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${

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UNTVERSITI TT]N HUSSEIN Oh[N MALAYSIA

FINAL EXA}IINATION
SEMESTERI
sBssroN 201212013
COURSE

NAME

TRAFFIC ENGINEERING
SAFETY

COURSE

CODE

BFC 3082 /32302

3 BFF

PROGRAMME
EXAMINATION

DATE

&

: DECEMBER 20I2/JANUARY 2OI3

DURATION

ZHOURS

INSTRUCTION

AxSwER FOUR (4) QUESTIONS


ONLY.

THrS QUESTION PAPER CONSISTS OF FOURTEEN (14) PAGES

CONF'IDBNTIAL

BFC 3082 / 32302

Ql (a)

Explain the key characteristics of differences between intemrpted and unintemrpted flow
in fraffic studies. Illushate bottt answers.
(4 marks)

(b)

The traffrc flow study was conducted along Parit Raja-Ayer Hitam highway in year 2010.
During data collection, the mean free speed was observed to be 60 km/h near zero density.
The corresponding jam density is 140 vehlkm. Assume that the relationship of speeddensity is linear.

(i)
(ii)
(iii)

Write down speed{ensity and ffow-density equations.


Draw the v-k, v-q and q-k diagrams and indicate the critical values.
Compute speed and density correspondine to a flow of 1000 veh/hr.
(21 marks)

Q2 (a)

Describe the following terms in horizontal alignment design.

(D
(ii)

Spiral.
Superelevation.
(4 marks)

(b)

curve joining +3 percent and -4 percent grade is to be designed


and the tangents intersect at an elevation af 76.2A mefies. Use L KA.

A vertical

(i)
(iD
(iii)

e3 (a)

(b)

for 120 km/hr

Calsulate the location of maximum point on the curYeAnalyze ttre location ofBVC.
Determine the crest vertical curve for interval of40 metres.
(21 marks)

Environment is one of the factors whish can contribute to road accident. Discuss THRBE
(3) elements that should be considered in this factor.
(6 marks)

Discuss the 3E approaches in reducing the number of road accidents.


(9 marks)

(c)

Describe

f'IyE

(5) stages involved in Road Safety Audit.


(10 marks)

ta

BFC 3082 I 32302

Q4 (a)

Discuss ways in the following strategies which can control and manage the usage of
parking spaces on main road.

(i)
(ii)

Policy.
Technology level.
(15 marks)

(b)

Based on your answers in Qa(a), give your opinion of potential future developments that
beneficial for further improvements in Malaysia.
(10 marks)

Q5 (a) Give THREE (3) advantages of the traffic signal control.


(3 marks)

Q5 shows peak demand flows (in pcu/hr) for an intersection. Given amber time, a
O) Figure
: 3s , all red interval, R: 2s and driver reaction time, (I : 2s for Phase I and Phase 2) and
(/ : 3s for Phase 3-South).

(D
(ii)
(iii)
(iv)

Calculate the saturation flow (S).


Calculate the optimum cycle time.
Determine the effective green time, actual green time and controller setting time.
Sketch the timing schedule.

(22 marks)

- Er{D OF QITESTTON -

BFC 3082 / 32302

Sl (a)

Terangkan ciri-ciri utama perbezazn di antara aliran terganggu dan tak terganggu dalam
kajian lalulintas. Gunakan contoh untuk menjelaskan jawapan anda.
(4 markah)

(b)

Kajian aliran lalulintas telah dijalankan di sepanjang lebuh raya Parit Raja - Ayer Hitam
pada tahun 2010. Semasa pngumpulan dat+ purata halaju bebas yang dicerap adalah 60
km/j menghampiri ketumpatan sifar. Ketumpatan kesesakan yang sepadan adalatt 140
kendlkm. Andaikan bahawa hubungan laju-ketumpatan adalah linear.

(i)
(ii)
(iii)

Tuliskanpersamaanlaju-kenrmpatandanaliran-ketumpatan.
l^akarkan rajah v-lq v{ dan q-k dan tunjukkan nilai kritikal.
Kirakan kelajuan dan ketumpatan sepadan dengan aliran 1000 kend{am.
(21 markah)

52 (a)

Terangkan terma-terma berikut dalam rekabentuk penjajaran mengufuk.

(i)
(ii)

Pilin.
Sendengan.

(4 markah)

(b)

Sebuah lengkung tegak yang menyambung cnrn

+3 peratus dan -4 peratus

akan

direkabentuk untuk 120 lffiiljam dan tangen bersilang pada aras ketinggian 76.24 mehr.
KA.
Gunakan

L:

(i)
(iD
(iii)

Kirakan lokasi titik maksimum pada lengkung tersebut.


Analisiskan lokasi BVC.
Tentukan lengkung tegak puncak untuk setiap sela 40 meter.
(21 markah)

BFC 3082 / 32302

S3

(a)

Persekitaran merupakan salah satu faktor yang menyebabkan berlakunya kernalangan

jalan ruya. Bincangkan TIGA (3) elemen yang perlu dipertimbangkan dalam faktor
tersebut.

(6 markah)

(b)

Bincangkan pendekatan 3E dalam mengurangkan bilangan kemalangan jalan raya.


(9 markah)

(c)

54 (a)

Terangkan

LIMA

(5) tahap yang terlibat dalam Audit Keselarnatan Jalan Raya.


(10 markah)

Bincangkan kaedah dalam strategi yang berikut untuk mengawal dan mengurus
penggunaan nrang tempat letak kenderaan di jalan utama.

(D
(ii)

Polisi.
Peringkatteknologi.
(15 markah)

(b)

Berdasarkan jawapan anda di S4(a), berikan pendapat anda mengenai perkembangan masa
hadapan yang mempunyai potensi untuk penambahbaikan di Malaysia.

(10 markah)

55 (a)

Berikan TIGA (3) kebaikan pemasangan lampu isyarat.


(3 markah)

(b)

Rajah Q5 menunjukkan dzta aliran puncak (dalam unit kenderaan penumpandjam) di


persimpangan lampu isyarat. Diberi masa kuning, a: 3s, semua merah, R : 2s dan masa
tindakbalas pemandu, (/ : 2s untuk fasa I dan fasa 2) dan (/ : 3s untuk fasa 3-Selatan).

(i)
(ii)
(iiD
(iv)

Kirakan aliran tepu (S).


Kirakan m:rsa kitar optimum.
Tentukan masa hiiau berkesan" masa hi$au sebenar dan masa kawalan set.
t"akarkan gambarajah masa,

{22 markah)
- SOALAI\I TAMAT 5

BFC 3082 I 32302

F'INAL EXAMINATION
SEMESTER/SESSION

COURSE

PROGRAMME :
:
COURSE CODE

: r/2012/13
: TRAFFIC ENGINEERING &
SAFETY

I sourH

F.IGURE 05

3BFF
BFC3082/32302

BFC 3082 / 32302

FINAL EXAMINATION
SEMESTER/SESSION

COURSE

i V20l2lr3
: TRAFFIC ENGINEERING &

PROGRAMME :
:
COURSE CODE

3BFF
8FC3082132302

SAFETY

Table 1: Suegested minimum K values for vertical curves


Minimum K value
Design Speed (km/hr)
120

60

100

4A

80
60
50

28

120
60
30

l5

15

12

10

40

l0

l0

30

20

Table 2: Relationship between effective lane width and saturation flow

lFidthrW {m}

at*ration Flour, F (p.u/hr)

3,00

1845

3"25

1860

3,50
3.?5
4.00
4.25
4.50
4.?5
5.00
5,25

18S5

1915
1965

20?5

?214
?3?5
2560
7760

BFC 3082 I 32302

F'INAL EXAMINATION

: V2012/13
: TRAFFIC ENGINEERING &

SEMESTER/SESSION

COURSE

PROGRAMME :
:
COURSE CODE

3BFF
BFC3082/32302

SAFETY

Table 3: Correction factor for the effect of gradient, Fg

Description
for uptrard slope of

Correction Factorr Fg
0.85
0,88
0,91
0.94
a.97

5gro

for upward slope of 4o/a


fior uprrard slope of 3%
for upurard slope of zTo
tbr upward slape of 1%
fior lesel grade
fur dow'nr*oard slope of lYo
for dorrrurnrard slope of Tfa
fbr downsard slope of 3o
for dou'nrx'ard slope of 4%
fbs dorlrurward slope of 5%

1.S0

1.03
1.06
1.09

t.r2
1" 15

Table 4: Correction Factor for the effect of turning radius, Ft

Correction Factorr Ft
0,85
0.90

0.96

Description
for nuning radius R { 10 m
for nrnring radius where 10 m < R < 15 m
for nrsring radius rp'here 15 m < R < 30 m

Table 5: Correction factors for turning traffic

Factor for right-tuta, Fr

Factor for left-turn' Fl

s.96

1.00

10

0.93

1.00

15

0.90
0.87
0.84
0.82
0.79
0.77
0.75
0.73

0.99
0.98
0.97

0.71

0.90
0.89

Turning'Iraffic

20
25

30
35

40
45
50
55

60

0.69

0.95
0.94
0.93

*.92
0.91

BFC 3082 / 32302

F'INAL EXAMINATION
SEMESTEWSESSION

COURSE

: U20l2A3
: TRAFFIC ENGINEERING &

PROGRAMME :
:
COURSE CODE

3BFF
BFC3082132302

SAFETY

Table 6: Conversion factors to pcu

Yehicle ttrye
Fas*enger cars
fo{otorcvcles
Light Yans
Medium lclrries
Heaw lorsres
Buses

Equivalent pcu value


1.S*
G.33

1.?5

r.75
2.25
?,25

BFC 3082 t32302

FINAL EXAMINATION
SEMESTER/SESSION

COURSE

PROGRAMME :
:
COURSE CODE

: U20l2fi3
: TRAFFIC ENGINEERING &

3BFF
BFC3082/32302

SAFETY

Formula:

$SD = 0.?7SrV

(l_ _
DA
=

vr .

9.6

--"r-Yt-zsdr t

100,r
t -I-l

{'lll'

3D = 0.278V$ + t")

" ZaL 3.S J


Er . : r''mrn-

va

ft7{6max+f*"x}

1o,

nLn
=f,

Iti
i=l
dr = v"

x tt

dz = 2s

g,

v"

de=voxts
T5L:

fifi-

A
r
l-=#u*

ils=Ro{1

lui
= =i=!n

{4s/a

---

0.2v" + O

da=2/3d2

qt

-f >

8R

L:

Assn=#nnv

-cssp

Ms=*,,Lt

I = 2Rusin(AJ2)
l0

f1fi=

L{2s- L}
8H
A.

r. s,,
M-R{I*cosf}

-*[ffi}

BFC 3082 / 32302

FINAL EXAMINATION
SEMESTER/SESSION
COURSE

2OI2/13

T{L:

ILfnm

{6+rffi12

2s-

r*nin =

J<L:

etfr:,@l
A
AS2

ieo

.T>L:

Ltnin

= 25

il
nl

L+ t2J-tL xC
fm

ll

a{nr

- t--2)
A

Ef;K

3BFF
BFC3082/32302

COURSE CODE

AS2

Iqntn

s>L:

PROGRAMME

&

TRAFFIC ENGINEERING
SAFETY

r.j#-F

I hz) I

BFC 3082 / 32302

FINAL EXAMINATION
SEMESTER/SESSION

COURSE

o^ =

:
:

v 20t2lr3
TRAFFIC ENGINEERING
SAFETY

5729.578Ls
zooRc

sc=?-

- Ys - R*{1 -cosO*}

G =|*.

o,oo3*Fs3

E*

Ys=r,[?

SrT, =

$.$]

l-ff = 4"R"

= Xs

.r

Y-

sin0*

LT"*Xs-Yscot8*
LC-=

ft,

+plm}]

=|tn- +p)-**l-Rc

{d*_d__-'---l

=t-[ 1- ro - 218-Effi,|

3BFF
BFC3082/32302

COTJRSE CODE

Ac =A*2S*

xs

PROGRAMME

&

xs
cos$c

- R* sins*

Gsadisnt of superelevated pevement ='

t2

2*Yr2

BFC 30E2 | 32302

FINAL EXAMINATION
SEMESTER/SESSION

couRSE

i ll20r2lr3
: TRAFFIC ENGTNEERTNG &

PROGRAMME :
:
couRSE CODE

3BFF
BFC3082132302

SAFETY

\'^mrrymax *- GrL
A

fmirf max = elwatian@Bv0t Ymirf max


n

here

Ymirdmax

LP*

yo=
L*n

GlTmi'lmax

rss

'
- Efu{x*irv*"*}2

Gr*{Inten"a$ + LP,,-l

rrtrrere e

{l]t,

-LPn-yn

$;5?5Tf
LS$r=t.7*0.9{Z-?'6}
k

S*d=$xFgxFtxFrxFl

]'={r/s
L* E{I-a) + Ef,
l=R+a

V W+L
f;[=;_+_

lAv
t3

BFC 30t2 | 323V2

FINAL EXAMINATION
SEMESTEWSESSION

COURSE

: V}0LAI3
: TRAFFIC ENGINEERING &

PROGRAMME :
:
COURSE CODE

3BFF

BFC308A3B02

SAFETY

+5
c^-1.5L
t'
l-Y

Sr*&+,..+g=Co
.9r =

{tre
en

It
Yz

*+(Go -Ll

g-g+f+R
l{-G-a-R
= g + C*a
Fffiur*r*3

= pcu{F$r*.,r} x {1 * r}"

GFd;$ + ftr/L?Z)-T
APW = I

wrnr,

wh eta, wi- weigtage point of i type of accident


lti no. of accident of i type of accident

t4