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Aerodynamics for engineers, chapter 4

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Zheyan Jin

Aerodynamics

Zheyan Jin

School of Aerospace Engineering and Applied Mechanics

Tongji University

Shanghai, China, 200092

4.1 Introduction

Ludwig Prandtl and Gttingen (1912-1918):

The aerodynamic consideration of

wings could be split into two parts:

(1). The study of the section of

a wing- an airfoil.

(2). The modification of such

airfoil properties to account

for the complete, finite wing.

4.2 Airfoil Nomenclature

Mean camber line: is the locus of the points midway between upper and

lower surfaces of an airfoil as measured perpendicular to the mean camber

line.

Leading and trailing edges: the most forward and rearward points of the

man camber line.

Chord line: the straight line connecting the leading and trailing edges.

4.2 Airfoil Nomenclature

Thickness: is the height of profile measured normal to the mean camber line.

Camber: is the maximum distance between the mean camber line and the

chord measured normal to the chord.

Leading-edge radius: is the radius of a circle, tangent to the upper and

lower surface, with its center located on a tangent to the mean camber line

drawn through the leading edge of this line.

4.2 Airfoil Nomenclature

NACA airfoils (National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics):

Four-digit series: (for example, NACA 2412)

1. The first digit is the maximum camber in hundredths of chord.

2. The second digit is the location of maximum camber along the chord from the

leading edge in tenths of chord.

3. The last two digits give the maximum thickness in hundredths of chord.

1. The first digit when multiplied by 3/2 gives the design lift coefficient in tenths.

2. The next two digit when divided by 2 give the location of maximum camber along

the chord from the leading edge in hundredths of chord.

3. The final two digits give the maximum thickness in hundredths of chord.

4.2 Airfoil Nomenclature

NACA airfoils:

6-series: (for example, NACA 65-218)

1. The first digit simply identifies the series.

2. The second gives the location of minimum pressure in tenths of chord from the

leading edge.

3. The third digit is the design lift coefficient in tenths.

4. The last two digits give the maximum thickness in hundredths of chord.

Many of the large aircraft companies today design their own special purpose

airfoil; for example the Boeing 727,737,747, 757, 767, and 777 all have specially

designed Boeing airfoils.

Such capability is made possible by modern airfoil design computer programs

utilizing either panel techniques or direct numerical finite-difference solutions

of the governing partial differential equations for the flow field.

4.3 Airfoil Characteristics

Lift coefficient:

separation

cl

cl ,max

dcl

a0

d

At low-to-moderate angles of attack,

cl varies linearly with .

The slope of this straight line is

denoted by a0 and is called lift slope.

The value of when lift equals zero

is called the zero-lift angle of attack.

L 0

4.3 Airfoil Characteristics

Drag coefficient:

4.3 Airfoil Characteristics

At low to moderate angles of attack Cl- curve is linear. The flow moves

slowly over the airfoil and is attached over most of the surface. At high

angles of attack, the flow trends to separate from the top surface.

Cd is dependent on Re

predicted using analytical methods.

Aerodynamic center. There is one point on the airfoil about which the

moment is independent of angle of attack.

4.4 Vortex Filament

Consider 2-D/point vortices of same strength duplicated in every plane

parallel to z-x plane along the y-axis from to .

The flow is 2-D and is irrotational everywhere except the y-axis.

Y-axis is the straight vortex filament and may be defined as a line.

z

Definition: A vortex filament is a straight or

curved line in a fluid which coincides with the

axis of rotation of successive fluid elements.

4.4 Vortex Filament

1. The strength of a vortex filament is constant along its length.

Proof: A vortex filament induces a velocity field that

is irrotational at every point excluding the filament.

Enclose a vortex filament with a sheath from which

a slit has been removed. The vorticity at every point

on the surface=0. Evaluate the circulation for the

sheath.

Circulation V ds V dA

C

4.4 Vortex Filament

1. The strength of a vortex filament is constant along its length.

Sheath is irrotational. Thus

V 0

- V d s 0 or V d s 0

C

c d a

V ds V ds V ds V ds 0

b

or

4.4 Vortex Filament

1. The strength of a vortex filament is constant along its length.

However,

a

V ds V ds 0

c

Thus,

d

V ds V ds 0

a

d

c

V ds V ds V ds

a

4.4 Vortex Filament

1. The strength of a vortex filament is constant along its length.

2. A vortex filament cannot end in a fluid; it must extend to the

boundaries of the fluid or form a closed path.

3. In the absence of rotational external flow, a fluid that is irrotational

remains irrotational.

4. In the absence of rotational external force, if the circulation

around a path enclosing a definite group of particles is initially zero,

it will remain zero.

5. In the absence of rotational external force, the circulation around

a path that encloses a tagged group of elements is invariant.

4.5 Vortex Sheet

An infinite number of straight vortex filament

placed side by side from a vortex sheet. Each

vortex filament has an infinitesimal strength

(s):

sheet per unit length along s.

v

2r

4.5 Vortex Sheet

ds induces an infinitesimally small velocity dV

at a field point P(r, ).

so

v vortexfilament

Thus

dvP

ds

2r

ds

2r

4.5 Vortex Sheet

Circulation around a point vortex

is equal to the strength of the vortex.

Similarly, the circulation around the

vortex sheet is the sum of the

strengths of the elemental vortices.

Therefore, the circulation for a

finite length from point a to point b

on the vortex sheet is given by:

b

( s )ds

a

component of velocity and the normal component of velocity is preserved.

4.5 Vortex Sheet

v dl

v dl [ w2 n u1s w1n u2 s ]

Box

s (u1 u2 )s ( w1 w2n

As n0, we get

s (u1 u2 )s

(u1 u2 )

=(u1-u2) states that the local jump in tangential velocity across

the vortex sheet is equal to the local sheet strength.

4.6 Kutta Conditions:

Finite angle

a

Cusp

V2

V1

At point a: V1 V2 0

V1

V2

At point a: V1 V2 0

around the airfoil is such that the flow leaves the trailing edge

smoothly.

2. If the trailing-edge angle is finite, then the trailing edge is a

stagnation point.

3. If the trailing edge is cusped, then the velocities leaving the top

and bottom surfaces at the trailing edge are finite and equal in

magnitude and direction.

(TE ) Vu Vl 0

4.7 Bound Vortex and Starting Vortex:

The question might arise: Does a real airfoil flying in a real fluid

give rise to a circulation about itself?

The answer is yes.

When a wing section with a sharp T.E is put into motion, the fluid

has a tendency to go around the sharp T.E from the lower to the

upper surface. As the airfoil moves along vortices are shed from

the T.E which from a vortex sheet.

4.7 Bound Vortex and Starting Vortex:

Helmholts theorem:

Kelvins theorem:

formed by a set of continuous fluid

elements remains constant as the fluid

elements move through the flow,

D/Dt=0.

4.7 Bound Vortex and Starting Vortex:

starting vortex and bound vortex

system.

In the beginning, 1 =0 when the flow

is started within the contour C1.

When the flow over the airfoil is

developed, 2 within C2 is still zero

includes the starting vortex 3 and the

bound vortex 4 which are equal and

opposite.

4.8 Fundamental Equation of Thin Airfoil Theory

Thin airfoil theory is based on the assumption that under certain conditions

an airfoil section may be replaced by its mean camber line (mcl).

Experimental observation:

If airfoil sections of the same mcl but different thickness functions are tested

experimentally at the same angle of attack, it is found that the lift L and the

point application of the lift for the different airfoil sections are practically the

same provided that

(1) maximum airfoil thickness (t/c) is small;

(2) Camber distribution (z/c)max = m is small;

(3) Angle of attack () is small.

4.8 Fundamental Equation of Thin Airfoil Theory

This observation permitted the formulation of thin airfoil theory because it

allowed the airfoil to be replaced by the mcl.

mcl

mcl

Thin airfoil theory

The problem now is to find, theoretically the flow of an ideal fluid around

this infinitely thin sheet (mcl) flying through the air at the velocity V at an

angle of attack .

4.8 Fundamental Equation of Thin Airfoil Theory

Any solution must satisfy:

(1) Equation of continuity

(2) Irrotational condition

(3) Outer b.c.- Flow at infinity must be undisturbed

(4) Inner b.c. mcl must be a streamline

(5) In addition, since the thin airfoil is being supported in level flight there

must be a lift L acting on the airfoil.

(6) Since L= V (Kutta-Joukowski Theorem), any theoretical

analysis must introduce a circulation around the airfoil section of

sufficient magnitude to satisfy the Kutta condition that the flow leave

the TE smoothly.

4.8 Fundamental Equation of Thin Airfoil Theory

Therefore in thin airfoil theory the mcl is replaced by a vortex sheet

of varying strength (s) such that the above conditions are

satisfied and our aim is to determine this distribution.

Summary:

Thin airfoil theory stated as a problem says for a vortex sheet

placed on the mcl in a uniform flow of V determine (s) such that

the mcl is a streamline subject to the condition (TE)=0.

4.8 Fundamental Equation of Thin Airfoil Theory

Principle: Mean camber line is a streamline of the flow.

V v e

e

Velocity induced by a 2-D vortex is

2r

where is the

strength of the 2-D vortex. Similarly the velocity induced by the vortex

sheet of infinitesimal length ds is given by

( s )ds

e

dVP

2r

4.8 Fundamental Equation of Thin Airfoil Theory

To force the mean camber line to be a streamline, the sum of all

velocity components normal to the mcl must be equal to zero.

Consider the flow induced by an elemental vortex sheet ds at point

P on the vortex sheet.

( s )ds

dVP

e

2r

Thus, the velocity normal to the mcl is

dwP' dv P cos

( s ) cos ds

2r

distance from the center of ds to the point P.

4.8 Fundamental Equation of Thin Airfoil Theory

The induced velocity due to the vortex sheet representing the entire

mcl is given by.

wP'

1

2

TE

( s ) cos ds

LE

of the free stream velocity

normal to the mcl.

V ,n V sin( )

where is the angle of attack and is the angle made by the tangent

at point P to the x-axis.

4.8 Fundamental Equation of Thin Airfoil Theory

The slope of the tangent line at point P is given by:

dz

tan( ) tan

dx

or

1

tan

dz

)

dx

1

V ,n V (sin tan

dz

))

dx

'

In order that the mcl is a streamline. wP ( s ) V ,n 0 or

dz

r ( s ) cos

1

(sin

tan

(

)) 0

ds

V

LE r

dx

TE

4.8 Fundamental Equation of Thin Airfoil Theory

approximation sx,

dsdx,cos =1 and

r(x0-x), where x

varies from 0 to c, and

x0 refers to the point P.

After changing these variables and making the small angle approximation

for sin and tan, and upon rearrangement we get:

1

2

( x)

x0 x

dx V (

dz

)

dx

4.9 Flat Plate at an Angle of Attack

The following analysis is an exact solution to the flat plate or an

approximate solution to the symmetric airfoil. The mean camber line

becomes the chord and hence:

dz

0

dx

1 c ( x)

dx V

0

2 x0 x

In order to facilitate analytic solution, we do a variable transformation

such that:

c

x (1 cos )

2

c

x0 (1 cos 0 )

2

4.9 Flat Plate at an Angle of Attack

=0 at LE and = at TE and increases in CW,

dx=(sind)c/2

1

2

1

2

c

2

( ) sin

c

(1 cos 0 ) (1 cos )

2

d V

( ) sin

d V

(cos cos 0 )

( ) 2V

1 cos

sin

1

2

( ) sin

V

d

(cos cos 0 )

(1 cos )

d

(cos cos 0 )

4.9 Flat Plate at an Angle of Attack

We now use the following result to evaluate the above integral.

sin n 0

cos n

d

(cos cos 0 )

sin 0

V

V

(1 cos )

1

cos

d

d

d (0 ) V

0 (cos cos )

(cos cos 0 )

0 (cos cos 0 )

1

2

( ) sin

d V

(cos cos 0 )

4.9 Flat Plate at an Angle of Attack

In addition, the solution for also satisfies the Kutta condition.

When =,

( ) 2V 101

( ) 2V

sin

0

cos

4.10 2-D lift coefficient for a thin/symmetrical airfoil

TE

L V V ( s )ds

'

LE

By using thin airfoil approximation:

TE

LE

L V ( x)dx V ( x)dx

'

1

L V ( x)dx V c ( ) sin d

0

0

2

'

4.10 2-D lift coefficient for a thin/symmetrical airfoil

Substituting the solution:

( )

2V (1 cos )

sin

1

L V c 2V (1 cos )d

2

0

'

L V c (1 cos )d

'

L' c V2

V2

(c 1)

L 2

2

'

L' 2q S

dC

L'

2 , and l 2

orCl

d

q S

dCl

2

shows that lift curve is linearly proportional to the angle of attack.

d

4.10 2-D lift coefficient for a thin/symmetrical airfoil

Calculation of Moment Coefficient:

c

'

LE

x(dL' )

0

'

LE

x( V d)

0

'

M LE

V ( x) xdx

0

'

LE

x( V ( x)dx)

0

'

LE

V

0

2V (1 cos ) c

c

(1 cos ) sin d

sin

2

2

'

LE

2

c2

2

2 c

2

V

(

1

cos

)

d

V

(

)

q

c

( )

2 0

2 2

2

2

4.10 2-D lift coefficient for a thin/symmetrical airfoil

Calculation of Moment Coefficient:

c m , LE

'

'

M LE

M LE

q Sc q c 2

2

c l 2

c m , LE

Cl

'

M LE

M c' / 4 L'c / 4

c m , LE c m ,c / 4 cl / 4

4.10 2-D lift coefficient for a thin/symmetrical airfoil

Calculation of Moment Coefficient:

c m , LE c l / 4

c m, c / 4 0

c m ,c / 4

Aerodynamic center is that point on an airfoil where moments

are independent of angle of attack.

4.11 Thin Airfoil Theory for Cambered Airfoil

1

2

( x)

x0 x

dx V (

dz

)

dx

(A)

For symmetrical airfoil, mcl is a straight line and hence dz/dx=0 everywhere.

On the other hand, for a cambered airfoil dz/dx varies from point to point.

As before, we do a variable transformation given by:

c

(1 cos )

2

c

dx sin d

2

x

4.11 Thin Airfoil Theory for Cambered Airfoil

Equation (A) becomes

1

2

( ) sin

dz

d V ( )

dx

cos cos 0

(B)

streamline of the flow.

However, as before a rigorous solution of Equation (B) for ()

is beyond the scope of this course:

1 cos

( ) 2V A0 (

) An sin n

sin

n 1

4.11 Thin Airfoil Theory for Cambered Airfoil

Substitute this solution in equation (B)

A0 (1 cos )

1 An sin n sin

dz

d

d

0 (cos cos 0 )

n 1 0 (cos cos 0 )

dx

x0

The first integral can be evaluated from the standard from given in

equation

sin n 0

cos n

d

(cos cos 0 )

sin 0

4.11 Thin Airfoil Theory for Cambered Airfoil

The first term becomes:

A0 (

1 cos

)d

cos cos 0

A0

1

)d

cos cos 0

A0 cos

)d

cos cos 0

A0

The remaining integrals can be obtained from another standard form,

which is given below:

sin n sin

0 (cos cos 0 )d cos n 0

4.11 Thin Airfoil Theory for Cambered Airfoil

The second term becomes:

n 1

An sin n sin

d An cos n 0

cos cos 0

n 1

A0 An cos n 0

n 1

dz

dx x 0

dz

( A0 ) An cos n 0

dx

n 1

4.11 Thin Airfoil Theory for Cambered Airfoil

f ( ) B0 Bn cos n

n 1

Where,

B0

Bn

f ( )d

f ( ) cos nd

n 1,2, ,

( A0 ) B0

An Bn

dz

)d

dz

4.11 Thin Airfoil Theory for Cambered Airfoil

Evaluation of Circulation :

c c

( x)dx ( ) sin d

0

2 0

c

A0 (1 cos )

( ) 2V

An sin n

sin

n 1

c c

c

c

( ) sin d 2V A0 (1 cos )d 2V An sin n sin d

2 0

2 0

2 0

n 1

n 1

4.11 Thin Airfoil Theory for Cambered Airfoil

Using:

A

n 1

sin n sin d

(n 1)

2

0(n 1)

cV [ A0 A1

L' V V2 c[ A0 A1

L'

L'

cl

2[ A0 A1 ]

q s q c

2

Cl is normalized by the as seen by the chord connecting the LE and

TE of the mcl. c is the chord connecting the LE and TE of the mcl.

4.11 Thin Airfoil Theory for Cambered Airfoil

c l 2A0 A1

dz

2 dz

)

d

)

( ) cosd

0

0

dx

dx

1 dz

c l 2 ( )(cos 1)d

0 dx

c l 2 (

Note that as in the case of symmetric airfoil, the theoretical lift slope

for a cambered airfoil is 2 . It is a general result from thin airfoil

theory that dcl/d=2 for any shape airfoil.

dc l

( L 0 ) 2 ( L 0 )

d

1

dz

L 0 (cos 1) d

0

dx

cl

Also,

4.11 Thin Airfoil Theory for Cambered Airfoil

Determination of moment coefficient:

c

M 'LE V x ( x)dx

0

c m, LE

'

M LE

2

q sc V c 2

x ( x)dx

Thus

c

x (1 cos )

2

c

dx sin d

2

A0 (1 cos)

( ) 2V [

An sin n ]

sin

n 1

0

n 1

4.11 Thin Airfoil Theory for Cambered Airfoil

Using the following definite integrals:

cos 2 d

sin 2 d

sin sin nd

(n 1)

2

0(n 2, , )

0(n 1)

(n 2)

4

0(n 3, , )

4.11 Thin Airfoil Theory for Cambered Airfoil

c m, LE A0 d

c m , LE A0 A0

c m , LE A0

A1

0

0

n 1

A1

A2

A2

cl 2A0 A1

c m , LE

2 A0 2 A1 A2

2

cl

(

)

A

A

2

4 4 1

4.11 Thin Airfoil Theory for Cambered Airfoil

'

M LE

M c' L'

4

c m , LE c

c

m,

c

4

m,

c

4

c

4

cl

c

l ( A1 A2 )

4

4 4

A1 A2

c m , LE xcp

cl

c

1 c

c c

xcp

( A1 A2 ) c ( A1 A2 )

cl

4

4 4c l

4.11 Thin Airfoil Theory for Cambered Airfoil

1 c

xcp c ( A1 A2 )

4

cl

Indeed, as the lift approaches zero, xcp moves toward infinity; that is, it

leaves the airfoil.

point at which to draw the force system on an airfoil.

conveniently considered at the aerodynamic center.

4.11 Thin Airfoil Theory for Cambered Airfoil

Relationship between pressure on mcl and :

TE

L' ( pl pu ) cosds

LE

TE

L V ( s )ds

'

LE

(A)

(B)

TE

TE

LE

LE

( pl pu )ds V ( s )ds

or

( pl pu ) V ( s )

(1)

4.11 Thin Airfoil Theory for Cambered Airfoil

Using Bernoullis equation:

1

1

2

2

pl (ul w ) pu (uu2 w2 )

2

2

pl pu

(uu ul )(uu ul )

(2)

u u ul ( s )

From (1), (2) and (3)

uu ul

2

(3)

4.11 Thin Airfoil Theory for Cambered Airfoil

i.e., within thin airfoil approximation, the average of top and bottom

surface velocities at any point on the mcl is equal to the freestream

velocity.

Pressure coefficient difference between lower surface and upper surface:

c p ,l c p ,u

pl p pu p

q

q

c p ,l c p ,u

pl pu

c p ,l c p ,u

1

(ul uu )(uu ul )

2

q

c p ,l c p ,u

( s)2V

V2

2 ( s )

V

4.12 Summary

Vortex Sheet:

A vortex sheet can be used to synthesize the inviscid, incompressible

flow over an airfoil. If the distance along the sheet is given by s and

the strength of the sheet per unit length is (s), then the velocity

potential induced at point (x,y) by a vortex sheet that extends from

point a to point b is

1

( x, y )

2

(s)ds

a

b

( s)ds

a

u1 u2

4.12 Summary

Kutta Condition:

The Kutta condition is an observation that for a airfoil of given shape

at a given angle of attack, nature adopts that particular value of

circulation around the airfoil which results in the flow leaving smoothly

at the trailing edge.

If the trailing-edge angle is finite, then the trailing edge is a stagnation

point.

If the trailing edge is cusped, then the velocities leaving the top and

bottom surfaces at the trailing edge are finite and equal in magnitude

and direction.

In either case:

(TE ) 0

4.12 Summary

Thin airfoil theory:

Thin airfoil theory is predicated on the replacement of the airfoil by the

mean camber line.

A vortex sheet is placed along the chord line, and its strength adjusted

such that, in conjunction with the uniform freestream, the camber line

becomes a streamline of the flow while at the same time satisfying the

Kutta condition.

The strength of such a vortex sheet is obtained from the fundamental

equation of thin airfoil theory:

1

2

( )d

dz

(

0 x dx )

c

4.12 Summary

Results of thin airfoil theory:

Symmetrical airfoil

1. cl=2.

2. Lift slope = dcl /d=2.

3. The center of pressure and the aerodynamic center are

both at the quarter-chord point.

4. cm,c/4=cm,ac=0.

4.12 Summary

Results of thin airfoil theory:

Cambered airfoil

1.

cl 2

dz

(cos 0 1)d 0

dx

3. The aerodynamic center is at the quarter-chord pint.

4. The center of pressure varies with the lift coefficient.

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