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Integrating HACCP and SPC

Posted: February 25th, 2012 - 11:15am


Source: Food Safety Tech

Think about the role of process control as the canary in the mine shaft: the
canarys untimely death indicates a dangerous situation in the mine shaft, much
like HACCP alerts a plant manager of a potential hazard. And just as ventilating
the mine shaft and monitoring the process ensures that dangerous conditions
cannot arise, conducting statistical process control in a food processing plant will
prevent dangerous conditions from happening in the first place.
Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point is a food safety management system
designed to ensure the safe production and packaging of food. The HACCP
process (Table 1) has both strengths and limitations. It provides a systematic and
effective method to analyze a process, and identifies potential biological, chemical
and physical hazards that can occur in food. In addition, HACCP requires the
development of strategies to prevent the inclusion or reduction of these hazards
to an acceptable level in the food.

Table 1: Preliminary Tasks in the Development of the HACCP Plan and HACCP
Principles
TASKS PRINCIPLES
1. Assemble the HACCP team
1. Conduct a hazard analysis
2. Describe the food and its distribution 2. Determine the critical control points
(CCPs)
3. Describe the intended use and consumers of the food
3. Establish critical limits
4. Develop a flow diagram that describes the process
4. Establish monitoring procedures
5. Verify the flow diagram
5. Establish corrective actions
6. Establish verification procedures
7. Establish record-keeping and documentation procedures

The most effective way to avoid product hazard is to control the process properly
rather than relying on final product inspection. For example, a good HACCP
program cannot depend on microbiological tests as the means to prevent a
hazard because they are too slow to provide the real-time information needed to
maintain process control properly.
The problem, however, is that most HACCP monitoring systems take an attribute
approach to analyzing data. Even if variable data are collected to monitor a
critical control point, the data are typically categorized as either good (not
exceeding the critical limit) or bad (exceeding the critical limit). This approach
can limit the effective use of variable data by failing to detect process changes

over time, where the process control may be deteriorating before a problem
manifests itself.
One way to think about the role of process control is to consider the example of
the canary in the mine shaft. The canarys untimely death indicates a dangerous
situation in the mine shaft, much like HACCP alerts a plant manager of a potential
hazard. Just as ventilating the mine shaft and monitoring the process ensures that
dangerous conditions cannot arise, conducting statistical process control (SPC) in
a food processing plant will prevent dangerous conditions from happening in the
first place.
Statistical thinking
Food processors can strengthen HACCP programs by incorporating concepts of
statistical thinking. Statistical thinking, a term first used by the American Society
for Qualitys Statistics Division in 1960, is based on the following assumptions:
All work occurs in a system of interconnected processes;
Variation exists in all processes;
Understanding and reducing variation are the keys to success.
Recognizing the first assumption, conceptualizing all work in terms of
interconnected processes, ensures a thorough and detailed understanding of the
processing system. Next, understanding that every process displays variation as
an accepted fact of life prompts analysis of variation. Quality professionals need
to know the extent and predictability of process variation.
Variation can be divided into two types, common causes and special causes. If a
process is controlled and influenced so that the process output measurements are
predictable and vary within statistically defined upper and lower control chart
limits, then the process is said to be stable and in statistical control. Thus, only
common causes of variation are affecting the process. However, if the process
variability is uncontrolled, and the process output measurements do not fall within
the upper and lower control chart limits, the process is classified as unstable or
out of statistical control. The process is affected by special causes of variation.
The National Advisory Committee on the Microbiological Criteria for Foods adopted
this revised series of HACCP principles and application guidelines last year. The
basic premises for these principles have not changed; however, the principles are
now more concise and the definitions have been revised. In addition, the new
document emphasizes the importance of prerequisite programs, education and
training, and implementing and maintaining HACCP plans. There are also new
guidelines to help professionals select appropriate critical control points.
The final aspect of statistical thinking is the realization that variation is the enemy.
Variation must be reduced or eliminated if a company wants to increase
productivity and decrease waste significantly. Quality improvement theory states
that the first step of quality improvement is to remove the special causes of
variation by determining and eliminating the root cause of the problem. If only
common causes of variation are affecting the process, then the process is
operating at the most efficient point for the currently defined system.
Control charts

Control charts provide the primary tool to determine the extent and type of
process variation. They are used to analyze two major groups of data: variable
data, or measurement data, and attribute data, or count data. Table 2 describes
different types of control charts and their uses. The most effective control chart
that can be used to evaluate individual variable data that monitors control points
is the individual moving range (x-mR) control chart. This chart allows the
evaluation of individual data points rather than averages.
Table 2: Types of Control Charts
TYPE OF DATA
TYPE OF CHART USE OF CHART
Variable
Individual moving range (x-mR)
Each subsample is a data point
Average - range (x-bar R)
The subsample consists of less than ten data points
Average - standard deviation (x-bar s)
The subsample consists of ten or more data points
Attribute
p chart
Nonconforming units
np chart
Portion of nonconforming units
c chart
Nonconformities
u chart
Portion of nonconformities
Individual moving range (x-mR)
Any type of attribute data
Note: Some quality professionals suggest that most variable data can be analyzed
using either the individual moving range control chart or the x-bar R control chart,
and all attribute data can be analyzed using the individual moving range control
chart.
An alternative method to analyze HACCP data is to use a two-step evaluation
process. During the first step, data taken from the critical control point would be
compared to the critical limits to determine whether a potential for a food safety
hazard exists. Next, the data would be analyzed using an individual moving range
control chart (see case study). The control chart allows for a graphical
interpretation of the type and extent of variation that affects the process. If a
process is capable of meeting critical limits, then it is or could be possible to make
adjustments in the process prior to producing unsafe food. In addition, the
analysis can provide the means to identify potential opportunities for
improvements and increase the capability of the HACCP program, thus reducing
the risk of making unsafe food.
Any HACCP program should be directed to food safety issues. The process is not

designed to identify quality enhancement areas, even though well-designed


HACCP programs can enhance the quality of products. Likewise, quality
improvement processes can provide a HACCP benefit by reducing the risk of
having a food safety hazard. For example, a process/product improvement project
could center on reducing the amount of rework. This project may be implemented
to increase the productivity and decrease the rework. Specific quality
enhancement issues should be addressed through a quality management system
such as described in the ISO 9000 standards.
A HACCP program must be linked to, rather than combined with, other quality
systems. Each quality system is designed to accomplish specific objectives; it is
important to keep those objectives separate. First and foremost, food processing
companies must provide a safe supply of food. Still, a sound approach to increase
the efficacy of the HACCP system is to combine the traditional analysis of data
with the use of statistical quality techniques.
Case in point
Butterball Turkey Company, Downers Grove, IL, has applied this statistical
methodology to continually expand and improve its new Turkey Inspection
System. As part of the control system, the company routinely analyzes data using
control charts. Its process control charts and procedures are designed to identify
trends and adjust the process to reduce the risks that defective products are
generated. One example involves selecting carcasses and inspecting them for
generic E. coli. This is done to determine whether the birds contain unacceptable
levels of E. coli or other bacteria.
Sampling and bacterial testing
Carcasses are aseptically sampled at the end of the chill system, after the drip
line, using statistical sampling procedures. During the time these data were
collected
the whole-bird rinse technique was used. The carcasses were collected in a bag
containing 600 mL of Butterfields phosphate diluent. Next, they were rinsed
inside and out by using a rocking motion of 30 cycles for approximately one
minute. The rinse water was collected and plated using the AOAC 17.3.04 method.
Results were reported as colony forming units per milliliter (CFU/mL). Data were
statistically analyzed and control strategies were developed. This method of
sampling has been replaced by a swab sampling procedure, but the concepts
presented remain applicable for process control.
Process analysis
Figures 1 through 3 demonstrate the analysis of this data using histograms and
individual moving range control charts. During the first part of the sample year,
statistical analysis revealed that the process was both stable and very capable
(Figure 1).
Identifying root problems
At the end of January, a major manufacturing change was made in a Butterball
plant that inadvertently resulted in a slight increase of the E. coli levels of the
birds (Figure

2). The level was still below the critical level. Fortunately, because the process
was very capable, the problems were identified and a corrective action team
comprising plant operations, quality assurance, maintenance and procurement
personnel was formed to identify and remove the problems root cause. As part of
the solution, procurement personnel worked closely with the producers to
maintain and improve the conditions of the birds coming into the plant. In
addition, new chlorinated spray cabinets were added to the processing line after
the pickers. Also, the first and final wash cabinets were improved to include a new
chlorinating system and higher water pressures. Checks were implemented to
control and verify chlorine levels and water pressures. Additionally inspectors
were added to the line after the final wash and before the birds entered the chill
system.
Conclusion
Butterball has successfully linked the monitoring of control points to statistical
process control, and the quality improvement processes. This linkage has
permitted the
development of a highly capable manufacturing process. As a result, if a change
or other factor affects the system, a quality improvement team can identify the
root cause of the problem and take corrective and preventive action. This strategy
has additional benefits to the company: It increases employee involvement,
awareness, attention to detail and motivation, while improving quality and
productivity.
Note: The above is a classic study initially published in Food Quality Magazine,
May 1998, with another version published as Clemson University Cooperative
Extension Service EB 152, September 1998. The line of thinking developed in this
study has had a significant impact on the development of modern Food Safety
Management Systems. One of the authors, John Surak, has long been a strong
proponent of the role process management in food safety management systems.
This is reflected in his contributions to the ISO 22000 standard.

About the Authors:


Jeffery L. Cawley is Vice President, Industry Leadership, for Northwest Analytics,
Inc., a Portland, OR-based provider of SPC, manufacturing analytics and plant floor
quality and HACCP systems. He and John Surak have actively worked for the last
decade to establish the role of statistically based process management in
successful HACCP systems. Jeff be reached atjcawley@nwasoft.com.
John G. Surak, Ph.D., is Professor of Food Science at Clemson University and
principal of Surak and Associates, which provides consulting for food safety and
quality management systems, auditing management systems, designing and
implementing process control systems, and implementing Six Sigma and business
analytics systems. Surak can be reached at jgsurak@yahoo.com.
Syed Ajaz Hussain, Ph.D., is Director of Product Development, for Butterball Turkey
Company, based in Darien, IL. Reach him at syed@syedconsulting.com.

HACCP The Basics and Benefits


(This post is Part 1 of a series of

HACCP training blogs and is a

continuation of our earlier post HACCP - A Worthy Subject)

Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points (HACCP) can be simply viewed as a
prevention based food safety system that identifies and monitors specific food
safety hazards that can adversely affect the safety of food products.

HACCP is

internationally recognized as the best method to ensure food safety and can be
applied at all stages of food production, from harvest through to consumption.

The standards for

HACCP systems have been the subject of much debate

and interpretation, however, in recent years the Codex Alimentarius Commissions


methodology for HACCP has become the universally accepted standard. Most
government organizations and food businesses throughout the world now align
their interpretation of HACCP to the principles and guidelines set out by the Codex
Alimentarius Commission.

HACCP is a two part process. The first part is to identify potential food safety
hazards (this is also known as

hazard analysis) and the second part is to

design a system that prevents or eliminates hazards. The proper identification of


potential food safety hazards is a critical part of HACCP as the entire HACCP
system depends on the effective identification of significant hazards. HACCP
systems therefore, need to be developed by a multidisciplinary team of people
who understand the food production operations and must be specifically designed
for individual food production processes.

As well as providing a cost effective system for controlling food safety,


implementingHACCP also has the following benefits:

Reduced risk of foodborne illness


Focuses employees on food safety precautions and improves their understanding
of food safety hazards
Reduced product loss and decreased likelihood of food recalls
Protection of business reputation and reduced liability risk
Meets large retailers prerequisite supplier standards

Helps to open the door to international trade markets.

Today the benefits of HACCP are widely recognized by food manufacturers and
food retailers.

HACCP systems are implemented across the world by most

large food companies, and also by many medium and small sized food
businesses. Looking forward, HACCP implementation will increase in all food
industry sectors with HACCP systems being commonly used in every type and size
of food business.

Food safety: Thermal


The application of heat is both an important method of preserving foods
by destroying vegetative cells & spores and a means of developing
texture, flavor, color and aroma. It has long been recognized that thermal
technologies must ensure the food safety without compromising food
quality. But still, there is always a contradiction for food safety on
Thermal processing, as we generally ensure the food safety with heat
treatments and the general perception of consumer/manufacturer
recognizes only with loss of nutrients.
Improving the thermal processing of foods summarizes key research both
on improving particular techniques and measuring their effectiveness.
The two basic factors are crucial for effectiveness and efficiency of any
thermal processing technique as:

- Time
- Temperature
How much time at a particular temperature is required to kill the specific
number of micro-organisms to ensure food safety. Time and temperature
are inversely proportional, as the temperature rises, the time of
processing decreases and can easily be calculated as TDT (thermal death
time) for a particular pathogen.
The processing methods are designed as:

- Batch (LTLT- Low temperature long time)


- Continuous (HTST- High temperature short time)
The food safety is ensured with the application of heat by destroying
vegetative cells & spores, but in case of high acidic foods
( pH<4.6),>generally do not require a high temperature heat treatment,
because acidic foods resists the growth of vegetative cells & spores.

Techniques of ensuring food safety by heat treatments:

- Cooking/frying/roasting
- Heating/boiling/thawing
- Pasteurization
- Sterilization
- UHT (Ultra high temperature)
There are various other techniques of heat treatment, but our major
concern is with food safety. The question here is, have we ensured the
safety of food with heat treatments?
To be able to account food to be safe for human consumption, we need
some more considerations apart from heat, they are:
- Fouling of equipments
- Rusting of equipments
For Food safety, heat treatment by steam or dry air, these above factors
always comes in existence. Fouling refers to the accumulation of
unwanted material on solid surfaces also known as scaling, scale
formation and sludge formation. Rusting is a common term used for
corrosion, occurs when equipments gets contact with water and oxygen.
Because of these factors the effectiveness of heat treatment lower down
and chances of food deterioration occurs.
In food industries, to prevent these problems, equipments made with
steel are used and to ensure the effectiveness, efficiency, food
safety one must to apply manual cleaning or CIP/SIP (Cleaning in place /
Sterilization in place) for equipments.
In the next blog, Ill discuss the food safety by Microbial means
Food safety: Microbial
Upcoming articles:
- Food safety: Chemical
- Food safety: Microbial
- Food safety: Irradiation

- Ozone and Food safety


Related posts:
- Food safety: Physical/Visible
- HPP- High pressure processing
POS TED BY VIS HAL GUPTA AT 12:19 PM 0 COMM ENTS
LABELS: BASICS OF FOOD SAFETY

W E D N E S D A Y, M A Y 1 9 , 2 0 1 0

Food safety: HPP- High pressure processing


Many

methods

of

food

preservation

are

used

for

ensuring food

safety, among which high pressure processing (HPP) seems a very


promising technique for food industry, as it offers numerous opportunities
for developing new shelf life stable foods with extended shelf-life, high
nutritional value and excellent organoleptic characteristics.
High Pressure Processing
High Pressure Processing (HPP) is a method of food processing where food
is subjected to elevated pressures with or without the addition of heat, to
achieve microbial inactivation or to alter the food attributes in order to
achieve consumer-desired qualities. Pressure inactivates most vegetative
bacteria at pressures above 60,000 pounds per square inch. HPP retains
food quality, maintains natural freshness, and extends microbiological
shelf life.
In a typical HPP process, the product is packaged in a flexible container
(usually a pouch or plastic bottle) and is loaded into a high pressure
chamber filled with a pressure-transmitting (hydraulic) fluid. The hydraulic
fluid (normally water) in the chamber is pressurized with a pump, and this
pressure is transmitted through the package into the food itself. Pressure
is applied for a specific time, usually 3 to 5 minutes. The processed
product is then removed and stored/distributed in the conventional
manner. Because the pressure is transmitted uniformly (in all directions

simultaneously), food retains its shape, even at extreme pressures and


because no heat is needed, the sensory characteristics of the food are
retained without compromising food safety.
Food product stability

During HPP, pressure is uniformly applied around and throughout the food product

HPP cannot be universally applied to all types of foods

HPP can be used to process both liquid and solid foods

Foods with a high acid content are particularly good candidates for
HPP technology

HPP cannot yet be used to make shelf-stable versions of low-acid


products such as vegetables, milk, or soups because of the inability
of this process to destroy spores without added heat

Food products are an excellent environment for growth of pathogenic


microorganisms, which may cause food-borne diseases. Quality and shelf
life of food products depend greatly on the properties of microorganisms
contaminating the food. For this reason, the control of microorganisms is
an important aspect of food quality and food safety.
In the next blog, Ill discuss the food safety by thermal means
Food safety: Thermal
Upcoming articles:
- Food safety: Chemical
- Food safety: Microbial
- Food safety: Irradiation
- Ozone and Food safety
Related posts:

- Food safety: Physical/Visible


POS TED BY VIS HAL GUPTA AT 1:45 PM 1 COM MENTS
LABELS: BASICS OF FOOD SAFETY

M O N D A Y, A P R I L 1 9 , 2 0 1 0

Food Safety - Why should I do it?


Food safety: Physical/Visible

Whenever anyone one of us eats or drinks something, we have certain


expectations from that food e.g. it should look, smell and taste as expected. But
what happens when something unexpected occurs, such as finding a foreign
material in the food, food is considered to be spoiled or unsafe. Food
safety concerns a lot for consumable food items. The expectations are
categorized as:

- Safe Food
- Natural
- Convenient
- Healthy

Foreign materials in foods are a real concern, not only in terms of the consumer
complaints that arise, but as an important factor in the effective implementation
of the company's food safety guidelines, particularly the Hazard Analysis
Critical Control (HACCP) system.

Risk Categories:

- Low risk
- Medium risk
- High risk

Raw material/finished goods inspection and specification testing, vendor


certification, standard operating procedures (SOP), equipment calibration,
effective pest control in the facility, preventative equipment maintenance and
proper cleaning and sanitation procedures are the requirements to establish food

safety/HACCP systems.

Broad benefits of food safety to a product manufacturers are:

- Separation of means of pathogens/contamination


- Increased product shelf life
- New product developments

Selection of appropriate and efficient processing methods will prevent physical


hazards in food and ensure consumer safety. There are lots of recent advances
developed to provide food safety, natural, safe and healthy food as per
expectations of the consumers.

In the next blog, I'll discuss new food safety technology developed such as
HPP High Pressure Processing

Upcoming articles:

- Food safety: Thermal


- Food safety: Chemical
- Food safety: Microbial
- Food safety: Irradiation
- Ozone and Food safety

Computer Software A HACCP Development Tool


Computers and their software have become the most widely used tools in todays
world to manage data and are used in all aspects of business. The use of
computers to aid food safety management has evolved progressively in the last
few years, with computer based HACCP software emerging as an effective tool to
help support the development of

HACCP systems. Computer based HACCP

development software can provide the following benefits:

time savings

reduction in the amount of paper work and files


ensure that all HACCP system development steps are completed and none are
overlooked
provide technical knowledge of food safety hazards, control measures,
monitoring procedures and verification procedures
help to keep HACCP data organized and up-to-date.

Whilst there are many benefits to using computer based HACCP development
software, it must be appreciated that computer software can only be a tool to aid
the development of aHACCP

system. Food product knowledge, production

expertise and professional judgement are still required to develop an effective


HACCP system. It is also important to understand that computer based HACCP
development software needs to be flexible to enable the development of HACCP
systems that are specific to food production processes and suitable for individual
food businesses. Furthermore, computer based HACCP development software
needs to be easy to use and allow HACCP systems to be effectively updated when
new production processes are introduced, when production processes change or
whenever updating is necessary.

With all of the above in mind, NSF-CMi has developed a Microsoft Excel based
Practical

HACCP Toolkit for food manufacturers and food retailers. Our

Practical HACCP Toolkit has been developed to meet the HACCP needs of small to
medium sized food businesses in the Asia Pacific region and to comply with the
HACCP principles set out by the internationally recognized Codex Alimentarius
Commission. Our Practical HACCP Toolkit provides a step by step approach to
developing an effective HACCP system by:

guiding the user through the five preliminary steps of developing a

HACCP

plan
generating process flow diagrams
helping the user create HACCP plans for different food products
allowing product specific food safety hazards to be inputted
allowing process specific control measures and monitoring procedures to be
included
automatically producing critical control points verifications sheets
creating checklists for prerequisite programmes

providing example HACCP records which can be saved and printed.

Computer based HACCP development software has the potential to be a powerful


tool to help food businesses create HACCP systems, however, it is important to
choose the right software and it must be appreciated that production knowledge
and business commitment will always be needed to develop and maintain an
effective HACCP system.

If you would like to receive more information about developing an effective


HACCP system for your food business or you would like to see how our Microsoft
Excel based Practical HACCP Toolkit can help you develop a

HACCP

system, please contact:

HACCP A Worthy Subject


Thinking about the recent increased focus on food safety by Government
regulatory agencies and news organizations across the world, I thought that
Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points (or

HACCP as it is commonly

known) is a worthy subject to spend some time discussing. My plan during the
coming few weeks is to write a series of

HACCP training blogs

based around the following areas of HACCP:

HACCP The Basics and Benefits


Prerequisite Programmes for HACCP
Food Safety Hazards
The Five Preliminary Steps to Developing a HACCP Plan
The Seven Principles of HACCP
HACCP and Food Safety Training.

Currently, there is no better time to develop an effective

HACCP

system to help ensure the safety of the food that you produce.
Government regulatory agencies across Asia are now providing more resources
for the education, control and enforcement of food safety standards than ever
before, with HACCP being viewed as an integral part of the process. India is one
country in particular that is focused on improving food safety standards. Through

the establishment of the Food Safety & Standards Authority of India (FSSAI) and
the introduction of new food safety laws and educational programmes,
improvements in food safety awareness and standards are already resulting in
safer food supply chains.

You will see from my upcoming blogs that HACCP is not difficult to understand
and

HACCP plans do not need to be complex, however, an effective

HACCP system does require planning, production process expertise and continued
business commitment. As a general rule, the simpler and more focused a HACCP
plan is the more likely that it will be implemented correctly and food safety
hazards will be controlled.

I hope you will find my

HACCP training blogs beneficial and they

will help to improve your understanding of HACCP, encourage you to develop a


HACCP system for your business and most importantly result in safer food being
produced.

HACCP The Basics and Benefits


(This post is Part 1 of a series of

HACCP training blogs and is a

continuation of our earlier post HACCP - A Worthy Subject)

Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points (HACCP) can be simply viewed as a
prevention based food safety system that identifies and monitors specific food
safety hazards that can adversely affect the safety of food products.

HACCP is

internationally recognized as the best method to ensure food safety and can be
applied at all stages of food production, from harvest through to consumption.

The standards for

HACCP systems have been the subject of much debate

and interpretation, however, in recent years the Codex Alimentarius Commissions


methodology for HACCP has become the universally accepted standard. Most
government organizations and food businesses throughout the world now align
their interpretation of HACCP to the principles and guidelines set out by the Codex
Alimentarius Commission.

HACCP is a two part process. The first part is to identify potential food safety
hazards (this is also known as

hazard analysis) and the second part is to

design a system that prevents or eliminates hazards. The proper identification of


potential food safety hazards is a critical part of HACCP as the entire HACCP
system depends on the effective identification of significant hazards. HACCP
systems therefore, need to be developed by a multidisciplinary team of people
who understand the food production operations and must be specifically designed
for individual food production processes.

As well as providing a cost effective system for controlling food safety,


implementingHACCP also has the following benefits:

Reduced risk of foodborne illness


Focuses employees on food safety precautions and improves their understanding
of food safety hazards
Reduced product loss and decreased likelihood of food recalls
Protection of business reputation and reduced liability risk
Meets large retailers prerequisite supplier standards
Helps to open the door to international trade markets.

Today the benefits of HACCP are widely recognized by food manufacturers and
food retailers.

HACCP systems are implemented across the world by most

large food companies, and also by many medium and small sized food
businesses. Looking forward, HACCP implementation will increase in all food
industry sectors with HACCP systems being commonly used in every type and size
of food business.

Prerequisite Programmes for HACCP


(This post is Part 2 of a series of

HACCP training

blogs and is a

continuation of our earlier post HACCP The Basics and Benefits)

Prerequisite programmes (PRPs) are all the processes and hardware


that work alongside the HACCP system. They provide the basic environmental and
operating conditions essential for the safe production of food. Unlike HACCP which
is product and process specific, prerequisite programmes are more general and
apply to all areas in a food production facility. Examples of prerequisite
programmes include, but are not limited to, Good Manufacturing Practices
(GMPs), Good Hygiene Practices (GHPs), Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs)

and Sanitation Standard Operating Procedures (SSOPs). The design and


construction of food premises are also part of the prerequisite programmes.

HACCP is not a standalone system. Prerequisite programmes are critical to the


successful application of HACCP as they provide the foundations for developing
effective

HACCP systems. Prior to implementing HACCP and also after a

HACCP plan is implemented, it is imperative that prerequisite programmes are in


place.

The common

prerequisite programmes for food production relate to:

Construction, layout and facilities of premises


Supplies of water, power and other utilities
Waste control
Equipment suitability cleaning and maintenance
Measures for the prevention of cross contamination
Supplier control and management of purchased materials
Cleaning and sanitizing
Pest control
Personal hygiene
Training
Transportation
Traceability systems
Recall procedures.

Whilst the above list of prerequisite programmes is reasonably comprehensive


and most of the prerequisite programmes will be relevant to all types of food
businesses. It is important to appreciate that the prerequisite programmes that
need to be implemented by a food business depends on the size and type of food
production operation and the nature of the products being produced.

When choosing and developing

prerequisite programmes it is essential

to consider information from the following sources:

Statutory and regulatory requirements


Industry standards and codes of practices

Codex Alimentarius Commission principles and codes of practices


International food safety standards e.g. FSSC 22000, BRC, SQF, IFS and Dutch
HACCP
Customer requirements
Historic data such as audit reports and customer complaints.

All prerequisite programs should be documented, regularly audited, reviewed


periodically and modified when necessary. As a general rule, prerequisite
programmes are managed separately from

HACCP plans, however,

sometimes there may be certain parts of prerequisite programmes that are


integrated into a HACCP plan.

The Five Preliminary Steps to Developing a HACCP Plan


(This post is Part 4 of a series of

HACCP training blogs and is a

continuation of our earlier post Food Safety Hazards)

The internationally recognized Codex Alimentarius Commission outlines five


preliminary steps that need to be completed before developing a

HACCP

plan. These preliminary steps will help ensure that a HACCP system is effective
and safe food is produced.

Preliminary Step 1 Assemble HACCP Team


To ensure that all likely hazards and critical control points (CCPs) are identified, a
multidisciplinary team of people must be assembled to develop, implement and
maintain theHACCP

system.

The HACCP Team needs to be formed with people who have operational
experience, product specific knowledge and a good understanding of the
production process. The HACCP Team should include the following types of
employees: Quality Control (QC), technical staff, production managers /
supervisors, laboratory personnel, engineering staff and sanitation staff.

A HACCP Team Leader needs to be designated to oversee the development,


implementation and maintenance of the HACCP system. The HACCP Team Leader
must have a good understanding of HACCP and a working knowledge of the

product and its production process.

Preliminary Step 2 Describe Product


A full description of the product needs to be prepared to provide a profile of the
product and to help determine the food safety hazards associated with its
production.

Product Descriptions must describe relevant food safety information, such as:

Available water
pH
End product characteristics e.g. shape, size, colour, texture, odour etc.
Method of preservation
Packaging
Storage conditions
Shelf life
Special labelling information
Customer preparation
Method of distribution.

Preliminary Step 3 Identify Intended Use


It is important to identify the expected use of a product by the end user or
consumer (e.g. cooked before consumption or ready to eat without cooking)
because the intended use of a product will affect hazard analysis decisions.

Intended use information also needs to identify whether the end user will be the
general public or a specific consumer group, particularly vulnerable groups of the
population such as infants, the elderly, pregnant women, ill people, immunocompromised persons or cancer patients.

Preliminary Step 4 Construct Flow Diagram


The HACCP Team needs to create a flow diagram that provides a clear, simple
outline of all inputs, steps and outputs in the food production process. The main

steps in the process must be set out, including any rework or recycling of
materials.

The flow diagram will provide the basis for carrying out a systematic hazard
analysis.

Preliminary Step 5 On-site Confirmation of Flow


Diagram
An on-site review of the flow diagram must be carried out to check that the flow
diagram accurately reflects the production process for the product. The HACCP
Team should follow the production process on-site and check that the flow
diagram includes all steps that are carried out.

When verifying the accuracy of the flow diagram consideration needs to be given
to different shifts and hours of operation, different batch sizes, optional
ingredients and non-routine steps such as maintenance of equipment.

After the five preliminary steps to developing a

HACCP plan have been

completed, a solid foundation is in place to successfully apply to the seven


principles of HACCP.
POS TED BY ANDREW COMBELLACK AT 10:09 AM 0 COM MENTS
LABELS: HACCP

M O N D A Y, D E C E M B E R 7 , 2 0 0 9

Food Safety Hazards


(This post is Part 3 of a series of

HACCP training blogs and is a

continuation of our earlier post Prerequisite Programmes for HACCP)

Food safety hazards are found throughout the food supply chain and can
be described as:

biological, physical or chemical agents in food that are reasonably likely to cause
illness or injury in the absence of their control.

There are three main types of food safety hazards:

1.

Biological Hazards Caused by bacteria, viruses or parasites that are

present in air, food, water, soil, animals and humans.

Food infections and food intoxications can cause severe vomiting, diarrhoea,
nausea, abdominal pain and fever to one or lots of people, they can even result in
death in some serious cases.

Biological hazards receive the most attention in

HACCP systems due to

presenting the greatest risk of harm and the highest frequency of occurrence.

Microorganisms of concern include:

Salmonella species, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Shigella, Clostridium


perfringens, Clostridium botulinum, Listeria
monocytogenes, Campylobacter, Hepatitis A and Rotovirus.

2.

Physical Hazards Foreign bodies in food are usually due to accidental

contamination and / or poor handling practices. Physical hazards are most


recognized by consumers as they usually find this food safety hazard.

Examples of physical hazards include:

Metal, glass, wood, insects, stones, soil, dirt, jewellery, hair, fingernails, plasters,
personal items, bone, nuts / bolts, wire, plastic, paper and cardboard.

3.

Chemical Hazards

Can include:

CLEANING CHEMICAL RESIDUES: Chemicals used for cleaning and sanitizing food
contact surfaces

FACTORY CONTAMINANTS: Pest control chemicals, lubricants, coatings, paints,


refrigerants and water treatment chemicals

AGRICULTURAL RESIDUES: Pesticides, fertilizers, fungicides, antibiotics and


growth hormones

FOOD ALLERGENS: Eggs, fish, milk, peanuts, sesame seeds, soy, sulphites, tree
nuts and wheat

NATURALLY OCCURRING HARMFUL CHEMICALS: Mycotoxins, scombrotoxin


(histamine), mushroom toxins and shellfish toxins

INDUSTRIAL HEAVY METALS: Lead, zinc, cadmium, arsenic and mercury.

Food safety hazards are best controlled through the use of

HACCP

systems. All significant food safety hazards at each stage of production must
be identified in a HACCP plan. Once you know where food safety hazards
occur, it is possible to implement control measures to prevent, reduce or
eliminate food safety hazards to an acceptable level.

The Seven Principles of HACCP


(This post is Part 5 of a series of

HACCP training blogs and is a

continuation of our earlier post The Five Preliminary Steps to Developing a HACCP
Plan)
The Codex Alimentarius Commission sets out seven principles for the basis
of

HACCP systems. The Seven Principles of HACCP should only be applied

after the Five Preliminary Steps to Developing a HACCP Plan have been
completed.

Principle 1 Conduct a Hazard Analysis


Effective hazard identification and hazard analysis are essential to the
development of a successful

HACCP plan.

Firstly, the HACCP Team must think about the product and process to identify all
hazards (biological, physical and chemical) that may be reasonably expected to
occur at each step in the production process.
When identifying hazards it is necessary to consider:

Hazards introduced by inputs at each step


Hazards introduced as a consequence of applying the process step itself (e.g.
metal fragments from processing equipment)
Hazards carried over in the product from the previous step
Adverse impacts of process steps on existing hazards (e.g. growth of
microorganisms).
Secondly, the HACCP Team must carry out a hazard analysis to identify for the
HACCP plan which hazards are of such a nature that their elimination or reduction
to acceptable levels is essential to the production of safe food.
Thirdly, the HACCP Team must consider what control measure(s), if any, exist
which can be applied for each hazard.

Principle 2 Determine the Critical Control Points


(CCPs)
A Critical Control Point (CCP) is a step at which control can be applied and is
essential to prevent or eliminate a food safety hazard or reduce it to an
acceptable level.
The HACCP team must evaluate whether there are any CCPs in the process and
whether there is more than one CCP for controlling hazards. It is imperative that
CCPs are determined logically and carefully as this is the most important principle
of HACCP.
As well as the HACCP team's professional judgement, expertise and knowledge of
the process, a CCP Decision Tree can be used to help determine if a process
control measure is a CCP.

Principle 3 Establish Critical Limit(s) for Each CCP


Critical Limits are criterion which separates acceptability from unacceptability at a
CCP.
The HACCP Team must define and justify critical limits for each CCP. In some
processes, more than one critical limit may be needed at a particular step. Setting
critical limits (or the amount of acceptable deviation for each CCP) allows

evaluation of when a CCP is out of control and when product safety is


compromised.
Critical limits must be measurable and they should be parameters that can be
effectively monitored on an on-going basis. Common parameters used for critical
limits include measurements of temperature, time, moisture level, pH, water
activity, available chlorine and sensory parameters such as visual appearance and
texture.

Principle 4 Establish a System to Monitor Control of


Each CCP
Each CCP must be monitored to confirm that critical limits at each CCP are being
met and food safety ensured.

Monitoring methods must be able to quickly detect a loss of control at a CCP in


order to enable corrective actions to be taken immediately. Common CCP
monitoring procedures involve visual observations, aroma, and measurements of
temperature, time, pH and moisture.
If monitoring is not continuous, the monitoring frequency chosen must be
sufficient to ensure the adequate and consistent control of each CCP.

Principle 5 Establish the Corrective Action to be Taken


when Monitoring Indicates that a Particular CCP is Not
Under Control
Specific procedures must be developed for each CCP to describe what corrective
action will be taken if monitoring indicates that critical limits are not being met
and a CCP in not under control.
Corrective action procedures should include the following information:
Person responsible for taking corrective action
How to regain control at a CCP
What to do with the product produced during the period of loss of control
Action to prevent the problem from happening again

Escalating response if preventative action fails


Records to be kept.

Principle 6 Establish Procedures for Verification to


Confirm that the HACCP System is Working Effectively
Verification is the application of methods, procedures, tests and other
evaluations, in addition to monitoring to determine compliance with the HACCP
plan.
Verification procedures must be established to check that the

HACCP

system is working effectively. The frequency of verification should be sufficient


to confirm that the HACCP system is working correctly and consistently.
HACCP system verification activities include:
Review of the HACCP system and its records
Observation of operations at CCPs
Asking employees questions, especially those that monitor CCPs
Routine checks of monitoring procedures and equipment
Review of critical limit deviations and non-conforming product handling and
dispositions
Internal auditing of the HACCP system
External 3rd party auditing of the HACCP system
Microbiological sampling of product contact surfaces
Microbiological sampling of the product
Official evaluation of the product.

Principle 7 Establish Documentation Concerning all


Procedures and Records Appropriate to these Principles
and their Application
Accurate documentation and records must be developed as they are an essential
part of HACCP. Hand written and computer records are equally acceptable, but
documentation and record keeping does need to be appropriate to the nature and
size of the operation.
Examples of documentation and records are:

Original HACCP study (e.g. HACCP Team, product description, hazard analysis,
CCP determination, identification and selection of critical limits etc.)
CCP monitoring activities
Critical limit deviations and the associated corrective actions taken
Verification procedures
Internal and external audits
HACCP system reviews and modifications.

HACCP and Food Safety Training


(This post is Part 6 of a series of HACCP training blogs and is a continuation of our
earlier post The Seven Principles of HACCP)

The key to successful

HACCP systems is training, employee behaviour and

commitment to food safety at all levels within a company. It is essential that all
personnel directly or indirectly involved in food production are given adequate
training to ensure that they are aware of their roles and responsibilities in
maintaining food safety.

To facilitate effective

food safety training food manufacturers should

have a written training programme that is specific to their production operations.


Food safety training programmes should include:

Induction training on the fundamentals of food safety (given before a person


starts work)
Basic food safety training that builds on the knowledge provided during
induction training (given during the first couple of months of employment)
On-the-job training relating specifically to work tasks and practices
Periodic refresher training to reinforce understanding of work procedures and
ensure that employees remain aware of all work practices
Development training as job responsibilities increase or change
Update training on new working practices or changes to existing work
procedures.

To support the implementation of a

food safety training programme it is

necessary to maintain training records. Training records should include a

summary of the training provided, the dates of the training, results of any
evaluation assessments and the signature of the person receiving the training.

When considering the training needs within your company, it must be appreciated
that the type of training required will vary between different groups of employees.
It is essential that the employee training provided is at a level appropriate to the
work tasks that will be carried out. For example:

The HACCP Team, particularly the HACCP Team Leader should have a good
understanding of:

Food safety hazards associated to products and processes


Good Manufacturing Practices (GMPs) for the production facility
The purpose of prerequisite programmes
The principles of HACCP, particularly hazard analysis, identification of CCPs and
the determination of critical limits
Concepts of monitoring, corrective actions and verification
Importance of record keeping and documentation
Audit principles and the benefits of internal audits
Regulatory requirements
The importance of management commitment.

Food production supervisors and managers should have a good


understanding of:

Food safety risks and food hygiene procedures


The specific responsibilities associated with supervising and managing food
manufacturing operations
The principles of effective food safety management
The basics of HACCP
The importance of implementing control measures and CCPs
The importance of the critical control points for which they are responsible,
including the critical limits, the procedures for monitoring, corrective actions if
critical limits are not met and the records to be kept.

Food production personnel should at least be knowledgeable of:

Food safety risks associated with the products they handle


The safe handling of food
How to protect food from being contaminated

Maintenance personnel should have an understanding of:

How maintenance activities can have an impact on food safety


The importance of preventative maintenance
The dangers associated with temporary repairs
Equipment deficiencies that could affect product safety

Sanitation personnel should have an understanding of:

The principles and methods of effective cleaning and sanitizing


The safe use and storage of chemicals
How to protect food from chemical contamination.

In addition to providing food safety training to employees, it is imperative that


employees are supervised and instructed when working, particularly new
personnel or those undertaking new work tasks. The competency of employees
should be evaluated through routine supervision and periodic checks on the
procedures that are being carried out. Where deficiencies are identified re-training
must be undertaken as necessary.

Training is fundamental to food safety management and any

HACCP

system. Giving employees knowledge and skills will significantly reduce the
risks associated with food production and help to ensure the consistent
production of safe food.

Semester - III
Food Chemistry
Foods and Nutrition
Principles of Food Processing and Preservation
Food Storage and Transport Engineering
Fruits and Vegetables Processing Technology
IT Application in Food Industry
Village Adoption

Semester - IV
Biochemistry
Food Microbiology and Safety
Food Engineering I
Technology of Milk and Milk Products Processing
Food Industrial Economics
Agripractices and Environmental Sciences

Semester - V
Instrumental Methods of Food Analysis
Food Engineering - II
Food Packaging Technology
Food Biotechnology
Cereals, Pulses and Oilseeds Technology

Semester - VI
Food Additives and Ingredients
Instrumentation and Process Control
Meat, Fish and Poultry Product Technology
Food Laws, Standards and Regulation
Food Production Trends and Programmes
Business Plan Development

Semester - VII
Food Plant Design and Process Modelling
Food Product Development and Sensory Evaluation