You are on page 1of 24

construction phases

a conctruction story

Professional practice I
Assignment No:1

construction phases
Site preparation
This involves clearing of the site and pegging out of the site by the surveyor. Sometimes retaining walls will also be built at this stage if required.
Slab
The plumber will need to lay plumbing that will be located beneath the slab
of the development. This needs to be done before the slab can be formed
up. The slab piering is then completed as per the engineers specifications
and plans and then the slab can be poured. Its very exciting to see the
slabs go down.
Frames and roof trusses
The frames are generally prepared before being delivered to site and can
be erected very quickly with a day or so. Its great to walk around the site
once the frames are up and get a feel for each room.
Roof
tiling of metal roofing Some builders prefer to complete the roof before
starting the brickwork and other builders work the other way around. Ive
found predominately builders want to get the roof on as quickly as possible
to protect the frames.
Brick work
This stage really gives the development true structure, and you can feel
the development making good progress when you see the brickwork completed.
Rough ins
This involves the electrical and plumbing wiring and pipes to be installed
before the internal linings to the frames.
Internal linings
After the rough in is complete, the insulation will be installed into the wall
and ceilings and then the plaster will start on lining the walls and ceilings.
You really get a good sense of space within the dwellings at this stage.
Waterproofing and tiling
The wet areas will be water-proofed in preparation for the tilers to start
work, generally after or even during the timber mould out.
Timber
mould out This stage involves the carpenters installing the skirting boards,
architraves, door jams and doors and kitchens.
Lock up
is when all external doors including garage doors are on.
P.C. fit out. P.C.
is a term for a prime cost item and includes tapware, bath, mirror, vanities and other accessories, which are installed at this stage.
Practical completion.
This is the point in time when an inspection is conducted when builder
is almost finished. You will walk through the development with the site
manager and point out any items that still need attention. By this time it
should only be touch ups and minor items requiring installation.
Handover
This is when you are happy the construction has been completed to your
satisfaction and to the plans and after paying the builders final invoice,
keys will be handed over to you.

Page:

MAIN STEPS IN THE CONSTRUCTION PHASE INCLUDE

Pre-Construction:
Before any construction begins, plans for
the home are developed, finalized and submitted to the municipal building permit office for review. Permits may be required
for all or some of the following work: building, electrical, plumbing, septic system
and sewer connections.
Prior to this, a number of site tests may be
conducted to examine the water table, the
soil and the bearing capacity of the ground
and to conduct environmental tests. With
this information, the final engineering
touches can be applied to the plans.

Climate:

Construction Begins

Community infrastructure:

With the Foundation (1-2 weeks) The


house is staked out and the land is prepared. Often, the topsoil is removed and
piled elsewhere for later use. Excavation is
done, and the footings (concrete slabs to
support the foundation walls) are formed
and poured. Water, electricity, telephone
and cable services may be brought in at
this time.
The foundation walls are erected (may
use poured concrete in temporary wooden
forms or permanent insulated blocks, concrete blocks or preserved wood). The foundation may be insulated and damp-proofed.
Weeping tiles are installed to drain ground
moisture away from the house. Once the
foundation has passed municipal inspection, the outside perimeter is backfilled.
At this time, the builder may ask you to begin making your selections such as deciding on flooring, tiles, cabinets and so on.
While it will be weeks before these items
will be installed, they must be ordered early to prevent delays later.

Special considerations must be made for


building in flood, hurricane, intense heat,
frigid cold, and other extreme weather and
climatic conditions.

Ground stability:

Houses built on shifting sand, mucky soil,


or other unstable earth will likely fail over
a short period of time unless they are built
on special foundations or pilings.

Availability of utilities:

If you intend to have electric power, potable water,


telephone, and other conveniences, make sure
these utility providers offer them at your location.
If you plan to raise children or have kids, make
sure good quality schools are available. Check to
see if you are in a police jurisdiction to protect you
from crime, look at the distance you will have to
travel to acquire basic commodities, and whether
medical help is nearby.

Page:

construction phases

SELECT THE PROPERTY WHICH GOING TO BUILD IT.

This may be a hurdle, depending on the cost, and your available funds. Building a house is an expensive
process, but purchasing suitable property is also a major investment just as important as homebuilding.
Decide how youre going to pay for your building project going forward and start that process with the
land.
Some home builders will elect to get a construction loan to purchase the land and secure funding for the
building project. This requires that you enter into a contract with a builder or a contractor, and the loan
must reference that builders resume and serve as a contract between you and the builder, as well as
a source of funding for the project. To do this, youll need to wait until youve hired and vetted a builder
before purchasing the land.

PROPERTY SURVEYED AND THE FOOTPRINT OF THE PROJECT

This is not absolutely necessary, especially if you are building on a large


parcel of land, but if there is any
doubt about the property lines, have
this done to assure you are not encroaching on a neighbors property,
or the citys. This will be useful as
you move forward with the building
process.

Page:

CONSIDER ACCESS ISSUES.

On large parcels, especially, you will need to ascertain the route for a usable driveway if you depend
on a car for transportation. Look at any low area that would become impassable in winter mud or
heavy summer rain, how installing driveway will affect the landscape, and whether a driveway will be
in conflict with underground utilities.
Pay particular attention to the way surface water will drain off the property. Every effort should
be made so that water drains off and away from the driveway. This may require the placement of
culverts or pipes under the driveway to avoid puddling along its sides.

DESIGNING YOUR PROJECT.

Design your own home, or consult an architect. Architects and


engineers have special training and years of experience in designing houses, and are necessary for most building and zoning jurisdiction code requirements. Regardless of whether you
contract their services or elect to design your own, the house
you build will be built for you, so you should be involved closely
in the design process.
Before you hire or consult an architect, find out what management services the firm may or may not provide. Some architecture firms will help hire contractors they know and trust,
as well as consult and inspect the contractors work as it progresses, making necessary revisions and additions as the work
progresses. This can be a significant headache relief in the process.
Before building, youll need to submit plans to the city or county
building commission for approval. Unless youre an experienced
architect, itll be very difficult to produce the necessary to-scale
production drawings and engineering specs necessary for approval. To save time, energy, and money, its recommended that
you consult a professional and work alongside them to design
the home you want.

Page:

construction phases

DETAIL PLANNING.

The fun part of designing a home is imagining your new life in your new space. Spend some time researching pre-drawn floor plans for inspiration and consider using them as a guide for your own space.
Home building guides are commonly available for free online.[3] Give lots of thought to what kind of
rooms you want, the number of bedrooms that will be necessary for your family, and what sort of a style
you want in the rooms youll be spending the most time in.
Bedrooms: For a family house where the possibility of additions exists, remember it is simpler to add a
room during initial construction than to remodel or build an addition later. If you only need 2 bedrooms
at present, an extra room might be used for an office, storage, or even left unfinished and unfurnished
until such time as it is needed.
Bathrooms: In practical terms, one bathroom can suffice in almost any circumstances, but if the house
is for multiple people, two makes life much easier. Having two or more bathrooms will also increase the
resale value in the convenience minded home buyers mind.
Special function rooms: Consider if your lifestyle requires rooms suitable for special functions, such as
formal dining, office space, a den, or a play room.

DESIGNING YOUR PROJECT.

Design the utility areas with an eye toward function. For family life, having a laundry room, and
possibly even a garage can be a real help in managing day to day chores. Planning out the necessary house-running spaces is a critical part of the design process. Its also important to design
them to be as easy-to-wire and outfit with plumbing as possible, making it important to consult
an architectural engineer when designing the home. Carefully design your:
Spaces:
Kitchen
Garage
Laundry room
Storage areas
e.t.c

Page:

MAXIMUM ENERGY EFFICIENCY.

Part aesthetics and part energy-efficiency, designing your home with an eye toward sunlight will ensure that your home stays full of warm radiant light when it needs it the most. If you are building a
home with large windows in a living room, consider facing these toward the most appealing view and
at an angle that maximizes the natural lighting when youll want it most.
Kitchens may benefit the most from exterior light, so think about what time a ray of sunshine in the
kitchen will offer the best results. Late afternoon may be cooking and dish washing time, so it may be
best to orient the kitchen towards the west to take advantage. Larger windows on the south face of
your house will also help heat the house through solar gain in colder climates.

PREPARE TO TACKLE SERVICES

surface water (rain, snow melt, drainage from seasonal springs) moves across the building site.
It is critical to keep water away from your home, especially in colder climates. Freezing pipes and
foundation damage can result from a failure to plan at this stage. You want to keep your basement
dry and lessen the chance that you will have damp wood, which invites termites in any climate.
Simple swales or grassy ditches will go a long way in controlling surface water drainage.

Page:

construction phases

10

GETTING THE NECESSARY PERMITS

If you havent already started this process when securing the land, youll need to figure out a way to
fund the project and a construction loan is the most recommended method of doing so. Apply for a
construction loan by filling out a loan application, called a 1003, and submitting it to a loan officer
along with a credit report.The completed loan application will need to include information like.
The type of loan requested
The amount of money requested
Your current living situation
Your social security number

11

CONSTRUCTION INSURANCE

To engage in a homebuilding project, youll need three types of construction-related insurance, some
of which may be provided by the builder, some of which wont, depending on the state you live in and
the nature of the contract youve signed. Typically, its required that you provide:
Course of Construction Insurance to cover against unforeseen loss including damages from fire, accident, vandalism and malicious mischief.
General Liability Insurance is sometimes provided by the builder and sometimes not. It is a comprehensive liability coverage against accident on the workplace. You should only hire builders who provide
this insurance themselves, as it can be quite expensive and could be indicative of shoddy workmanship if a builder doesnt provide it.
Workmans Compensation Insurance is necessary if your builder hires their own workers. If the work
is subcontracted (a common practice) youll need to provide workmans comp and the builder must
write a letter acknowledging that they do not have employees and will not provide compensation.

Page:

12

PROPER CONSTRUCTION PERMITS.

A building permit is a basic requirement in many areas, particularly for permanent construction. To
obtain this, youll need to provide detailed architectural diagrams, engineering load specs, and other
materials to your states Department of Housing. Its likely youll also need the following to comply
with local codes and zoning requirements by obtaining:
A septic tank permit
An electrical permit
A plumbing permit
A mechanical (HVAC, or air conditioning) permit
You may also find you are required to apply for and receive an environmental and/or impact permit.
Having the house location marked prior to obtaining your permits will help to work details out in the
environmental permitting process.

13

ESTIMATED COST BREAKDOWN (ECB).

particular cost of construction of the home. The foundation, lumber, framing, plumbing, heating, electrical, painting, and builders profit, etc. When you hire a builder, they will usually complete this form
to show you exactly what it will cost to build your new home.
Price building materials in the area. How much is the cost of wood in the prospective area? Labor?
Vinyl? Its helpful to give some though to how much the process will end up costing, aside from the land
purchase itself. Try to get a rough estimate of how much itll cost to build the kind of house you want
to build at the location youre considering.

Page:

construction phases

14

DECIDE ACTUAL CONSTRUCTION AREA.

Building a house involves several specific trades to ensure quality work, so it is usually better to have
trained craftsmen perform things youre unable to do at an expert-level. You can probably paint the
house and put up drywall yourself, but maybe you want to hire those jobs out. Try to find an economic
and practical balance between doing projects yourself to save money and hiring out more intricate
and difficult work. Consider hiring out:
Site workers to clear and grade the land, prepping it for building
Bricklayers to lay the foundation
Framers to perform rough carpentry, frame up the walls, and install the trusses or stick-framed
rafters
Roofers to install the roof and insulate the house
Electricians, plumbers, and HVAC workers to do the difficult interior work of outfitting the home for
living
Trim and finish carpenters for interior design work
Flooring installers to lay the carpet, hardwood, or tile

15

HIRING A BUILDER ON CONTRACT.

Everything will be made easier if you hire an experienced builder to oversee the project. You wont
need to worry about doing everything yourself, hiring out particular tasks, and securing the permits yourself. Its also much easier to secure a construction loan if youre working with an experienced builder who can include a statement, resume, banking and experience references, a line
item cost breakdown of expected costs (an ECB), a materials list, and a construction contract.
[6] The contract should include:
The individual responsibilities of each party
The expected date of the beginning and ending of the project
The payment expected by the builder
A completed Estimated Cost Breakdown (ECB), signed and dated
Provisions for changes

10

Page:

16

BREAKING GROUND.

Lay the foundation. After a site crew excavates the plot, youll begin the work of laying the foundation.
The type and design of the foundation will depend upon the size of your house, the ground in which its
laid, local building codes, and whether or not your home will have a basement. The most recommended and strongest type of foundation is concrete block.
The excavation crew should first survey and stake the dimensions of the foundation and excavate it
to the desired depth, then smooth it out to a workable surface, sometimes overlaying dirt or gravel
to build upon.

17

POUR THE CONCRETE FOUNDATION

These are used to distribute the weight evenly and should be somewhat wider than the foundation
walls, forming the perimeter of the home.
Build the form work and fill in with concrete. The form work is basically a mold for concrete, used to
pour into and remove after the concrete has set. Alternatively, a block foundation can be laid which
wont be removed, in which case youll inlay rebar into the block and fill in the gaps in the block with
concrete.
The thickness of the foundation should be determined carefully by a structural engineer, taking into
consideration the height of the wall and the load it will be required to bear, both in terms of the building
itself as well as the forces of gravity, wind, and earth that affect the structure.

11

Page:

construction phases

18

SET UP BUILDING

This means putting either batter boards or corner stakes at each corner of the house foundation to
level and square up the foundation. Use a transit or building level to make sure the building lines are
level and square, and check by measuring corner to corner, diagonally, to make sure the walls and
corners are square.

19

INSTALL FLOORING.

There are two common floor types, called slab on grade or pier and beam/joist floors. Before
pouring the slab floor, you need to make sure youve installed rough plumbing lines so that they
are accurately placed. After the slab is poured, itll be too late to adjust.
For a slab-on-grade floor, form up the footing to the proper specs and lay rebar. Generally, these
floors are made on concrete block foundations. After installing your plumbing rough-ins, backfill
around the foundation with dirt and gravel, compacting it appropriately. At this point, you may also
want to pre-treat for termites and install moisture barrier.
For off-grade or above-grade floors, lay out and install wooden flooring piers and install your floor
joist framing system to the proper specifications. Install subfloor/finish floor decking.

12

Page:

20

WALLS AND ROOF.

You will need to lay out the wall lines on the floor, beginning at one corner, marking your bottom plate
(called the rat sill) to attach to anchor bolts.
As you work, mark the location of doors, windows, and interior wall corners on the sill. Be sure to
use special metal connectors/straps at the floor and tops of walls as required by code for storm and
earthquake proofing.[8]
Use tees at wall intersections, substantial headers for openings in load bearing walls, and allow
space at each rough opening for the feature to be installed.

21

PLUMB THE WALLS AND BRACE THEM SECURELY

Install sheathing if required. Otherwise, use sheet metal straps to diagonally brace all exterior wall corners. Make sure all studs (vertical framing members, usually 2 inch by 4 inch (5 cm by 10 cm) nominal
lumber, graded standard or better) are securely nailed in place, straight and square to the wall line.

13

Page:

construction phases

22

SETTING UP ROOF TRUSSES.

You may want to stick frame your roof, cutting and installing rafters and ceiling joists yourself (especially if you want a usable attic space). Prefab trusses, however, are engineered with lighter, smaller
lumber for maximum strength. There are some trusses for attics with high-pitched roofs and dormers, as well as more traditional roofs. Research your options and choose something that works
well for your home.

23

SET EACH MODEL

Generally, this means 24 inches (61.0 cm) apart from one another, sometimes 16 inches (40.6 cm)
for stick-bracing structures. Attach hurricane clips or other connectors to secure them, plumb the
center of each truss, and temporarily support them with a rat run bracing near the peak.
Install diagonal gable bracing for a roof with gable ends to prevent the roof frame from leaning when
you install the roof decking. For a hip roof, install king rafters and hip rafters, being careful to keep the
adjacent plane of the roof consistent and straight.

14

Page:

24

BOARD TO CONNECT THE ENDS

Build outlookers to support the gable overhang and gable facia boards, if used. Deck the trusses or
rafters with plywood, oriented strand lumber, or nominal lumber such as 1 x 6 inch (2.5 cm x 15 cm)
tongue and groove boards.
In areas where high winds or snow-loading (accumulation) is possible, make sure the roof decking is
secured and structurally able to withstand these severe forces and conditions. Use appropriate bracing
and fasteners for this scope of work.

25

INSTALL ROOFING

To make sure the elements dont set you back as youre working, its important to install a moisture barrier on your roof even before its completed. Use 15 or 30 pound (6.8 or 13.8 kg) roofing felt tar paper
and simplex nails, roofing tacks, or plastic capped felting tacks to secure it. Begin felting the decking
at the lower edge, allowing it to hang over slightly, and overlap subsequent layers to keep water from
getting under this moisture barrier.

15

Page:

construction phases

26

WINDOWS AND DOORS.

Many locations require some type of metal flashing to prevent water from penetrating the edges and
the gables, but you may be able to seal them sufficiently with caulking if it is permitted and you are
able.

27

INSTALL YOUR FINAL ROOF.

You may choose painted sheet metal panels, rolled steel formed to lengths needed on site, or shingles, terra cotta tiles, or other materials, depending on your preference, costs, and products available
at your location. Consider ridge vents, attic exhaust fans, vented dormers, and other architectural
details which can increase the comfort of your house while decreasing cooling costs in hot climates.

16

Page:

28

STARTING ON THE INTERIOR

These can be capped off to trim out after the walls are finished, especially if the local codes require
pressure testing before finishing may be done.

29

INSTALL SERVICES

Stub out your ductwork for return air and supply air registers. Insulate the ductwork if it is not pre-insulated, and seal all joints. Fasten ductwork as needed to prevent movement and ensure the your
conduits are flush.

17

Page:

construction phases

30

ROUGH-IN ELECTRICAL OUTLETS

Most likely, there will be electrical outlets, light fixtures, and special wiring required for large appliances like water heaters, stoves, and air conditioning that will be necessary to do as soon as possible. Install the main electrical panel box, and any sub-panels your design requires, and install wiring
from these to each device.
Commonly, #12 Romex cable is used for ordinary lighting and outlet circuits, and nail-in electrical
boxes are attached to the wall studs, with the front edge protruding to allow for the finished wall
material to be flush.

31

INSTALL INSULATION.

Insulate walls where it is required. Depending on the climate, you will want to get location-specific
guidelines for this area of work, as warmer climates will use substantially less insulation in the walls
than warmer areas. Insulate the spaces between ceiling joists and walls.
Walls are usually insulated with a minimum R-value of 13, and ceilings with a minimum of 19, but as
much as 30, or even more for lowering fuel and utility usage.

18

Page:

32

INSTALL YOUR CEILINGS.

Gypsum wallboard made of drywall or sheetrock is a common material used for this application,
but there are other products including acoustical ceiling tiles, beaded plywood paneling (to simulate
planking), and even natural wood lumber that are commonly used for creating solid ceilings.

33

INSTALLING THE ESSENTIALS

Install the bathtub, shower enclosure, and any other large plumbing fixtures which will interface with finished walls. Make sure plumbing rough-ins are correctly located, and pipes are protected and securely
anchored.

19

Page:

construction phases

34

WALL BOARD OR PANELING.

Traditionally, builders will use gypsum wallboard, wood, or masonite paneling for this purpose. Panels are generally jacked 38 inch (1.0 cm) above the floor to avoid moisture from floor spills and
regular mopping when you clean the house. There are many interior wall products available, so the
installation process will depend on the material used. Apply finish to gypsum wallboard, taping and
skimming/floating all joints to an acceptable level of finish. Finish/texture any ceilings during this step
if applicable.

35

PLACE WALL TRIM.

Put up any trim you are using for baseboards, crown mouldings, and corners, and install your interior
doors and jambs. If you are using natural wood trim and mouldings, you will want to paint the walls
prior to this step. Pre-finishing the trim before installing will make the final finish easier, but any nailholes will probably still need attention after installation.

20

Page:

36

PAINT, AND INSTALL WALL COVERINGS.

Most likely, you will want to prime wallboard, then apply a finish coat. Use a paint roller where possible, cutting-in with brushes around appurtenances and in corners.\
Be sure to trim out the electrical devices, install lights and other fixtures, and install breakers in
panel boxes if they were not pre-installed.

37

INSTALL CABINETS AND OTHER MILL WORK.

You will probably need at least basic kitchen storage cabinets and a bathroom vanity cabinet for a sink,
other cabinets may include a bar, upper storage cabinets, and lower units with drawers for kitchen
utensils and supplies.

21

Page:

construction phases

38

INSTALL FLOORING.

Note that for carpet floors, base boards are installed prior to flooring, leaving 38 inch (1.0 cm) for
the carpet to tuck underneath it. For hardwood or composite floors, this trim is installed after the
floor is finished.

39

INSTALL APPLIANCES.

To start checking to make sure everything is working appropriately, activate the water and electricity to start experimenting with your handiwork. Adjust the jobs as necessary and work on
finishing the house to a state at which youll want to move in and start enjoying your new home.

22

Page:

Excavation

Construction begins with home site excavation. Your homes position is


staked on the lot and prepped for the foundation.
For homes with a basement or block wall construction, the concrete footing
- the base on which your homes foundation will rest - is poured, and when
its set, a gravel fill is placed around the footing or under the basement slab
for drainage.

Foundation

Depending on the region your home is built in, your new homes foundation
consists of a slab, block or poured wall foundation.
Slab construction: Forms are set and an outline of the new home begins
to take shape. Underground plumbing is installed and tied into the public
sewer system. After a bit of prep work, the slab is poured which creates
the foundation for your home.
Block wall construction: Concrete block is laid to create your new homes
foundation. Once set, waterproofing is applied and the garage slab is
prepped and poured.
Poured wall foundation: Concrete is poured into foundation form panels.
Once the concrete is set, foundation waterproofing is applied, and drain tile
piping is installed. Underground plumbing is installed and tied into the public
sewer system. Next your basement slab is poured, and the concrete floors
are finished.

Framing

Framing is the phase where things really start to take shape. Many homeowners think their home is near completion at the end of this stage. Actually, we are still only about one third of the way through the construction
process! So while the phases beyond this one may seem much slower in
progress, its because we are getting into the fine details which may not be
apparent but are vital to your finished home.
In the framing phase, the subfloor, walls, and roof structure are built, and
your roof is shingled. Window and door units are installed, and any backfilling around the foundation is done.

Rough Mechanics

Rough mechanics is the term used for the mechanical portions of building
including heating, air conditioning, plumbing and electric. This construction
phase is a swarm of activity, as plumbing and indoor sewer pipes, your
furnace and ducts, and electric wiring, outlets, and switches are installed.
Insulation is installed in the walls, and drywall is staged in each room for
future installation. Water, gas and electric utilities are also connected to
your home.
Toward the end of this phase, the Builder will perform a pre-drywall review
with you. This review is an opportunity to go over the work already done on
your home and discuss work to be completed in the next four phases.

Drywall

The drywall phase of home construction shows progress rather quickly.


Rooms are separated and divided, giving you the visual effect of each space.
Drywall is hung and finished, and the ceilings are insulated. Outside brick,
stone and siding are installed; and your home site is graded for drainage
and to prepare for the driveway, patios, walks, and so on.

Finish

The finishing phase is probably one of the most exciting phases. Youll see
many of the selections you made at your Drees Design Center come to life.
This is when the Builder installs kitchen and bath cabinetry, countertops,
mirrors, medicine cabinets, interior doors and trim, stair rails, and many
other detail features. Kitchen appliances and hard flooring - vinyl, ceramic,
and hardwood - are installed, and both the interior and exterior of your home
are painted.

23

Page:

Submitted to:
Mam Ayesha Anwar

SCHOOL OF ART DESIGN & ARCHITECTURE

University of Gujrat
Hafiz hayat campus

SUBMITTED BY:

Muhammad Ehsan
11011505-120

Farooq Arshad
11011505-154

Muhammad Ghulam Mustafa Joyia

11011505-119

Afnan Javed
10060605-092

Adil Ali
11011505-011