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Simply Supported (Flange Beam)

Figure below shows part of the first floor plan of a reinforced concrete office building.
During construction, slabs and beams are cast together. The overall thickness of slab is
125mm and the dimensions of the beams are as given in the diagram. The finishes, ceiling
and services form a characteristic permanent action of 1.5kN/m 2. The characteristic variable
action is 3.0kN/m2. Three meter high brickwall weighing 2.6kN/m2 is placed over the entire
span of all beams. The construction materials consist of Grade C25 concrete and Grade 500
steel reinforcement. For durability consideration a nominal cover of 30mm is required.
Based on the information provided:
a) Calculate the design action carried by beam 2/B-C
b) Sketch the bending moment and shear force diagrams of beam 2/B-C
c) Design the beam for ultimate and serviceability limit states.

2
2500
2500

3500
3500

2000
2000

250 x 500

250 x 500

250 x 600

250 x 500

250 x 600

5500
6000

250 x 500

1.0 SPECIFICATION
Slab thickness
Slab Characteristic actions:
----Finishes etc.
----Variable, qk
----Unit weight brick-wall
Materials:
----Characteristic strength of concrete, fck
----Characteristic strength of steel, fyk
----Characteristic strength of link, fyk
----Unit weight of reinforced concrete
----Nominal cover
Assumed:
----bar1
----bar2
----link

= 100mm
= 1.5kN/m
= 3.0kN/m
= 2.6kN/m2
= 25N/mm2
= 500N/mm2
= 500N/mm2
= 25kN/m3
= 30mm
= 25mm
= 12mm
= 6mm

2.0 BEAM SIZE


beff
hf
h

bw

bw = 250mm
hf = 100mm
h = 500mm
b1 = 1625mm
b2 = 1125mm
lo= 6000mm
beff,i = 0.2bi + 0.1lo

0.2lo

= 0.2b1 + 0.1lo
= 915mm

0.2lo = 1200mm
beff,1 = 915mm, beff,2 = 825mm
b = b1 + b2 + bw

= 2950mm

Effective flange width,


beff =

= 915 + 825 + 250


= 1990mm < b

3.0 LOADING AND ANALYSIS


Loads on slab:
Self-weight

= 25 x 0.1
= 2.5kN/m2
= 1.5kN/m2
= 4.0kN/m2
= 3.0kN/m2

Finishes etc.
Characteristic permanent action, gk
Characteristic variable action, qk
Loads on beam 2/B-C

2500

6000

2000

3500

w1

w2

Distribution of load from slabs to beam are as


follows:
Panel B-C/2-3: Ly/Lx

= 6/2.5
= 2.4 > 2.0 (One-way slab)
Shear coefficient, = 0.50

Panel B-C/1-2: Ly/Lx

= 6/3.5
= 1.71 < 2.0 (Two-way slab)
Shear coefficient, = 0.57

Characteristic permanent load


wo = 0.25 (0.50-0.10) x 25
w1 = nLx= 0.57 x 4.00 x 3.50
w2 = nLx = 0.50 x 4.00 x 2.50
w3 = 2.6 x 3.0 (Brickwall)
Gk

= 2.50kN/m
= 7.98kN/m
= 5.00kN/m
= 7.8kN/m
= 23.28kN/m

Qk

= 5.99kN/m
= 3.75kN/m
= 9.74kN/m

Characteristic variable load


w1 = nLx= 0.57 x 3.00 x 3.50
w2 = nLx = 0.50 x 3.00 x 2.50

Total design load on beam 2/B-C


wd=1.35Gk + 1.5Qk

= 46.03kN/m

46.03kN/m

6m

Shear Force,
V = wdL/2
V = 138.1kN
Bending Moment,
M = wdL2/8
M = 207.1kNm

4.0 MAIN REINFORCEMENT


Effective depth:
d = h Cnom link bar/2
MEd = 207.1kNm
Mf = 0.567fckbhf(d-0.5hf)

MEd < Mf

= 451.5mm

= 0.567 x 25 x 1990 x 100(451.5-50)


= 1133kNm

Neutral axis within the flange

No compression reinforcement

K = M/bd2fck

= 207.1x106/(1990 x 451.12 x 25)


= 0.20

z = d[0.5+
z = 0.98d
Area of tension reinforcement
As = MEd/0.87fykz

= 207.1x106/(0.87 x 25 x 0.98 x 451.5)


= 1110mm2

Use: 3H 25
(1473mm2)

Min. and max. reinforcement area,


As,min = 0.26(fctm/fyk)bd

As,max = 0.04Ac

= 0.26(2.56/500)bd
= 0.0013bd (use 0.0013bd)
= 0.0013 x 250 x 451.5
= 151mm2
= 0.04 x 250 x 500
= 5000mm2

5.0 SHEAR REINFORCEMENT


VEd = 138.1kN
Concrete strut capacity
VRd,max = 0.36bwdfck(1-fck/250)/(cot+tan)

= 318kN (=22, cot=2.5)


= 457kN (=45, cot=1.0)

VEd < VRd,max cot=2.5


VEd < VRd,max cot=1.0
Use =22, cot=2.5
Shear links
Asw/s=VEd/(0.78fykdcot )

= 138.1 x 103/(0.78x500x452x2.5)
= 0.317

Try link H6, Asw=57mm2


Spacing, s=57/0.317=178 mm
Use H6-150
Max. spacing, S=0.75d

= 0.7 x 452
= 339mm

Minimum links:Asw/s = (0.08fck1/2bw)/fyk

= (0.08x251/2x250)/500
= 0.200

Try link H6, Asw = 57mm2


Spacing, s = 57/0.200 = 283mm < S
Use H6-275
Shear resistance of minimum links
Vmin = (Asw/s)(0.78dfykcot )

= (57/275)(0.78 x 452 x 500 x 2.5)


= 90kN

138kN
90kN
x = (138-90)/46
x = 1.05m

90kN
138kN

H6-150

H6-275

H6-150

1.05m

3.89m

1.05m

Transverse steel in the flange


The longitudinal shear stresses are the greatest over a
distance x measured from the point of zero moment,
x = 0.5(L/2)

= 6000/4
= 1500mm

The change in moment over distance x from zero


moment
M = (wL/2)(L/4) (wL/4)(L/8) = 3wL2/32

The change in longitudinal force,


Fd = [ M/(d-0.5hf] x [(b-bw)/2b]

= (3 x 46 x 6.02)/32
= 155.35kNm

= [155.35 x 103/(452 - 50)] x


= [(1990 - 250)/(2 x1990)]
= 169kN

Longitudinal shear stress


ved = Fd/(hf x)

= 169x103/(100 x 1500)
= 1.13N/mm2

ved > 0.27fctk = 0.27 x 1.80 = 0.48N/mm2


Transverse shear reinforcement is required
Concrete strut capacity in the flange
ved,max = 0.4fck(1-fck/250)/( cot+tan)

= 3.59N/mm2 (=26.5, cot=2.0)


= 4.50N/mm2 (=45, cot=1.0)

ved < vRd,max cot=2.5


ved < vRd,max cot=1.0
Use =26.5, cot=2.0
Transverse shear reinforcement
Asf/sf = vedhf/0.87fykcot

= 1.13 x 100 / (0.87 x 500 x 2.0)


= 0.13

Try H10, Asf = 79mm2


Spacing, sf = 79/0.13 = 608mm
Minimum transverse steel area,
As,min = 0.26(fctm/fyk)bhf

= 0.26(2.56/500)bhf
= 0.0013 bhf (use 0.0013 bhf)
= 0.0013 x 1000 x 100
= 133mm2/m
Use H10 500
(157mm2/m)

Additional longitudinal reinforcement


Additional tensile force,
Ftd = 0.5Vedcot

= 0.5 x 138 x 2.48


= 171kN

Med,max/z

= 207.1x106/428.9
= 483kN

As,req = Ftd/0.87fyk

= 171x103/(0.87 x 500)
= 393mm2
Use 1H25
(491mm2)

6.0 DEFLECTION
Percentage of required tension reinforcement,
=As,req/bd

Reference reinforcement ratio,


=(fyk)1/2x10-3

Percentage of required compression reinforcement


=As,req/bd

= 1110/(250X452)
= 0.010
= (25)1/2x10-3
= 0.005

= 0/(250x587)
= 0.000

Factor for structural system,


K = 1.0
use equation (2)

= 1.0(11+3.81)
= 14.8
Modification factor for flange width, b/bw > 3

= 0.80

Modification for span less than 7m

= 1.0

Modification factor for steel area provided

=As,prov/As,req
=1473/1110
=1.33 1.5

Therefore allowable span-effective depth ratio

=(l/d)allowable
=14.81 x 0.80 x 1 x 1.33
=15.7

Actual span-effective depth

=(l/d)actual
=6000/451.5
=13.3 (l/d)allowable
OK

7.0 CRACKING
Limiting crack width, w max

= 0.3mm

Steel stress,

= 285N/mm2
Max. allowable bar spacing

=100mm

Bar spacing, S

= [250-2(30)-2(6)-20]/2
= 76.5mm 100mm
(OK)

8.0 DETAILING
A

6000
2H12 - 3
H8-250
3H25 - 1

2H12 - 3

X-X