCTIONS
BESSEL
OF
THEORY
1) + A/r
(m
)r(m
i/
i;
i) /I
ty
1) + Vr(m
1)1
,
since
+ i)
"'"\,.n.
/i^r^^^^''^^r(/.
2/ii^M+l
"^",".."fL^M'",,J''r(M+i)
i:
V
2
obtain
we
the
"2'^^'^+i
expansion
asymptotic
iiT,"'(^)
(7) W, (^)
GC
+
TT
V(27r2^)
+
functions
Some
which
(m
yfr
^ + v)
"
^iri]
yfr{m+J)\og2z"
been
The
10'6.
functions
composingYn{z).
The
order,may
integral
IX
be written
'""^(nm\)\
of the second
("3"52)
'
,,
!)"/.(.+
I^'"g(i^)V'(''"+
+.!"Jid'+l)!
The
which
series
has
the
Cf.
kind, of
Barnes, QuarterlyJournal,
xxxix.
",.
1)1.
of four functions,each
(1908),p.
111.
of
106]
ASSOCIATED
341
FUNCTIONS
where
(2)
m
and
(of." 3.582)
(rd^f^"""
Un{z)=
(3)
The
pp. 142
functions
"
The
due
are
investigations
to
studied
by Schlafli,Math.
Tn {z)
Otti*
to Gi*af and
and
["(i
TTd)
indicated
(z sin
sin
Ann.
by
the
ill.
(1871),
equations
Gublert.
by
simply represented
Tn{z) is most
function
(4)
To
been
recent
more
+ l)"/r(l)}
{i/r(/+w
?u!(n + "i)!
=0
the definite
integral
nO) d9.
that
(y"(2)"+"*
Tn{z)
de
"i"_j"_j
{m
+
e) r (?i
1 +
e)Je=,
r^y^
1
27rt
./_i
(/i+ 2m)!
27n\^".';"_i
2
TT
'7^^
where
t has been
e"'9(i" sin
2,
V^+'^^
e=0
/"'"+"
()""(i^y^+"^
(1 + tY+'''^
log^
j_i
(n + 2m)!
Lae,""_j,,_j
Jo
,.
CW,
"
(n + 27H)!
m"irti
replacedby
^f +"'".(^Itt)
;;
"^^
f'^^^
eC^''^ii.
It follows that
Now
(
iz sin
^)"+2'"
( iz sin ^)
jcosh
(n even)
(n odd)
_
~
(h
,^"_j"_j
and
2?/i)!
[sinh(
iz sin
6)
so
TTl
Bern Mittheilungen,
1898, pp. 1"56.
Einleitimgin die Theorie der BesseVscken Funktionen,
treatise,
87, should also be consulted.
pp. 77
t
"
11.
(Bern,1900),pp.
42
"
09.
Loramel's
342
If 6 is
second
of
obtained
The
"
at
once.
r (1 +
~d_I ()'^(1^)"+^"^
_9e,"=o
(o)
from
p"w
rr^
7/i
e)
"=0
e)j,+,(^)}
that
sin
(n(9

sin
Recurrence
[^e""^smhf^^,
^) rf^ + ()"
Jo
TT
From
(n +
6)
fiog(i^)t(i)K"W
+
10*61.
1 +
"=0
deduce
!r
Ki^)^r(i
ae
so,
[chap. X
FUNCTIONS
obtained by considering
^ in the integral
only the
replacedby tt
is
is due to Schlafli,
the formula (4),which
the two
exponentials,
Un {Z)
and
BESSEL
OF
THEORY
(Jn(z).
that
see
Tn^{z)+Tn+^{z)(27l/z)Tn(z)
=
sin (zsin ^
(Itt (9)

n^) {2cos
2n/z]dO
r (hir6)^{cos(zsin dne)}de
"
TTZ
civ
"
4
=
COS^
Jn (z),
^
??7r
integrating
by parts and usingBessel's integral.
on
Thus
(1)
T^ {z)+
Tn. {z)+ 7^,,+,
{z) (2n/2)
=
Again
and
T"' (^)
=
/"'^
I (Itt
"
"
^)sin
{z sin ^
cos
nd)(^5*,
"
so
(2)
From
it follows that
these formulae
(3)
(SV+ n) Tn {Z)
(4)
(^
and
hence
(5)
"
(cf.
" 1012)
) Tn {z)
zTn, (Z)
2 COS^
z
Tn+,{z)+
IITT
2 cos^ * nTT
2 J"
(z),
2/" (^),
find that
we
V,jTn {z)
=
[zsin2 1
?i7r
cos^
Iwtt}

4h
Jn (z).
1061, 1062]
With
for Jn
ASSOCIATED
{z),Y" {z)and
combined
deduce
Sn [z),we
343
FUNCTIONS
with
the
" 10"6
from
formulae
corresponding
(1)that
(6)
(7)
f^"_:(Z)
Un+,{Z)
(8)
(^ + n) Un {z)
(9)^
(^^0
U,(z)
V,,Un(z)
reader
may
to
T_n (z)
zUn^,(z),
2zJ,^,(z).
the definition,
" 10'6
(3).
we
tt
f"(1
7^
"
^) sin (z sin
^) sin (^ sin
(ivr
358(2)]
[of.""358(1),
the function
define
{21Z)J, {z),
from
verifythese directly
It is convenient
and
U,: (Z)
(10)
The
"
nO) cW
nO }"
"
inr)dd,
so
T_,,{z) (r+^TA^).
(11)
We
define
now
it is then
found
t7_,{Z)
Series
shall
We
now
how
Tu (Z)+ Sn (z)].
Un{z).
to derive
the
expansion
Tn{z)= t {Ju+2nAz)Jn,,niz)]
(1)
from
of
that
(12)
1062.
method
"''
which
shall
we
is to substitute
use
sin 2m0
^0=^
TT
in the
needs
^
values of 0.
To
series
justifythe process*,let
converges uniformly when
S and
S ^ ^ ^
be
tt
small positivenumbex's.
arbitrarily
S, we
"
^^
{\7T6)The
pp. 257"
analysisimmediately following is
262. The
value
of the constant
due
an
integer mo
Since
the
that
2m(9
sm
m=i
find
can
such
"f,
m
to D.
Jackson, Palermo
is 18519...
Rendiconti,
xxxii.
(1911),
344
OF
THEORY
throughout the
of 6 between
8 ^ 6 ^
range
0 and
M^
2m0
sin
,
=
'
{l+2cos2^
Jrr
"^
sni
the
2cos2i"i!}o?^
f(M+h)^
07
Jtt I
ao;
./(23f+l).f.
'
the second
^tt,by
sin
dt=
meanvalue
it is easy
of .r~isinjp
graph
to
that
see
the
last
expressioncannot
'
"
jo
...
function.
(increasing)
By drawing
exceed
6 and
0 between
"
] ^
value of
SUl
[h^s\n('2,M+\)t
^
some
g
(
iTT ;
monotonic
+ 2cos4^
t
''i'rsin(2i/+l)"
dt
all values
"l
m=l
for
Again, for
"
have
we
tt,
ir
[CHAP. X
FUNCTIONS
BESSEL
dx in absolute
value
we
have
Tn{z)
I
J0
2
^
m=i
sm(2Sin^"^)rf^
"*
sin 2?u^l
^^
/TJ(i:r^)[
2
'
[sin
(zsine
nd)dd
"i
m=l
sin
U
J TTSj 11'
(2
sin 6
"
n6)\d6
"
m=l
"{7r.48 + (7r2S)f}^,
where
is the upper
Since
(2J.8
4
bound
of
sin {zsin 6
n6) 
an
I r 'i'^?^
sin (zsin
Tn {z)=
and
nd) cW
I3r
series of Bessel
and
as
that, in
power
10"63.
series
that
definition
given in
" 10 Q
t)=
m=
This
expansion was
(z)
(3).
series
of Bessel coefficients.
expansion
Tn(z
(1)
("3'581) as
was
Graf'sexpansionof T^ {z+ t) as
defined
discovered
Tn,,{t)J^\z),
"00
by Schlafli,Math.
Aitn.
iii.
(1871),p.
146.
1063, 107]
that
for,from
T;^(^+ ^)
["(
1
TT
TTl
sin
345
FUNCTIONS
ASSOCIATED
j/i
0) dd
cc
TT
(71m)l9)r/^,
CO
series under
since the
the order
and
of summation
vergent,
integralsign is uniformlyconbe changed,and the
integration
may
the
result is evident.
The
There
pp. 425
444, as
"
includes
as
(1)
where
this
V,y
k and
kz"+\
(^ + 1).
+ \r v^]
[{f,
{(^+ 3)^ .^j
,r
()(iy"+^
=kz^^
^,
+ l)r(l^
I ()"n(l^)em+2r(l;.l^
,_i
rightare
is evidentlyundefined
s^^^{z)
odd negativeinteger*.Apart from
(1) is evidently
an
solution of
(3)
2/
In like
manner
the
. + )
+
^)
in the form
written
function
is
on
brevitythe expressions
The
integralof
particular
with
is
z'^^'^,
beginning
that
of
equation,
proceedingin ascendingpowers
/x +
It is easy to shew
constants.
/* are
(2)
For
S^^y(z)and s^^t,{z).
functions
function,which
8n {z)of Neumann
plicated
com
more
{z+ t).
equallysimple expressionfor "/""
no
genesisof LommeV
The
10"7.
A
to be
seems
use
either of the
when
numbers
general
+ AS,,,(0).
'^,(2r)
generalsolution
of
IS
yz'^'''Hr^,{z)+ks,,A^))
(5)
*
The
solution
of the
values
of
/x
and
is discussed
in
" 1071.
346
THEORY
Next
let
us
consider
the
assume
as
parameters."We
where
(z)and
BESSEL
OF
solution of (1)
of
determined
J,{z)A'(z)+ J_A^)B'(z)
that
see
;7r
z'^ J_^
sm
Hence
(6)
where
i/
of
B{z)
z"^ Jy
2 sin
sm
{")dz.
vTT
(1) is
J^ {z)
z^
J_^ {z)dz
J_^ {z)
J^ {z)dz
z^
vK
a
Similarly
{z)dz,
vTT
solution
equations
kz^\
lTT
A(^)
of
0,
the
by
of "variation
method
the
by
solution*
functions
{z)are
[chap. X
FUNCTIONS
are
arbitrary.
integrals
of (1) which
solution
of
v,
whether
integersor not, is
(7)
i^'T^ F, {z)
z^
J^ {z)dz
./,{z)
z^
Y^ (s)dz
real
It is easy to see that, if both of the numbers
positive
/x + i^ + 1 have
If we
expand
parts,the lower limits in (6) and (7) may be taken to be zero.
the
integrandsin ascendingpowers
as a
rightin (6) is expressible
power
than
"
/m "
is
odd
an
Ave
the
that
see
containingno
we
integer,
negative
the
expressionon
of z
powers
neither
(3),it follows that, since
series
Hence, from
z^'^^,
z^^^,z^'^'^,
numbers
of z,
other
of the
have
must
TT
(8) V..(^)
J^ {z)
In
(9)
and
in this formula
It should
(10)
(z)dz
zi^ Jv
J.
was
supposed that
of the second
l7r
we
{z)dz
Jo
result it
functions
s^^Az)
z'' /.^
VTT
obtainingthis
introduce
we
2 sin
Y^ {z)
may
be observed
z^
kind,
we
J^ {z)dz
proceedto
is not
integer;but
an
if