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CHAPTER 1

Introduction
1.1 The Magnetic Levitation Technology
The magnetic levitation technology, popularly known as MAGLEV, is one that uses magnetic fields to lift
an object as required. The magnetic fields counteract the gravity and causes the object to be suspended
in air without any physical support. The two main principal issues of MAGLEV is lift and stability. There
are several forms of magnetic levitation which includes pseudo-levitation, diamagnetically stabilized
levitation, rotational stabilization [2] etc. The technology is friction-less, thus highly efficient as there is no
tear and wear, and low power consumption and maintenance cost [1].

1.2 Magnetic Levitation Ball Bearing System


Using the magnetic levitation technology, we have designed and implemented a low-cost ball bearing
system that can be manually controlled completely. Sufficient simulations were carried out before
implementing the system.
The system consists of an electrical part and a mechanical part. The mechanical part consists of the
electromagnet and the ball, and the electrical part consists of an intricate circuit. The two parts are interrelated and inter-dependent.
The system uses electromagnetic force to counteract the gravitational force of the metal ball in order to
levitate the ball. The ball remains steady at the desired height. This is done using Hall Effect Sensors that
provide a feedback to the electrical part that increases or decreases the current through the
electromagnet, which in turn, increases or decreases the electromagnetic force acting on the ball
accordingly.

1.3 Applications
The magnetic levitation technology has a plethora of uses in the fields of transportation engineering,
aeronautical engineering, nuclear engineering, military engineering, biomedical engineering and
environmental engineering among various others [1]. There are quite a lot of practical applications of the
technology, such as MAGLEV train, MAGLEV bulbs, MAGLEV fans & wind turbines, MAGLEV heart
pumps, MAGLEV elevators, etc. In particular, the magnetic levitation trains have been used in many
developed countries like Japan, China, United Kingdom and are in the developing stage in many
countries of Europe and North America.
The newly create MAGLEV ball bearing system will mainly serve as an educational tool in control
engineering laboratories. It will also act as a test bed for further academic research in the field of control
systems in Bangladesh.

1.4 Motivations
We aim to design and build a ball bearing system using magnetic levitation technology. As all magnetic
levitation systems are inherently open-loop and unstable, rely on feedback control for producing the
desired levitation action, we aim to control the desired height of the metal ball above ground level by
linearizing and stabilizing the system in order to minimize oscillations within a short period of time with low
settling time.
In addition to that, we also want to build a platform for our successors, to take up the challenge, make a
more optimized, efficient system in the future and take up interest in these new fields of transport,
aerospace, power generation etc.
Lastly, we are driven by the fact that there are no major usages of magnetic levitation technology in
Bangladesh. We wish to introduce the magnetic levitation technology in our country in order for
Bangladesh to conduct multiple researches in this technology and benefit from its multiple uses. This
technology has immense potential to reshape the future of our country and on a global perspective.

Reference to go in Bibliography
[1] H. Yaghoubi, The Most Important Maglev Applications,
[2] M.M. Michaelis. Inclined Levitron experiments. Am.J.Phys. 80,949-954,2012

1.5 Gantt Chart

1.6 Expected Budget