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a. Spring constant

Spring Constant or force constant is defined as the applied force if the

displacement in the spring is unity

b. Coefficient of subgrade reaction

Definition :

1. The ratio of load per unit area on soil to the corresponding deformation

2. Load per unit area of horizontal surface of a mass of soil, to

corresponding settlement of the surface

c. Undamped natural circular frequency

d. Undamped natural frequency

e. Period

f. Resonance

The concept in which two or more equivalent dot formulas for the same

arrangement of atoms (resonance structures) are necessary to describe

the bonding in a molecule or ion.

g. Critical damping coefficient

h. Damping ratio

The damping ratio is a dimensionless measure describing how oscillations

in a system decay after a disturbance.

i. Damped natural frequency

The natural frequency is the rate at which an object vibrates when it is not

disturbed by an outside force

Figure 2.4.

Given

Weight of machine + foundation

= 400 kN

Spring constant

= 100,000 kN/m

foundation and the natural period.

Solution :

f n=

f n=

1

2

k

m

1 100000

=7.886 Hz

2

400

9.81

Natural period :

T=

1

1

=

=0.127 s

f n 7.886

foundation?

Solution :

k=

W

W

400

zs = =

=0.0004 m=0.4 mm

zs

k 100000

z = u0 = 0.

a. Determine the natural period T of the foundation.

b. Plot the dynamic force on the subgrade of the foundation due to the

forced part of the response for time t =0 to t = 2T.

c. Plot the dynamic force on the subgrade of the foundation due to the free

part of the response for t = 0 to 2T.

d. Plot the total dynamic force on the subgrade [that is, the algebraic sum of

(b) and (c)]. Hint: Refer to Eq. (2.33).

Example 2.3

A machine foundation can be idealized as a mass-spring system. This

foundation can be subjected to a force that can be given as Q (kN) = 35.6 sin

t .

Given

f

= 13.33 Hz

Spring constant

= 70,000 kN/m

Solution :

n=

k

m

70000 x 103

n=

=62.11 rad /s

178 x 103

9.81

Fdynam =

Q0

1/ 0

But

=2 f =2 x 13.33=83.75 rad /s

Thus

83.75/62.11

1

35.6

Fdynam =

Maximum force on the subgrade = 178 + 102.18 = 280.18 kN

Minimum force on the subgrade = 178 102.18 = 75.82 kN

n=62.11 rad /s

T=

2

2

=

=0.101 s

n 62.11

b. Plot the dynamic force on the subgrade of the foundation due to the

forced part of the response for time t =0 to t = 2T.

Q0

k

Forcedue forced part =k

sin t

2

1 2

n

( )

35.6

70000

Force due forced part =70000

sin ( 83.75 x ( 2 x 0.101 ) ) =40.701

83.752

1

62.112

( )

c. Plot the dynamic force on the subgrade of the foundation due to the free

part of the response for t = 0 to 2T.

Q0

k

Forcedue free part=k

2

1 2

n

( )(

sin n t

n

35.6

70000

Forcedue free part=70000

83.752

1

2

62.11

( )

( 83.75

62.11

d. Plot the total dynamic force on the subgrade [that is, the algebraic sum

of (b) and (c)]. Hint: Refer to Eq. (2.33).

z=

Q 0 /k

sin t sin t

(

)

1( )

2

2n

83.75

sin 62.11 x

62.11

2 x 0.101

83.75 x

sin

35.6/70000

z=

83.752

1(

)

62.112

2 x 0.101

Figure P2.5). Determine the natural frequency of the undamped free

vibration.

Figure P2.5

Solution :

m=

W

g

k 1 +k 2=k z

f n=

1

2

kz

m

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