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Original Title: Design to Plan or to Make Drawings Which is Not Yet Structured

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Reinforced in the oxford dictionary means make it stronger so

reinforced concrete with steel bars.

Water is another governing elements so it plays an important role in

the concerted mixing.

We cant simply put a specific proportion and say that concrete is made

because it is made in the field on vise versa of steel which is made in

factories.

Even if make concrete you have to cure it.

It depends on target straits

Common type of structures residential school

Analysis is following a method. Same formula but everyone has a

design philosophy

Clear cover from the end of the bar to the end of section

Effective cover from the end to the section to the diameter of bar

So coming to this particular point..

Increase stiffness and decrease the deflection

Chaotic situations

Detailing how to provide the reinforcement :

2. Tie bar and spacing

Even if it casted well but curing is the most important thing for

reaching the appropriate strength.

Test and cast in the field

Characteristic strength:

150 mm meter cube, two test at casting field tests for bending

and compression.

Keep the cube between to steel plate and start compressing

until it cracks

We can adjust it

INSTRON testing mission whatever available in the engineering

laboratory

Guideline, specific rules we should follow, (codes) every

section and chapter has specific purpose.

One can argue why shall we.

Code is a guideline we should follow for different cases and

formula are given empirical.

How much load we shall consider. Certain type of load and what

type of building what for it is made.. whether it is a

residential ,,,whether it is ..

Seismic load are considered separately.

The stuff is being constructed what is the wind condition over

years on the basis of that we have to find out.

It is having an impact

One important aspect we should consider

Dead and live Load is the one for which we have to design the

structure.

Primary combinations

I am giving this one a broad idea

Reasonable assumption

Assume that we wouldnt provide an economic design

Properties of concrete a.m.neivle, ultimate state design

reinforced concrete Varghese.p.c

Lecture 2

A proportion as it shown

We will to the one that it is called workability

It means concrete it can flow , mix, any shape, if add less

water then it would be dry and what will happen then it

will break, get the proper shape.

Workability a concrete can be readily compacted is said

to be workable.

The amount of useful internal work necessary to produce

full compaction.

ASTM definition of workability ; the propriety

determining the effort required to manipulate a freshly

mixed quantity of concrete with minimum loss of

homogeneity.

As well as you see the other own to help to write down.

Whenever you see

That so far the concrete depends on, otherwise concrete

will become weak.

Consistency is the relative mobility or ability of freshly

mixed concrete or mortar to flow, this is measured by

slump, in direct way to measure the workability. It used

extensively in site.

Slump test; a figure would show many thingsthe mould

for the slump test is a frustum of a cone, 300 mm high. It

is placed on a smooth surface with the smaller opening

at the top and filled with concrete in three layers.so what

it exactly means. More slump more workable.

Nominal mix..simply use this one cast it and simply

design.

Whatever available you have to cast it.

On the basis of that ,one can design .

I have already told these things so I wont repeat.

Strength and serviceability should be holding hand by

hand

Concrete should maintain its required strength and

serviceability during the expected service life.

Concrete is said to be durable if it withstands the

process of deterioration to which it can be expected to

be exposed.

Concrete would be deteriorate over time we cant help it

we can just accept it.

Compressive strength;

And we can find therefore the corresponding strain

When we test the concrete cube what we find out, we

can measure the stess and the strain,in other word we

can find out the deflection and the applied load (how

much it is compressed ),gereraly it is 1.5 by 1.5,,, on the

basis of that we will come up with the stess strain

curve,,,,it is something that go like this, this one only

you can get it from a test theres no other way.

Modulus of elasticity, design calculation.

Tensile strength, it is observed from experimental

studies that the tensile strength of concrete is higly

variable and ranges from approximetaly 8 to 10 per cent

of the compressive. we shall assume that concrete wont

take any tensile,,,other interesting things,

If you look from this sight (section), since we are not

going this far,

How it interacts,,,biaxial strength,,,generally we can get

it like this ,,,let us state let us give a schematic

description ,,, what we shall state here,,,since cocncrete

is very weak in tension, we shall get very low

components here,,but the other side we can go like this,

and this particular one this compression side will be

more,, failure theories ,,,,

If it goes beyond this then the it fails

Obviously we are getting an idea

Creep; observation; it is important because it is time

dependent both axial and bending deformations and

reinforced concrete members increase with time.

We can consider that age that is say in month ,, what

happens here,,if we cast for a day,,,it will,,,

That deflection we getting this much..

We will get the elastic recovery but it will not come down

to 0 that will be called non- recoverable deformation.that

will getting due to creep.

Creep is divided into two parts;

An initial deformation that occurs with the application of

a load

A time dependent deformation, termed creep that

continuous at a decreasing rate for a period of years.

Please note that,,,,

This is the one Is creep the other one is shrinkage.

Shrinkage; aas the moisture evaporates, the cocncete

volume shrinks, the shortening per unit length

associated with the reduction in volume due to moisture

loss is termed the shrinkage strain or simply shrinkage.

Almost we have finished this material part ,,,then we

shall consider for steel.

If it is done properly it will really stand the load even

over its expected life whatever way it is designed.

What way we should apply to come up with size of the

section.

Finally you have to produce one drawing.

When detailing is wrong it might mislead to catastrophic

failure.

The way it Is oriented or configured not necessarily

should take all the loads.

The top will be the tension that means we shall provide

reinforcement on the top.

Lecture 3

We will come again in brief

The basic concept of modular ratio

I can explain this thing

Since it is homogeneous which means section

permissible stresses at top and down are the same.

Bending moment is the governing force

If it is not possible due to other reason we can go for

more.

Dominating one is bending

except for cantilever beam. Tension is being developed at

the top.

Neutral axis .

Stress will maximum at the edges or the outer side at the

top and bottom.

Each material have its own permissible limit

The material will yield

This is the simple and handy equation so we can find out

in more clear way.

I am assuming b depending on practical dimension.

Loads due to external load and self-weight

We provide some regular number multiple of 25 mm

It will be registered by those two bars only with no

taking load under the neutral axis.

Assumptions

Both steel and concrete act together.steel is embedded

in concrete and theres no slipping

Perfectly elastic at all stages of loadings.

Factor of safety about 3 with respect to cube strength

concrete

Steel 1.8 with respect to yield strength.

It deals only with elastic behavior of the member

Generally even if we provide the reinforcement at the

bottom we also provide reinforcement at the top though

it is not required but we need it to hold stirrups that one

will resist shear .

Two different support conditions

Concrete does not have definite modulus of elasticity

Therefore It is worth considering

Design for strength and serviceability

If sections are designed by ultimate strength

requirements alone, the cracking and deflection at the

service loads may be excessive.

It is another conflict

That means the crack may appear and crack opening the

user or residence of the building feels discomfort or

panic

It is necessary to keep crack widths and deflection within

reasonable limiting values.

Not only the strength as well as the serviceability

condition.

Limit state method due to collapse and serviceability

becomes unfit.

The one we have already told

But the things that we have,,

Limit state is considered due to collapse/failure point of

view and other for serviceability

Characteristic strength the maximum one we shall

assume the strength that one can safely assume for

materials are called their..

These are two parts we have to consider in our design

Dont under estimate that is dangerous

Dont over estimate but not economic particularly for

regular manner of building,,, you can imagine it is 10 m!

Lecture 4

Different steps of construction

I dont know either can you see

It will take the wall load from a tie

We start from the bottom but when we design we start from the

other way

We should have the limit

We have this one though we dont use it

The limiting values

We shall mainly consider these two

Permissible stresses otherwise we cant design

Permissible stresses in compression have two parts bending and

direct

You are pressing the column like this then you have a direct

compression

And also in bond

You are free how far you want

Ft is the total tension on the member minus pretention in sted, if

any

Ac is area of concrete excluding any finishing mat. Nad

reinforcing steel

To be more specific ,,,,

Lecture 6

Every method has new assumptions

Assumptions

Plane sections normal to the axis remain plane after bending

The maximum strain in concrete at the outermost compression

fibre is taken as 0.0035

The tensile strength of the concrete is ignored

The stress block may assume to be rectangle ,trapezoid

parabola or any other shape which results in prediction of

strength in sustaible agreement with the result of test

In a good agreement

The stresses in the reinforcement are derived from

representative stress strain curve for the type of steel used

We never take the ultimate limit for design calculation

For design purpose, the partial safety factor ,,,,

The maximum strain in the tension reinforcement in the section

at failure shall not be less than

Most of the cases we use,,,

The maximum strain allowed in concrete plane 0.00035

One more thing I would like to point out

It will go up and slowly it will go down

Steel bar with definite yield point

Mild steel ,high yield reinforcement

Singly reinforced section:

Let us draw a cross section of the beam

Youll never go beyond this value

The moment carrying capacity that is the target

Lever arm is Z

And the moment capacity nothing but the value,,,,

The stress block is the compressive part of the stress curve

The depth of neutral axis of a given beam we shall take it from

the equilibrium of forces

We shall reach the yield stress in bars

We are giving a special name

Let us check limiting values of.

I am getting this one from the strain diagram

Expression of resisting moment for a balance section in terms of

steel stress fy and p

Balanced sections : Sections in which the tension steel reaches

yield strain simultaneously as the concrete reaches the failure

strain in bending are called balanced sections.

The applied load we shall stop when measuring the strain until it

reach .

Under reinforced sections: Sections in which the tension steel

reaches yield strain at loads lower than the load at which the

balanced sections.

We shall measure the strain when it achieve 0.00035 and then

stop there,and maybe steel didt reach that value.

Over reinforced sections: Sections in which the failure strain in

concrete is reached earlier than the yield strain of steel is

reached are called over,,,,

Form the strain we get the corresponding stress

Is preferable (under)

That also we can find out,,,,,this or this whatever you say

Which are transferred by bond between the interfaces of the two

materials.

If the bond is not adequate, the reinforcing bars will hust slip within

the concrete and there will not be a composite action.

The concrete will be well compacted around the bars

We assume in analytical design the perfect bond so the strain of

reinforcement is identical to the strain of the adjacent concrete

This is normally known as compatibility of the strain across the cross

section of the member

Concrete is a very variable material, having a wide range of strengths

and stress-strain curves.

Cocncrete generally increases its strength with age. This characterisitic

is illustrated by the graph which shows how the increase is rapid at

first becoming more gradual later.

The precise relationship will depend upon the type of cement used

Elastic modulus of steel Es= 200 Kn/mm2 Gpa

Reduction in volume called shrinkage

The expected life or the intended use

Inconsistency and contradiction

Concrete is about placing ,compaction and curing

1.6x10-6 = one point six times ten to the minus six

In the same set of calculation = the same units used

Passion ratio is the lateral strain by the longitudinal strain

Having applied this load

I have to be able to determine very small changes in resistance

Cube mould are the container that concrete casting will be attended

A beam continuous over several spans, is to be designed for the

largest sagging bending moment it will have sustain any action that

unfavorable whilst any action that reduces the bending m0mnet will be

consider to be favorable.

The cracks opens up at the tension side at the beam as expected and all of

the sudden the concrete in the top surface of the beam fails explosively

Remember that the top side of a beam is under compression < because we

are heavily load the lower part of the beam which allows a large amount of a load to

be carried , the same large amount in compression needs to carried by the

concrete near the top this called a concrete crush before the reinforcement start to

yield , for the structural engineer it is a bad way for a beam to fail because concrete

crushing is a brittle sudden and you dont get a gradual fail in an under reinforced

beam .

The curve simply stops which is implies a sudden failure

Cracks means that the steel in a beam is taking up the tension that is

developing in the lower part of the section

The crackes opens up as the steel taking the tension

Which allows the beam deflect greatly and eventually the beam fails

(gradual vs brittle )

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