Chapter 6 Learning Guide – Religion

Key Issue 1 – Where Are Religions Distributed?
Pgs. 168 - 178
1.

Define universalizing religion:

2.

Define ethnic religion:

Universalizing Religions
3.

Give the percentage of the world’s Christian population belonging to
each of Christianity’s 3 major branches.

4.

Regarding Eastern Orthodox churches, how many separate churches
are there, and which has the largest membership?

5.

What percentage of Latin Americans are Roman Catholic?

6.

Protestants comprise 28% of North Americans. List the 5 largest
denominations.

7.

Complete the chart with names of smaller branches of Christianity
and their location of concentration.
Branch of Christianity
Region of Predominance

8.
9.

Half of the world’s Muslims live in the Middle East. The other half
live in 4 countries outside the Middle East. Name them.
Give the percentage of each of Islam’s 2 greatest branches: Sunni
& Shiite (Shia).

10.

Only in 5 countries do Shiite Muslims number more than Sunni.
What are they?

11.

Buddhism is built around “Four Noble Truths” as taught by the
Buddha. Summarize them.

12. Complete this chart dividing Buddhism into its 3 main branches.
Branch
% of Global
Regions of Predominance
Buddhist
Population

13.

Why are Buddhists difficult to count?

Ethnic Religions
14.

Where are Hindus concentrated? What percent of all Hindus live
there?

15.

Where are most of the rest?

Make a note or two (that seem of geographic interest) about each of the
following ethnic religion listed in #’s 16 – 20.
16.

Confucianism:

17. Judaism: 20. Shintoism: 19. Animism: . Daoism: 18.

178 – 191 Origin of Religions 1. Complete the chart below describing the origins and branches of the major universalizing religions. When did it originate? .Chapter 6 Learning Guide – Religion Key Issue 2 – Why Do Religions Have Different Distributions? Pgs. Christianity Islam Buddhism Year of Origin Founder Major Branches & Main Belief of Each Branch Regarding Hinduism 2. How was its origin different than universalizing religions? 3.

How is its distribution very different from other ethnic religions? 11. Where did it originate? 5.4. Give 3 explanations for the diffusion of Christianity. What 2 ancient peoples beliefs blended to form Hinduism? Diffusion of Religions 6. Provide 3 examples of cases in which religions. have blended. 8. 9. 7. or religious practices. What was the diaspora? . Give 2 reasons for the expansion of Buddhism. Religions Which Have Blended Location Regarding Judaism 10. Give 3 ways in which Islam spread.

What is a pilgrimage? 15. How were most Jews treated as they lived among other nationalities? 13. Islam & Hinduism. Complete the chart below regarding religious calendars. Read the section Holy Places and make notes on 3 case studies: Buddhism. Holy Sites Buddhist Islamic Hindu The Calendar 16.12. What is the origin of the term ghetto? Holy Places 14. What is the most prominent feature of the calendar in an ethnic religion? What is the principle purpose of the calendar in a universalizing religion? .

yet in a different way and with very different results. What is the solstice? 19. How is the date of Easter related to physical geography (the natural world) through the calendar? 21. How is the Jewish calendar typical of the ethnic use of the calendar? 18. 20.17. Both the Jewish and the Muslims use a lunar calendar. How is this similar to Buddhism’s major holidays? . Explain. Why do different Christian branches celebrate Easter on different days? 22.

S. the physical structure.S. play a more critical role than in other religions? 3. Southeast U. How is a Muslim mosque viewed differently than a Christian church? 5. 191 – 195 1. Complete the following chart to express unique visible features of Christian churches. Latin America 4.S. Christian Branch or Region Unique Design/Typical Feature Orthodox Christianity Protestant (esp. America) Northeast U. visible features of a typical mosque.Chapter 6 Learning Guide – Religion Key Issue 3 – Why Do Religions Organize Space in Distinctive Patterns? Pgs. For what 2 reasons does a church. Identify 4 specific. In what 2 ways do religious structures often stand out in a landscape? Places of Worship 2. Southwest U. N. .

What is the religious purpose of a Buddhist pagoda? 9. List 3 typical visible features of a Hindu temple. Christian practice burial of the dead.   12. Complete the flow chart below to indicate the history of this practice. Where does it usually take place? Sacred Space 11. Complete the chart below with brief notes on the disposal of the dead in ways other than burial. Hindus Parsis Micronesi a . How was pilgrimage a part of the development of pagodas? 10. Formal worship in a pagoda is not typical. How are Hindu temples different than both churches and mosques? 7. 8.6.

16. Utah Puritans Administration of Space 14. Define hierarchical religion: 15. In the absence of a hierarchy. what is the only formal organization of territory in Islam? 19. . What holds Islam together? 20. Describe an autonomous religion: 18.13. Why are parishes in Latin America so much larger than in Europe? 17. Complete the chart below to categorize other religions and denominations. Utopian Settlements Salt Lake City. List the Roman Catholic hierarchy. Complete the chart below with brief notes on the religious settlements indicated. indicating geographic region and leader who heads it.

In what ways did the Taliban government of Afghanistan raise conflicts with Western/modern ideas after it took control of the country in 1996? 2. What western groups criticized this aspect? Why? 4. How has the Indian government responded to this issue? 5. What aspect of Hinduism has clashed with Western/modern ideas? 3. how did each of the following attempt to limit the influence of religion. 195 – 203 Religion Versus Government Policies 1. In Russia/Soviet Union. specifically the Eastern Orthodox Church? Czar Peter the Great: Communism: .Autonomous Religions Hierarchical Religions Chapter 6 Learning Guide – Religion Key Issue 4 – Why Do Territorial Conflicts Arise Among Religious Groups? Pgs.

6. Define fundamentalism: 10. Kyrgyzstan. Czech Republic. How was the Vietnam War detrimental to Buddhism in Southeast Asia? 8. Fundamentalism is increasing in the world today and its growth contributes to conflicts. Lithuania. Hungary. Historic Catholic Regions Croatia. … Currently… Historic Muslim Regions Kazakhstan. What happened. Why is it increasing? 11. and is continuing to happen. What are two religious groups in conflict in Ireland? . in each of the following regions of the Russian Empire/Soviet Union since the fall of Communism in the 1990s? Complete the chart below by adding THREE more countries to each category and then describing what is going on at the present time in that region. … Currently… 7. How were Communist regimes detrimental to Buddhism in Southeast Asia? Religion Versus Religion 9.

12. Where are the majority of these groups located? 13. What was the military campaign by the Christians to recapture their Holy Land from the Muslims? 15. Palestinian Perspective Israeli Perspective . Complete the chart below regarding the perspective on the Holy Land. What 3 religions are in constant conflict over the land in the Middle East? 14.

Complete the chart with names of smaller branches of Christianity and their location of concentration. Give the percentage of each of Islam’s 2 greatest branches: Sunni & Shiite (Shia). 168 . Baptist. The other half live in 4 countries outside the Middle East. northeastern Turkey & western Azerbaijan Lebanon Utah & surrounding states 8. Half of the world’s Muslims live in the Middle East. What percentage of Latin Americans are Roman Catholic? 93% 6.178 1. how many separate churches are there. 2. not just those living in a particular location. Name them. Africa Lebanon. Armenia. Define universalizing religion: Religion that attempts to appeal to all people. Africa N.Chapter 6 Learning Guide – Religion Key Issue 1 – Where Are Religions Distributed? Pgs. Methodist. Bangladesh & India 9.E. Pentecostal. Eastern Orthodox 11%. Give the percentage of the world’s Christian population belonging to each of Christianity’s 3 major branches.E. Sunni 83% . Branch of Christianity Coptic Church of Egypt Ethiopian Church Armenian Church Maronites Church of Jesus Christ of LatterDay Saints Region of Predominance N. Lutheran & Presbyterian 7. Universalizing Religions 3. Protestant 24% 4. Pakistan. Indonesia. Protestants comprise 28% of North Americans. Russian Orthodox 5. List the 5 largest denominations. Roman Catholic – 51%. Define ethnic religion: Religion that appeals primarily to one group of people living in one place. Regarding Eastern Orthodox churches. and which has the largest membership? 14 self-governing churches.

All living beings must endure suffering. Nirvana is achieved through Eightfold Path 12. Why are Buddhists difficult to count? Only a few people participate in Buddhist institutions. Shintoism: Ethnic religion of Japan. teaches ethical principles of following tradition. 4. Thailand & Sri Lanka Tibet & Mongolia 13. Japan & Korea Cambodia. Oman & Bahrain 11.Shiite 16% 10. Myanmar. 17. Only in 5 countries do Shiite Muslims number more than Sunni. Where are most of the rest? Nepal Make a note or two (that seem of geographic interest) about each of the following ethnic religion listed in #’s 16 – 20. 2. 16. Branch Mahayana Theraveda % of Global Buddhist Population 56% 38% Tantrayana 6% Regions of Predominance China. Iraq. Daoism: Begun by Lao-Zi & emphasizes mystical & magical aspects of life not importance of public service 18. Summarize them. What are they? Iran. Where are Hindus concentrated? What percent of all Hindus live there? 97% of all Hindus live in India 15. Goal is to reach Nirvana through moral & mental self-purification. fulfilling obligations & treating others with sympathy & respect. Confucianism: Ethnic religion begun by Confucius in Chinese province of Lu. 3. Complete this chart dividing Buddhism into its 3 main branches. Suffering leads to reincarnation. Laos. not a formal religious system Ethnic Religions 14. 1. Azerbaijan. Buddhism is built around “Four Noble Truths” as taught by the Buddha. was official state religion until end of .

Animism: Belief that inanimate objects. political cult & religion.WWII. 2 main universalizing religions find their roots in Judaism (Islam & Christianity).S. began in Canaan. 1st religion to support monotheism 20. & Israel. practiced by 100 million Africans but is declining due to universalizing religions . deceased became important deities 19. most in U. Judaism: 14 million Jews worldwide. plants & stones or natural events like earthquakes have spirits & conscious life.

When did it originate? 6th century B.C.Chapter 6 Learning Guide – Religion Key Issue 2 – Why Do Religions Have Different Distributions? Pgs. compassion & helping others Protestantism Salvation achieved thru direct communication with God & faith Regarding Hinduism 2. What 2 ancient peoples beliefs blended to form Hinduism? Aryans & Dravidians . Complete the chart below describing the origins and branches of the major universalizing religions. How was its origin different than universalizing religions? Didn’t originate with s a specific founder 3. 4. 178 – 191 Origin of Religions 1. Year of Origin Founder Christianity 4 BC – 30 AD Jesus Major Branches & Catholicism Main Belief of God conveys his Each Branch grace to humanity via 7 sacraments Orthodox Accepts 7 sacraments but rejects Pope & doctrines Islam 6th Century Muhammad Sunni Quran Shiite Quran **Disagreement over line of succession of Islamic leadership is major difference Buddhism 5th Century BC Siddhartha Gautama Theravada To become good Buddhist one must renounce worldly goods & become a monk Mahayana Emphasize teaching. Where did it originate? India 5.

Give 2 reasons for the expansion of Buddhism. 3. Persia & India. Namibia & other African countries Japan Island of Mauritius Regarding Judaism 10. 2. or religious practices. forced to live segregated 13. Contagious diffusion by daily contact between believers & nonbelievers.Diffusion of Religions 6. 1. 2. Arab traders in Indonesia 8. Merchant traders to China 9. Missionaries in Ceylon.E. Conquering land in Palestine. have blended. Religions Which Have Blended Christianity & African religions Buddhism & Shintoism Hinduism. Provide 3 examples of cases in which religions. 3. not just place of origin 11. What is the origin of the term ghetto? Neighborhood set up by law where Jews were required to live Holy Places . 2. Asia. 1. How were most Jews treated as they lived among other nationalities? Many Jews were persecuted. What was the diaspora? When Romans forced Jews out of the Mediterranean 12. Islam & Christianity Location Equatorial Guinea. Give 3 explanations for the diffusion of Christianity. 1. Give 3 ways in which Islam spread. Relocation diffusion by missionaries from Palestine. Hierarchical diffusion thru acceptance by the emperor 7. How is its distribution very different from other ethnic religions? It’s practiced in many countries. Relocation diffusion by missionaries in Sub-Saharan Africa & S.

Tirtha (pilgrimage) are acts of purification. What is a pilgrimage? Journey for religious purposes to a place considered sacred 15. Mt. Most located in northeastern India & southern Nepal. Median tomb of Muhammad. Every Muslim is expected to make hajj to Mecca Places of importance are rivers & coastlines. Read the section Holy Places and make notes on 3 case studies: Buddhism. Kailas important (Siva lives there) Buddhist Islamic Hindu The Calendar 16. Islam & Hinduism. What is the most prominent feature of the calendar in an ethnic religion? Celebration of seasons – cycle of variation in climatic conditions for successful agriculture What is the principle purpose of the calendar in a universalizing religion? Commemorates events in founder’s life 17. Ka’ba is religious shrine in center of Mecca housing black stone given to Muhammad by Gabriel. Lumbini is most important (Buddha’s birthplace) Makkah (Mecca) birth place of Muhammad. Holy Sites Important because they’re located where 8 particular events happened in Buddha’s life. 18. What is the solstice? Astronomical event that happens in June & December resulting .14. Hindus believe Ganges River is for purification. How is the Jewish calendar typical of the ethnic use of the calendar? Holidays are based on agricultural events as well. Shrines are established by tradition. not doctrine. Complete the chart below regarding religious calendars.

in the longest & shortest days of the year. yet in a different way and with very different results. Both the Jewish and the Muslims use a lunar calendar. How is the date of Easter related to physical geography (the natural world) through the calendar? Relates to agricultural cycle as a joyous time of harvest in southern Europe. How is this similar to Buddhism’s major holidays? Different Buddhists observe & celebrate events on different calendar days as well . 19. Why do different Christian branches celebrate Easter on different days? Protestants & Catholics use Gregorian calendar while Orthodox use Julian calendar 22. 20. time of anxiety over planting new crops in northern Europe & N. Islam – adheres to strict lunar calendar so holidays arrive at different seasons from generation to generation. Explain. Jews – calendar inserts extra month every few years so holidays fall at the same time. America 21.

the physical structure. 191 – 195 1. Cloister for school/activities. Complete the following chart to express unique visible features of Christian churches. Identify 4 specific. For what 2 reasons does a church. structure for the caretaker. Latin America Unique Design/Typical Feature Highly ornate topped with dome Simple with little ornamentation Built with wood Built with brick Adobe Stucco & stone 4. In what 2 ways do religious structures often stand out in a landscape? Usually tallest & most elaborate building Places of Worship 2.Chapter 6 Learning Guide – Religion Key Issue 3 – Why Do Religions Organize Space in Distinctive Patterns? Pgs. How are Hindu temples different than both churches and mosques? Built to house shrines for gods rather than for worship 7.S. pulpit facing Mecca. not sanctified 5. pool for ritual baths 8. List 3 typical visible features of a Hindu temple. Christian Branch or Region Orthodox Christianity Protestant (esp. How is a Muslim mosque viewed differently than a Christian church? Viewed as a location for the community to gather. N. How was pilgrimage a part of the development of pagodas? People traveled to other countries to build pagodas to house . play a more critical role than in other religions? It’s an expression of religious principles & created in the image of God 3. Southeast U. America) Northeast U. minaret tower to call people to worship 6. Southwest U.S. Central courtyard. visible features of a typical mosque.S. What is the religious purpose of a Buddhist pagoda? House Buddha’s relics (portions of Buddha’s body or clothing) 9. Symbolic artifact (image of the god).

relics 10. monastery or at home Sacred Space 11. Complete the chart below with brief notes on the disposal of the dead in ways other than burial. Complete the flow chart below to indicate the history of this practice. Formal worship in a pagoda is not typical. Utopian Settlements Salt Lake City. Utah Puritans Ideal community built around a religious way of life Established by Mormons with church related buildings at strategic points New England settlers that placed church in center of the settlement next to public open space called a common Administration of Space 14. Where does it usually take place? At adjacent temple. Define hierarchical religion: Has well defined geographic structure & organizes territory . Hindus Parsis Micronesi a Use of cremation Exposure of dead to scavenging birds & animals Disposal of body at sea 13. Catacombs – in ancient Rome when Christianity was illegal  Church Yards – when Christianity became legal  Cemeteries – operated by public management beginning in 19th century 12. Christian practice burial of the dead. Complete the chart below with brief notes on the religious settlements indicated.

Priest heads a parish  Bishop heads a diocese that have parishes  Archbishop heads a province with several diocese  Pope head of Roman Catholic Church in Rome 16. indicating geographic region and leader who heads it.into local administrative units. 15. Describe an autonomous religion: Religion without central authority but shares ideas & cooperates informally 18. In the absence of a hierarchy. Autonomous Religions Baptist United Church of Christ Judaism Hinduism Hierarchical Religions Roman Catholic Episcopalian Lutheran Methodist . what is the only formal organization of territory in Islam? Religious territory with secular states 19. Complete the chart below to categorize other religions and denominations. What holds Islam together? Islamic doctrine 20. List the Roman Catholic hierarchy. Why are parishes in Latin America so much larger than in Europe? Lower population density in Latin America than in Europe 17.

specifically the Eastern Orthodox Church? Czar Peter the Great: Incorporated the church into the government & replaced the church leader with a nominated committee appointed by the czar Communism: Pursued antireligious programs. Turkmenistan. What happened. Czech Republic. 1918 church-state connection was eliminated 6. Kyrgyzstan. Lithuania. in each of the following regions of the Russian Empire/Soviet Union since the fall of Communism in the 1990s? Complete the chart below by adding THREE more countries to each category and then describing what is going on at the present time in that region. In Russia/Soviet Union. Slovenia Currently…Confiscated property Historic Muslim Regions Kazakhstan. Slovakia. Uzbekistan Currently…Most people are . how did each of the following attempt to limit the influence of religion. …Poland. Marxism became official doctrine. What western groups criticized this aspect? Why? British administrators & Christian missionaries because caste system contributed to health & economic neglect for untouchable caste 4. How has the Indian government responded to this issue? Legally abolished untouchable caste & these people now have equal rights 5. What aspect of Hinduism has clashed with Western/modern ideas? Caste System 3. 195 – 203 Religion Versus Government Policies 1. Hungary. and is continuing to happen. … Tajikistan. Historic Catholic Regions Croatia. In what ways did the Taliban government of Afghanistan raise conflicts with Western/modern ideas after it took control of the country in 1996? Imposed strict laws & punished people for participating in Western values 2.Chapter 6 Learning Guide – Religion Key Issue 4 – Why Do Territorial Conflicts Arise Among Religious Groups? Pgs.

What 3 religions are in constant conflict over the land in the Middle East? Judaism. Why is it increasing? Because a group wants to maintain a distinctive cultural identity in a global culture & economy 11. Fundamentalism is increasing in the world today and its growth contributes to conflicts.Sees themselves as a small country with Jewish majority surrounded by hostile Muslims . What was the military campaign by the Christians to recapture their Holy Land from the Muslims? Crusades 15.Sees themselves as legitimate rules of Israel . Islam & Christianity 14. Buddhists immolated themselves to protest government 8. Palestinian Perspective . What are two religious groups in conflict in Ireland? Catholics & Protestants 12. How was the Vietnam War detrimental to Buddhism in Southeast Asia? Air raids destroyed Buddhist shrines.PLO created under Yassir Arafat t fights Israelis Israeli Perspective . Define fundamentalism: Literal interpretation & strict adherence to basic principles of a religion 10. How were Communist regimes detrimental to Buddhism in Southeast Asia? Discouraged religious activities & have allowed monuments to decay Religion Versus Religion 9. Where are the majority of these groups located? Protestants in northern Ireland & Catholics in Republic of Ireland 13.by Communist gov’t reverting back to church ownership & church attendance has increased Muslims & struggling to determine what laws should conform to Islamic custom 7. Complete the chart below regarding the perspective on the Holy Land.Israel maintains military control .

Hamas Party doesn’t recognize Israel’s right to exist .Some Palestinians (Fatah Party) are willing to recognize Israel’s Jewish majority in exchange for territory taken in 1967 .No intention of giving up claim to Jerusalem .Majority of Israelis support construction of a barrier to deter Palestinian attacks ..No intention of giving up claim to Jerusalem over Golan Heights & West Bank .