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ABAP Training

SAP ERP Overview

ABAP Training

SAP Overview

"ess-ay-pea "

ABAP Training

SAP Overview

What Is SAP ERP

The third generation set of highly-integrated


software modules that perform common business
function based on multi-national leading practices.
Takes care of any enterprise however it may be in
operations, spread over the world geographically.

ABAP Training

SAP Overview

R/3 Product Scope

ABAP Training

SAP Overview

Key Modules


Financial management
 Financial (FI)
 Cost accounting (CO)
 Treasury management (TR)
 Project management (PS)
 Asset management (AS)
Support applications
 Human resource (HR)




Manufacturing
applications/logistics
 Production planning (PP)
 Quality management (QM)
 Plant maintenance (PM)
 Materials management (MM)
 Sales and distribution (SD)
Industry solutions (IS)
Work flow (WF)

ABAP Training

SAP Overview

A Function View of the Business


Sales
Staff

Order
Entry

Order
Parts

Pay
Staff

Acctg.
Staff

Order
Ship

Order
Schedule

Pay
Parts

Prod
Staff

Order
Receipt

Order
Make

Invoice
Order

Assign
Staff

HR

Receipt
Order

Sales

Prod

Acct

ABAP Training

SAP Overview

A Process View of the Business


Order Processing

Product Development
Customer Service

Financial Reporting
HR

Sales

Prod

Acct

ABAP Training

SAP Overview

Implication for R/3 Implementation






Requires process view


Requires answers to questions of work flow at least
Positions the firm to undertake BPR (business process re-engineering)
or major modification to R/3

ABAP Training

SAP Overview

SAP R/3 - Summary

Is a comprehensive suite of integrated applications meeting the needs


of most enterprises in the common business processes.
Covers
 Financial management
 Logistics
 Human resource management
Supports
 Best practice through work flow analysis

ABAP Training

SAP Overview

The Technology of SAP R/3

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ABAP Training

SAP Overview

Varieties





R/2 is mainframe system


R/3 is client server system
R/3 may be two or three tiered client server
 3 tier is recommended

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ABAP Training

SAP Overview

R/3 Architecture

R/3 Applications
BASIS
R/3 Middleware
Systems Software
Hardware

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ABAP Training

SAP Overview

R/3 Middleware



Client server
Uses underlying relational databases
 Oracle
 SQL server
 Ingress
 Sybase
Its graphical user interface
 Sap GUI

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ABAP Training

SAP Overview

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System Platforms
UNIX BOXES

DEC ALPHA

UNIX:
Most Variants
ADABAS,
DB2 for AIX
Informix

INTEL

Windows NT

ORACLE

MS SQL
Server

Win 3.1, Win 95, Win NT, OSF Motif,


Presentation Manager, MacIntosh

ABAP/4, C, C++

IBM AS 400

OS400

DB2/400

Win 95
OS/2

Hardware

Operating
Systems
Databases

Dialog
SAPGUI
Languages

ABAP Training

SAP Overview

What Is 3-tiered?

3 functional areas
 Presentation
 Workstations
 Application logic
 Small boxes
 Data management
 Large box

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ABAP Training

SAP Overview

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Database Server
Application Servers

Presentation Servers

ABAP Training

SAP Overview

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Varieties of Client Server


Name
Centralized
System

Presentation Application

Database

Mainframe with terminals

2 Tier System
Mainframe with intelligent terminals
3 Tier System
PC or NC

High End
Mainframe or Mini
Workstation

NOTE: a truly distributed system may distribute the database; the processing of an
application or processing of presentation calculations

ABAP Training

SAP Overview

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R/3 Middleware:
Interfaces to Systems Software
Presentation
Database

DB
Interface

R/3
OS Interface

Operating
System

Pres
Interface

ABAP Training

SAP Overview

Structure of an Application Server

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ABAP Training

SAP Overview

Dispatching Dialog Steps

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ABAP Training

SAP Overview

Structure of a Work Process

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ABAP Training

SAP Overview

Client





In commercial, organizational & technical terms, a client is a selfcontained unit of R/3 system . clients have their own customizing
facility , application data & user master records.
Clients play a particular part in R/3 system
Sap distinguishes several clients which should be distributed across at
least 2 R/3 systems . each client has a different purpose :

Development / test :
You use the development / test client for customizing your activities &
for developing your own repository objects . however ,all repository
objects are available & can be changed in all clients .

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ABAP Training

SAP Overview

Client.
Quality assurance :
Use the quality assurance client to test your customization. To reset
quality assurance client after testing , sap recommends use of another
client to hold test data.

Training :
This is meant for training project teams & end -users.

Production :
This receives the tested customizing settings & your repository objects .
Sap recommends definition of no more than one production client .
Standard delivery system comprises two identical clients. Both contain
same customizing settings , but no application data. Client 000 is saps
standard client which is modified by each sap upgrade . This client
should not be changed in any way . Perform the customizations in client
001 .

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ABAP Training

SAP Overview

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Client
CLIENT 000
(DELIVERY
SYSTEM)

CLIENT 001
(DELIVERY
SYSTEM)

CLIENT nnn
(CUSTOMER
COPY)

CLIENT
SPECIFIC

CROSSCLIENT

CROSS-CLIENT CUSTOMIZING
REPOSITORY OBJECTS

ABAP Training

SAP Overview

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Client
America
Europe
Japan

Client 010
Client 020
Client 030

R/3
Europe
R/3
America

R/3
Japan

ABAP Training

SAP Overview

Summary


SAP R/3 is
 Client server
 3 tier




Relatively hardware and


database independent
ABAP/4 applications runs on
application servers.
Dispatcher, shared memory,
gateway, work processes are
major components of an
application server.


Presentation
Application
Database

SAP R/3 offers


 Comprehensive suite of
integrated applications
meeting the needs of most
business
 Best practice process design
 Ability to configure to
 Industry sector
 Unique business
requirements

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ABAP Training

Programming in ABAP

Basic Program Structure


Controlling the Flow of an ABAP Program


ABAP Training

Programming in ABAP

Objectives

Aim is to introduce concepts associated with creating and executing


an ABAP program, including
 Defining program attributes
 Understanding the modular nature of an ABAP program
 Structure & syntax of ABAP statements
 Declarative & operational keywords, & comments
 Flow control in ABAP
 External control - event handling
 Internal control - IF, CASE, LOOP, ...

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ABAP Training

Programming in ABAP

Programming in ABAP


basic program structure


 program attributes
 Type
 Status
 Application
 Authorization groups
 Selection screen
 Development class
 source code
 Statements and Comments
execution of ABAP programs
 flow control in ABAP

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ABAP Training

Programming in ABAP

Creating New Program

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ABAP Training

Programming in ABAP

Program Attributes

Program Type
 Executable program
 generates lists
 Include program
 contains code that cannot be executed on its own
 must be called from another program with an INCLUDE
statement

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ABAP Training

Programming in ABAP

Program Attributes

Program Type
 Module pool
 processing steps for screen module
 executed with a transaction code or menu function
 Function group
 called from an application program using CALL FUNCTION
 Subroutine pool

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ABAP Training

Programming in ABAP

Program Attributes

Program Type
 Interface pool
 Interfaces for local classes
 Class pool
 Local classes

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ABAP Training

Programming in ABAP

Program Attributes

Program Status
 indicate the status of a program development:
 SAP Standard production program
 Customer production program
 System program
 Test program

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ABAP Training

Programming in ABAP

Program Attributes

Application
 specifies the R/3 application area for which this program is
relevant:
 Basis or System Program
 Financial Accounting
 Human Resources, Planning
 Materials Management ...

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ABAP Training

Programming in ABAP

Program Attributes

Authorization groups
 specifies the group authorized to view and modify the
program

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ABAP Training

Programming in ABAP

Program Attributes

Development class
 Describes the area the program belongs to
 Determines the transport layer and transport attributes of
the program
 Begins with A..S or u..X
 SAP standard objects (customer objects can not be
created here)
 Changes to objects recorded by workbench organizer
 Can be transported

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ABAP Training

Programming in ABAP

Program Attributes

Development class
 Begins with Y or Z
 Customer objects
 Changes recorded in workbench organizer
 Can be transported
 Begins with $
 Local class
 Changes not recorded in workbench organizer
 Cannot be transported

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ABAP Training

Programming in ABAP

Source Code

An ABAP program has a modular structure


 All programs consist of a series of modules
 Simplest is just one module
 Syntax clearly separates individual processing blocks
 Sequential execution of code lines within processing blocks

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ABAP Training

Programming in ABAP

ABAP Modules


Subroutines
Form....ENDFORM
Functions
Function....ENDFUNCTION
Processing blocks for events
<Event keyword>

Event statements
<Event keyword>

Event statements


Modules of a module pool


Module....ENDMODULE

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ABAP Training

Programming in ABAP

ABAP Modules


Sequential coding within processing blocks


 General control flow statements
 IF, DO, WHILE, (no GOTO)
Reports
 Collections of processing blocks that the system calls

depending on events


Dialog programs
 Collections of processing blocks (module pool) that are called by

screen flow logic

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ABAP Training

Programming in ABAP

Syntax Elements


Statements
 Each statement begins with a keyword and ends with a period

WRITE my first ABAP.




Comments
 Flagged by * at the beginning of the line or anywhere along the
line
Keywords
 Determines the meaning of the entire statement

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ABAP Training

Programming in ABAP

Syntax Elements - Keywords

Types
 Declarative keywords
 Define data types or declare data objects the program
can access
 Data
types tables constants parameters
 Control keywords
 Control the flow of a program within a processing block
 If, while, case

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ABAP Training

Programming in ABAP

Syntax Elements - Keywords

Types
 Operational keywords
 Process the data (as defined by the declarative
keywords)
 Move, add, write
 Calling keywords
 Call processing blocks in the same or other program
 Perform, call, submit, leave to

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ABAP Training

Programming in ABAP

Syntax Elements - Keywords

Types
 Modularisation keywords
 Define processing blocks in a program
 Event keywords
 Associated processing blocks are executed when the
relevant even t occurs
 At selection screen, start-of-selection,...
 Defining keywords
 Associated processing blocks are executed as soon
as they are called by an explicit statement or in
screen flow logic
 Form, function, module, ...

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ABAP Training

Programming in ABAP

Execution of ABAP Programs

A special runtime environment is required to execute an ABAP


program
 ABAP processor which communicates with the list processor
and the dialog processor
 Calls the individual modules according to established rules

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ABAP Training

Programming in ABAP

Conclusion

Examined concepts associated with the creation and execution of


an ABAP program
 Program attributes
 Includes, type, application, development class
 Basic program structure
 Modular nature of ABAP programs
 Forms, functions

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