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Chapter 6 Learning Guide – Religion

Key Issue 1 – Where Are Religions Distributed?
Pgs. 168 - 178
1.

Define universalizing religion:

2.

Define ethnic religion:

Universalizing Religions
3.

Give the percentage of the world’s Christian population belonging to
each of Christianity’s 3 major branches.

4.

Regarding Eastern Orthodox churches, how many separate churches
are there, and which has the largest membership?

5.

What percentage of Latin Americans are Roman Catholic?

6.

Protestants comprise 28% of North Americans. List the 5 largest
denominations.

7.

Complete the chart with names of smaller branches of Christianity
and their location of concentration.
Branch of Christianity
Region of Predominance

8.
9.

Half of the world’s Muslims live in the Middle East. The other half
live in 4 countries outside the Middle East. Name them.
Give the percentage of each of Islam’s 2 greatest branches: Sunni
& Shiite (Shia).

10.

Only in 5 countries do Shiite Muslims number more than Sunni.
What are they?

11.

Buddhism is built around “Four Noble Truths” as taught by the
Buddha. Summarize them.

12. Complete this chart dividing Buddhism into its 3 main branches.
Branch
% of Global
Regions of Predominance
Buddhist
Population

13.

Why are Buddhists difficult to count?

Ethnic Religions
14.

Where are Hindus concentrated? What percent of all Hindus live
there?

15.

Where are most of the rest?

Make a note or two (that seem of geographic interest) about each of the
following ethnic religion listed in #’s 16 – 20.
16.

Confucianism:

Shintoism: 19. Daoism: 18.17. Judaism: 20. Animism: .

Christianity Islam Buddhism Year of Origin Founder Major Branches & Main Belief of Each Branch Regarding Hinduism 2. 178 – 191 Origin of Religions 1. How was its origin different than universalizing religions? 3. Complete the chart below describing the origins and branches of the major universalizing religions.Chapter 6 Learning Guide – Religion Key Issue 2 – Why Do Religions Have Different Distributions? Pgs. When did it originate? .

Give 3 ways in which Islam spread. Give 2 reasons for the expansion of Buddhism. 9. Provide 3 examples of cases in which religions. What 2 ancient peoples beliefs blended to form Hinduism? Diffusion of Religions 6.4. 8. 7. Give 3 explanations for the diffusion of Christianity. or religious practices. Religions Which Have Blended Location Regarding Judaism 10. have blended. How is its distribution very different from other ethnic religions? 11. Where did it originate? 5. What was the diaspora? .

Holy Sites Buddhist Islamic Hindu The Calendar 16. What is a pilgrimage? 15. Islam & Hinduism. What is the most prominent feature of the calendar in an ethnic religion? What is the principle purpose of the calendar in a universalizing religion? . Complete the chart below regarding religious calendars. Read the section Holy Places and make notes on 3 case studies: Buddhism.12. How were most Jews treated as they lived among other nationalities? 13. What is the origin of the term ghetto? Holy Places 14.

Explain. What is the solstice? 19. Both the Jewish and the Muslims use a lunar calendar.17. How is this similar to Buddhism’s major holidays? . Why do different Christian branches celebrate Easter on different days? 22. yet in a different way and with very different results. 20. How is the date of Easter related to physical geography (the natural world) through the calendar? 21. How is the Jewish calendar typical of the ethnic use of the calendar? 18.

visible features of a typical mosque.S.S. For what 2 reasons does a church. play a more critical role than in other religions? 3. In what 2 ways do religious structures often stand out in a landscape? Places of Worship 2. Latin America 4. Complete the following chart to express unique visible features of Christian churches. How is a Muslim mosque viewed differently than a Christian church? 5. Southwest U. the physical structure. Identify 4 specific.Chapter 6 Learning Guide – Religion Key Issue 3 – Why Do Religions Organize Space in Distinctive Patterns? Pgs. Christian Branch or Region Unique Design/Typical Feature Orthodox Christianity Protestant (esp. N.S. Southeast U. 191 – 195 1. . America) Northeast U.

List 3 typical visible features of a Hindu temple. Hindus Parsis Micronesi a . How was pilgrimage a part of the development of pagodas? 10. Complete the flow chart below to indicate the history of this practice. 8. Where does it usually take place? Sacred Space 11.6. What is the religious purpose of a Buddhist pagoda? 9. Complete the chart below with brief notes on the disposal of the dead in ways other than burial. Christian practice burial of the dead.   12. How are Hindu temples different than both churches and mosques? 7. Formal worship in a pagoda is not typical.

16.13. In the absence of a hierarchy. Utah Puritans Administration of Space 14. . Complete the chart below with brief notes on the religious settlements indicated. Why are parishes in Latin America so much larger than in Europe? 17. Describe an autonomous religion: 18. what is the only formal organization of territory in Islam? 19. List the Roman Catholic hierarchy. Utopian Settlements Salt Lake City. Define hierarchical religion: 15. What holds Islam together? 20. indicating geographic region and leader who heads it. Complete the chart below to categorize other religions and denominations.

In Russia/Soviet Union.Autonomous Religions Hierarchical Religions Chapter 6 Learning Guide – Religion Key Issue 4 – Why Do Territorial Conflicts Arise Among Religious Groups? Pgs. how did each of the following attempt to limit the influence of religion. How has the Indian government responded to this issue? 5. In what ways did the Taliban government of Afghanistan raise conflicts with Western/modern ideas after it took control of the country in 1996? 2. 195 – 203 Religion Versus Government Policies 1. What western groups criticized this aspect? Why? 4. What aspect of Hinduism has clashed with Western/modern ideas? 3. specifically the Eastern Orthodox Church? Czar Peter the Great: Communism: .

… Currently… Historic Muslim Regions Kazakhstan. Czech Republic. Historic Catholic Regions Croatia. What are two religious groups in conflict in Ireland? .6. Define fundamentalism: 10. Lithuania. How were Communist regimes detrimental to Buddhism in Southeast Asia? Religion Versus Religion 9. and is continuing to happen. Hungary. in each of the following regions of the Russian Empire/Soviet Union since the fall of Communism in the 1990s? Complete the chart below by adding THREE more countries to each category and then describing what is going on at the present time in that region. Fundamentalism is increasing in the world today and its growth contributes to conflicts. Why is it increasing? 11. Kyrgyzstan. How was the Vietnam War detrimental to Buddhism in Southeast Asia? 8. … Currently… 7. What happened.

What 3 religions are in constant conflict over the land in the Middle East? 14. Complete the chart below regarding the perspective on the Holy Land. Where are the majority of these groups located? 13.12. Palestinian Perspective Israeli Perspective . What was the military campaign by the Christians to recapture their Holy Land from the Muslims? 15.

Protestant 24% 4. The other half live in 4 countries outside the Middle East. Pakistan. Methodist. Africa N. Give the percentage of each of Islam’s 2 greatest branches: Sunni & Shiite (Shia).178 1.E. Bangladesh & India 9. Baptist. northeastern Turkey & western Azerbaijan Lebanon Utah & surrounding states 8. Universalizing Religions 3. not just those living in a particular location. Give the percentage of the world’s Christian population belonging to each of Christianity’s 3 major branches. Russian Orthodox 5. List the 5 largest denominations. Half of the world’s Muslims live in the Middle East. Pentecostal. Eastern Orthodox 11%. Sunni 83% . Indonesia. Regarding Eastern Orthodox churches. Name them.Chapter 6 Learning Guide – Religion Key Issue 1 – Where Are Religions Distributed? Pgs. and which has the largest membership? 14 self-governing churches. Lutheran & Presbyterian 7. Complete the chart with names of smaller branches of Christianity and their location of concentration. Roman Catholic – 51%. Protestants comprise 28% of North Americans.E. Branch of Christianity Coptic Church of Egypt Ethiopian Church Armenian Church Maronites Church of Jesus Christ of LatterDay Saints Region of Predominance N. Africa Lebanon. 2. 168 . What percentage of Latin Americans are Roman Catholic? 93% 6. Define ethnic religion: Religion that appeals primarily to one group of people living in one place. Define universalizing religion: Religion that attempts to appeal to all people. Armenia. how many separate churches are there.

Confucianism: Ethnic religion begun by Confucius in Chinese province of Lu. Japan & Korea Cambodia. Laos. 16. Goal is to reach Nirvana through moral & mental self-purification. 17. Shintoism: Ethnic religion of Japan. Daoism: Begun by Lao-Zi & emphasizes mystical & magical aspects of life not importance of public service 18. Oman & Bahrain 11. What are they? Iran. Branch Mahayana Theraveda % of Global Buddhist Population 56% 38% Tantrayana 6% Regions of Predominance China. 3. Iraq.Shiite 16% 10. Nirvana is achieved through Eightfold Path 12. fulfilling obligations & treating others with sympathy & respect. Azerbaijan. was official state religion until end of . not a formal religious system Ethnic Religions 14. Summarize them. Thailand & Sri Lanka Tibet & Mongolia 13. Why are Buddhists difficult to count? Only a few people participate in Buddhist institutions. Buddhism is built around “Four Noble Truths” as taught by the Buddha. teaches ethical principles of following tradition. Only in 5 countries do Shiite Muslims number more than Sunni. Where are Hindus concentrated? What percent of all Hindus live there? 97% of all Hindus live in India 15. Where are most of the rest? Nepal Make a note or two (that seem of geographic interest) about each of the following ethnic religion listed in #’s 16 – 20. Complete this chart dividing Buddhism into its 3 main branches. All living beings must endure suffering. Myanmar. 2. 4. Suffering leads to reincarnation. 1.

plants & stones or natural events like earthquakes have spirits & conscious life. began in Canaan. deceased became important deities 19. practiced by 100 million Africans but is declining due to universalizing religions . political cult & religion. most in U. Animism: Belief that inanimate objects.S. 2 main universalizing religions find their roots in Judaism (Islam & Christianity). Judaism: 14 million Jews worldwide. 1st religion to support monotheism 20.WWII. & Israel.

What 2 ancient peoples beliefs blended to form Hinduism? Aryans & Dravidians . 4. compassion & helping others Protestantism Salvation achieved thru direct communication with God & faith Regarding Hinduism 2. Where did it originate? India 5. Year of Origin Founder Christianity 4 BC – 30 AD Jesus Major Branches & Catholicism Main Belief of God conveys his Each Branch grace to humanity via 7 sacraments Orthodox Accepts 7 sacraments but rejects Pope & doctrines Islam 6th Century Muhammad Sunni Quran Shiite Quran **Disagreement over line of succession of Islamic leadership is major difference Buddhism 5th Century BC Siddhartha Gautama Theravada To become good Buddhist one must renounce worldly goods & become a monk Mahayana Emphasize teaching. How was its origin different than universalizing religions? Didn’t originate with s a specific founder 3.Chapter 6 Learning Guide – Religion Key Issue 2 – Why Do Religions Have Different Distributions? Pgs. When did it originate? 6th century B. Complete the chart below describing the origins and branches of the major universalizing religions.C. 178 – 191 Origin of Religions 1.

2. not just place of origin 11. 2. Relocation diffusion by missionaries in Sub-Saharan Africa & S. How were most Jews treated as they lived among other nationalities? Many Jews were persecuted. Arab traders in Indonesia 8. Give 2 reasons for the expansion of Buddhism.Diffusion of Religions 6. Persia & India. have blended. Conquering land in Palestine. forced to live segregated 13. Give 3 ways in which Islam spread. or religious practices. Provide 3 examples of cases in which religions. How is its distribution very different from other ethnic religions? It’s practiced in many countries. What was the diaspora? When Romans forced Jews out of the Mediterranean 12. 3. Islam & Christianity Location Equatorial Guinea. 1. Contagious diffusion by daily contact between believers & nonbelievers. What is the origin of the term ghetto? Neighborhood set up by law where Jews were required to live Holy Places . 1. Namibia & other African countries Japan Island of Mauritius Regarding Judaism 10. 3.E. Asia. Merchant traders to China 9. Give 3 explanations for the diffusion of Christianity. Religions Which Have Blended Christianity & African religions Buddhism & Shintoism Hinduism. 1. Relocation diffusion by missionaries from Palestine. Missionaries in Ceylon. Hierarchical diffusion thru acceptance by the emperor 7. 2.

18. What is the solstice? Astronomical event that happens in June & December resulting .14. Read the section Holy Places and make notes on 3 case studies: Buddhism. Mt. Tirtha (pilgrimage) are acts of purification. Hindus believe Ganges River is for purification. Ka’ba is religious shrine in center of Mecca housing black stone given to Muhammad by Gabriel. What is a pilgrimage? Journey for religious purposes to a place considered sacred 15. Most located in northeastern India & southern Nepal. Kailas important (Siva lives there) Buddhist Islamic Hindu The Calendar 16. Median tomb of Muhammad. Complete the chart below regarding religious calendars. How is the Jewish calendar typical of the ethnic use of the calendar? Holidays are based on agricultural events as well. What is the most prominent feature of the calendar in an ethnic religion? Celebration of seasons – cycle of variation in climatic conditions for successful agriculture What is the principle purpose of the calendar in a universalizing religion? Commemorates events in founder’s life 17. Holy Sites Important because they’re located where 8 particular events happened in Buddha’s life. Lumbini is most important (Buddha’s birthplace) Makkah (Mecca) birth place of Muhammad. not doctrine. Shrines are established by tradition. Every Muslim is expected to make hajj to Mecca Places of importance are rivers & coastlines. Islam & Hinduism.

Jews – calendar inserts extra month every few years so holidays fall at the same time. America 21. How is the date of Easter related to physical geography (the natural world) through the calendar? Relates to agricultural cycle as a joyous time of harvest in southern Europe. 20. yet in a different way and with very different results. How is this similar to Buddhism’s major holidays? Different Buddhists observe & celebrate events on different calendar days as well . Islam – adheres to strict lunar calendar so holidays arrive at different seasons from generation to generation. 19. time of anxiety over planting new crops in northern Europe & N. Why do different Christian branches celebrate Easter on different days? Protestants & Catholics use Gregorian calendar while Orthodox use Julian calendar 22.in the longest & shortest days of the year. Explain. Both the Jewish and the Muslims use a lunar calendar.

visible features of a typical mosque. pool for ritual baths 8. 191 – 195 1.S. Latin America Unique Design/Typical Feature Highly ornate topped with dome Simple with little ornamentation Built with wood Built with brick Adobe Stucco & stone 4. What is the religious purpose of a Buddhist pagoda? House Buddha’s relics (portions of Buddha’s body or clothing) 9. minaret tower to call people to worship 6. Complete the following chart to express unique visible features of Christian churches. America) Northeast U. Central courtyard. pulpit facing Mecca. Southwest U. How is a Muslim mosque viewed differently than a Christian church? Viewed as a location for the community to gather. N.Chapter 6 Learning Guide – Religion Key Issue 3 – Why Do Religions Organize Space in Distinctive Patterns? Pgs. the physical structure. Symbolic artifact (image of the god). Cloister for school/activities. In what 2 ways do religious structures often stand out in a landscape? Usually tallest & most elaborate building Places of Worship 2. For what 2 reasons does a church.S.S. How was pilgrimage a part of the development of pagodas? People traveled to other countries to build pagodas to house . Southeast U. play a more critical role than in other religions? It’s an expression of religious principles & created in the image of God 3. How are Hindu temples different than both churches and mosques? Built to house shrines for gods rather than for worship 7. List 3 typical visible features of a Hindu temple. Identify 4 specific. structure for the caretaker. not sanctified 5. Christian Branch or Region Orthodox Christianity Protestant (esp.

Utopian Settlements Salt Lake City. Utah Puritans Ideal community built around a religious way of life Established by Mormons with church related buildings at strategic points New England settlers that placed church in center of the settlement next to public open space called a common Administration of Space 14. Formal worship in a pagoda is not typical. Complete the chart below with brief notes on the religious settlements indicated. Christian practice burial of the dead. Hindus Parsis Micronesi a Use of cremation Exposure of dead to scavenging birds & animals Disposal of body at sea 13. Catacombs – in ancient Rome when Christianity was illegal  Church Yards – when Christianity became legal  Cemeteries – operated by public management beginning in 19th century 12. Complete the chart below with brief notes on the disposal of the dead in ways other than burial. monastery or at home Sacred Space 11. Define hierarchical religion: Has well defined geographic structure & organizes territory .relics 10. Where does it usually take place? At adjacent temple. Complete the flow chart below to indicate the history of this practice.

Complete the chart below to categorize other religions and denominations. what is the only formal organization of territory in Islam? Religious territory with secular states 19. What holds Islam together? Islamic doctrine 20. Autonomous Religions Baptist United Church of Christ Judaism Hinduism Hierarchical Religions Roman Catholic Episcopalian Lutheran Methodist . Priest heads a parish  Bishop heads a diocese that have parishes  Archbishop heads a province with several diocese  Pope head of Roman Catholic Church in Rome 16. List the Roman Catholic hierarchy. Describe an autonomous religion: Religion without central authority but shares ideas & cooperates informally 18. 15. In the absence of a hierarchy. Why are parishes in Latin America so much larger than in Europe? Lower population density in Latin America than in Europe 17. indicating geographic region and leader who heads it.into local administrative units.

Hungary. Lithuania. Slovenia Currently…Confiscated property Historic Muslim Regions Kazakhstan. …Poland. Czech Republic. how did each of the following attempt to limit the influence of religion. and is continuing to happen. specifically the Eastern Orthodox Church? Czar Peter the Great: Incorporated the church into the government & replaced the church leader with a nominated committee appointed by the czar Communism: Pursued antireligious programs. … Tajikistan. in each of the following regions of the Russian Empire/Soviet Union since the fall of Communism in the 1990s? Complete the chart below by adding THREE more countries to each category and then describing what is going on at the present time in that region. 1918 church-state connection was eliminated 6. Uzbekistan Currently…Most people are .Chapter 6 Learning Guide – Religion Key Issue 4 – Why Do Territorial Conflicts Arise Among Religious Groups? Pgs. What happened. Slovakia. How has the Indian government responded to this issue? Legally abolished untouchable caste & these people now have equal rights 5. Turkmenistan. What aspect of Hinduism has clashed with Western/modern ideas? Caste System 3. Kyrgyzstan. What western groups criticized this aspect? Why? British administrators & Christian missionaries because caste system contributed to health & economic neglect for untouchable caste 4. 195 – 203 Religion Versus Government Policies 1. In Russia/Soviet Union. In what ways did the Taliban government of Afghanistan raise conflicts with Western/modern ideas after it took control of the country in 1996? Imposed strict laws & punished people for participating in Western values 2. Marxism became official doctrine. Historic Catholic Regions Croatia.

PLO created under Yassir Arafat t fights Israelis Israeli Perspective .Sees themselves as legitimate rules of Israel . Fundamentalism is increasing in the world today and its growth contributes to conflicts.Sees themselves as a small country with Jewish majority surrounded by hostile Muslims . What was the military campaign by the Christians to recapture their Holy Land from the Muslims? Crusades 15. Complete the chart below regarding the perspective on the Holy Land. Buddhists immolated themselves to protest government 8. Where are the majority of these groups located? Protestants in northern Ireland & Catholics in Republic of Ireland 13. Define fundamentalism: Literal interpretation & strict adherence to basic principles of a religion 10. How was the Vietnam War detrimental to Buddhism in Southeast Asia? Air raids destroyed Buddhist shrines. How were Communist regimes detrimental to Buddhism in Southeast Asia? Discouraged religious activities & have allowed monuments to decay Religion Versus Religion 9. What 3 religions are in constant conflict over the land in the Middle East? Judaism. Islam & Christianity 14. Palestinian Perspective . Why is it increasing? Because a group wants to maintain a distinctive cultural identity in a global culture & economy 11.Israel maintains military control . What are two religious groups in conflict in Ireland? Catholics & Protestants 12.by Communist gov’t reverting back to church ownership & church attendance has increased Muslims & struggling to determine what laws should conform to Islamic custom 7.

Hamas Party doesn’t recognize Israel’s right to exist ..Some Palestinians (Fatah Party) are willing to recognize Israel’s Jewish majority in exchange for territory taken in 1967 .No intention of giving up claim to Jerusalem over Golan Heights & West Bank .No intention of giving up claim to Jerusalem .Majority of Israelis support construction of a barrier to deter Palestinian attacks .