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Zaglavlje konferencije

iNDiS 2012

UTICAJ DILATACIJA U BETONU I ARMATURI NA NOSIVOST


TEMELJA SAMACA OD ARMIRANOG BETONA
1.1. INTRODUCTION
Zoran Boni
Verka Prolovi
Neboja Davidovi
Nikola Romi
Marija Spasojevi-urdilovi
Behavior of column footings resting on the deformable bedding is usually studied as

INFLUENCE OF STRAINS IN REINFORCEMENT AND


CONCRETE
THE BEARING
CAPACITY
REINFORCED
Rezime: EksperimentiON
na temeljima
su bili vrlo retki
i izvoeni suOF
u laboratorijama
gde je tlo
CONCRETE
COLUMN
FOOTINGS
simulirano na razliite naine. Cilj ovog istraivanja je da se sprovede eksperiment probijanja pod
okolnostima koje bi bile to blie realnim uslovima kako u pogledu temelja tako i u pogledu tla. Na
bazi rezultata sprovedenih analiza moe biti definisan mehanizam probijanja i dati odgovori na
pitanja kakva je pri tome uloga dilatacije u armaturi i betonu. Ovo bi ukazalo na parameter iji je
uticaj dominantan pri probijanju temelja samaca i na koje bi se trebalo usredsrediti pri daljim
istraivanjima.
Kljune rei: Plitki temelji, probijanje, armirani beton,armatura, dilatacije

laboratory tests, which created difficulties in the process of simulation of real conditions. Due
to the complexity of the problem in organizational and mechanical terms, experiments on the
footings have so far been very rare. Table 1 presents the authors and the characteristics of the
tested column footings from literature.
Abstract: The experiments on foundations have been rare so far, and they were performed in
laboratories, where soil was simulated in various ways. The goal of this research is to perform the
punching shear experiments in the circumstances which are as close as possible to real conditions both in
terms of the foundations, and in terms of the soil. On the basis of the results of conducted analysis
punching shear mechanism can be defined and provided answers to questions such as what is the
influence of strains in reinforcement and and in concrete. This would indicate the parameters whose
influence is dominant in the course of punching shear of column footings and these parameters should be
focused on in the further research.
Key words: Shallow foundations, punching shear, reinforced concrete, reinforcement, strains
PhD, Assistant Professor, Faculty of Civil Engineering and Architecture, University of Nis,
A.Medvedeva 14, zokibon@yahoo.com
PhD, Fully Professor, the same Institution, vprolovic@yahoo.com
MSc, assistant, the same Institution, dnebojsa@gaf.ni.ac.rs
PhD Student, Master Engineer of Civil Engineering, the same Institution, romicnikola@yahoo.com
MSc, assistant, the same Institution, marija.spasojevic.surdilovic@gaf.ni.ac.rs

Table 1 - Properties of tested column footings from literature

Author
Hegger and
Ricker(Hegger 2006,2007)
Timm(Timm, 2003)

Year

Kordina and
Nlting(Hegger 2006,2007)
Dieterle and
Steinle(Hegger 2006.2007)
Rivkin(Rivkin 1967)
Richart(Hegger
2006,2007)

Talbot(Talbot 1913)

No.

Geometry of footing
Dimension
Effective
Shape
[mm]
depth [mm]

2005 sand in the box

quadratic

2003

line

10

line/surface

14

quadratic 760 to 1080


quadratic
and
850 to 960
circular

1987

surface

13

quadratic 1500 to 3000 320 to 800

1981

surface

11

rectangul
1500 to 1800 193 to 343
ar

1981

surface

quadratic 1800 to 3000 700 to 740

1967

surface/clay
and sand

quadratic 650and 1000

120

1948

spring

149

quadratic
and
610 to 3000
circular

200 to 740

1913

spring

Hallgren(Hallgren1998,2002) 1998
Dieterle and
Rostasy(Hegger 2006,2007)

Type of
load/support

20
(in
punching)

quadratic

900

1520

150 to 250
172 to 246
273 to 278

250

1.2. EXPERIMENTAL TESTING OF COLUMN FOOTINGS


The goal of the experimental examination was to determine the behavior of column
footings of reinforced concrete resting on deformable bedding and loaded the by external load
to failure. It is important to determined emergence and development of cracks, distribution of
strains in concrete and reinforcement as well as influence of factors such as: concrete
compressive strength, reinforcement ratio, the position and diameter of the reinforcement
ratio, types and characteristics of soil, soil pressure distribution etc. The key result of the
conducted parametric study is to determine the factors whose influence is dominant in column
footing calculation.
Experimental testing program, conducted in 2009 (Boni 2010, 2011), predicted
production of model in situ with surface preparation to achieve required geotechnical
properties and specimen production column footings with defined dimensions and
characteristics of concrete and reinforcement. Figure 1 offers Scheme of experimental setup.
As can be seen from Figure 1, for the experimental purposes steel frame has been made. Its
role is reception of hydraulic jack reactive force. The frame is steel space structure forming
the bottom and space frame (a pair of vertical rods, two pairs of struts and horizontal beam).
Frame construction, as well as its dimensions enables the forming of sliding surfaces in the
soil under the footing, if it reaches sufficient value of force.

Figure 1 Scheme of experimental setup

Figure 2 Experimental setup

The experiment was performed by digging pits with the sides of 4x5m, to a depth of 3 m,
and then by lowering the prepared steel frame to the bottom of the pit. The excavated material
is replaced with river aggregate of controlled density and size distribution. Thus prepared
mixture was embedded into the layer thickness of 30cm, and the compaction of each layer was
done by vibrating plate. After layer compaction evaluation of compaction was done by circular
plate test. Average values of the compressibility through layers were in the range of 43.3 to
66.7 MPa.
Footing is loaded by hydraulic jack with centric vertical force until the punching of
footing. The adopted dimensions of specimens column footings are basically 85x85 cm,
which is approximately 1/3 1/2 of the standard size of column footings. The footing height
ranged from 12.5 cm to 25 cm and concrete strength (measured on cubes with the edge length
of 15cm) in the range of 10 to 38.37. The applied diameter of reinforcement was about 8, 10
and 12 mm and the reinforcement ratio was approximately 0.4% (Table 2).

Footing
No

Footing
height
h [cm]

TI
TII
TIX
TX
TXI
TXII

20
15
12.5
17.5
15
15

Table 2 - Achieved characteristics of test foundations


Concrete
Effective
strength Bar size Reinforcement Yield stress of Ultimate
depth
fc,cube
[mm]
ratio
reinforcement load
d[cm]
[MPa]
[%]
fsy [MPa]
[kN]
17.5
38.37
8
0.40
570
1001/906*
12.5
38.37
8
0.40
570
1050
10.0
21.25
8
0.40
570
430
15.0
21.25
8
0.40
570
656
12.5
19.29
8
0.40
570
451
12.5
10.0
8
0.40
570
440

*
During the first test, the column failed at the load of 1001 kN. After a new column was constructed,
the footing was punched through at the load of 906 kN.

During the experiments, each second is registered as follows: the force applied to the
footing, strains in concrete and reinforcement, contact pressures below the footing and
settlements of column and footing corner.

Figure 3 Dimensions of one of tested footings and position of measuring points of reinforcement strain

1.3. TESTING PROCEDURE


Foundation footing is placed on the surface of the soil and loaded by vertical centric force
which is applied by a hydraulic press positioned between the cross-beam and the foundations
(Figure 2). For foundation loading, a hydraulic press with the capacity of 1000kN was used,
whereby every loading step was 50kN bigger than the preceding one. The load was kept
constant at every step until the basis finished consolidation for that load, which was registered
by observing the process of vertical displacements of points on the corners and column of the
foundations. During the experiment, the following parameters were measured every second:
displacements in reinforcement and concrete of the foundations, vertical displacement of
points on the corners and column of the foundations, intensity of applied force during loading
and value of contact pressures beneath the foundations.

1.4. MEASURED STRAINS IN CONCRETE AND REINFORCEMENT


In Figures 4 and 5 is presented the distribution of strain in concrete and reinforcement
during loading of TII and TXII footings. Strain distribution in concrete and reinforcement of
foundations was obtained according to expectations: maximum strain of pressure occurs on
the top side of the footings in the zone next to the column, and maximum tensile strain on the
bottom side of the footings in the zone beneath the column. From the load-strain diagram in
the reinforcement, three zones are clearly identifiable:

Zone prior to onset of cracks in concrete characterized by very small strains in


reinforcement and concrete
Zone prior to reaching the yield point in reinforcement which is characterized by
reduction to bending stiffness and abrupt increase of strain in reinforcement, and
Zone after reaching the yield point in reinforcement when strains in reinforcement
have an even more prominent non-linearity and strains in concrete may be tensile as
well.
Footings TII and TXII have the same height and reinforcement but they differ considerably
in compressive strength (Table 2) which causes different behavior during loading. TXII
footing has a lower compressive strength of concrete, and because of that it exhibits more
ductility in comparison to TII foundation. With TII the top surface of the footing is constantly
compressed, while for TXII footing, on the same place significant tensile strain was measured.

Figure 4 Concrete and reinforcement strain distribution of TII

Figure 5 Concrete and reinforcement strain distribution in radial direction of TXII

1.5. PUNCHING SHEAR MEHANISM


Observing the figures 4 and 5 it can be concluded that the punching shear mechanism
depends on its stiffness. In more flexible footings such as TXII, in the first phase, with the
increase of applied force, gradually the tensile strain in reinforcement increase, with the
maximum in the zone of the column and strain of the compression in concrete in the top
compressed zone of the footing. The second phase commences when the strains in
reinforcement start to rise abruptly, while strain of compression in the top zone of the footing
start to decrease abruptly. This happens, for the TXII footing at the loading of 200 kN and
marks the onset of punching shear, because the column starts to "sink" into the foundation,
creating the crack at the joining point of the column and the foundation. The final punching
shear is related to achieving of the force corresponding to the yield point in reinforcement or is
close to it.
With the footings of higher stiffness, the foundation is in the first phase until reaching the
yield point in reinforcement. Only then the strain in concrete start to drop and the column
starts to punch through the footing.
The footing TXII punching shear mechanism can be observed in the Figure 6. To the load
level of 200kN the difference of column settling and foundation corner is small, and then
increases with the onset of punching shear. Further on it can be observed that foundation
corner settling is stagnating, while the column continues to settle with the increase of applied
force until final punching shear at the force of 440kN.

Figure 6 Vertical displacements at the column and footing of TXII

1.6. CONCLUSIONS
The conducted experimental research made it possible to observe considerable differences in
punching shear of column footings on the gravel, tested in realistic conditions in situ, in
comparison to the earlier researches which were performed in simulated conditions in
laboratories. The most significant differences are related to registered higher forces of punching
shear for the foundations of similar characteristics and a more intensive concentration of contact
pressures in the area of foundation columns.
On the basis of the results of conducted experimental research and subsequent analysis, the
following conclusions can be drawn:

The largest strain of reinforcement in all the examined foundations is registered at the
measuring points immediately next to the column or in the column axis
In the foundations which failed by punching shear, strain in reinforcement reaches the
yield limit, or is close to it, so it can be said that foundation punching shear is related
to generation of large strains in reinforcement
The highest strain in concrete (both in compression and tension) was achieved at
measuring points immediately next to the column, while the remaining measuring
points registered progressive decrease of strain as the distance from the column
increases.

The observed significant differences in respect to the previous "laboratory research


necessitate further investigations to be confirmed on a large number of samples - foundation
footings tested in actual conditions.
The number of tested foundations is too small to allow conducting a more detailed
parametric study on the influence of concentration of contact pressures and other parameters
involved in the calculation of punching shear bearing capacity, which provides wide space for
further experiments and research in this direction.
Acknowledgement: The paper is result of the investigation in the projects TR 36028 and
TR 36016 financed by the Ministry of Education and Science of the Republic of Serbia

1.7. REFERENCES
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modeling of materially nonlinear problems in structural analyses (part IIapplication in
contemporary software), Facta universitatis, Series: Architecture and Civil Engineering,
University of Ni. Vol. 8, N 2, pp.201-210
[2] Boni Z., Prolovi V., Davidovi N., ii R. (2011): Punching shear strength of column
footings in actual design codes and their experimental investigation, International
conference "Innovation as a Function of Engineering Development". Organizer: Faculty
of Civil Engineering and Architecture, University of Nis, November 25-26, 2011, Ni,
Serbia, pp.39-58
[3] Hallgren M, Bjerke M. (2002): Non-linear finite element analyses of punching shear
failure of column footings, Cement & Concrete Composites 24, pp.491496
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Nordic Concrete Research, 21(1):pp.124.
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[6] Prolovi V., Boni Z. (2008): Smiua nosivost na probijanje plitkih temelja u domaoj i
stranoj regulativi, Zbornik radova Graevinsko-arhitektonskog fakulteta u Niu br.23, str.
93-103
[7] .. (1967): , ,
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