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# Lecture 1

## Design to plan or to make drawings which is not yet structured .

Reinforced in the oxford dictionary means make it stronger so
reinforced concrete with steel bars.
Water is another governing elements so it plays an important role in
the concerted mixing.
We cant simply put a specific proportion and say that concrete is made
because it is made in the field on vise versa of steel which is made in
factories.
Even if make concrete you have to cure it.
It depends on target straits
Common type of structures residential school
Analysis is following a method. Same formula but everyone has a
design philosophy
Clear cover from the end of the bar to the end of section
Effective cover from the end to the section to the diameter of bar
So coming to this particular point..
Increase stiffness and decrease the deflection
Chaotic situations
Detailing how to provide the reinforcement :

## 1. Lapping depends on diameter of bar is aspect of detailing

2. Tie bar and spacing

Even if it casted well but curing is the most important thing for
reaching the appropriate strength.
Test and cast in the field
Characteristic strength:
150 mm meter cube, two test at casting field tests for bending
and compression.
Keep the cube between to steel plate and start compressing
until it cracks
INSTRON testing mission whatever available in the engineering
laboratory
Guideline, specific rules we should follow, (codes) every
section and chapter has specific purpose.
One can argue why shall we.
Code is a guideline we should follow for different cases and
formula are given empirical.
How much load we shall consider. Certain type of load and what
type of building what for it is made.. whether it is a
residential ,,,whether it is ..

## Unit weight of building material and stored materials.

The stuff is being constructed what is the wind condition over
years on the basis of that we have to find out.
It is having an impact
One important aspect we should consider
Dead and live Load is the one for which we have to design the
structure.
Primary combinations
I am giving this one a broad idea
Reasonable assumption
Assume that we wouldnt provide an economic design
Properties of concrete a.m.neivle, ultimate state design
reinforced concrete Varghese.p.c

Lecture 2

## You should know the limit you are going to use.

A proportion as it shown
We will to the one that it is called workability
It means concrete it can flow , mix, any shape, if add less
water then it would be dry and what will happen then it
will break, get the proper shape.
Workability a concrete can be readily compacted is said
to be workable.
The amount of useful internal work necessary to produce
full compaction.
ASTM definition of workability ; the propriety
determining the effort required to manipulate a freshly
mixed quantity of concrete with minimum loss of
homogeneity.
As well as you see the other own to help to write down.
Whenever you see
That so far the concrete depends on, otherwise concrete
will become weak.
Consistency is the relative mobility or ability of freshly
mixed concrete or mortar to flow, this is measured by
slump, in direct way to measure the workability. It used
extensively in site.
Slump test; a figure would show many thingsthe mould
for the slump test is a frustum of a cone, 300 mm high. It
is placed on a smooth surface with the smaller opening
at the top and filled with concrete in three layers.so what
it exactly means. More slump more workable.

## That is an important criteria

Nominal mix..simply use this one cast it and simply
design.
Whatever available you have to cast it.
On the basis of that ,one can design .
I have already told these things so I wont repeat.
Strength and serviceability should be holding hand by
hand
Concrete should maintain its required strength and
serviceability during the expected service life.
Concrete is said to be durable if it withstands the
process of deterioration to which it can be expected to
be exposed.
Concrete would be deteriorate over time we cant help it
we can just accept it.
Compressive strength;
And we can find therefore the corresponding strain
When we test the concrete cube what we find out, we
can measure the stess and the strain,in other word we
can find out the deflection and the applied load (how
much it is compressed ),gereraly it is 1.5 by 1.5,,, on the
basis of that we will come up with the stess strain
curve,,,,it is something that go like this, this one only
you can get it from a test theres no other way.
Modulus of elasticity, design calculation.
Tensile strength, it is observed from experimental
studies that the tensile strength of concrete is higly
variable and ranges from approximetaly 8 to 10 per cent
of the compressive. we shall assume that concrete wont
take any tensile,,,other interesting things,
If you look from this sight (section), since we are not
going this far,
How it interacts,,,biaxial strength,,,generally we can get
it like this ,,,let us state let us give a schematic
description ,,, what we shall state here,,,since cocncrete
is very weak in tension, we shall get very low
components here,,but the other side we can go like this,
and this particular one this compression side will be
more,, failure theories ,,,,
If it goes beyond this then the it fails
Obviously we are getting an idea
Creep; observation; it is important because it is time
dependent both axial and bending deformations and
reinforced concrete members increase with time.
We can consider that age that is say in month ,, what
happens here,,if we cast for a day,,,it will,,,

## It will keep on deforming under a constant load.

That deflection we getting this much..
We will get the elastic recovery but it will not come down
to 0 that will be called non- recoverable deformation.that
will getting due to creep.
Creep is divided into two parts;
An initial deformation that occurs with the application of
A time dependent deformation, termed creep that
continuous at a decreasing rate for a period of years.
This is the one Is creep the other one is shrinkage.
Shrinkage; aas the moisture evaporates, the cocncete
volume shrinks, the shortening per unit length
associated with the reduction in volume due to moisture
loss is termed the shrinkage strain or simply shrinkage.
Almost we have finished this material part ,,,then we
shall consider for steel.
If it is done properly it will really stand the load even
over its expected life whatever way it is designed.
What way we should apply to come up with size of the
section.
Finally you have to produce one drawing.
When detailing is wrong it might mislead to catastrophic
failure.
The way it Is oriented or configured not necessarily
The top will be the tension that means we shall provide
reinforcement on the top.

Lecture 3

## That we have seen in the last class

We will come again in brief
The basic concept of modular ratio
I can explain this thing
Since it is homogeneous which means section
permissible stresses at top and down are the same.
Bending moment is the governing force
If it is not possible due to other reason we can go for
more.
Dominating one is bending

## Most of the cases you will find this scheme in beams

except for cantilever beam. Tension is being developed at
the top.
Neutral axis .
Stress will maximum at the edges or the outer side at the
top and bottom.
Each material have its own permissible limit
The material will yield
This is the simple and handy equation so we can find out
in more clear way.
I am assuming b depending on practical dimension.
We provide some regular number multiple of 25 mm
It will be registered by those two bars only with no
taking load under the neutral axis.
Assumptions
Both steel and concrete act together.steel is embedded
in concrete and theres no slipping
Factor of safety about 3 with respect to cube strength
concrete
Steel 1.8 with respect to yield strength.
It deals only with elastic behavior of the member
Generally even if we provide the reinforcement at the
bottom we also provide reinforcement at the top though
it is not required but we need it to hold stirrups that one
will resist shear .
Two different support conditions
Concrete does not have definite modulus of elasticity
Therefore It is worth considering
Design for strength and serviceability
If sections are designed by ultimate strength
requirements alone, the cracking and deflection at the
It is another conflict
That means the crack may appear and crack opening the
user or residence of the building feels discomfort or
panic
It is necessary to keep crack widths and deflection within
reasonable limiting values.
Not only the strength as well as the serviceability
condition.
Limit state method due to collapse and serviceability

## Correspond to each of the states in which the structure

becomes unfit.
The one we have already told
But the things that we have,,
Limit state is considered due to collapse/failure point of
view and other for serviceability
Characteristic strength the maximum one we shall
assume the strength that one can safely assume for
materials are called their..
These are two parts we have to consider in our design
Dont under estimate that is dangerous
Dont over estimate but not economic particularly for
regular manner of building,,, you can imagine it is 10 m!

Lecture 4

## Working stress method

Different steps of construction
I dont know either can you see
It will take the wall load from a tie
We start from the bottom but when we design we start from the
other way
We should have the limit
We have this one though we dont use it
The limiting values
We shall mainly consider these two
Permissible stresses otherwise we cant design
Permissible stresses in compression have two parts bending and
direct
You are pressing the column like this then you have a direct
compression
And also in bond
You are free how far you want
Ft is the total tension on the member minus pretention in sted, if
any
Ac is area of concrete excluding any finishing mat. Nad
reinforcing steel
To be more specific ,,,,
Lecture 6

## Limit state of collapse flexure

Every method has new assumptions

## There also we make certain kind of assumptions

Assumptions
Plane sections normal to the axis remain plane after bending
The maximum strain in concrete at the outermost compression
fibre is taken as 0.0035
The tensile strength of the concrete is ignored
The stress block may assume to be rectangle ,trapezoid
parabola or any other shape which results in prediction of
strength in sustaible agreement with the result of test
In a good agreement
The stresses in the reinforcement are derived from
representative stress strain curve for the type of steel used
We never take the ultimate limit for design calculation
For design purpose, the partial safety factor ,,,,
The maximum strain in the tension reinforcement in the section
at failure shall not be less than
Most of the cases we use,,,
The maximum strain allowed in concrete plane 0.00035
One more thing I would like to point out
It will go up and slowly it will go down
Steel bar with definite yield point
Mild steel ,high yield reinforcement
Singly reinforced section:
Let us draw a cross section of the beam
Youll never go beyond this value
The moment carrying capacity that is the target
Lever arm is Z
And the moment capacity nothing but the value,,,,
The stress block is the compressive part of the stress curve
The depth of neutral axis of a given beam we shall take it from
the equilibrium of forces
We shall reach the yield stress in bars
We are giving a special name
Let us check limiting values of.
I am getting this one from the strain diagram
Expression of resisting moment for a balance section in terms of
steel stress fy and p
Balanced sections : Sections in which the tension steel reaches
yield strain simultaneously as the concrete reaches the failure
strain in bending are called balanced sections.
The applied load we shall stop when measuring the strain until it
reach .
Under reinforced sections: Sections in which the tension steel
reaches yield strain at loads lower than the load at which the

## concrete reaches the failure strain in bending are called

balanced sections.
We shall measure the strain when it achieve 0.00035 and then
stop there,and maybe steel didt reach that value.
Over reinforced sections: Sections in which the failure strain in
concrete is reached earlier than the yield strain of steel is
reached are called over,,,,
Form the strain we get the corresponding stress
Is preferable (under)
That also we can find out,,,,,this or this whatever you say

## Reinforcement is designed to carry these tensile forces

Which are transferred by bond between the interfaces of the two
materials.
If the bond is not adequate, the reinforcing bars will hust slip within
the concrete and there will not be a composite action.
The concrete will be well compacted around the bars
We assume in analytical design the perfect bond so the strain of
reinforcement is identical to the strain of the adjacent concrete
This is normally known as compatibility of the strain across the cross
section of the member
Concrete is a very variable material, having a wide range of strengths
and stress-strain curves.
Cocncrete generally increases its strength with age. This characterisitic
is illustrated by the graph which shows how the increase is rapid at
The precise relationship will depend upon the type of cement used
Elastic modulus of steel Es= 200 Kn/mm2 Gpa
Reduction in volume called shrinkage
The expected life or the intended use
Concrete is about placing ,compaction and curing
1.6x10-6 = one point six times ten to the minus six
In the same set of calculation = the same units used
Passion ratio is the lateral strain by the longitudinal strain
I have to be able to determine very small changes in resistance
Cube mould are the container that concrete casting will be attended
A beam continuous over several spans, is to be designed for the
largest sagging bending moment it will have sustain any action that

## has the effect of increasing the bending moment will be considered

unfavorable whilst any action that reduces the bending m0mnet will be
consider to be favorable.

## Beam failure modes

The cracks opens up at the tension side at the beam as expected and all of
the sudden the concrete in the top surface of the beam fails explosively
Remember that the top side of a beam is under compression < because we
are heavily load the lower part of the beam which allows a large amount of a load to
be carried , the same large amount in compression needs to carried by the
concrete near the top this called a concrete crush before the reinforcement start to
yield , for the structural engineer it is a bad way for a beam to fail because concrete
crushing is a brittle sudden and you dont get a gradual fail in an under reinforced
beam .
The curve simply stops which is implies a sudden failure
Cracks means that the steel in a beam is taking up the tension that is
developing in the lower part of the section
The crackes opens up as the steel taking the tension
Which allows the beam deflect greatly and eventually the beam fails