Chapter 6 Learning Guide – Religion

Key Issue 1 – Where Are Religions Distributed?
Pgs. 168 - 178
1.

Define universalizing religion:

2.

Define ethnic religion:

Universalizing Religions
3.

Give the percentage of the world’s Christian population belonging to
each of Christianity’s 3 major branches.

4.

Regarding Eastern Orthodox churches, how many separate churches
are there, and which has the largest membership?

5.

What percentage of Latin Americans are Roman Catholic?

6.

Protestants comprise 28% of North Americans. List the 5 largest
denominations.

7.

Complete the chart with names of smaller branches of Christianity
and their location of concentration.
Branch of Christianity
Region of Predominance

8.
9.

Half of the world’s Muslims live in the Middle East. The other half
live in 4 countries outside the Middle East. Name them.
Give the percentage of each of Islam’s 2 greatest branches: Sunni
& Shiite (Shia).

10.

Only in 5 countries do Shiite Muslims number more than Sunni.
What are they?

11.

Buddhism is built around “Four Noble Truths” as taught by the
Buddha. Summarize them.

12. Complete this chart dividing Buddhism into its 3 main branches.
Branch
% of Global
Regions of Predominance
Buddhist
Population

13.

Why are Buddhists difficult to count?

Ethnic Religions
14.

Where are Hindus concentrated? What percent of all Hindus live
there?

15.

Where are most of the rest?

Make a note or two (that seem of geographic interest) about each of the
following ethnic religion listed in #’s 16 – 20.
16.

Confucianism:

Judaism: 20. Shintoism: 19.17. Daoism: 18. Animism: .

Chapter 6 Learning Guide – Religion Key Issue 2 – Why Do Religions Have Different Distributions? Pgs. When did it originate? . Complete the chart below describing the origins and branches of the major universalizing religions. How was its origin different than universalizing religions? 3. 178 – 191 Origin of Religions 1. Christianity Islam Buddhism Year of Origin Founder Major Branches & Main Belief of Each Branch Regarding Hinduism 2.

Religions Which Have Blended Location Regarding Judaism 10. Provide 3 examples of cases in which religions. 8. Give 3 ways in which Islam spread. 7.4. How is its distribution very different from other ethnic religions? 11. What 2 ancient peoples beliefs blended to form Hinduism? Diffusion of Religions 6. Where did it originate? 5. have blended. Give 3 explanations for the diffusion of Christianity. 9. or religious practices. Give 2 reasons for the expansion of Buddhism. What was the diaspora? .

What is the origin of the term ghetto? Holy Places 14.12. What is a pilgrimage? 15. Holy Sites Buddhist Islamic Hindu The Calendar 16. How were most Jews treated as they lived among other nationalities? 13. Read the section Holy Places and make notes on 3 case studies: Buddhism. What is the most prominent feature of the calendar in an ethnic religion? What is the principle purpose of the calendar in a universalizing religion? . Complete the chart below regarding religious calendars. Islam & Hinduism.

Both the Jewish and the Muslims use a lunar calendar. 20. How is this similar to Buddhism’s major holidays? . yet in a different way and with very different results. Explain. Why do different Christian branches celebrate Easter on different days? 22. What is the solstice? 19.17. How is the date of Easter related to physical geography (the natural world) through the calendar? 21. How is the Jewish calendar typical of the ethnic use of the calendar? 18.

N. For what 2 reasons does a church. the physical structure.S. play a more critical role than in other religions? 3. visible features of a typical mosque.Chapter 6 Learning Guide – Religion Key Issue 3 – Why Do Religions Organize Space in Distinctive Patterns? Pgs. Latin America 4. Christian Branch or Region Unique Design/Typical Feature Orthodox Christianity Protestant (esp. .S. Identify 4 specific. In what 2 ways do religious structures often stand out in a landscape? Places of Worship 2.S. Complete the following chart to express unique visible features of Christian churches. Southwest U. 191 – 195 1. America) Northeast U. Southeast U. How is a Muslim mosque viewed differently than a Christian church? 5.

How are Hindu temples different than both churches and mosques? 7. Formal worship in a pagoda is not typical. 8. What is the religious purpose of a Buddhist pagoda? 9. List 3 typical visible features of a Hindu temple. How was pilgrimage a part of the development of pagodas? 10. Complete the flow chart below to indicate the history of this practice.6. Hindus Parsis Micronesi a .   12. Where does it usually take place? Sacred Space 11. Christian practice burial of the dead. Complete the chart below with brief notes on the disposal of the dead in ways other than burial.

List the Roman Catholic hierarchy. . In the absence of a hierarchy. Complete the chart below to categorize other religions and denominations. Utah Puritans Administration of Space 14. 16. Describe an autonomous religion: 18. Define hierarchical religion: 15.13. Utopian Settlements Salt Lake City. what is the only formal organization of territory in Islam? 19. indicating geographic region and leader who heads it. What holds Islam together? 20. Why are parishes in Latin America so much larger than in Europe? 17. Complete the chart below with brief notes on the religious settlements indicated.

In Russia/Soviet Union. What aspect of Hinduism has clashed with Western/modern ideas? 3. 195 – 203 Religion Versus Government Policies 1.Autonomous Religions Hierarchical Religions Chapter 6 Learning Guide – Religion Key Issue 4 – Why Do Territorial Conflicts Arise Among Religious Groups? Pgs. How has the Indian government responded to this issue? 5. specifically the Eastern Orthodox Church? Czar Peter the Great: Communism: . What western groups criticized this aspect? Why? 4. how did each of the following attempt to limit the influence of religion. In what ways did the Taliban government of Afghanistan raise conflicts with Western/modern ideas after it took control of the country in 1996? 2.

Define fundamentalism: 10. What happened. How were Communist regimes detrimental to Buddhism in Southeast Asia? Religion Versus Religion 9. What are two religious groups in conflict in Ireland? . and is continuing to happen.6. Hungary. How was the Vietnam War detrimental to Buddhism in Southeast Asia? 8. Historic Catholic Regions Croatia. Fundamentalism is increasing in the world today and its growth contributes to conflicts. Why is it increasing? 11. Czech Republic. … Currently… 7. Kyrgyzstan. Lithuania. in each of the following regions of the Russian Empire/Soviet Union since the fall of Communism in the 1990s? Complete the chart below by adding THREE more countries to each category and then describing what is going on at the present time in that region. … Currently… Historic Muslim Regions Kazakhstan.

Where are the majority of these groups located? 13. Complete the chart below regarding the perspective on the Holy Land. What was the military campaign by the Christians to recapture their Holy Land from the Muslims? 15. Palestinian Perspective Israeli Perspective . What 3 religions are in constant conflict over the land in the Middle East? 14.12.

Russian Orthodox 5. and which has the largest membership? 14 self-governing churches. Define universalizing religion: Religion that attempts to appeal to all people. Africa N.178 1. northeastern Turkey & western Azerbaijan Lebanon Utah & surrounding states 8. Branch of Christianity Coptic Church of Egypt Ethiopian Church Armenian Church Maronites Church of Jesus Christ of LatterDay Saints Region of Predominance N. Indonesia. Bangladesh & India 9. Protestant 24% 4. not just those living in a particular location. Half of the world’s Muslims live in the Middle East.E. List the 5 largest denominations.Chapter 6 Learning Guide – Religion Key Issue 1 – Where Are Religions Distributed? Pgs. What percentage of Latin Americans are Roman Catholic? 93% 6. Baptist. Define ethnic religion: Religion that appeals primarily to one group of people living in one place. Pentecostal. Africa Lebanon. Methodist. Roman Catholic – 51%. Give the percentage of the world’s Christian population belonging to each of Christianity’s 3 major branches. Armenia. Complete the chart with names of smaller branches of Christianity and their location of concentration. Name them. 2. 168 . Eastern Orthodox 11%. Lutheran & Presbyterian 7. Universalizing Religions 3. Sunni 83% . how many separate churches are there. Give the percentage of each of Islam’s 2 greatest branches: Sunni & Shiite (Shia). Regarding Eastern Orthodox churches. The other half live in 4 countries outside the Middle East. Pakistan. Protestants comprise 28% of North Americans.E.

was official state religion until end of . Where are most of the rest? Nepal Make a note or two (that seem of geographic interest) about each of the following ethnic religion listed in #’s 16 – 20. 2. Where are Hindus concentrated? What percent of all Hindus live there? 97% of all Hindus live in India 15. 17. 1. 16. Summarize them. Goal is to reach Nirvana through moral & mental self-purification. Azerbaijan. not a formal religious system Ethnic Religions 14. Complete this chart dividing Buddhism into its 3 main branches. Oman & Bahrain 11. Only in 5 countries do Shiite Muslims number more than Sunni. Branch Mahayana Theraveda % of Global Buddhist Population 56% 38% Tantrayana 6% Regions of Predominance China. Confucianism: Ethnic religion begun by Confucius in Chinese province of Lu. Myanmar. Laos. Daoism: Begun by Lao-Zi & emphasizes mystical & magical aspects of life not importance of public service 18. What are they? Iran. Buddhism is built around “Four Noble Truths” as taught by the Buddha. teaches ethical principles of following tradition. Why are Buddhists difficult to count? Only a few people participate in Buddhist institutions. Suffering leads to reincarnation.Shiite 16% 10. Shintoism: Ethnic religion of Japan. Nirvana is achieved through Eightfold Path 12. 3. fulfilling obligations & treating others with sympathy & respect. Japan & Korea Cambodia. 4. Iraq. Thailand & Sri Lanka Tibet & Mongolia 13. All living beings must endure suffering.

political cult & religion.WWII. began in Canaan.S. 1st religion to support monotheism 20. practiced by 100 million Africans but is declining due to universalizing religions . deceased became important deities 19. most in U. 2 main universalizing religions find their roots in Judaism (Islam & Christianity). Judaism: 14 million Jews worldwide. plants & stones or natural events like earthquakes have spirits & conscious life. Animism: Belief that inanimate objects. & Israel.

C. Where did it originate? India 5. 178 – 191 Origin of Religions 1. How was its origin different than universalizing religions? Didn’t originate with s a specific founder 3. When did it originate? 6th century B. Year of Origin Founder Christianity 4 BC – 30 AD Jesus Major Branches & Catholicism Main Belief of God conveys his Each Branch grace to humanity via 7 sacraments Orthodox Accepts 7 sacraments but rejects Pope & doctrines Islam 6th Century Muhammad Sunni Quran Shiite Quran **Disagreement over line of succession of Islamic leadership is major difference Buddhism 5th Century BC Siddhartha Gautama Theravada To become good Buddhist one must renounce worldly goods & become a monk Mahayana Emphasize teaching. What 2 ancient peoples beliefs blended to form Hinduism? Aryans & Dravidians .Chapter 6 Learning Guide – Religion Key Issue 2 – Why Do Religions Have Different Distributions? Pgs. compassion & helping others Protestantism Salvation achieved thru direct communication with God & faith Regarding Hinduism 2. Complete the chart below describing the origins and branches of the major universalizing religions. 4.

What was the diaspora? When Romans forced Jews out of the Mediterranean 12. Relocation diffusion by missionaries in Sub-Saharan Africa & S. Give 2 reasons for the expansion of Buddhism. 3. How were most Jews treated as they lived among other nationalities? Many Jews were persecuted.Diffusion of Religions 6. Religions Which Have Blended Christianity & African religions Buddhism & Shintoism Hinduism.E. What is the origin of the term ghetto? Neighborhood set up by law where Jews were required to live Holy Places . or religious practices. 2. Contagious diffusion by daily contact between believers & nonbelievers. 1. Provide 3 examples of cases in which religions. How is its distribution very different from other ethnic religions? It’s practiced in many countries. not just place of origin 11. Missionaries in Ceylon. 1. Arab traders in Indonesia 8. have blended. Persia & India. 1. Give 3 explanations for the diffusion of Christianity. Give 3 ways in which Islam spread. 3. forced to live segregated 13. 2. Asia. Namibia & other African countries Japan Island of Mauritius Regarding Judaism 10. Relocation diffusion by missionaries from Palestine. Conquering land in Palestine. Islam & Christianity Location Equatorial Guinea. 2. Merchant traders to China 9. Hierarchical diffusion thru acceptance by the emperor 7.

Read the section Holy Places and make notes on 3 case studies: Buddhism. Kailas important (Siva lives there) Buddhist Islamic Hindu The Calendar 16. What is a pilgrimage? Journey for religious purposes to a place considered sacred 15. Tirtha (pilgrimage) are acts of purification. Shrines are established by tradition. Most located in northeastern India & southern Nepal. How is the Jewish calendar typical of the ethnic use of the calendar? Holidays are based on agricultural events as well. Islam & Hinduism. 18.14. What is the most prominent feature of the calendar in an ethnic religion? Celebration of seasons – cycle of variation in climatic conditions for successful agriculture What is the principle purpose of the calendar in a universalizing religion? Commemorates events in founder’s life 17. Ka’ba is religious shrine in center of Mecca housing black stone given to Muhammad by Gabriel. Lumbini is most important (Buddha’s birthplace) Makkah (Mecca) birth place of Muhammad. Complete the chart below regarding religious calendars. Hindus believe Ganges River is for purification. not doctrine. Mt. Median tomb of Muhammad. Holy Sites Important because they’re located where 8 particular events happened in Buddha’s life. Every Muslim is expected to make hajj to Mecca Places of importance are rivers & coastlines. What is the solstice? Astronomical event that happens in June & December resulting .

time of anxiety over planting new crops in northern Europe & N. Jews – calendar inserts extra month every few years so holidays fall at the same time. How is the date of Easter related to physical geography (the natural world) through the calendar? Relates to agricultural cycle as a joyous time of harvest in southern Europe. Both the Jewish and the Muslims use a lunar calendar.in the longest & shortest days of the year. yet in a different way and with very different results. Islam – adheres to strict lunar calendar so holidays arrive at different seasons from generation to generation. America 21. 20. Explain. How is this similar to Buddhism’s major holidays? Different Buddhists observe & celebrate events on different calendar days as well . 19. Why do different Christian branches celebrate Easter on different days? Protestants & Catholics use Gregorian calendar while Orthodox use Julian calendar 22.

Complete the following chart to express unique visible features of Christian churches. not sanctified 5. Central courtyard. structure for the caretaker. pulpit facing Mecca. In what 2 ways do religious structures often stand out in a landscape? Usually tallest & most elaborate building Places of Worship 2. pool for ritual baths 8. Christian Branch or Region Orthodox Christianity Protestant (esp. Cloister for school/activities.S. Latin America Unique Design/Typical Feature Highly ornate topped with dome Simple with little ornamentation Built with wood Built with brick Adobe Stucco & stone 4. How is a Muslim mosque viewed differently than a Christian church? Viewed as a location for the community to gather. N. Southwest U. What is the religious purpose of a Buddhist pagoda? House Buddha’s relics (portions of Buddha’s body or clothing) 9. play a more critical role than in other religions? It’s an expression of religious principles & created in the image of God 3. List 3 typical visible features of a Hindu temple. the physical structure. How was pilgrimage a part of the development of pagodas? People traveled to other countries to build pagodas to house . Symbolic artifact (image of the god). Southeast U. Identify 4 specific. How are Hindu temples different than both churches and mosques? Built to house shrines for gods rather than for worship 7.S. 191 – 195 1. For what 2 reasons does a church. visible features of a typical mosque.Chapter 6 Learning Guide – Religion Key Issue 3 – Why Do Religions Organize Space in Distinctive Patterns? Pgs.S. America) Northeast U. minaret tower to call people to worship 6.

Utah Puritans Ideal community built around a religious way of life Established by Mormons with church related buildings at strategic points New England settlers that placed church in center of the settlement next to public open space called a common Administration of Space 14. Christian practice burial of the dead. monastery or at home Sacred Space 11. Catacombs – in ancient Rome when Christianity was illegal  Church Yards – when Christianity became legal  Cemeteries – operated by public management beginning in 19th century 12. Utopian Settlements Salt Lake City. Complete the flow chart below to indicate the history of this practice. Where does it usually take place? At adjacent temple. Complete the chart below with brief notes on the religious settlements indicated.relics 10. Formal worship in a pagoda is not typical. Define hierarchical religion: Has well defined geographic structure & organizes territory . Hindus Parsis Micronesi a Use of cremation Exposure of dead to scavenging birds & animals Disposal of body at sea 13. Complete the chart below with brief notes on the disposal of the dead in ways other than burial.

Why are parishes in Latin America so much larger than in Europe? Lower population density in Latin America than in Europe 17. what is the only formal organization of territory in Islam? Religious territory with secular states 19. What holds Islam together? Islamic doctrine 20. In the absence of a hierarchy. indicating geographic region and leader who heads it. 15. Priest heads a parish  Bishop heads a diocese that have parishes  Archbishop heads a province with several diocese  Pope head of Roman Catholic Church in Rome 16.into local administrative units. Describe an autonomous religion: Religion without central authority but shares ideas & cooperates informally 18. Complete the chart below to categorize other religions and denominations. Autonomous Religions Baptist United Church of Christ Judaism Hinduism Hierarchical Religions Roman Catholic Episcopalian Lutheran Methodist . List the Roman Catholic hierarchy.

Turkmenistan. Historic Catholic Regions Croatia. specifically the Eastern Orthodox Church? Czar Peter the Great: Incorporated the church into the government & replaced the church leader with a nominated committee appointed by the czar Communism: Pursued antireligious programs. 1918 church-state connection was eliminated 6. In Russia/Soviet Union. Lithuania. Slovenia Currently…Confiscated property Historic Muslim Regions Kazakhstan. 195 – 203 Religion Versus Government Policies 1. … Tajikistan. What aspect of Hinduism has clashed with Western/modern ideas? Caste System 3.Chapter 6 Learning Guide – Religion Key Issue 4 – Why Do Territorial Conflicts Arise Among Religious Groups? Pgs. Kyrgyzstan. What western groups criticized this aspect? Why? British administrators & Christian missionaries because caste system contributed to health & economic neglect for untouchable caste 4. Hungary. Czech Republic. Slovakia. …Poland. Uzbekistan Currently…Most people are . In what ways did the Taliban government of Afghanistan raise conflicts with Western/modern ideas after it took control of the country in 1996? Imposed strict laws & punished people for participating in Western values 2. Marxism became official doctrine. What happened. in each of the following regions of the Russian Empire/Soviet Union since the fall of Communism in the 1990s? Complete the chart below by adding THREE more countries to each category and then describing what is going on at the present time in that region. how did each of the following attempt to limit the influence of religion. How has the Indian government responded to this issue? Legally abolished untouchable caste & these people now have equal rights 5. and is continuing to happen.

What are two religious groups in conflict in Ireland? Catholics & Protestants 12. How were Communist regimes detrimental to Buddhism in Southeast Asia? Discouraged religious activities & have allowed monuments to decay Religion Versus Religion 9.Israel maintains military control . Buddhists immolated themselves to protest government 8.by Communist gov’t reverting back to church ownership & church attendance has increased Muslims & struggling to determine what laws should conform to Islamic custom 7. How was the Vietnam War detrimental to Buddhism in Southeast Asia? Air raids destroyed Buddhist shrines.Sees themselves as a small country with Jewish majority surrounded by hostile Muslims .Sees themselves as legitimate rules of Israel . What 3 religions are in constant conflict over the land in the Middle East? Judaism. Define fundamentalism: Literal interpretation & strict adherence to basic principles of a religion 10. Why is it increasing? Because a group wants to maintain a distinctive cultural identity in a global culture & economy 11. Where are the majority of these groups located? Protestants in northern Ireland & Catholics in Republic of Ireland 13. What was the military campaign by the Christians to recapture their Holy Land from the Muslims? Crusades 15. Fundamentalism is increasing in the world today and its growth contributes to conflicts. Complete the chart below regarding the perspective on the Holy Land. Palestinian Perspective .PLO created under Yassir Arafat t fights Israelis Israeli Perspective . Islam & Christianity 14.

.Some Palestinians (Fatah Party) are willing to recognize Israel’s Jewish majority in exchange for territory taken in 1967 .No intention of giving up claim to Jerusalem over Golan Heights & West Bank .Hamas Party doesn’t recognize Israel’s right to exist .No intention of giving up claim to Jerusalem .Majority of Israelis support construction of a barrier to deter Palestinian attacks .

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