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Experimental Aerodynamics

Lecture 1:

Introduction Equations of

motion

G. Dimitriadis

AERO0032-1, Aeroelasticity and Experimental Aerodynamics, Lecture 2

Introduction

G Aereolasticity is the study of the interaction of inertial,

structural and aerodynamic forces on aircraft, buildings,

surface vehicles etc

Inertial Forces

Flight Dynamics

Structural dynamics

Dynamic

Aeroelasticity

Structural Forces

Static Aeroelasticity

Aerodynamic Forces

Why is it important?

G The interaction between these three

forces can cause several undesirable

phenomena:

phenomenon)

Flutter (dynamic aeroelastic phenomenon)

Vortex-induced vibration, buffeting

(unsteady aerodynamic phenomena)

Limit Cycle Oscillations (nonlinear

aeroelastic phenomenon)

Static Divergence

NASA wind tunnel experiment on a forward swept wing

Flutter

Flutter experiment: Winglet under

fuselage of a F-16. Slow Mach

number increase.

The point of this experiment was

to predict the flutter Mach

number from subcritical test data

and to stop the test before flutter

occurs.

Vortex-induced vibrations

behind a cylinder

Vortex-induced vibrations

attack

deck

occur only in the lab

Tacoma Narrows

Bridge Flutter

Oscillations

Various phenomena

10

Fin buffeting on F-18

AERO0032-1, Aeroelasticity and Experimental Aerodynamics, Lecture 2

11

phenomena?

G Aeroelastic Design (Divergence, Flutter,

Control Reversal)

G Wind tunnel testing (Aeroelastic scaling)

G Ground Vibration Testing (Complete

modal analysis of aircraft structure)

G Flight Flutter Testing (Demonstrate that

flight envelope is flutter free)

AERO0032-1, Aeroelasticity and Experimental Aerodynamics, Lecture 2

12

F-22 buffet

Test model

AERO0032-1, Aeroelasticity and Experimental Aerodynamics, Lecture 2

13

GVT of F-35 aircraft

GVT of A340

14

15

G Introduction to aeroelastic modeling

G Modeling of static aeroelastic issues and

phenomena:

Divergence

Flutter, vortex-induced vibration, stall flutter,

galloping

G Practical aeroelasticity:

Aeroelastic design

Ground Vibration Testing, Flight Flutter Testing

G Non-aircraft aeroelasticity

AERO0032-1, Aeroelasticity and Experimental Aerodynamics, Lecture 2

16

A bit of history

G The first ever flutter incident occurred on the

Handley Page O/400 bomber in 1916 in the

UK.

G A fuselage torsion mode coupled with an

antisymmetric elevator mode (the elevators

were independently actuated)

G The problem was solved by coupling the

elevators

17

More history

G Control surface flutter became a frequent

phenomenon during World War I and in the

interwar period.

G It was solved in the mid-twenties by mass

balancing the control surface.

18

Increasing airspeed

G Aircraft flight speeds increased significantly during the 20s

and 30s.

G A number of high-speed racing aircraft suffered from flutter

problems

Curtiss R-6

Supermarine S-4

Loening R-4

Verville-Sperry R-3

AERO0032-1, Aeroelasticity and Experimental Aerodynamics, Lecture 2

19

1930s

General Aviation YO-27: Wing-aileron and

rudder-fuselage flutter

Fairchild F-24:

Wing-aileron and

tail flutter

AERO0032-1, Aeroelasticity and Experimental Aerodynamics, Lecture 2

20

G Aircraft that experienced aeroelastic

phenomena

Junkers JU90 (fluttered during flight flutter test)

P80, F100, F14 (transonic aileron buzz)

T46A (servo tab flutter)

F16, F18 (external stores LCO, buffeting)

F111 (external stores LCO)

F117, E-6 (vertical fin flutter)

G Read Historical Development of Aircraft Flutter, I.E.

Garrick, W.H. Reed III, Journal of Aircraft, 18(11),

897-912, 1981

AERO0032-1, Aeroelasticity and Experimental Aerodynamics, Lecture 2

21

F-117 crash

G A F-117 crashed during

an airshow in Maryland in

September 1997

G The inquest found that

four fasteners that

connected the elevon

actuator to the wing

structure were missing.

G This reduced the

actuator-elevon stiffness,

leading to elevon-wing

flutter

AERO0032-1, Aeroelasticity and Experimental Aerodynamics, Lecture 2

22

Aeroelastic Modeling

G Aircraft are very complex structures with

many modes of vibration and can exhibit very

complex fluid-structure interaction

phenomena

G The exact modeling of the aeroelastic

behaviour of an aircraft necessitates the

coupled solution of:

The full compressible Navier Stokes equations

The full structural vibrations equations

something simpler:

AERO0032-1, Aeroelasticity and Experimental Aerodynamics, Lecture 2

23

Two-dimensional, two degree-of

freedom airfoil, quite capable of

demonstrating most aeroelastic

phenomena.

h= plunge degree of freedom

xf= position of flexural axis

(pivot)

xc= position of centre of mass

Kh= plunge spring stiffness

K= pitch spring stiffness

In fact, we will simplify even

further and consider a flat plate

airfoil (no thickness, no camber)

AERO0032-1, Aeroelasticity and Experimental Aerodynamics, Lecture 2

24

Structural Model

G There are two aspects to each

aeroelastic models

A structural model

An aerodynamic model

to represent the effects of actuators and

other control elements

G Develop the structural model

AERO0032-1, Aeroelasticity and Experimental Aerodynamics, Lecture 2

25

G Use total energy conservation

xc

x

dy

dx

xf

AERO0032-1, Aeroelasticity and Experimental Aerodynamics, Lecture 2

26

Kinetic Energy

G The total kinetic energy is given by

where

27

Potential Energy

G The potential energy is simply the

energy stored in the two springs, i.e.

ignored

G Total energy=kinetic energy+potential

energy

AERO0032-1, Aeroelasticity and Experimental Aerodynamics, Lecture 2

28

G The equations of motion can be

obtained by inserting the expression for

the total energy into Lagranges

equation

29

G This should yield a set of two equations

of the form

G or,

where Q is a vector of external forces

AERO0032-1, Aeroelasticity and Experimental Aerodynamics, Lecture 2

30

Aerodynamic model

G The possible aerodynamic models depends

on flow regime and simplicity

G In general, only four flow regimes are

considered by aeroelasticians:

Incompressible

Subsonic

Transonic

Supersonic

incompressible modeling

AERO0032-1, Aeroelasticity and Experimental Aerodynamics, Lecture 2

31

Incompressible, Unsteady

Aerodynamics

Oscillating airfoils leave behind them a

strong vortex street. The vorticity in the wake

affects the flow over the airfoil:

The instantaneous aerodynamic forces

depend not only on the instantaneous

position of the airfoil but also on the position

and strength of the wake vortices.

This means that instantaneous aerodynamic

forces depend not only on the current motion

of the airfoil but on all its motion history from

the beginning of the motion.

32

Pitching airfoilLow frequency

33

Plunging airfoilLow amplitude

34

Quasi-steady aerodynamics

G The simplest possible modeling consists of

ignoring the effect of the wake

G Quasi-steady models assume that there are

only four contributions to the aerodynamic

forces:

Airfoil plunge speed,

Normal component of pitch speed,

Local velocity induced by the vorticity around the

airfoil, vi(x,t)

35

The aerodynamic

force acting on

the wing is the lift

and it is placed on

the quarter chord

(aerodynamic

centre). There is

also an

aerodynamic

moment acting

around the

flexural axis.

xf

c/4

Mxf

defined positive

downwards

AERO0032-1, Aeroelasticity and Experimental Aerodynamics, Lecture 2

36

Lift coefficient

G The airfoil is uncambered but the

pitching motion causes an effective

camber with slope

G From thin airfoil theory, cl=2(A0+A1/2),

where

37

G Substituting all this into the equation for

the lift coefficient and carrying out the

integrations we get

G This is the total circulatory lift acting on

the airfoil. There is another type of lift

acting on it, which will be presented in a

bit.

AERO0032-1, Aeroelasticity and Experimental Aerodynamics, Lecture 2

38

Moment coefficient

leading edge (according to thin airfoil)

theory is given by cm=-cl/4-(A1-A2)/4

G Therefore, the moment coefficient

around the flexural axis is given by

cmxf=cm+xfcl/c

G Substituting and integrating yields

39

Added Mass

G Apart from the circulatory lift and moment, the

air exerts another force on the airfoil.

G The wing is forcing a mass of air around it to

move. The air reacts and this force is known

as the added mass effect.

G It can be seen as the effort required to move

a cylinder of air with mass b2 where b=c/2.

G This force causes both lift and moment

contributions

AERO0032-1, Aeroelasticity and Experimental Aerodynamics, Lecture 2

40

41

motion

G The equations of motion are second order,

linear, ordinary differential equations.

G Notice that the equations are of the form

(A + B) q!! + (C + UD) q! + (E + U 2 F) q = 0

G And that there are mass, damping and

stiffness matrices both aerodynamic and

structural

42

Pitch-plunge equations of

motion

These are the full equations of motion for the pitch-plunge airfoil with

quasi-steady aerodynamics. We will investigate them in more detail now.

AERO0032-1, Aeroelasticity and Experimental Aerodynamics, Lecture 2

43

Static Aeroelasticity

G First, we will study the static equilibrium

of the system.

G Static means that all velocities and

accelerations are zero.

G The equations of motion become

44

G Let us apply an external moment M around

the flexural axis

G The static equilibrium equations become

=M/(K-U2ec2 )

G Then, the first equation can only be satisfied if

h= - U2c M/Kh(K-U2ec2 )

AERO0032-1, Aeroelasticity and Experimental Aerodynamics, Lecture 2

45

G This phenomenon is called

aerodynamic coupling. Changing the

pitch angle causes a change in the

plunge.

G This is logical since increased pitch

means increased lift.

G However, if we apply a force F on the

flexural axis, the equations become

46

G The second equation can only be satisfied if

=0

G The first equation then gives h=F/Kh

G In this case, there is no aerodynamic

coupling. Increasing the plunge does not

affect the pitch.

G This is not the general case. The pitch-plunge

model ignores 3D aerodynamic effects

G In real aircraft bending and torsion are both

coupled.

AERO0032-1, Aeroelasticity and Experimental Aerodynamics, Lecture 2

47

G Look at the second static equilibrium equation

with an applied moment

G If K>U2ec2 then the spring and

aerodynamic stiffness constitute a restoring

force, which will balance the external

moment.

G However, if K<U2ec2 then the spring and

aerodynamic stiffness do not constitute a

restoring force. Instead of balancing the

external moment, they add to it.

G It means that the static equilibrium is

unstable.

AERO0032-1, Aeroelasticity and Experimental Aerodynamics, Lecture 2

48

G Static divergence in pitch occurs when the

moment caused by the lift around the flexural

axis is higher than the structural restoring

force and of opposite sign.

G For every pitch stiffness there is an airspeed

above which static divergence will occur.

G If this airspeed is outside the flight envelope

of the aircraft, this is not a problem.

G The pitch-plunge model does not allow for

static divergence in plunge.

G Again, this is because it ignores 3D effects.

AERO0032-1, Aeroelasticity and Experimental Aerodynamics, Lecture 2

49

G Remember that e=xf/c-1/4.

G If the flexural axis lies on the quarter-chord

(aerodynamic centre), then e=0.

G Consequently, the moment of the lift around

the flexural axis also becomes zero.

G It follows that static divergence is no longer

possible.

G If xf is ahead of the aerodynamic centre, e<0

and the static equilibrium equation becomes

G Static divergence is no longer possible

AERO0032-1, Aeroelasticity and Experimental Aerodynamics, Lecture 2

50

Windmills

AERO0032-1, Aeroelasticity and Experimental Aerodynamics, Lecture 2

51

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