Chapter 6 Learning Guide – Religion

Key Issue 1 – Where Are Religions Distributed?
Pgs. 168 - 178
1.

Define universalizing religion:

2.

Define ethnic religion:

Universalizing Religions
3.

Give the percentage of the world’s Christian population belonging to
each of Christianity’s 3 major branches.

4.

Regarding Eastern Orthodox churches, how many separate churches
are there, and which has the largest membership?

5.

What percentage of Latin Americans are Roman Catholic?

6.

Protestants comprise 28% of North Americans. List the 5 largest
denominations.

7.

Complete the chart with names of smaller branches of Christianity
and their location of concentration.
Branch of Christianity
Region of Predominance

8.
9.

Half of the world’s Muslims live in the Middle East. The other half
live in 4 countries outside the Middle East. Name them.
Give the percentage of each of Islam’s 2 greatest branches: Sunni
& Shiite (Shia).

10.

Only in 5 countries do Shiite Muslims number more than Sunni.
What are they?

11.

Buddhism is built around “Four Noble Truths” as taught by the
Buddha. Summarize them.

12. Complete this chart dividing Buddhism into its 3 main branches.
Branch
% of Global
Regions of Predominance
Buddhist
Population

13.

Why are Buddhists difficult to count?

Ethnic Religions
14.

Where are Hindus concentrated? What percent of all Hindus live
there?

15.

Where are most of the rest?

Make a note or two (that seem of geographic interest) about each of the
following ethnic religion listed in #’s 16 – 20.
16.

Confucianism:

Animism: . Daoism: 18. Shintoism: 19. Judaism: 20.17.

Chapter 6 Learning Guide – Religion Key Issue 2 – Why Do Religions Have Different Distributions? Pgs. When did it originate? . Complete the chart below describing the origins and branches of the major universalizing religions. 178 – 191 Origin of Religions 1. Christianity Islam Buddhism Year of Origin Founder Major Branches & Main Belief of Each Branch Regarding Hinduism 2. How was its origin different than universalizing religions? 3.

7. What 2 ancient peoples beliefs blended to form Hinduism? Diffusion of Religions 6. What was the diaspora? . or religious practices. have blended. Where did it originate? 5. How is its distribution very different from other ethnic religions? 11. Provide 3 examples of cases in which religions. Give 3 ways in which Islam spread.4. Religions Which Have Blended Location Regarding Judaism 10. Give 3 explanations for the diffusion of Christianity. Give 2 reasons for the expansion of Buddhism. 8. 9.

What is a pilgrimage? 15. Complete the chart below regarding religious calendars. Read the section Holy Places and make notes on 3 case studies: Buddhism. What is the most prominent feature of the calendar in an ethnic religion? What is the principle purpose of the calendar in a universalizing religion? . Islam & Hinduism. How were most Jews treated as they lived among other nationalities? 13. Holy Sites Buddhist Islamic Hindu The Calendar 16.12. What is the origin of the term ghetto? Holy Places 14.

17. Why do different Christian branches celebrate Easter on different days? 22. How is this similar to Buddhism’s major holidays? . Explain. yet in a different way and with very different results. Both the Jewish and the Muslims use a lunar calendar. 20. What is the solstice? 19. How is the date of Easter related to physical geography (the natural world) through the calendar? 21. How is the Jewish calendar typical of the ethnic use of the calendar? 18.

the physical structure.S. America) Northeast U. play a more critical role than in other religions? 3. N. For what 2 reasons does a church. Complete the following chart to express unique visible features of Christian churches.Chapter 6 Learning Guide – Religion Key Issue 3 – Why Do Religions Organize Space in Distinctive Patterns? Pgs. In what 2 ways do religious structures often stand out in a landscape? Places of Worship 2. .S. Identify 4 specific. 191 – 195 1. visible features of a typical mosque.S. Christian Branch or Region Unique Design/Typical Feature Orthodox Christianity Protestant (esp. How is a Muslim mosque viewed differently than a Christian church? 5. Southwest U. Southeast U. Latin America 4.

How was pilgrimage a part of the development of pagodas? 10. 8. Hindus Parsis Micronesi a . What is the religious purpose of a Buddhist pagoda? 9. Christian practice burial of the dead. Where does it usually take place? Sacred Space 11. Formal worship in a pagoda is not typical. Complete the chart below with brief notes on the disposal of the dead in ways other than burial.6.   12. Complete the flow chart below to indicate the history of this practice. List 3 typical visible features of a Hindu temple. How are Hindu temples different than both churches and mosques? 7.

Why are parishes in Latin America so much larger than in Europe? 17. Define hierarchical religion: 15. Complete the chart below to categorize other religions and denominations. what is the only formal organization of territory in Islam? 19. What holds Islam together? 20. List the Roman Catholic hierarchy. . Complete the chart below with brief notes on the religious settlements indicated. Utah Puritans Administration of Space 14. Utopian Settlements Salt Lake City.13. Describe an autonomous religion: 18. In the absence of a hierarchy. indicating geographic region and leader who heads it. 16.

In what ways did the Taliban government of Afghanistan raise conflicts with Western/modern ideas after it took control of the country in 1996? 2. how did each of the following attempt to limit the influence of religion. What aspect of Hinduism has clashed with Western/modern ideas? 3. specifically the Eastern Orthodox Church? Czar Peter the Great: Communism: . How has the Indian government responded to this issue? 5. 195 – 203 Religion Versus Government Policies 1. In Russia/Soviet Union. What western groups criticized this aspect? Why? 4.Autonomous Religions Hierarchical Religions Chapter 6 Learning Guide – Religion Key Issue 4 – Why Do Territorial Conflicts Arise Among Religious Groups? Pgs.

Kyrgyzstan. in each of the following regions of the Russian Empire/Soviet Union since the fall of Communism in the 1990s? Complete the chart below by adding THREE more countries to each category and then describing what is going on at the present time in that region. Define fundamentalism: 10. What are two religious groups in conflict in Ireland? . Historic Catholic Regions Croatia. … Currently… 7. Hungary. … Currently… Historic Muslim Regions Kazakhstan. and is continuing to happen. Lithuania.6. What happened. Fundamentalism is increasing in the world today and its growth contributes to conflicts. Why is it increasing? 11. Czech Republic. How were Communist regimes detrimental to Buddhism in Southeast Asia? Religion Versus Religion 9. How was the Vietnam War detrimental to Buddhism in Southeast Asia? 8.

Palestinian Perspective Israeli Perspective . Complete the chart below regarding the perspective on the Holy Land. What 3 religions are in constant conflict over the land in the Middle East? 14. Where are the majority of these groups located? 13.12. What was the military campaign by the Christians to recapture their Holy Land from the Muslims? 15.

Indonesia. What percentage of Latin Americans are Roman Catholic? 93% 6. and which has the largest membership? 14 self-governing churches. Methodist. Define ethnic religion: Religion that appeals primarily to one group of people living in one place.Chapter 6 Learning Guide – Religion Key Issue 1 – Where Are Religions Distributed? Pgs. Universalizing Religions 3. Regarding Eastern Orthodox churches. Africa N. Baptist. Pakistan. Pentecostal. Russian Orthodox 5. how many separate churches are there.E. Sunni 83% . Lutheran & Presbyterian 7. Bangladesh & India 9. The other half live in 4 countries outside the Middle East. Eastern Orthodox 11%.E. Name them. 2. Branch of Christianity Coptic Church of Egypt Ethiopian Church Armenian Church Maronites Church of Jesus Christ of LatterDay Saints Region of Predominance N. Half of the world’s Muslims live in the Middle East. Complete the chart with names of smaller branches of Christianity and their location of concentration.178 1. Roman Catholic – 51%. List the 5 largest denominations. not just those living in a particular location. Give the percentage of each of Islam’s 2 greatest branches: Sunni & Shiite (Shia). Armenia. northeastern Turkey & western Azerbaijan Lebanon Utah & surrounding states 8. Africa Lebanon. Define universalizing religion: Religion that attempts to appeal to all people. Give the percentage of the world’s Christian population belonging to each of Christianity’s 3 major branches. Protestants comprise 28% of North Americans. 168 . Protestant 24% 4.

Where are Hindus concentrated? What percent of all Hindus live there? 97% of all Hindus live in India 15. 17. Suffering leads to reincarnation. 1. Confucianism: Ethnic religion begun by Confucius in Chinese province of Lu. Oman & Bahrain 11. What are they? Iran. Myanmar. teaches ethical principles of following tradition. Japan & Korea Cambodia. Only in 5 countries do Shiite Muslims number more than Sunni. not a formal religious system Ethnic Religions 14. Branch Mahayana Theraveda % of Global Buddhist Population 56% 38% Tantrayana 6% Regions of Predominance China. Buddhism is built around “Four Noble Truths” as taught by the Buddha. All living beings must endure suffering. 16. Nirvana is achieved through Eightfold Path 12. Shintoism: Ethnic religion of Japan. Thailand & Sri Lanka Tibet & Mongolia 13. Daoism: Begun by Lao-Zi & emphasizes mystical & magical aspects of life not importance of public service 18. Laos. 4. 2. Why are Buddhists difficult to count? Only a few people participate in Buddhist institutions. Summarize them. Where are most of the rest? Nepal Make a note or two (that seem of geographic interest) about each of the following ethnic religion listed in #’s 16 – 20. was official state religion until end of . Azerbaijan. 3. Complete this chart dividing Buddhism into its 3 main branches. fulfilling obligations & treating others with sympathy & respect. Iraq. Goal is to reach Nirvana through moral & mental self-purification.Shiite 16% 10.

practiced by 100 million Africans but is declining due to universalizing religions . Animism: Belief that inanimate objects. most in U. deceased became important deities 19.S. political cult & religion. 2 main universalizing religions find their roots in Judaism (Islam & Christianity).WWII. began in Canaan. & Israel. plants & stones or natural events like earthquakes have spirits & conscious life. 1st religion to support monotheism 20. Judaism: 14 million Jews worldwide.

178 – 191 Origin of Religions 1. compassion & helping others Protestantism Salvation achieved thru direct communication with God & faith Regarding Hinduism 2. What 2 ancient peoples beliefs blended to form Hinduism? Aryans & Dravidians . How was its origin different than universalizing religions? Didn’t originate with s a specific founder 3. 4. Year of Origin Founder Christianity 4 BC – 30 AD Jesus Major Branches & Catholicism Main Belief of God conveys his Each Branch grace to humanity via 7 sacraments Orthodox Accepts 7 sacraments but rejects Pope & doctrines Islam 6th Century Muhammad Sunni Quran Shiite Quran **Disagreement over line of succession of Islamic leadership is major difference Buddhism 5th Century BC Siddhartha Gautama Theravada To become good Buddhist one must renounce worldly goods & become a monk Mahayana Emphasize teaching. When did it originate? 6th century B.Chapter 6 Learning Guide – Religion Key Issue 2 – Why Do Religions Have Different Distributions? Pgs. Where did it originate? India 5. Complete the chart below describing the origins and branches of the major universalizing religions.C.

What was the diaspora? When Romans forced Jews out of the Mediterranean 12. Give 3 ways in which Islam spread. Conquering land in Palestine. 2. 3.Diffusion of Religions 6. 1. How were most Jews treated as they lived among other nationalities? Many Jews were persecuted. Contagious diffusion by daily contact between believers & nonbelievers. forced to live segregated 13.E. 3. How is its distribution very different from other ethnic religions? It’s practiced in many countries. Give 3 explanations for the diffusion of Christianity. Arab traders in Indonesia 8. Hierarchical diffusion thru acceptance by the emperor 7. Provide 3 examples of cases in which religions. have blended. Missionaries in Ceylon. Religions Which Have Blended Christianity & African religions Buddhism & Shintoism Hinduism. 1. 2. Relocation diffusion by missionaries from Palestine. Give 2 reasons for the expansion of Buddhism. Namibia & other African countries Japan Island of Mauritius Regarding Judaism 10. Islam & Christianity Location Equatorial Guinea. Merchant traders to China 9. or religious practices. What is the origin of the term ghetto? Neighborhood set up by law where Jews were required to live Holy Places . Relocation diffusion by missionaries in Sub-Saharan Africa & S. 2. Persia & India. Asia. not just place of origin 11. 1.

How is the Jewish calendar typical of the ethnic use of the calendar? Holidays are based on agricultural events as well. Read the section Holy Places and make notes on 3 case studies: Buddhism. Hindus believe Ganges River is for purification. Lumbini is most important (Buddha’s birthplace) Makkah (Mecca) birth place of Muhammad. Complete the chart below regarding religious calendars. Tirtha (pilgrimage) are acts of purification. What is the most prominent feature of the calendar in an ethnic religion? Celebration of seasons – cycle of variation in climatic conditions for successful agriculture What is the principle purpose of the calendar in a universalizing religion? Commemorates events in founder’s life 17. Median tomb of Muhammad. Mt.14. 18. Every Muslim is expected to make hajj to Mecca Places of importance are rivers & coastlines. Kailas important (Siva lives there) Buddhist Islamic Hindu The Calendar 16. What is a pilgrimage? Journey for religious purposes to a place considered sacred 15. Islam & Hinduism. Shrines are established by tradition. Ka’ba is religious shrine in center of Mecca housing black stone given to Muhammad by Gabriel. Holy Sites Important because they’re located where 8 particular events happened in Buddha’s life. What is the solstice? Astronomical event that happens in June & December resulting . not doctrine. Most located in northeastern India & southern Nepal.

Explain. yet in a different way and with very different results. 20. America 21.in the longest & shortest days of the year. Both the Jewish and the Muslims use a lunar calendar. Jews – calendar inserts extra month every few years so holidays fall at the same time. Why do different Christian branches celebrate Easter on different days? Protestants & Catholics use Gregorian calendar while Orthodox use Julian calendar 22. Islam – adheres to strict lunar calendar so holidays arrive at different seasons from generation to generation. 19. time of anxiety over planting new crops in northern Europe & N. How is this similar to Buddhism’s major holidays? Different Buddhists observe & celebrate events on different calendar days as well . How is the date of Easter related to physical geography (the natural world) through the calendar? Relates to agricultural cycle as a joyous time of harvest in southern Europe.

For what 2 reasons does a church. List 3 typical visible features of a Hindu temple. Cloister for school/activities. the physical structure. play a more critical role than in other religions? It’s an expression of religious principles & created in the image of God 3. not sanctified 5. pool for ritual baths 8. 191 – 195 1.S. visible features of a typical mosque. How is a Muslim mosque viewed differently than a Christian church? Viewed as a location for the community to gather. How are Hindu temples different than both churches and mosques? Built to house shrines for gods rather than for worship 7. Christian Branch or Region Orthodox Christianity Protestant (esp. Identify 4 specific. How was pilgrimage a part of the development of pagodas? People traveled to other countries to build pagodas to house . Southeast U. Latin America Unique Design/Typical Feature Highly ornate topped with dome Simple with little ornamentation Built with wood Built with brick Adobe Stucco & stone 4. Complete the following chart to express unique visible features of Christian churches. What is the religious purpose of a Buddhist pagoda? House Buddha’s relics (portions of Buddha’s body or clothing) 9.S. America) Northeast U. minaret tower to call people to worship 6. N. Symbolic artifact (image of the god). structure for the caretaker.S. In what 2 ways do religious structures often stand out in a landscape? Usually tallest & most elaborate building Places of Worship 2.Chapter 6 Learning Guide – Religion Key Issue 3 – Why Do Religions Organize Space in Distinctive Patterns? Pgs. Southwest U. Central courtyard. pulpit facing Mecca.

Utah Puritans Ideal community built around a religious way of life Established by Mormons with church related buildings at strategic points New England settlers that placed church in center of the settlement next to public open space called a common Administration of Space 14. Define hierarchical religion: Has well defined geographic structure & organizes territory . Formal worship in a pagoda is not typical. Hindus Parsis Micronesi a Use of cremation Exposure of dead to scavenging birds & animals Disposal of body at sea 13. Where does it usually take place? At adjacent temple. monastery or at home Sacred Space 11. Complete the chart below with brief notes on the religious settlements indicated. Catacombs – in ancient Rome when Christianity was illegal  Church Yards – when Christianity became legal  Cemeteries – operated by public management beginning in 19th century 12. Complete the flow chart below to indicate the history of this practice. Utopian Settlements Salt Lake City. Complete the chart below with brief notes on the disposal of the dead in ways other than burial.relics 10. Christian practice burial of the dead.

What holds Islam together? Islamic doctrine 20. Priest heads a parish  Bishop heads a diocese that have parishes  Archbishop heads a province with several diocese  Pope head of Roman Catholic Church in Rome 16. Complete the chart below to categorize other religions and denominations. In the absence of a hierarchy. Describe an autonomous religion: Religion without central authority but shares ideas & cooperates informally 18. what is the only formal organization of territory in Islam? Religious territory with secular states 19. Autonomous Religions Baptist United Church of Christ Judaism Hinduism Hierarchical Religions Roman Catholic Episcopalian Lutheran Methodist . List the Roman Catholic hierarchy. Why are parishes in Latin America so much larger than in Europe? Lower population density in Latin America than in Europe 17. indicating geographic region and leader who heads it.into local administrative units. 15.

In Russia/Soviet Union. Uzbekistan Currently…Most people are . specifically the Eastern Orthodox Church? Czar Peter the Great: Incorporated the church into the government & replaced the church leader with a nominated committee appointed by the czar Communism: Pursued antireligious programs. Marxism became official doctrine. how did each of the following attempt to limit the influence of religion. What aspect of Hinduism has clashed with Western/modern ideas? Caste System 3.Chapter 6 Learning Guide – Religion Key Issue 4 – Why Do Territorial Conflicts Arise Among Religious Groups? Pgs. …Poland. How has the Indian government responded to this issue? Legally abolished untouchable caste & these people now have equal rights 5. Czech Republic. in each of the following regions of the Russian Empire/Soviet Union since the fall of Communism in the 1990s? Complete the chart below by adding THREE more countries to each category and then describing what is going on at the present time in that region. What happened. Slovenia Currently…Confiscated property Historic Muslim Regions Kazakhstan. … Tajikistan. and is continuing to happen. Kyrgyzstan. In what ways did the Taliban government of Afghanistan raise conflicts with Western/modern ideas after it took control of the country in 1996? Imposed strict laws & punished people for participating in Western values 2. Lithuania. Slovakia. Historic Catholic Regions Croatia. 195 – 203 Religion Versus Government Policies 1. Hungary. Turkmenistan. 1918 church-state connection was eliminated 6. What western groups criticized this aspect? Why? British administrators & Christian missionaries because caste system contributed to health & economic neglect for untouchable caste 4.

What 3 religions are in constant conflict over the land in the Middle East? Judaism. How was the Vietnam War detrimental to Buddhism in Southeast Asia? Air raids destroyed Buddhist shrines. Why is it increasing? Because a group wants to maintain a distinctive cultural identity in a global culture & economy 11. How were Communist regimes detrimental to Buddhism in Southeast Asia? Discouraged religious activities & have allowed monuments to decay Religion Versus Religion 9. What was the military campaign by the Christians to recapture their Holy Land from the Muslims? Crusades 15. Palestinian Perspective .Israel maintains military control .PLO created under Yassir Arafat t fights Israelis Israeli Perspective .Sees themselves as legitimate rules of Israel . Define fundamentalism: Literal interpretation & strict adherence to basic principles of a religion 10. Where are the majority of these groups located? Protestants in northern Ireland & Catholics in Republic of Ireland 13. Islam & Christianity 14. What are two religious groups in conflict in Ireland? Catholics & Protestants 12. Buddhists immolated themselves to protest government 8. Fundamentalism is increasing in the world today and its growth contributes to conflicts.Sees themselves as a small country with Jewish majority surrounded by hostile Muslims . Complete the chart below regarding the perspective on the Holy Land.by Communist gov’t reverting back to church ownership & church attendance has increased Muslims & struggling to determine what laws should conform to Islamic custom 7.

Hamas Party doesn’t recognize Israel’s right to exist .No intention of giving up claim to Jerusalem .No intention of giving up claim to Jerusalem over Golan Heights & West Bank .Majority of Israelis support construction of a barrier to deter Palestinian attacks ..Some Palestinians (Fatah Party) are willing to recognize Israel’s Jewish majority in exchange for territory taken in 1967 .

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