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Applied Well Testing

Dieter Becker
Echometer Company

Well Test Objectives


Reservoir

Pressure
Permeability
Skin Factor

Types of Well Tests

Drillstem Test
Drawdown Test
Buildup Test
Injection Test
Falloff Test

Test Tools

Drillstem tools
Wireline Conveyed Pressure Gauge
Permanently Installed Pressure Gauge
Capillary Tube
Surface Pressure Gauge
Acoustic Device

Advantages of Acoustic
Pressure Measurements
No need to pull rods & pump
Less cost
Better early time data

Data viewed in real time


Ensures test objectives met
Well returned to production ASAP

No downhole tools
Able to test highly deviated wells
No potential fishing

WELL ANALYZER SYSTEM


Polished
Rod
Sensor

Load &
Acceleration
Signals
Motor Current and Power Signals
Acoustic
Signal

Computer and A/D


Valve
Control

Pressure Signal
Transducer

Flowline

12 Volt
battery
Gas Supply

Microphone

Casing Head Pressure

Gas

Fluid Level

Gaseous Liquid

Reservoir Pressure
Liquid

Flowing BHP

Pump

Well Analyzer

Wellhead Attachment

Test Setup

Measurement Schedule

Liquid Level

Depth Determination

Test Data

Data Plots

BHP vs. Time

Liquid Afterflow

Log-Log Plot

MDH Plot

Horner Plot

What is Skin Effect?

Skin Damage

Negative Skin factor

Skin Factor

Skin factor used to quantify skin effect


Run pressure transient test (buildup) to
determine skin effect.
Skin factor used to see if production
increase is possible with stimulation
Determine economics of stimulation

Flow Efficiency
? Ps ? 141 . 2 qB ? S / kh
FlowEfficiency ? Jactual / Jideal
Jactual / Jideal ? ( p ? pwf ? ? ps ) /( p ? pwf )

Analysis Tools

Log-Log Plot w/Derivative


Horner Plot
MDH Plot
Type Curves

Log-Log Plot

Horner Plot

MDH Plot

Type Curve Matching

Case Study
Skin Factor

7.08
1.6
-3.04

Production
Before
Treatment
(MCFGPD)

Treatment

Production
After
Treatment
(MCFGPD)
43 1500 gal acid
250

170 2000 gal acid

270

Summary

Run Pressure Transient Test


Determine Skin Effect
Determine if Production Increase
Possible
Determine Economics of
Stimulation

Horizontal Well Testing


? Differ

from Vertical Well Tests as follows:

Flow geometry is 3 dimensional instead of 1


dimensional. Analysis more difficult.
Open interval to flow much larger and not well
known.
Vertical permeability plays important role.
Many possible flow regimes

Early Time Flow


Kz

Ky and Kz
Ky

Late Time Flow

Boundary

Pressure Response
Pressure

Derivative

Summary
? Data

acquisition uses conventional


methods.
? Analysis more complicated than vertical
well.
? Requires more information about reservoir
rock properties.
? Best analysis from use of computer
simulation to match pressure and
derivative.