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Review

Author(s): Klaus Vieweg


Review by: Klaus Vieweg
Source: The International Lawyer, Vol. 24, No. 3 (Fall 1990), pp. 860-862
Published by: American Bar Association
Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/40706464
Accessed: 15-02-2016 16:21 UTC

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860

THE INTERNATIONAL LAWYER

and civil procedure.The chapteron


chapter15 discussesjudicialorganization
civilprocedure
notestheintensely
imageof Greekadvocacydue to
belligerent
to
thecomparatively
low levelof courtcostsand attorneys'
feesthatcontribute
an attitude
biasedagainstconciliation.At theend of thechaptera usefulthreenotefollows.
page bibliographical
16
discusses
conflictsof laws, Greeknationality
law, international
Chapter
and
of
and
enforcement
jurisdiction recognition,
judgmentsand awards.The
involvshould
in
transnational
be
for
litigation
chapter
helpful personsengaged
discussed.
Greece.
In
17
investment
incentives
are
tax
law
and
ing
chapter
thechapteris quitebriefon thesubjectof theGreektaxtreaties.
Unfortunately,
and
Chapter18 by Professor
DionysiosD. Spinellisdiscussesbothsubstantive
in
to
crimcriminal
law.
The
of
the
civil
claimant
procedural
participate
ability
inal proceedings
is covered.
or both,in theUnitedStatesor
Manyof theauthorshavetaughtor practiced,
outsideofGreece.Theyprovidean accurateculturalcontextfortheexplanations
ofGreeklaw.The bookis well integrated
andis an excellentandinvaluabletool
fora foreignpersonwho needsa briefintroduction
to theGreeklegal system.
BruceZagaris
Berliner& Maloney,
D.C.
Washington,
ProgramCoordinator,
AmericanHellenicLawyersSociety

InternationalSportsLaw
New York:Transnational
Publishers,
By JamesA.R. Nafziger.Dobbs Ferry,
Inc., 1988, pp. xiv,250, $45.00.
trendtowards
The increasing
ofsportscorrelates
witha worldwide
importance
and
internationalization,
commercialization,
politicization.
professionalization,
Sportsare no longera purelyprivatematter.To the contrary,
sportsare an
essentialpartofpubliclife.The subjectsofsportslawareas variedas thesportsrelatedproblemsthatmayarise. Issues rangefromtraditional
areas,like daminparticular
trends,
ages,tonewareasthatevolvebecauseoftheaforementioned
thetrendof internationalization.
JamesA.R. Nafziger,well-known
authorin thefieldof international
sports
betweenlaw and international
to therelationship
law,pays attention
sportsactivities.International
sportslaw is quitea new fieldof law.1
1. See, e.g., Die Einbindung Nationalen Sportrechts in Internationale Bezge (D. Reuter ed. 1987); Sport und Recht in Europa (M. Will ed. 1988); Auf dem Wege zu Einem EuroVOL. 24, NO. 3

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BOOK REVIEWS

861

"
Nafzigerdefinestheterm international
sportslaw" as a moreor less distinctivebodyof rules,principles,and proceduresthatgovernthepoliticaland
He takestheviewthatthere
socialconsequencesof transnational
sportsactivity.
is an international
on
of
law
based
agreements;
provisions international
sports
international
custom,evidencedby a generalpracticeacceptedas law; general
and subsidiary
sourcessuchas judicialdecisionsand scholarlywritprinciples;
international
ings.Accordingly,
sportslaw is largelyuncodified.
This understanding
dimensionsand consequencesof
takesthepolitico-legal
does
not
consider
economicand
international
into
but
account,
important
sports
as wellas national,
socialaspectsusuallycoveredbynationallaw.International,
sportscreatemanyproblemsto be solved by nationallaw. For example,the
of nationallaw madeby thestatesand international
sportslaw
interdependency
International
and
the
made by the International
Committee
(IOC)
Olympic
thedisqual(ISFs) is evidencedby thecase of Ben Johnson,
SportsFederations
ifiedwinnerof the 100-metersprintat the 1988 OlympicGames in Seoul.
a morerealisticdefinition
of international
Therefore,
sportslaw mustinclude
references.
The crucialquestionis the
nationallegal normswithinternational
of the different
sports.In this
legal normsthatgoverninternational
priority
connectionit is worthdiscussingwhethertheIOC's rulesand practicesreally
in thegloballegal system.Skepticismis advisable.
havebecomecustomary
of international
As a prologue,Nafzigeroffersa briefhistoricalperspective
in
ancient
and
modern
the
OlympicGames(chapsportscompetition, particular
forinternational
andlegal framework
terII). ChapterIII definestheinstitutional
Movement"
underthe
on
the
so-called
focusing
'Olympic
sportscompetition,
of
the
IOC
framework
includes
twenty-nine
leadership the IOC. (At present,
the'OlymOlympicISFs andelevenRecognizedISFs). Accordingto Nafziger,
legalorder,andthe
pic Movement"is a sortofchosenagentfortheinternational
Thisviewpoint
is controversial
as are
IOC has an international
legalpersonality.
the legal effectsof the OlympicRules.2 ChapterIV summarizesthe general
characteristics
and sharedgoals of sportscompetition.
ChaptersV-VII forma centralpartof thebook,dealingwiththeambivalent
relationbetweensportsand politics.Sportshave oftenbeen used- or misofforeign
used- as an instrument
policy.UsingtheUnitedStatesas an example,
Nafzigergives an overviewof the politicaldimensionsand implicationsof
sports.ChapterVI discussessevennationaluses or policyobjectivesof sports.
Nafzigerbelievesthatsportsare used to provokeconflict,to promoteinternato acquireprestige,to enhancehumanrights,to conveyor
tionalcooperation,
An AdpischenSportrecht (M. Will ed. 1989); Vedder,The International
OlympicCommittee:
vancedNon-Governmental
Law, 27 Ger. Y.B. Int'l L. 233
Organizationand theInternational
(1984).
- Anspruchund Wirklich2. See Troeger& Vedder,Rechtsqualitt
der IOC -Zulassungsregel
keit,in Die Einbindungdes Nationalen Sportrechtsin Internationale Bezge 1, 6 (D. Reuter
ed. 1984).
FALL 1990

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862

THE INTERNATIONALLAWYER

of states,to providepropaor nonrecognition


confirm
diplomaticrecognition
theproblem,butone
Theexamplesgivenillustrate
ganda,andtoregister
protest.
of the sport-historical
mightargue withsome of the factualrepresentations
aspects.3Nafzigercomesto thefollowingconclusion:The officialuse of sports
is generally
to provokeconflict
illegal,whereasitsuse to promoteinternational
is permisitsuse to acquireprestigenormally
is
and
commendable,
cooperation
sible. WithcertainexceptionsNafzigersupportstheuse of sportsto enhance
and acceptsthepeacefuluse
humanrightswithintheUnitedNationsframework
Whethertheuse of sportsfor
of sportsas a basis fordiplomaticrecognition.
or propagandais legal or illegaldependson a case-by-case,
purposesof protest
relatedto
contextualanalysis.ChapterVII focuseson the issues specifically
and
ominous
has
loomed
that
a
large
particularly
boycotts, politicalphenomenon
human
in
view
of
in international
relations.
concludes,
rights
Nafziger
sports
to combatapartheid
and competitions
issues,thatboycottsagainstcompetitors
and otherformsof officialracismare generallyacceptableunderinternational
the individual
law. This positiondoes not adequatelytake intoconsideration
and
efforts
of
the
athletes
and
their
privations.
long-standing
rights
social issuesof "amateurism,"drugsandbloodtransfusions
(dopImportant
and taxationare the subjectsof chapter
discrimination,
ing), commercialism,
and actual
on thehistorical
VIII. The readermayfindvaluabletheinformation
decisions.
the
relevant
of
these
issues,including
Finally,in
judicial
background
of
international
that
the
to
the
fact
tribute
efficacy
chapterIX, Nafzigerpays
by governments.
sportslaw reliesheavilyon cooperationand implementation
to
interest
His discussionof theAmateurSportsAct of 19784is of particular
of
the
with
the
law
their
national
who
wish
to
legislation
compare
foreign
lawyers
toclarify
theharmonies
instrument
lawis an efficient
UnitedStates.Comparative
and differences
of thenationallegislationandjudicialdecisionsin thevarious
a steptowardharmonizing
countries,
sportslaw. The subjectsof international
for
law
are
a
challenge sportslawyersall overtheworld.To
fascinating
sports
association
and
coordinate
the
necessaryresearchwork,an international
inspire
of sportslawyersshouldbe foundedin theforeseeablefuture.
In conclusion,thisis a veryfinebook, whichdeservesa wide readership.
sportslaw,a second
Bearingin mindthedynamicsof nationaland international
deserves.
thesuccessthisbook undoubtedly
editionwill confirm
Klaus Vieweg
WestGermany
Universitt
Mnster,

3. The reviewerthanksAndreasKrumpholz,Bonn, forhis valuablehintsas to boycottsin


international
sports.
4. 36 U.S.C. 371-96 (1982).
VOL. 24, NO. 3

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