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# VINAYAKA MISSSIONS UNIVERSITY

## V.M.K.V. ENGINEERING COLLEGE, SALEM 636 308

DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING
B.E - V SEMESTER
2015

## HYDRAULICS AND PNEUMATICS

UNIT I
PART A
1. Define hydraulic and Pneumatic system?
Fluid power applies to both hydraulics and pneumatics. Hydraulic system uses pressurized
liquid, for example, oil or water; pneumatic system uses compressed air or other neutral gases.
2. Define the term fluid power.
The term fluid power deals with generation, control and transmitting of power by using
pressurized fluids
3. State any four application of fluid power.
Machine tools and transfer lines.
Lifting and conveying devices.
Metal-forming presses.
Plastic machinery such as injection-molding machines.
Rolling machines.

## 4. State the Pascals law and Boyles law.

Pascal's Law states that a pressure acting on a confined fluid is transmitted equally and
undiminished in all directions..
Boyles law states that If a given mass of a gas is compressed or expanded at a constant
temperature, then the absolute pressure is inversely proportional to the volume.
5. What are the types of fluid power system?
Hydraulic and Pneumatic system
6. What are the physical characteristic of a hydraulic fluid?
Density, viscosity, VI, flash and fire point, pour point,
7. Define viscosity index.
8. Define neutralization number
9. Define flash point and fire point of a liquid.
10. Why hydraulic power especially useful when performing heavy work?
11. Name few properties which a hydraulic fluid should posses.
12. Draw the hydraulic symbol for the following.
(i)
Fixed displacement bidirectional pump.
(ii)
Variable displacement unidirectional pump.
13. Draw the hydraulic symbol for the following.
(i)
(ii)
Counter balancing valve
14. What are the components of Hydraulic system?

## 15. Difference between Electrical and Hydraulic system?

16. Give any five examples for Hydraulic system.
17. What are the selection criteria for hydraulic fluids?
18. Name any one linear actuator from electrical system.
19. What are the four primary functions of hydraulic fluid?
20. Draw the hydraulic symbols for telescoping cylinder.
PART B
1. Give a comparison between Electrical, Hydraulic and Pneumatic systems.
2. Explain any five fields of application where fluid power can be effectively used other power
sources.
3. Discuss about the physical properties of fluids.
4. Briefly discuss about the various hydraulic fluids used in hydraulic system.
5. Explain various selection criteria of a hydraulic fluid in detail.
6. Discuss physical characteristics of hydraulic fluids.
7. Discuss about the maintenance of the hydraulic oils.
9. Discuss about the basic components of fluid power system
10. Describe the various fluid power symbols.
UNIT - II
PART A
1. State the role of a pump in a hydraulic system.
2. Name the basic components required in hydraulic systems.
3. What is a positive displacement pump? How it is differ from conventional pump?
4. Name any three positive displacement pumps.
5. Why hydrodynamic pumps not preferred for hydraulic applications?
6. Give the classifications of gear pump.
7. List the advantages of Positive Displacement pumps.
8. List the advantages of non-positive displacement pumps.
9. Name the two basic types of piston pumps.
10. What is a direction control valve?
11. What is meant by a 4/3 DC valve and draw its symbol?
12. List any five types of hydraulic valves.
13. What is a check valve?
14. Why gear pump cannot be used as variable displacement pump?
15. What is cylinder cushion? What is its purpose?
16. What is a telescoping cylinder? When is it normally used?
17. Write down various styles of cylinder mounting.
18. How single acting cylinder is are retracted?
19. How does the pilot check valve differ from a simple check valve?
20. How the directional control valves are actuated?
PART B
1.
Explain the construction and working of external gear pumps.
2.
Explain the construction and working of internal gear pumps.

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## Explain the construction and working of gerotor pump.

Explain the working of piston pumps and discharge rates (swash plate type).
Explain the construction and working of radial piston pump.
Draw a neat sketch of any one type of variable displacement reversible pump
With a neat sketch explain the cushioning mechanism provided in hydraulic cylinders.
(a).Explain the working of double acting cylinder.
(b).Explain about the telescoping cylinder with neat sketch.
Sketch and explain the working of sequencing valve with a application circuit.
(a). Explain compound relief valve with a neat sketch.
(b). Explain counter balance valve with a neat sketch.

UNIT - III
PART A
State the functions of Intensifier in the press circuit.
What are the factors that should be considered while selecting a fluid power circuit?
What is the use of regenerative circuit?
What is hydraulic fuse?
What is the function of bleed off circuits?
Mention any two factors to be considered for selection of hydraulic pump.
Why is extension stroke faster than retraction stroke in regenerative circuit?
Name some applications where it would be desirable to have sequencing of two cylinders.
Name some applications where it would be desirable to have two cylinders synchronized in
movement.
State the need for synchronization of hydraulics cylinders.
Name the various methods of cylinder synchronization.
Name the types of accumulator
Why deceleration unit required in a hydraulic circuit?
Mention any two functions of accumulators.
What is electro hydraulics?
In what ways, pneumatic circuits differ from the hydraulic circuits?
List any four advantages of using pneumohydraulic circuits
What is the purpose of fail safe circuit?
What is meant by air-oil-system?
What is meant by hydraulic power pack?
PART B

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## 1. With simple sketches explain any two types of synchronizing circuits

2. Draw and explain hydraulic cylinder sequence circuit
3. Explain the working principle of fail safe circuit with overload protection
4. Give any two application circuits employing accumulator for different purposes
5. Develop a two handed safety circuit for the operation of press and explain
6. Sketch and explain in detail about reciprocating cylinder circuit
7. Draw and explain hydraulic circuit of a milling machine
8. Draw a hydraulic circuit for the operation of a hydraulic press and explain.
9. Draw and explain the regenerative hydraulic circuit with suitable example.
10. Draw and explain the hydraulic circuit for the following sequence.
a. Clamping the work piece
b. Drilling the work piece c. Unclamping the work piece
UNIT - IV
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PART A
Compare hydraulic and pneumatics circuits with respect to their characteristics
Give standard graphical symbol for FRL unit
What is a microprocessor?
Why a lubricator be used in pneumatic system?
What is the need for mufflers in pneumatic circuits?

## 6. List the various pneumatic control elements.

7. What do you mean by a logical circuit?
8. Define sensing, switching.
10. What is fluidics?
11. Where the fluidic control system preferred than other control systems?
12. State conda effect.
13. What is a bistable flip flop?
14. What is the use of truth table in logic devices?
15. What is meant by SRT flip flop?
16. Give the symbol and truth table for fluidic OR / NOR gate.
17. Give the symbol and truth table for fluidic AND / NAND gate.
18. What are fluid sensors?
19. What is meant by the term contact sensing?
20. What are hydropneumatic circuits?
PART B
2. Explain control elements which are used in pneumatic system?
3. Explain with neat sketch the following.
a. Working of pressure sensor.
b. Various types of switching.
4. Explain the working principle of the following valve with neat sketch
a. Quick exhaust valve
b. Shuttle valve
5. Write short notes on the following with respect to pneumatic system
a. Pressure regulator
b. Flow control valve
6. Describe function of FRL unit.
7. What wall attachment theory is as applied in fluidics? Also illustrate the wall attachment
phenomenon?
8. Explain the following.
a. Back pressure sensor. b. Proximity sensor. c. Working of an interruptible jet sensor.
9. Explain with suitable circuits, how the single-acting and double-acting pneumatic cylinders can be
controlled.
10. With the help of a circuit explain the air-over-oil circuit

UNIT - V
PART A
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Define pneumatics.
List any four methods of pneumatic circuit design.
What is the difference between a pressure switch and a temperature switch?
How does limit switch differ from a pushbutton switch
What is the purpose of pressure regulator?
What is the purpose of electrical timer?
What is meant by inter lock contacts?
Mention any two roles of pneumatic systems in low cost automation
List the functions of microprocessor in pneumatic/ hydraulic control
What is programmable logic control (PLC)
How do micro processors differ from PLC?
List the major units of a PLC.
List any two advantages that PLCs provide over electromechanical relay control system.
What is meant by step counter?
What is the purpose of quick exhaust valve?
Draw the pneumatic symbol for a FRL unit.
What is the purpose of a timer?
Explain one situation where you use an electrical timer.
What is a servo system?
List any four causes for a pump making more noise
PART B

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## Explain with neat sketch the operation of cascade method?

Explain with neat sketch of the step counter and its principle?
Briefly explain the various statements which are involved in PLC circuit?
Explain with neat sketch of button bleed automatic retraction circuit and explain its operation?
Explain the ladder logic diagram with example?
Design and develop a sequential circuit using cascade method for the following
Sequence A+ B+ A- B-.
7. Design a system in which cylinder A is used to clamp the work piece, cylinder B is used for
punching and cylinder C removes the work piece from the station using the cascade method. The
cylinder sequence is A+, B+, B-, A-, C+, C8. Explain classic design method of hydraulic system with an example.
9. Explain step counter method with an example.
10. What do you mean by tree-branching chart? Illustrate how it can help in fault finding and fault
diagnosis for a hydraulic system.