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Hugh Brody

Hugh Brody is a British anthropologist, writer, director and lecturer. He was born in 1943 and educated at
Trinity College, Oxford. He taught social anthropology at
Queens University Belfast. He is an Honorary Associate
of the Scott Polar Research Institute at the University of
Cambridge, and an Associate of the School for Comparative Literature at the University of Toronto.<ref name
faber'>Hugh Brody</ref> He currently holds a Canada
Research Chair at the University of the Fraser Valley in
Abbotsford, British Columbia.[1]

oped an innovative program that aimed to give new levels


of support for families who wanted to live on the land.
Brody was also one of those who in the mid-1970s rst
urged within the Department of Indian and Northern Affairs the idea of the separation of the Canadian north into
two indigenous jurisdictions, with that of the east becoming an Inuit political territory. This came into being with
the creation of Nunavut in 1999.
In 1975, Brody resigned from his position in the Canadian
Civil Service. He was then based at the Scott Polar Research Institute at the University of Cambridge, where he
became an Honorary Associate. In 197678 he worked
on the Inuit Land Use and Occupancy Project, in the
Northwest Territories, where he was co-ordinator for the
land use mapping carried out in the North Ban region. He also assembled an Arctic wide account of
Inuit perceptions of land occupancy, building a collage
of Inuit voices from all the communities of the Northwest Territories.[5] He later worked on a similar project
with Inuit and settlers of Labrador, which was published
in Our Footsteps Are Everywhere (1978).[6]

Anthropologist

In the 1960s, as a graduate student at Oxford, Hugh


Brody worked as an anthropologist in Ireland. This led
to his book Inishkillane, Change And Decline in the West
of Ireland. The eld-work for this study took him to
Connemara and West Cork, where he lived and worked
with peasant farmers, shermen and as a barman in a village bar. Contracted by Raidi Teilifs ireann he spent
time on Gola Island, o the coast of County Donegal, research that led to his contribution to the book Gola, The
Life and Last Days of an Island Community, co-authored
with F. H. A. Aalen.[2]

In 1977, Brody was a witness to the Mackenzie Valley


Pipeline Inquiry, giving evidence on the nature of northern development, alcohol abuse and Inuit languages.[7] He
then became a member of Justice Thomas R. Berger's
that set
In 1969, he did his rst Canadian work, supported by the sta, helping to prepare the two volume report
[8]
out
the
remarkable
conclusions
of
the
inquiry.
Northern Science Research Group at what was then the
Canadian Department of Indian and Northern Aairs. In the 1980s, working for the Union of British Columbia
This took him to the skid row area of Edmonton, Alberta Indian Chiefs, Brody lived and worked with the Dunne-za
in the Canadian Prairies. His report on that work, Indians and Cree of northeast British Columbia the project and
on Skid Row, published in 1970, led to changes in govern- experiences that led to his book Maps And Dreams. This
ment policy, especially in relation to Native Friendship account of anthropological research and cultural mapCentres crucial in giving support to Native people adrift ping with a hunting community, and especially the layin Canadian cities.[3]
ing of frontier development onto the ways Dunne-za and
In the 1970s, as a research ocer with the Northern Sci- Cree see and understand their territories, became a clasence Research Group, he did extensive eld work in the sic of indigenous studies. Its use of alternating chapters,
Arctic, living with Inuit in the communities of Pond Inlet switching between rst person narrative and social sciplace in the
on Ban Island and Sanikiluaq on the Belcher Islands.[4] entic writing has also given it a signicant
[4][9]
history
of
the
literature
of
anthropology.
He learned two dialects of Inuktitut, North Ban and
South Hudson Bay, and wrote The Peoples Land, Inuit
and Whites in the Eastern Arctic. This is a book that
looks at how colonial relations, through the history of the
fur trade, church missions and the Canadian government,
have shaped the social and psychological circumstances
of the far north. The argument and descriptions focus
very much on a particular time in a particular place, but
resonate with parallel experiences among indigenous peoples around the world. In the course of his work with
the Northern Science Research Group, Brody also devel-

Brody worked with Justice Berger again in 1991-2 as


a member of the World Bank's Morse Commission,
which had the job of assessing implications of the Sardar
Sarovar Dam, a vast hydro and irrigation project in western India.[10] His role in public inquiries and assessment
of the impact of large scale developments on indigenous
communities continued when he became Chairman of the
Snake River Independent Review. This was a mediation
between the Idaho Power Company and the Nez Perce

2
Tribe of Idaho in relation to the building of the Bliss Dam
on the Snake River in the 1950s.[11]

FILMMAKER

most mobile of ways of life. The Other Side of Eden takes


a very wide view of history and cultures, yet is rooted in
much of it from Brodys
Since 1997, Brody has worked on projects in southern closely observed anthropology,
[16]
own
eld
experience.
Africa. This began when he helped co-ordinate background research for the Khomani San Land Claim in
South Africas southern Kalahari. This work led to lming many aspects of the claim, including its aftermath. 3 Filmmaker
In 2008, accompanied by the Canadian cinematographer
Kirk Tougas, he lmed the beneciaries of the claim as
In 1975, Brodys lmmaking began with his work for
they reected upon how it had changed their lives in the
ITVs The Series of Disappearing World, going with dinine years since the claim was accepted. Working with
rector Michael Grigsby to the Inuit community of Pond
the UK NGO Open Channels, and funded by the UK
Inlet, where they made the lm The Peoples Land, Escharity Comic Relief, Brody also led projects with and for
kimos of Pond Inlet.[17] This led to Brody directing docSan in Namibia and Botswana. The lm work in South
umentaries,
rst in Canada (working with First Nations
Africa led to the DVD Tracks Across Sand [12] four and
in many parts of the country), as well as in the UK and
a half hours of lm edited by long-term collaborationoraAustralia. These include the award winning Hunters And
tor Haida Paul shot in the course of land claims research,
Bombers, a lm that follows the Innu resistance to low
oral history and language research in the northern Cape
level
ying in Labrador from CFB Goose Bay.[18] He
of South Africa. This was being released in 2012/13.[13]
also made On Indian Land, a lm with the Gitksan and
Wetsuwet'en of northern British Columbia, and Time Immemorial, the opening lm in the series As Long As The
Rivers Flow.[19] All his work with Canadian First Nations
2 Writer
depends on a non-narration, intimate style: the people in
the lms are the lms, which go deep into the experience
As a writer, Brody has published many essays and a col- and points of view of indigenous peoples and often into
lection of short stories, as well as his non-ction books. their grief, and ways of dealing with loss.
His stories, Means of Escape, was hailed by Doris Lessing, who wrote: I recommend these tales to all connois- His lm The Washing of Tears made with the
seurs of the short story, for they are unique in avour Mowachaht-Muchalaht people of Gold River, on the west
and style, altogether unusual, and will stay in my mem- coast of Vancouver Island, is an exploration of how one
heritage to deal with
ory like elegiac and lyrical songs or poems. Beautiful. community looked to their fractured [20]
extremes
of
dispossession
and
grief.
The Canadian writer M. T. Kelly described the collection as Intense, deeply felt, charged ction...A masterful Hugh Brody and Michael Ignaties screenplay 1919 was
accomplishment.[14] Brody has also written a number of lmed in 1983 and released in 1984. It explores hisscreenplays, one of which, co-authored with Michael Ig- tory, memory and the place of psycho-analysis in an unnatie, became the lm 1919.[15]
derstanding of both the self and the 20th century. John
Berger, in his introduction to the Faber and Faber ediCanadian philosopher George Woodcock described
Maps and Dreams (1981) as an impressive attempt to tion of the screenplay, wrote: Nineteen Nineteen speaks
directly to what we know about life, composed inextridispel popular errors about peoples whom anthropologists used condescendingly to call primitive hunters. cably of the most intimate movements of the heart, accident, and the remorseless movement of history. Phillip
Brody is also seeking to prove that hunting economies can
continue to be viable even in modern North America, and French, reviewing the lm for Londons The Observer
noted: With Nineteen Nineteen, cinemas relationship
that the way of life associated with them is worth preserving. (http://www.lrb.co.uk/v04/n09/george-woodcock/ to psychoanalysis has come of age. This is the rst great
lm about the subject. The lm had a remarkable cast,
dreams-of-fair-game)
starring Paul Scoeld, Maria Schell, Diana Quick, Clare
In 2000, Brody published The Other Side of Eden: Higgins and the young Colin Firth.[21]
Hunter-Gatherers, Farmers and the Shaping of the World.
This is a book that puts together experience of and think- Brodys lms for British television include Englands
ing about many of the elds of travel and anthropology Henry Moore, a project that was conceived by writer and
that have been at the centre of Brodys work. It looks at political commentator Anthony Barnett. It explores Barthe relationship between culture and language, the way netts exposition of the links between Moores work and
the agricultural way of life is at the core of the mythic the place of Britain in the world. In 200203 Brody
ideas of human universality to be found in Genesis, and made Inside Australia, a journey with Antony Gormley
the way hunting cultures have been wrongly identied into the Australian western desert to follow the installaas nomadic pointing out that it is agriculture, with tion of one of Gormleys[22]most remarkable and visually
its inherent tendency to produce surplus population and stunning pieces of work.
propensity for colonial expansion and warfare, that is the In 200508, Brody made a lm in a prison in British

4.2

Books

Columbia, The Meaning of Life,[23] in which he explores 4.2 Books


the use of aboriginal culture as a means of rehabilitation.
Gola: Life and Last Days of an Island Community
At the centre of this lm are accounts that inmates give
(with F.H.A. Aalen). Cork: Mercier, 1969.
of their lives and attempts at rehabilitation. In 2012, he
nished work on a 4-hour DVD, Tracks Across Sand,[12]
Indians on Skid Row. Ottawa: NSRG, 1971.
which shows in 17 segments the results of lming with the
Khomani San as they develop and then cope with their
Inishkillane: Change and Decline in the West of Ire1999 land claim.[24]
land. London: Allen Lane, 1973, Penguin, 1974,
Norman & Hobhouse, 1981, Faber & Faber, 1986;
New York: Schocken, 1975; Vancouver: Douglas &
4 Works
McIntyre, 1981.

4.1

Filmography

The Peoples Land: Eskimos of Pond Inlet ITV:


Granada, London, 1976 (research, collaboration
with Mike Grigsby) 55 minutes.
A Conemara Family BBC: Bristol / London, 1980
(research, collaboration with Melissal LlewelynDavis) 58 minutes.
Treaty 8 Country Treaty 8 bands / National Film
Board of Canada (NFB) Vancouver, 1981 (director,
collaboration with Anne Cubitt) 44 minutes.

The Peoples Land. London and Toronto: Penguin,


1975, 1977, 1983; New York: Penguin, 1977; Vancouver: Douglas & McIntyre, 1991 (with new introduction).
Maps and Dreams. Vancouver: Douglas & McIntyre. 1981, 1988 (with new introduction); London:
Norman & Hobhouse, 1981, Faber & Faber, 1986.
London and Toronto: Penguin, 1983; New York:
Pantheon, 1983. (Reissued Long Grove, IL: Waveland Press, 1998)
Nineteen Nineteen (with Michael Ignatie). London:
Faber & Faber, 1985.

People of the Islands Channel 4: London, 1982


(director) 80 minutes.

Living Arctic. London: Faber & Faber, 1987; Vancouver: Douglas & McIntyre, 1990.

1919 British Film Institute: London 1985 (cowriter, director). 90 minutes.

Means of Escape. Vancouver: Douglas & McIntyre,


1991; London: Faber & Faber, 1991.

On Indian Land GWTC: Hazelton, British


Columbia / Channel 4: London, 1986 (co-producer,
director) 54 minutes.

The Other Side of Eden: Hunters, Farmers and the


Shaping of the World. Vancouver: Douglas & McIntyre / London: Faber and Faber / New York: Farrar,
Straus & Giroux, 2000. Paperback: Canada, 2001,
UK and USA, 2002. Dutch, Chinese and Japanese
translations, 2002-3

Englands Henry Moore Channel 4: London, 1988


(director) 65 minutes.

Hunters and Bombers NFB: Montreal / Channel 4:


London, 1990 (co-director) 56 minutes.
4.3
Time Immemorial Tamarack: Toronto / NFB:
Montreal, 1991 (director) 61 minutes.
A Washing of Tears Nootka Sound & Picture
Co./NFB: 1993 (director)
Cosmic Africa directed by Craig Foster, Aland Pictures, Cosmos Films, IDC South Africa, 2002 (cowriter)
Inside Australia Artemis Films International: 2004
The Meaning of Life HR Brody Ltd: 2008[23]
Tracks Across Sand 2012 (director), a DVD containing sixteen lms (total 4.5 hours) made as a community project with the Khomani San of the Southern Kalahari.[12]

Essays

Inuit Land Use and Occupancy and Inummarit, The


Real People in: Inuit Land Use and Occupancy Report, Volumes, 1 & 2, editor Milton Freeman, Ottawa: DIAND, 1976.
Industrial Impact in the Canadian North Polar
Record, Cambridge, 1977.
Eskimo: A Language With a Future Polar Record,
Cambridge, 1977
Continuity and Change: The Inuit and Settlers of
Labrador in Our Footsteps are Everywhere, editor
Carol Bryce-Bennett, Ottawa: DIAND, 1978
Alcohol Etudes Inuit No. 1, Quebec: Laval, 1979
Jims Journey Granta No 10, 1983.

REFERENCES

On Indian Land: The Gitksan-Wetsuwet'en British


Columbia: New Catalyst, 1987

6 Research

Introduction to Stikine, The Great River, by Gary


Fiegehen, Vancouver: Douglas & McIntyre, 1991

Brody is currently leading a research program on the


role played by Sto:lo youth in the development of their
communities.[1]

The Power of the Image in Imaging the Arctic, J C


H King and Henrietta Lidchi, London: British Museum 1998

7 Personal life

Nomads And Settlers in Town And Country, ediactress Juliet Stevenson and they have
tors Anthony Barnett and Roger Scruton, London: Brody lives with
[27]
two
children.
Jonathon Cape, 1998
Taking the Words from their Mouths Index on Censorship, Vol. 4, 1999, p 42-47.
Introduction to Seasons of the Arctic photographs
by Paul Nicklen, Vancouver/Toronto: Greystone
Books, 2000, p xv xxv.
In conversation with Hugh Brody, interview by
Eleanor Wachtel, Brick, Number 68, Fall 2001, p
22-27.
Atanarjuat the fast runner, a discussion of
Zacharias Kunuk's lm, Open Democracy Website,
February 2002.
Inside Lake Ballard in Antony Gormleys Inside
Australia, London: Thames and Hudson, 2005, p
18 53
Forward to Robert Semeniuks Among the Inuit,
Vancouver: Raincoast Books, 2007
Without Stories We Are Lost in The Journals of
Knud Rasmussen. Editor Gillian Robinson, Canada:
Isuma Productions, 2008
Stations of Life, an essay about inequality,
Resurgence, September / October 2008
The anthropology of ourselves in One And Other:
The Fourth Plinth in Trafalgar Square, London:
Thames and Hudson, 2010
Gadda and the Tuareg Open Democracy, October 2011
1 December 1961: Fly the Flag of Independence
Open Democracy, November 2011

Nominations, awards, and honours


1991: Catholic Film Critics Award winner for
Hunters and Bombers[25]
1985: Golden Bear award nomination at the 35th
Berlin International Film Festival for 1919[26]

8 References
[1] University of the Fraser Valley: Research Chairs
[2] Inishkillane, rst published by Allen Lane and the Penguin
Press, 1973. Subsequent editions: Shocken, New York,
1974; Douglas & McIntyre, Vancouver; Faber & Faber,
London, Gola, published b y IRL:Mercier, Cork, 1969.
[3] Indians on Skid Row was published by DIAND, Ottawa,
1971, as a report in its Northern Science Research Group
series
[4] The peoples champion, The Guardian, prole, 27 January
2001.
[5] See the three volume, Report of the Inuit Land Use and
Occupancy Project, ed Milton Freeman, Ottawa: DIAND,
1976
[6] See: Continuity and change: The Inuit settlers of
Labrador. In C. Bryce-Bennett (Ed.), Our Footsteps Are
Everywhere. Ottawa, ON: DIAND, 1978
[7] The Berger Inquiry evidence was published in part as
essays in The Polar Record, see Industrial impact in
the Canadian north. Polar Record, 18(115), 333339.
Requires log-in (1977), and Eskimo: A language with a
future? Polar Record, 18(117), 587592.
[8] See Northern Homeland, Northern Frontier, The Report
of the Mackenzie Valley Pipeline Inquiry, rst published
as a Canadian government report in 1978, and then as a
book by Douglas & MacIntyre, Vancouver, 1987.
[9] See Google Books reviews. Maps And Dreams was rst
published by Dougas & MacIntyre, Vancouver, and Norman and Hobhouse, UK, 1981. It has been in print since,
in several editions and translations. Douglas & MacIntyre published an edition with a new introduction (1988).
Faber & Faber, London, have published it in paperback.
[10] See Sardar Sarovar, the Report of the Independent Review, rst published by Resource Futures International,
Ottawa, 1992. Also Bergers account of the Review:
American University International Law Review, Volume
9, Issue 1, 1993,
[11] See Michael Mirande, Sustainable Natural Resource
Development, Legal Dispute,and Indigenous Peoples:
Problem-Solving across Cultures, 11 TUL. ENVTL. L.J.

33, 44 (1997). As one of the lawyers engaged by the


Idaho Power Company, Mirande has analysed the originality, nature and some of the challenges of the Snake
River Independent Review.
[12] Tracks Across Sand
[13] Information on this: University of the Fraser Valley, and
Face To Face Media, 30 Nov / 3 December 2012. See
Hugh Brody DVD on Khomani San to premiere in Chilliwack Nov 30 and Hugh Brody DVD on Kalahari bushmen
to premiere in Chilliwack
[14] Published by Faber & Faber, London, and Douglas &
MacIntyre, Vancouver, 1985. Quotes from jacket of paperback editions.
[15] The Screenplay for Nineteen Nineteen was published by
Faber and Faber, London, in 1985. John Berger wrote an
afterword, included in the Faber and Faber edition.
[16] The Other Side of Eden: Hunter-gatheres, Farmers and
the Shaping of the World was rst published by Douglas
and MacIntyre, Vancouver, Canada, Faber and Faber,
London, in 2000. Subsequent editions and translations
have paperback UK and Canada; hardback, Farrar Straus
Giroux, New York, 2001), as well Chinese, Japanese and
Dutch editions
[17] The Eskimos of Pond Inlet
[18] For the National Film Board of Canadas information
about Hunters And Bombers see: Hunters and Bombers.
[19] For information about As Long As The Rivers Flow, and
Time Immemorial, the opening lm in the series, see: As
Long as the Rivers Flow and the NFB information: Time
Immemorial
[20] For NFB information about The Washing of Tears, see:
The Washing of Tears
[21] For information about Nineteen Nineteen see the British
Film Institute site: Nineteen Nineteen
[22] For information about Englands Henry Moore see:
Englands Henry Moore: The sculptures of the greatest
Englishman and for Inside Australia: Inside Australia
[23] The Meaning of Life
[24] For details about both Meaning of Life and Tracks Across
Sand see: Biographies of Key Personnel
[25] Hugh Brody at the Internet Movie Database
[26] Berlinale: 1985 Programme. berlinale.de. Retrieved 9
January 2011.
[27] Juliet Stevenson: 'I'd much rather live a useful life than be
rich'

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Hugh Brody Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hugh_Brody?oldid=695550508 Contributors: Bearcat, Rich Farmbrough, CambridgeBayWeather, Ohconfucius, Ser Amantio di Nicolao, Lugnuts, PamD, JustAGal, Waacstats, KConWiki, David Eppstein, JL-Bot, Addbot,
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