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ELECTROTEHNICĂ, ELECTRONICĂ, AUTOMATICĂ, vol. 61, nr.

1, ianuarie-martie 2013

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Utilization of Solar Systems
Jozef BALOGH, Jaroslav PETRÁŠ, Pavol HOCKO∗
Abstract
This paper describes the utilization and exploitation of solar energy and its transformation thermal energy. It
describes its utilization for warm utility water preparation, building heating, pool water heating and for industrial
heat generation.
Keywords: solar system, renewable energy, solar energy

1. Introduction
Together
with
geothermal
energy
[9],[10],[12], the utilization of the solar
energy, as one of renewable energy source
type and as one of the environmentally
clean energy sources, has dynamically
increased in EU countries during last years
[3],[4],[7],[8]. Among frequently used
methods of solar energy, the utilization
belongs to solar collectors which convert
solar energy to heat [5], [6].
The correct utilization of the solar
radiation may save up to 60 % of costs for
water heating per year (Figure 1).

effectively
and
ecologically
utilized
according to the effectiveness of method
used for the energy collection and
conversion or transport [14].
There are some studies of real world
utilization of the solar energy in housing
estates [11],[15] or other buildings.
Sun supplies its energy in long time
terms, so from our point of view this energy
source is exhaustless.
Direct and indirect utilization of the solar
radiation has almost no negative ecological
aspects. The word used it more or less
intentionally, because some technologies of
the active solar radiation conversion to other
energy forms use dangerous manufacturing
methods. It applies especially to the silicon
based photovoltaic panel manufacturing.
Also
during
the
solar
collector
manufacturing process, some amount of
energy is consumed. According to some
references, the collector regenerates this
consumed energy in time period of some
months.
2. Solar collectors

Figure 1. Solar heating of water

Thanks to the excellent parameters of
some commercial solar panels [13], this
freely available source of energy can be

Jozef BALOGH, Ing. PhD., TU Košice, FEI, Department of
Electric Power Engineering, Mäsiarska 74, 040 01 Košice,
Slovak
Republic,
jozef.balogh@tuke.sk
Jaroslav PETRÁŠ, Ing. PhD., TU Košice, FEI, Department
of Electric Power Engineering, Mäsiarska 74, 040 01
Košice,
Slovak
Republic,
jaroslav.petras@tuke.sk
Pavol HOCKO, Ing., TU Košice, FEI, Department of
Electric Power Engineering, Mäsiarska 74, 040 01 Košice,
Slovak Republic, pavol.hocko@tuke.sk

The principle of thermal energy
acquisition by solar panels is very simple.
Collectors capture the solar radiation by
their sensitive surface, named absorber,
which is placed under a glass surface or in
vacuum tubes, and thus they absorb
maximal amount of the solar energy. A
liquid running through is very effectively
heated. Gained heat is consequently used
for water heating.
There are various collector types
commercially available that can be divided
in two types: plain collectors and vacuum
collectors.

ELECTROTEHNICĂ, ELECTRONICĂ, AUTOMATICĂ, vol. 61, Nr. 1, ianuarie-martie 2013

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The plain collectors give better
effectiveness with maximum in warmer
days. They are widely used for water
heating.
The vacuum tube collectors are better for
diffusion radiation capturing and have higher
solar gain in colder days in comparison to
plain collectors. They are mainly used for
water heating and building heating support,
all-year inside pool water heating and for
solar cooling.
3. Installation of solar collectors
We mention some considerations during
the solar collector installation on rooftop,
building wall or in free terrain.
Their construction has to be sufficiently
solid, strong and resistant against climatic
conditions (wind, hailstorm, snow).
A solar collector should be installed as
near as possible to the place of energy
consumption, so that the thermal losses are
minimalized in distribution pipelines.
The distribution of pipelines have to be
coated with effective thermal isolation that is
resistant against high temperatures.
The most advantageous placement of
collectors is to set them facing to south and
elevate them according to maximal solar
energy utilization (Figure 2).

92

8

65

Hot utility water generation
The solar heating for utility hot water
generation can be used in cases of high hot
water consumption e.g. in tourist buildings,
laundries, etc. (Figure 4).

73

V

6

72

91

The main elements of a solar system are:
solar collectors, water heater with heat
exchanger, circulation pump, expansion
tank, pipelines and regulation. It is often
used with other heat source types e.g. gas,
wood or thermal pumps. Especially with
these combined systems, a compatibility of
elements is very important for effective
usage and operation.
The solar systems are mainly used for:
− utility hot water generation,
− building heating support,
− pool water heating,
− industrial heat generation.
Non-continuous
energy
supply,
especially in winter time, is compensated by
heat exchanger that is connected to central
heating.

4
7

96

Z

100

Figure 3. Block diagram of solar system [1], [2]

J
Figure 2. Solar collector placement

Even with up to 45° offset from south to
east or west, we loose only 5 % of solar
energy. The altitude of sun changes during
the year – in summer the altitude is higher
than in winter. Therefore, the advisable
elevation of collector is about 30° to 35°
from horizontal direction.
4. Solar systems
The effective utilization of the solar
energy ensures an integrated solar system
(Figure 3).

Figure 4. Block diagram of solar system for utility water
preparation and heating support [1], [2]

With economical usage of solar collector,
50 % to 70 % of energy for utility hot water
can be saved.
The ratio of solar energy can be raised,
but, in this case, the investment costs raise
exponentially (Figure 5).

ELECTROTEHNICĂ, ELECTRONICĂ, AUTOMATICĂ, vol. 61, nr. 1, ianuarie-martie 2013

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5. Conclusions

Figure 5. Solar heating of utility water heating and
heating support

Building heating support
By solar system it is not possible to
ensure 100% of energy need of family
house
with
reasonable
economical
conditions for heating purpose.
But solar energy can support heating
form other sources with 15% to 30% of
yearly energy needs of a good isolated
house that is equipped with low temperature
heating system.
Pool water heating
We encounter a paradox during solar
energy usage: the lowest solar radiation
intensity takes time exactly in time, when
energy needs are highest, namely in winter.
Vice-versa applies in summer. During this
time, the water heating is used mainly for
pool water heating.

Figure 6. Solar pool water heating and heating support
[1], [2]

Industrial heat
In industry, the solar energy is used
mainly for heat up to 100 °C (e.g. brewhouses, cannery and other manufactures).
Next years, it is expectable that the
importance of solar energy arises in the
area of solar cooling and sea water
desalination.

A contribution of solar energy for
environment is considerable and lies
especially in silent and clean operation
without side effects and side products such
as malodour, waste and smoke.
It has also no greenhouse effect
contribution.
With solar energy an average family can
save about 748 kg of CO2 emission per
year.
With
respect
to
environmental
advantages we can say that the payback of
solar systems is immediate.
6. Acknowledgment
We support research
activities in Slovakia /
Project is co-financed
from EU funds.
This paper was developed within the Project
"Centrum excelentnosti integrovaného výskumu
a
využitia
progresívnych
materiálov
a
technológií v oblasti automobilovej elektroniky",
ITMS 26220120055

7. References
[1] http://www.kolektory.sk/solarne_systemy.html
[2] http://www.wolf-solar.sk/
[3] PAVLICA O., HOLÍNKOVÁ L., Efektivní
využití solárního systému pro předehřev teplé
vody v rámci systému CZT, článek na
konferenci Juniorstav 2009, CERM s.r.o.,
ISBN: 978-80-214-3810-1, Brno 2009
[4] RYBÁR, R., TAUŠ, P., KUDELAS, D.:
Využitie solárnych zariadení pre ohrev TÚV v
mestskej zástavbe, AT&P Journal, ročník XII,
3/2005, Bratislava.
[5] LADENER, H., SPATE, F., Solární zařízení,
Grada., Praha, Česká republika, 2003, ISBN
80-247-0362-9
[6] REMMERS, K., H. a kolektiv, Velká solární
zařízení, Era group s.r.o., Brno, Česká
republika, 2007, ISBN 978-80-7366-110-6
[7] HORBAJ, P., LUKÁČ, P., MIKOLAJ, D.:
Zásobovanie teplom. TU SjF Košice, 2005,
ISBN 80-8073-304-X
[8] RYBÁR, R., TAUŠ, P., KUDELAS, D.:
Využívanie solárnych zariadení na ohrev
TÚV v mestskej zástavbe Košíc., AT&P
Journal, Bratislava 3/2005
[9] WITTENBERGER, G., Pinka, J.: Využitie
geotermálnej energie na Slovensku, Acta
Montanistica Slovaca, Ročník 10 ( 2005 ),
číslo 4, 387-391, ISSN 1335-1788
[10]WITTENBERGER, G., PINKA, J.: Súčasný
stav geotermálnych vrtov GTD 1,2,3 v
Ďurkove, 3. mezinárodní konference :

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ELECTROTEHNICĂ, ELECTRONICĂ, AUTOMATICĂ, vol. 61, Nr. 1, ianuarie-martie 2013

Netradiční metódy využití ložisek, Ostrava,
október 2005, Sborník vĕdeckých prací
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[12] SHULZ, H.: Teplo ze slunce a zeme.
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Czech Republic, ISBN 978-80-7204-629-4

8. Biography
Jozef BALOGH graduated TU
Košice, FEI in 1991.
He received the PhD degree in
2001.
His research interests concern:
partial discharge measurement methods,
overvoltage protection and renewable energy
exploitation.
Jaroslav PETRÁŠ graduated TU
Košice, FEI in 1997.
He received the PhD degree in
2008.
His research interests concern:
partial discharge measurement by acoustic
methods and renewable energy exploitation.
Pavol HOCKO graduated TU
Košice.
He is PhD student at Technical
university of Košice.
His research interests concern:
power system dynamics, control and stability.