Chapter 6 Learning Guide – Religion

Key Issue 1 – Where Are Religions Distributed?
Pgs. 168 - 178
1.

Define universalizing religion:

2.

Define ethnic religion:

Universalizing Religions
3.

Give the percentage of the world’s Christian population belonging to
each of Christianity’s 3 major branches.

4.

Regarding Eastern Orthodox churches, how many separate churches
are there, and which has the largest membership?

5.

What percentage of Latin Americans are Roman Catholic?

6.

Protestants comprise 28% of North Americans. List the 5 largest
denominations.

7.

Complete the chart with names of smaller branches of Christianity
and their location of concentration.
Branch of Christianity
Region of Predominance

8.
9.

Half of the world’s Muslims live in the Middle East. The other half
live in 4 countries outside the Middle East. Name them.
Give the percentage of each of Islam’s 2 greatest branches: Sunni
& Shiite (Shia).

10.

Only in 5 countries do Shiite Muslims number more than Sunni.
What are they?

11.

Buddhism is built around “Four Noble Truths” as taught by the
Buddha. Summarize them.

12. Complete this chart dividing Buddhism into its 3 main branches.
Branch
% of Global
Regions of Predominance
Buddhist
Population

13.

Why are Buddhists difficult to count?

Ethnic Religions
14.

Where are Hindus concentrated? What percent of all Hindus live
there?

15.

Where are most of the rest?

Make a note or two (that seem of geographic interest) about each of the
following ethnic religion listed in #’s 16 – 20.
16.

Confucianism:

17. Animism: . Shintoism: 19. Daoism: 18. Judaism: 20.

Chapter 6 Learning Guide – Religion Key Issue 2 – Why Do Religions Have Different Distributions? Pgs. Christianity Islam Buddhism Year of Origin Founder Major Branches & Main Belief of Each Branch Regarding Hinduism 2. When did it originate? . How was its origin different than universalizing religions? 3. Complete the chart below describing the origins and branches of the major universalizing religions. 178 – 191 Origin of Religions 1.

What was the diaspora? . 8. Religions Which Have Blended Location Regarding Judaism 10. Give 3 ways in which Islam spread. Where did it originate? 5. or religious practices. Give 3 explanations for the diffusion of Christianity. Provide 3 examples of cases in which religions. have blended. What 2 ancient peoples beliefs blended to form Hinduism? Diffusion of Religions 6. 9.4. 7. How is its distribution very different from other ethnic religions? 11. Give 2 reasons for the expansion of Buddhism.

How were most Jews treated as they lived among other nationalities? 13. Read the section Holy Places and make notes on 3 case studies: Buddhism. Complete the chart below regarding religious calendars.12. Islam & Hinduism. What is a pilgrimage? 15. What is the most prominent feature of the calendar in an ethnic religion? What is the principle purpose of the calendar in a universalizing religion? . Holy Sites Buddhist Islamic Hindu The Calendar 16. What is the origin of the term ghetto? Holy Places 14.

Both the Jewish and the Muslims use a lunar calendar. Explain. How is the Jewish calendar typical of the ethnic use of the calendar? 18.17. yet in a different way and with very different results. How is the date of Easter related to physical geography (the natural world) through the calendar? 21. 20. Why do different Christian branches celebrate Easter on different days? 22. What is the solstice? 19. How is this similar to Buddhism’s major holidays? .

In what 2 ways do religious structures often stand out in a landscape? Places of Worship 2. Latin America 4. . visible features of a typical mosque. Christian Branch or Region Unique Design/Typical Feature Orthodox Christianity Protestant (esp. Identify 4 specific. Southeast U. America) Northeast U. N.S. For what 2 reasons does a church.Chapter 6 Learning Guide – Religion Key Issue 3 – Why Do Religions Organize Space in Distinctive Patterns? Pgs. 191 – 195 1. Southwest U.S. play a more critical role than in other religions? 3. Complete the following chart to express unique visible features of Christian churches. How is a Muslim mosque viewed differently than a Christian church? 5. the physical structure.S.

8. Hindus Parsis Micronesi a . Where does it usually take place? Sacred Space 11. Complete the chart below with brief notes on the disposal of the dead in ways other than burial. List 3 typical visible features of a Hindu temple. How was pilgrimage a part of the development of pagodas? 10.   12. Formal worship in a pagoda is not typical. Christian practice burial of the dead. Complete the flow chart below to indicate the history of this practice.6. What is the religious purpose of a Buddhist pagoda? 9. How are Hindu temples different than both churches and mosques? 7.

indicating geographic region and leader who heads it.13. What holds Islam together? 20. List the Roman Catholic hierarchy. Complete the chart below with brief notes on the religious settlements indicated. Complete the chart below to categorize other religions and denominations. what is the only formal organization of territory in Islam? 19. Utah Puritans Administration of Space 14. In the absence of a hierarchy. . Why are parishes in Latin America so much larger than in Europe? 17. Define hierarchical religion: 15. Utopian Settlements Salt Lake City. Describe an autonomous religion: 18. 16.

195 – 203 Religion Versus Government Policies 1. specifically the Eastern Orthodox Church? Czar Peter the Great: Communism: . In Russia/Soviet Union. What western groups criticized this aspect? Why? 4. how did each of the following attempt to limit the influence of religion. In what ways did the Taliban government of Afghanistan raise conflicts with Western/modern ideas after it took control of the country in 1996? 2. How has the Indian government responded to this issue? 5. What aspect of Hinduism has clashed with Western/modern ideas? 3.Autonomous Religions Hierarchical Religions Chapter 6 Learning Guide – Religion Key Issue 4 – Why Do Territorial Conflicts Arise Among Religious Groups? Pgs.

Why is it increasing? 11. How was the Vietnam War detrimental to Buddhism in Southeast Asia? 8. and is continuing to happen. Historic Catholic Regions Croatia. What are two religious groups in conflict in Ireland? . … Currently… Historic Muslim Regions Kazakhstan. Kyrgyzstan.6. in each of the following regions of the Russian Empire/Soviet Union since the fall of Communism in the 1990s? Complete the chart below by adding THREE more countries to each category and then describing what is going on at the present time in that region. Hungary. Fundamentalism is increasing in the world today and its growth contributes to conflicts. Lithuania. … Currently… 7. How were Communist regimes detrimental to Buddhism in Southeast Asia? Religion Versus Religion 9. What happened. Define fundamentalism: 10. Czech Republic.

What 3 religions are in constant conflict over the land in the Middle East? 14.12. Complete the chart below regarding the perspective on the Holy Land. What was the military campaign by the Christians to recapture their Holy Land from the Muslims? 15. Palestinian Perspective Israeli Perspective . Where are the majority of these groups located? 13.

Indonesia. Branch of Christianity Coptic Church of Egypt Ethiopian Church Armenian Church Maronites Church of Jesus Christ of LatterDay Saints Region of Predominance N. Name them. Africa N. Sunni 83% . Protestant 24% 4. List the 5 largest denominations. not just those living in a particular location. and which has the largest membership? 14 self-governing churches. What percentage of Latin Americans are Roman Catholic? 93% 6.Chapter 6 Learning Guide – Religion Key Issue 1 – Where Are Religions Distributed? Pgs. Lutheran & Presbyterian 7. Pakistan. Baptist. Universalizing Religions 3.178 1. Pentecostal. Methodist. how many separate churches are there. Give the percentage of the world’s Christian population belonging to each of Christianity’s 3 major branches. Define universalizing religion: Religion that attempts to appeal to all people. 168 . Half of the world’s Muslims live in the Middle East. Protestants comprise 28% of North Americans. northeastern Turkey & western Azerbaijan Lebanon Utah & surrounding states 8.E. 2.E. Roman Catholic – 51%. Armenia. Russian Orthodox 5. Africa Lebanon. Complete the chart with names of smaller branches of Christianity and their location of concentration. Eastern Orthodox 11%. Give the percentage of each of Islam’s 2 greatest branches: Sunni & Shiite (Shia). Define ethnic religion: Religion that appeals primarily to one group of people living in one place. The other half live in 4 countries outside the Middle East. Regarding Eastern Orthodox churches. Bangladesh & India 9.

Confucianism: Ethnic religion begun by Confucius in Chinese province of Lu. was official state religion until end of . 16. Buddhism is built around “Four Noble Truths” as taught by the Buddha. 4. Azerbaijan. Oman & Bahrain 11. Nirvana is achieved through Eightfold Path 12. Daoism: Begun by Lao-Zi & emphasizes mystical & magical aspects of life not importance of public service 18. 17. Where are Hindus concentrated? What percent of all Hindus live there? 97% of all Hindus live in India 15. 1. not a formal religious system Ethnic Religions 14. fulfilling obligations & treating others with sympathy & respect. Myanmar. Why are Buddhists difficult to count? Only a few people participate in Buddhist institutions. Summarize them. Complete this chart dividing Buddhism into its 3 main branches. All living beings must endure suffering. Where are most of the rest? Nepal Make a note or two (that seem of geographic interest) about each of the following ethnic religion listed in #’s 16 – 20. teaches ethical principles of following tradition. Shintoism: Ethnic religion of Japan. Thailand & Sri Lanka Tibet & Mongolia 13. Suffering leads to reincarnation. 3. Only in 5 countries do Shiite Muslims number more than Sunni. 2. What are they? Iran.Shiite 16% 10. Branch Mahayana Theraveda % of Global Buddhist Population 56% 38% Tantrayana 6% Regions of Predominance China. Laos. Goal is to reach Nirvana through moral & mental self-purification. Iraq. Japan & Korea Cambodia.

WWII. practiced by 100 million Africans but is declining due to universalizing religions . Animism: Belief that inanimate objects. began in Canaan. Judaism: 14 million Jews worldwide. political cult & religion. & Israel. 2 main universalizing religions find their roots in Judaism (Islam & Christianity).S. most in U. deceased became important deities 19. plants & stones or natural events like earthquakes have spirits & conscious life. 1st religion to support monotheism 20.

4. Complete the chart below describing the origins and branches of the major universalizing religions. 178 – 191 Origin of Religions 1.C. How was its origin different than universalizing religions? Didn’t originate with s a specific founder 3. When did it originate? 6th century B. compassion & helping others Protestantism Salvation achieved thru direct communication with God & faith Regarding Hinduism 2.Chapter 6 Learning Guide – Religion Key Issue 2 – Why Do Religions Have Different Distributions? Pgs. What 2 ancient peoples beliefs blended to form Hinduism? Aryans & Dravidians . Where did it originate? India 5. Year of Origin Founder Christianity 4 BC – 30 AD Jesus Major Branches & Catholicism Main Belief of God conveys his Each Branch grace to humanity via 7 sacraments Orthodox Accepts 7 sacraments but rejects Pope & doctrines Islam 6th Century Muhammad Sunni Quran Shiite Quran **Disagreement over line of succession of Islamic leadership is major difference Buddhism 5th Century BC Siddhartha Gautama Theravada To become good Buddhist one must renounce worldly goods & become a monk Mahayana Emphasize teaching.

have blended. 2. Arab traders in Indonesia 8. 1. Persia & India. 2. Asia. 1. 3. not just place of origin 11. Conquering land in Palestine. Namibia & other African countries Japan Island of Mauritius Regarding Judaism 10. Merchant traders to China 9. What is the origin of the term ghetto? Neighborhood set up by law where Jews were required to live Holy Places .E. Missionaries in Ceylon. 3. Contagious diffusion by daily contact between believers & nonbelievers. Give 2 reasons for the expansion of Buddhism. Islam & Christianity Location Equatorial Guinea. Provide 3 examples of cases in which religions. Relocation diffusion by missionaries from Palestine.Diffusion of Religions 6. or religious practices. 1. Give 3 explanations for the diffusion of Christianity. Give 3 ways in which Islam spread. Religions Which Have Blended Christianity & African religions Buddhism & Shintoism Hinduism. 2. How were most Jews treated as they lived among other nationalities? Many Jews were persecuted. Hierarchical diffusion thru acceptance by the emperor 7. What was the diaspora? When Romans forced Jews out of the Mediterranean 12. How is its distribution very different from other ethnic religions? It’s practiced in many countries. Relocation diffusion by missionaries in Sub-Saharan Africa & S. forced to live segregated 13.

Shrines are established by tradition. Most located in northeastern India & southern Nepal. Ka’ba is religious shrine in center of Mecca housing black stone given to Muhammad by Gabriel. Islam & Hinduism. Tirtha (pilgrimage) are acts of purification. Lumbini is most important (Buddha’s birthplace) Makkah (Mecca) birth place of Muhammad. What is the most prominent feature of the calendar in an ethnic religion? Celebration of seasons – cycle of variation in climatic conditions for successful agriculture What is the principle purpose of the calendar in a universalizing religion? Commemorates events in founder’s life 17. Complete the chart below regarding religious calendars. Mt. Read the section Holy Places and make notes on 3 case studies: Buddhism. What is the solstice? Astronomical event that happens in June & December resulting . Median tomb of Muhammad.14. What is a pilgrimage? Journey for religious purposes to a place considered sacred 15. How is the Jewish calendar typical of the ethnic use of the calendar? Holidays are based on agricultural events as well. not doctrine. 18. Hindus believe Ganges River is for purification. Holy Sites Important because they’re located where 8 particular events happened in Buddha’s life. Kailas important (Siva lives there) Buddhist Islamic Hindu The Calendar 16. Every Muslim is expected to make hajj to Mecca Places of importance are rivers & coastlines.

How is this similar to Buddhism’s major holidays? Different Buddhists observe & celebrate events on different calendar days as well . yet in a different way and with very different results. Islam – adheres to strict lunar calendar so holidays arrive at different seasons from generation to generation. Jews – calendar inserts extra month every few years so holidays fall at the same time. Explain.in the longest & shortest days of the year. 20. America 21. How is the date of Easter related to physical geography (the natural world) through the calendar? Relates to agricultural cycle as a joyous time of harvest in southern Europe. 19. time of anxiety over planting new crops in northern Europe & N. Both the Jewish and the Muslims use a lunar calendar. Why do different Christian branches celebrate Easter on different days? Protestants & Catholics use Gregorian calendar while Orthodox use Julian calendar 22.

How are Hindu temples different than both churches and mosques? Built to house shrines for gods rather than for worship 7. 191 – 195 1. Identify 4 specific. In what 2 ways do religious structures often stand out in a landscape? Usually tallest & most elaborate building Places of Worship 2. Symbolic artifact (image of the god). Complete the following chart to express unique visible features of Christian churches. America) Northeast U.S. What is the religious purpose of a Buddhist pagoda? House Buddha’s relics (portions of Buddha’s body or clothing) 9. Southwest U. play a more critical role than in other religions? It’s an expression of religious principles & created in the image of God 3. Christian Branch or Region Orthodox Christianity Protestant (esp. pulpit facing Mecca. For what 2 reasons does a church. N. List 3 typical visible features of a Hindu temple. pool for ritual baths 8. Cloister for school/activities. the physical structure. minaret tower to call people to worship 6. Latin America Unique Design/Typical Feature Highly ornate topped with dome Simple with little ornamentation Built with wood Built with brick Adobe Stucco & stone 4. Central courtyard. structure for the caretaker. How was pilgrimage a part of the development of pagodas? People traveled to other countries to build pagodas to house . not sanctified 5.S.Chapter 6 Learning Guide – Religion Key Issue 3 – Why Do Religions Organize Space in Distinctive Patterns? Pgs. Southeast U. visible features of a typical mosque.S. How is a Muslim mosque viewed differently than a Christian church? Viewed as a location for the community to gather.

Catacombs – in ancient Rome when Christianity was illegal  Church Yards – when Christianity became legal  Cemeteries – operated by public management beginning in 19th century 12.relics 10. Complete the chart below with brief notes on the disposal of the dead in ways other than burial. Hindus Parsis Micronesi a Use of cremation Exposure of dead to scavenging birds & animals Disposal of body at sea 13. Utah Puritans Ideal community built around a religious way of life Established by Mormons with church related buildings at strategic points New England settlers that placed church in center of the settlement next to public open space called a common Administration of Space 14. Utopian Settlements Salt Lake City. Christian practice burial of the dead. monastery or at home Sacred Space 11. Complete the flow chart below to indicate the history of this practice. Complete the chart below with brief notes on the religious settlements indicated. Formal worship in a pagoda is not typical. Where does it usually take place? At adjacent temple. Define hierarchical religion: Has well defined geographic structure & organizes territory .

List the Roman Catholic hierarchy. Autonomous Religions Baptist United Church of Christ Judaism Hinduism Hierarchical Religions Roman Catholic Episcopalian Lutheran Methodist . 15. Complete the chart below to categorize other religions and denominations. Priest heads a parish  Bishop heads a diocese that have parishes  Archbishop heads a province with several diocese  Pope head of Roman Catholic Church in Rome 16. indicating geographic region and leader who heads it. what is the only formal organization of territory in Islam? Religious territory with secular states 19. What holds Islam together? Islamic doctrine 20. Why are parishes in Latin America so much larger than in Europe? Lower population density in Latin America than in Europe 17.into local administrative units. In the absence of a hierarchy. Describe an autonomous religion: Religion without central authority but shares ideas & cooperates informally 18.

Chapter 6 Learning Guide – Religion Key Issue 4 – Why Do Territorial Conflicts Arise Among Religious Groups? Pgs. What western groups criticized this aspect? Why? British administrators & Christian missionaries because caste system contributed to health & economic neglect for untouchable caste 4. and is continuing to happen. Uzbekistan Currently…Most people are . Czech Republic. Kyrgyzstan. … Tajikistan. What aspect of Hinduism has clashed with Western/modern ideas? Caste System 3. What happened. Slovenia Currently…Confiscated property Historic Muslim Regions Kazakhstan. In Russia/Soviet Union. Historic Catholic Regions Croatia. Turkmenistan. How has the Indian government responded to this issue? Legally abolished untouchable caste & these people now have equal rights 5. how did each of the following attempt to limit the influence of religion. Marxism became official doctrine. Hungary. 195 – 203 Religion Versus Government Policies 1. In what ways did the Taliban government of Afghanistan raise conflicts with Western/modern ideas after it took control of the country in 1996? Imposed strict laws & punished people for participating in Western values 2. specifically the Eastern Orthodox Church? Czar Peter the Great: Incorporated the church into the government & replaced the church leader with a nominated committee appointed by the czar Communism: Pursued antireligious programs. …Poland. 1918 church-state connection was eliminated 6. in each of the following regions of the Russian Empire/Soviet Union since the fall of Communism in the 1990s? Complete the chart below by adding THREE more countries to each category and then describing what is going on at the present time in that region. Slovakia. Lithuania.

How was the Vietnam War detrimental to Buddhism in Southeast Asia? Air raids destroyed Buddhist shrines.Israel maintains military control .Sees themselves as legitimate rules of Israel . Define fundamentalism: Literal interpretation & strict adherence to basic principles of a religion 10. Why is it increasing? Because a group wants to maintain a distinctive cultural identity in a global culture & economy 11. What are two religious groups in conflict in Ireland? Catholics & Protestants 12. How were Communist regimes detrimental to Buddhism in Southeast Asia? Discouraged religious activities & have allowed monuments to decay Religion Versus Religion 9. What 3 religions are in constant conflict over the land in the Middle East? Judaism. Fundamentalism is increasing in the world today and its growth contributes to conflicts.PLO created under Yassir Arafat t fights Israelis Israeli Perspective .by Communist gov’t reverting back to church ownership & church attendance has increased Muslims & struggling to determine what laws should conform to Islamic custom 7. Palestinian Perspective . Islam & Christianity 14. What was the military campaign by the Christians to recapture their Holy Land from the Muslims? Crusades 15. Where are the majority of these groups located? Protestants in northern Ireland & Catholics in Republic of Ireland 13. Buddhists immolated themselves to protest government 8. Complete the chart below regarding the perspective on the Holy Land.Sees themselves as a small country with Jewish majority surrounded by hostile Muslims .

Hamas Party doesn’t recognize Israel’s right to exist .No intention of giving up claim to Jerusalem over Golan Heights & West Bank .Majority of Israelis support construction of a barrier to deter Palestinian attacks .Some Palestinians (Fatah Party) are willing to recognize Israel’s Jewish majority in exchange for territory taken in 1967 .No intention of giving up claim to Jerusalem ..

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