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2.

1The following terms :


a. Spring constant
Spring Constant or force constant is defined as the applied force if the
displacement in the spring is unity
b. Coefficient of subgrade reaction
Definition :
1. The ratio of load per unit area on soil to the corresponding deformation
2. Load per unit area of horizontal surface of a mass of soil, to
corresponding settlement of the surface
c. Undamped natural circular frequency
d. Undamped natural frequency
e. Period
f. Resonance
The concept in which two or more equivalent dot formulas for the same
arrangement of atoms (resonance structures) are necessary to describe
the bonding in a molecule or ion.
g. Critical damping coefficient
h. Damping ratio
The damping ratio is a dimensionless measure describing how oscillations
in a system decay after a disturbance.
i. Damped natural frequency
The natural frequency is the rate at which an object vibrates when it is not
disturbed by an outside force

2.2A machine foundation can be idealized to a mass-spring system, as shown in


Figure 2.4.
Given
Weight of machine + foundation

= 400 kN

Spring constant

= 100,000 kN/m

Determine the natural frequency of undamped free vibration of this


foundation and the natural period.
Solution :

the natural frequency of undamped free vibration :

f n=

f n=

1
2

k
m

1 100000
=7.886 Hz
2
400
9.81

Natural period :

T=

1
1
=
=0.127 s
f n 7.886

2.3Refer to Problem 2.2, What would be the static deflection zs of this


foundation?
Solution :

k=

W
W
400
zs = =
=0.0004 m=0.4 mm
zs
k 100000

2.4Refer to Example 2.3. For this foundation let time t = 0, z = z0 = 0.


z = u0 = 0.
a. Determine the natural period T of the foundation.
b. Plot the dynamic force on the subgrade of the foundation due to the
forced part of the response for time t =0 to t = 2T.
c. Plot the dynamic force on the subgrade of the foundation due to the free
part of the response for t = 0 to 2T.
d. Plot the total dynamic force on the subgrade [that is, the algebraic sum of
(b) and (c)]. Hint: Refer to Eq. (2.33).
Example 2.3
A machine foundation can be idealized as a mass-spring system. This
foundation can be subjected to a force that can be given as Q (kN) = 35.6 sin
t .
Given
f

= 13.33 Hz

Weight of the machine + foundation = 178 kN

Spring constant

= 70,000 kN/m

Determine the maximum and minimum force transmitted to the subgrade.

Solution :

n=

k
m

70000 x 103
n=
=62.11 rad /s
178 x 103
9.81
Fdynam =

Q0
1/ 0

But

=2 f =2 x 13.33=83.75 rad /s
Thus

83.75/62.11

1
35.6
Fdynam =
Maximum force on the subgrade = 178 + 102.18 = 280.18 kN
Minimum force on the subgrade = 178 102.18 = 75.82 kN

a. The natural period T of the foundation.

n=62.11 rad /s
T=

2
2
=
=0.101 s
n 62.11

b. Plot the dynamic force on the subgrade of the foundation due to the
forced part of the response for time t =0 to t = 2T.

Q0
k
Forcedue forced part =k
sin t
2
1 2
n

( )

35.6
70000
Force due forced part =70000
sin ( 83.75 x ( 2 x 0.101 ) ) =40.701
83.752
1
62.112

( )

c. Plot the dynamic force on the subgrade of the foundation due to the free
part of the response for t = 0 to 2T.

Q0
k
Forcedue free part=k
2

1 2
n

( )(

sin n t
n

35.6
70000
Forcedue free part=70000
83.752
1
2
62.11

( )

sin ( 62.11 x ( 2 x 0.101 ) ) )=1.182


( 83.75
62.11

d. Plot the total dynamic force on the subgrade [that is, the algebraic sum
of (b) and (c)]. Hint: Refer to Eq. (2.33).

z=

Q 0 /k

sin t sin t
(
)

1( )
2

2n

83.75
sin 62.11 x
62.11

2 x 0.101
83.75 x
sin
35.6/70000
z=

83.752
1(
)
62.112

2 x 0.101

2.5A foundation of mass m is supported by two springs attached in series. (See


Figure P2.5). Determine the natural frequency of the undamped free
vibration.

Figure P2.5
Solution :

m=

W
g

The natural frequency of the undamped free vibration :

k 1 +k 2=k z
f n=

1
2

kz
m