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University of Southern California

Department of Electrical Engineering

University Park; Mail Code: 0271

Los Angeles, California 90089-0271

(213) 740-4692 [USC]

(626) 915-0944 [Fax]

(818) 384-1552 [Cell]

johnc@almaak.usc.edu

Submitted: 10 December 2001; Revised: 13 May 2002

Gyrator-Based Inductance

1.0. INTRODUCTION

The unavailability of inductors characterized by high quality factors, or high Q, is a

shortcoming of monolithic fabrication processes. This shortfall is limiting when circuit design

objectives entail the realization of narrowband radio frequency (RF) amplifiers, high selectivity

bandpass and notch filters, and other circuits for a variety of communication and information

processing applications. Planar spirals of metalization are used commonly, of course, to synthesize on chip inductors with inductance values in the few tens of nanohenries[1]. These

structures, which consume large surface areas, are difficult to parameterize reliably because

their inductance and quality factor values are mathematically intricate functions of geometry

and the electrical dynamics of distributed parasitic energy storage elements implicit to their

underlying bulk silicon[2]-[4]. Moreover, they rarely produce inductors having quality factors

larger than four to seven at signal frequencies of at least the high hundreds of megahertz. To be

sure, anemic inductive Q can be offset by incorporating Qenhancing negative resistance compensating circuitry[5]-[6]. Unfortunately, such compensation increases power dissipation,

degrades circuit noise figure, and limits dynamic range. Moreover, the sensitivity of Q

enhancing subcircuits to parasitic energy storage elements, as well as their outright potential

instability, mandates the incorporation of automatic on chip tuning schemes. In addition to

requiring further increases in standby power, these tuning subcircuits almost unavoidably

degrade circuit frequency response[7].

An alternative to the passive on chip inductor with or without Qenhancing compensation is the active inductor. Although plagued by higher noise and higher power consumption than are counterpart uncompensated passive realizations, active inductors are theoretically

capable of producing relatively high quality factors. Various analog architectures are available

to emulate the electrical characteristics of inductors. These include linear feedback methods[8],

the application of nonminimum phase networks[9] and design approaches predicated on the

gyrator[10]-[11]. The gyrator approach to active inductance synthesis is the most popular of

available techniques[12]. This popularity derives from the fact that gyrators can be configured

straightforwardly with operational transconductors, whose attainable broadband input/output

transfer characteristics have improved in direct proportion to the rapid maturation of deep submicron CMOS device technology[13]. Moreover, gyrators realized with operational transconductors feature transconductances than can be adjusted with applied bias, thereby allowing for

inductors whose values can be adjusted, or tuned, electronically.

The gyrator approach to inductance emulation, like other active synthesis methods, suffers from potentially serious noise, power dissipation, and dynamic range problems. A lesserknown detriment is potential instability in the sense of a propensity to produce underdamped

responses within the network passband. This latter problem, which causes the simulated

inductance characteristics to depart radically from those indigenous to ideal passive inductors,

is examined herewith. The principle cause of underdamping is analytically deduced, and the

propriety of proposed compensation techniques is verified.

An ideal gyrator is a linear two port network that neither stores nor dissipates

energy . Given input and output voltages, V1 and V2, respectively, and corresponding input

[14]

Gyrator-Based Inductance

and output currents, I1 and I2, the positive senses of which are delineated in Fig. (1a), the terminal volt-ampere characteristics of an ideal gyrator are given by[15]

I1

0

I

g

2

g V1

,

0 V2

(1)

I1

V1

I2

I1

V2

Gyrator:

Gyration

Ratio = g

I2

V1

gV2

gV1 V2

(a).

(b).

Equivalent Circuit Of The Gyrator In (a).

where g is a designable transconductance parameter known as the gyration ratio of the active

network. Equation (1) suggests, as is diagrammed in Fig. (1b), that only two voltage controlled current sources are required in the corresponding two port equivalent circuit.

If the gyrator in Fig. (1a) is terminated at its output port in a capacitance, C, as shown

in Fig. (2a), the electrical model in Fig. (2b) produces a driving point input impedance, Zi(s),

given by

Zi (s)

Zi(s)

V1 s

I1 s

sC

g2

I1

(2)

Zi(s)

I2

V1

Gyrator:

Gyration

Ratio = g

V2

(a).

V1

I1

I2

gV2

gV1 V2

(b).

Figure (2). (a). Ideal Gyrator Terminated At Its Output Port In A Capacitance, C. (b). The Two Port

Equivalent Circuit Of The Terminated Gyrator In (a).

Clearly, the input impedance predicted by (1) is inductive, where the effective inductance, L, is

observed to be

.

(3)

g2

It follows that the ideal gyrator is capable of transforming an ideal capacitance incident with its

output port to an input port inductance whose value is inversely proportional to the square of

the network gyration ratio. Because the gyrator modeled in Fig. (2) is ideal and therefore

lossless, the quality factor of the synthesized inductor is infinitely large.

Operational transconductance amplifiers (OTAs), whose electrical characteristics emulate voltage controlled current sources, provide a logical foundation for the network realization

of a gyrator. Given the electrical symbol and model of the OTA shown in Fig. (3a), a gyrator

based inductor assumes the topological form offered in Fig. (3b). Observe in the latter diagram

T. Bakken & J. Choma

Gyrator-Based Inductance

that the input and output currents, I1 and I2, subscribe to the matric in (1), whence the effective

inductance given by (3) is forged at the input port of the network at hand. A laudable attribute

of the OTAbased approach toward realizing active inductances is that the individual OTA

transconductances, g, can be adjusted through the application of externally applied bias voltage

or current (not shown in the subject diagram). This flexibility effectively allows for electronically tunable active inductances.

I2

V1

I2 V2

Zi(s)

V1

V2

gV1

V1

(a).

I1

I2

gV1 V2

gV2

(b).

Zi(s)

V 1 I1

g

gV2

gV1

I2

V2

(c).

Figure (3). (a). Electrical Model Of An Ideal Operational Transconductor (OTA). (b). The Electrical Equivalent Circuit Of A

Capacitively Terminated Ideal Gyrator (c). The Transconductor Realization Of The Capacitively Terminated Ideal

Gyrator.

Unfortunately, the linearized model of an OTA is not the lossless and memoryless

structure set forth in Fig. (3a). In particular, an OTA has an input resistance, Ri, which in MOS

technology circuits can be extremely large but in bipolar circuits is only moderately large (tens

of thousands of ohms). An output resistance, Ro, in the range of at least the high tens to several

hundreds of thousands of ohms also prevails. Due account must also be made of shunt input

capacitance, Ci, and shunt output capacitance, Co. In submicron MOS technology circuits, Ci

Gyrator-Based Inductance

derives largely from gate-source and gate-source overlap capacitances and has a value typically

in the range of tens to the low hundreds of femptofarads. In bipolar OTA structures, Ci derives

from the depletion and diffusion components of base-emitter junction capacitance and from

Miller multiplication of the base-collector junction transition capacitance. The output capacitance, Co, which is usually dominant in common source MOS transistor circuit architectures, is

determined primarily by drain-bulk capacitance and is generally of the order of the tens to a

few hundreds of femptofarads. In bipolar circuits, Co is the collector-substrate capacitance and

depending on the extent of Miller multiplication of the basecollector junction capacitance, it

may not be the dominant energy storage element. The value of Co in either device technology

can also be impacted significantly by requisite common mode bias compensation circuitry.

Finally, Cf represents the net feedback capacitance between the input and output ports of an

OTA. Because an OTA is usually a multistage topology, Cf is generally of the order of at most

a few femptofarads. Nevertheless, it is a troublesome energy storage element because at best,

it establishes an OTA right half plane zero serving to degrade phase margin. At worst, it can

incur significant underdamping or even outright instability in gyrator and other feedback networks. The upshot of the foregoing disclosures is the OTA macromodel abstracted in Fig. (4).

Cf

Ri

Ci V1

I2 V 2

Ro

Co

Figure (4). The High Frequency Macromodel Of The Operational Transconductor Depicted In Fig. (3a).

The OTA macromodel in Fig. (4) gives rise to the circuit in Fig. (5a) as a first order

approximation of the small signal high frequency electrical characteristics for the active

inductor in Fig. (3b). In the interest of generality, the transconductances of the individual

OTAs are not taken as identical. Recalling the OTA macromodel of Fig. (3a), the circuit in

Fig. (5a) is electrically equivalent to Fig. (5b). In the latter network, the indicated capacitances

are given by

CI Ci1 Co2

CO Ci2 Co1 ,

CF C f 1 C f 2

(4)

RI Ri1 Ro2

.

RO Ri2 Ro1

(5)

Gyrator-Based Inductance

Cf2

Zi(s)

V1

g2V1

g2

Ri2

Ci2

Ro2

Cf1

Co2

V2

g1V2

Ro1

g1

Co1

Ri1

Ci1

(a).

Zi(s)

V1

CF

RI

CI

V2

g2V1

g1V2

RO

CO

(b).

Figure (5). (a). The GyratorBased Active Inductor With Resistive And Capacitive Input Port,

Output Port, And Feedback Elements Incorporated. (b). The Linearized High Frequency Two Port Equivalent Circuit Of The Network In (a).

Note that if the operational transconductors in Fig. (5a) are identical and no additional circuit

elements are appended to either the input or the output ports of each transconductor, CI CO,

and RI RO.

An analysis of the model at hand produces the driving point input impedance function,

Re sLe

Zi ( s )

,

(6)

2

2

s

1

s

n

n

where

RI

1

(7)

1 g1 g 2 RI RO

g1 g 2 RO

is the low frequency resistive component of the input impedance, and

R R C CF C

C CF C

(8)

O

Le I O O

1 g1 g 2 RI RO

g1 g 2

is the low frequency value of the effective input inductance produced by the gyrator. The

approximations in the foregoing two relationships reflect the presumption that the resistances,

Re

Gyrator-Based Inductance

RI, and/or RO, are sufficiently large to ensure g1g2RIRO >> 1. Since RI and RO very large and

CO and CF very small collapse the network in Fig. (5a) to its simplified counterpart in Fig. (3b),

it is not surprising that (8) corroborates with (3) for the case of g1 = g2.

Unfortunately, the electrical synergy between the actual and simplified circuits

degrades with increasing signal frequency since (6) indicates undamped resonance at a frequency, n, which can be shown to be

1

n

.

(9)

CF CO C

Le CI

CO CF C

The last term in the bracketed expression in the denominator on the right hand side of (9) is

smaller than CF, which itself is a small capacitance. Accordingly, (9) suggests that the inductance produced at the input port of the circuit in Fig. (5a) effectively resonates with the net

shunt input capacitance, CI. The damping factor, , (which is the inverse of twice the quality

factor, Q, of the circuit) in (6) derives from

CI CF

g2 g1 CF .

2

1

1

(10)

n Le

Q n Le

RI

RO CO CF C CO CF C

Observe that g2 < g1 and a sufficiently large feedback capacitance, CF, result in a negative

damping factor, which is tantamount to network instability. Fortunately, g2 g1 precludes

right half plane poles and therefore ensures asymptotically stable circuit responses. To the

extent that g2 g1 and RO is very large, (10) delivers an approximate damping factor of

L

n e .

(11)

2RI

As expected, a progressively smaller input resistance, RI, which appears directly in shunt with

the resonant circuit comprised of the generated inductance, Le, and the shunt input capacitance,

CI, serves to increase the damping factor, thereby circumventing potential oscillation problems.

In addition to bracketing the relative stability of the system undergoing investigation,

the damping factor in (10) or (11) sets the degree to which the frequency dependence of the

effective port resistance and port inductance are rendered nominally constant over the signal

passband of interest. To clarify this contention, write (6) in the form,

Re sLe

Zi ( s )

(12)

Re sLe F s ,

2

2

s

1

s

n

n

with F(s) understood to be the second order lowpass function,

1

.

(13)

F s

2

2

s

1

s

n

n

Obviously, frequency invariant resistance and frequency invariant inductance require F(s) = 1,

which is satisfied only for low signal frequencies and approximated only for appropriate

damping factors and suitably large undamped resonant frequencies. Indeed, larger than the

inverse of root two precludes |F(j)| > 1, but constrains the 3dB bandwidth of |F(j)| to a

frequency smaller than n. On the other hand, smaller than the inverse of root two increases

T. Bakken & J. Choma

Gyrator-Based Inductance

function bandwidth at the price of incurring response peaking in excess of one within the passband. The optimum designable constraint appears to be equal to the inverse of root two,

which imposes a maximally flat constraint on |F(j)|; that is, |F(j)| displays no maxima

above unity and is constant to within three decibels of unity for all signal frequencies in the

closed interval, 0 n[16]. It follows from (11) that

L

(14)

RI n e .

2

is a reasonable constraint for ensuring nominally constant resistance and inductance over the

widest possible passband.

In order to formulate guidelines appropriate to a meaningful design of the gyrator

based active inductor, it is useful to introduce the frequency normalization, y, such that

f

y

.

(15)

n

fn

Under steady state sinusoidal excitation conditions, (6) therefore becomes

Zi (jy) Re Zi (jy) j Im Zi (jy) ,

(16)

where using (11),

2

1 y 2 Re 2 y 2 n Le

1 y 2 Re 2 y RI

,

Re Zi (jy)

2

2

2 2

2 2

1 y 2 y

1 y 2 y

(17)

and

y 1 y n Le 2 Re

Im Zi (jy)

2

2

1 y 2 2 y

2

n Le y 1

1 y

2 2

y2

RI

.

Re

2 y

(18)

The last expression verifies that the input impedance is not inductive over all signal frequencies since a normalized crossover frequency, say yco, exists for which Im[Zi(j)] 0 for y yco.

This normalized crossover frequency is

f

R

(19)

yco co 1 e 1 ,

fn

RI

where the approximation reflects the fact that from (7), Re << RI. In short, the electrical nature

of the driving point input impedance changes from inductive to capacitive at nominally the

undamped resonant frequency of the gyrator circuit. Since the objective at hand is the realization of circuit inductance, it follows that the utility of the structure proposed in Fig. (5a) is limited to signal frequencies that are smaller than the undamped resonance predicted by (9). On a

positive note, (14) confirms that unconditional circuit stability, in the sense of a positive real

input impedance, is virtually assured as long as the damping factor, , subscribes to the inequality,

Gyrator-Based Inductance

Re

.

(20)

4RI

This inequality is relatively easy to satisfy in view of the fact that Re << RI and is chosen to

be approximately 0.707.

Using (17) and (18), the quality factor, Q(y), of the actively synthesized inductor is

given approximately by

R

n Le y 1 e y 2

RI

.

Q(y)

(21)

2

2

1 y Re 2 y RI

Over the normalized frequency range, y < 1, where the input impedance is inductive, (21) can

be approximated as

n Le y

Q(y)

,

(22)

2

Re 2 y RI

which displays a maximum at

Re RI

f

ym m

.

(23)

fn

n Le

Recalling (7), (23) implies that the frequency at which the inductor quality factor is maximized

is

1

RI

fm

.

(24)

2 Le g1 g 2 RO

The actual value of the maximum quality factor, Qm, derives from substituting (23) into (22):

1

Qm Q(ym )

g1 g 2 RI RO .

(25)

2

Since resistance RI is selected to prescribe a damping factor commensurate with maximally flat

inductance over the frequency passband, it follows that the shunt output resistance, RO, determines the maximum Q of the synthesized inductor. Note therefore that the largest possible

value of maximum Q is essentially dictated by the ability to realize an operational transconductor characterized by very large shunt output resistance. Equivalently, the value of Qm is

limited by the degree to which the output port of a transconductor emulates an ideal current

source.

The ratio, fm/Qm, is a useful design figure of merit for it effectively stipulates the requisite shunt output resistance corresponding to a desired inductance value and given operational

transconductor parameters. This ratio also complements the solution to the problem of determining the engineering practicality of realizing the desired inductance specifications. Note

that

fm

1

,

(26)

Le g1 g 2 RO

Qm

which is independent of the shunt input resistance, RI. Consider, for example, that the operational transconductors in Fig. (5a) have g1 = g2 = 2 millimho and that an inductance, Le, of 15

nanohenries is desired. If this inductance realization is to deliver a peak quality factor (Qm) of

T. Bakken & J. Choma

Gyrator-Based Inductance

100 at a frequency (fm) of 400 MHz, (26) delivers a requisite shunt output resistance, RO, of

about 1.3 megohms. Such an output resistance is unrealistically large within the constraints

imposed by low power transconductor design in state of the art deep submicron CMOS technology. However, it may be attainable in silicongermanium heterostructure bipolar junction

transistor technology. A more reasonable resistance value is RO = 100 kiloohms. Then for Le

= 15 nH and g1 = g2 = 2 mmhos, fm/Qm = 53.05 MHz. For this ratio, Qm = 15, which is a quality factor considerably larger than that afforded by an on chip spiral. It follows that fm = 796

MHz is achievable, provided fm < fn. With Qm = 15 and RO = 100 K, (24) yields RI = 2.25

K, which requires that the input port of the gyratorbased active inductor circuit be shunted

by an appropriate resistance. Unfortunately, it is unlikely that this value of RI guarantees

maximal inductance flatness over the circuit passband. To this end, the damping factor in (11)

corresponding to the required net effective shunt input resistance must be checked to see if

design compromises are mandated.

Consider the availability of two identical transconductors having g1 = g2 = 5 mS, Ci1 =

Ci2 = 5 fF, Co1 = Co2 = 20 fF, Cf1 = Cf2 = 3 fF, Ri1 = Ri2 = 5 M, and Ro1 = Ro2 = 100 K.

Let the specifications entail the realization of a 25 nH inductor characterized by a quality factor

of at least 15 at a frequency of nominally 300 MHz. A plausible design procedure follows.

(1). From (4), CI = 25 fF, CO = 25 fF, and CF = 6 fF. Using (5), RI = RO = 98.04 K.

(2). From (8), the output port capacitance required for the desired 15 nH input port

inductance is C = 594 fF. The fact that this capacitance value is about nineteen

times larger than the capacitance sum, CO + CF, renders the performance of the

inductance generator nominally insensitive to energy storage uncertainties in the

utilized transconductors.

(3). Recalling (9), the undamped resonant frequency of the network is fn = 5.72 GHz.

(4). From (14), the shunt input port resistance required for maximally flat inductance

response is RI = 635.6 . Since RI = 98.04 K is already stipulated, this

requirement means that a resistance of about 640 must be appended in parallel

with the input port.

(5). Using (24), RO = 11.45 K gives fm = 300 MHz. But (25) gives a corresponding

maximum Q of only 7.18. A nominal doubling of both RI and RO effects the

desired Q of 15 without perturbing the frequency at which maximum Q is

attained. The engineering price implicit to this alteration is diminished damping

factor, which degrades relative stability and incurs nonmaximal flatness in the

inductance frequency response. On the other hand, RO = 56.64 K produces the

desired Q at the expense of fm = 134.9 MHz. The design compromise adopted

must reflect an assiduous consideration of all relevant circuit and system operating specifications. In the present case, the strategy is to select RO = 35 K (corresponding to an appended shunt output resistance of 54.4 K), which is arithmetically centered between the two calculated output resistance extremes. This

resistance value yields Qm = 11.79 and fm = 171.6 MHz. Moreover, (7) yields a

low frequency resistance of Re = 1.14 .

10

Gyrator-Based Inductance

Fig. (6) is the resultant schematic diagram, while Figs. (7) through (9) display pertinent

OrCad SPICE simulation results. As the following overview confirms, excellent corroboration between simulated and analytically deduced results is obtained.

(1). Fig. (7) displays the dependence of inductance on signal frequency, where the

inductance has been calculated as the frequency derivative of the imaginary component of the driving point input impedance, Zi(j). The simulated low frequency

inductance is 24.91 nH. This inductance is maintained to within 20% for signal

frequencies through 1.42 GHz.

(2). Fig. (8) depicts the frequency responses of both the real and the imaginary

components of the driving point input impedance for the circuit in Fig. (6). The

simulated low frequency resistance is 1.145 , and this resistance remains under

50 for signal frequencies through 1.12 GHz. The real part of the input impedance shows resonance at 5.75 GHz, while its imaginary counterpart is zero at 5.72

GHz.

(3). Fig. (9) offers the frequency response of the inductor quality factor. A maximum

Q of 11.77 is observed at a frequency of 173.8 MHz.

Zi(s)

OTA #2

g2

640

g1

54.4 K

594 fF

OTA #1

Figure (6). Active Inductor Realization For The Design Example Documented In The Text.

Each Transconductor Has An Input Resistance (RI) of 5 M, An Output Resistance (RO) Of 100 K, An Input Capacitance (CI) Of 5 fF, An Output Capacitance

(CO) Of 20 fF, A Feedback Capacitance (CF) Of 3 fF, And A Forward Transconductance (g1, g2) Of 5 mS.

11

Inductance (nH)

Gyrator-Based Inductance

30.00

20.00

10.00

0.00

0.01

0.03

0.10

0.32

1.00

3.16

10.00

-10.00

-20.00

-30.00

Frequency (GHz)

Impedance (Ohms)

Figure (7). The Simulated Frequency Response Of The Active Inductor In Fig. (6). The Inductance Value At Low Signal Frequencies Is 24.91 nH And Deteriorates To 80% Of This

Value At A Signal Frequency Of About 1.42 GHz.

700

500

Real Part

300

Imaginary

Part

100

0.01

-100

0.03

0.10

0.32

1.00

3.16

10.00

-300

Frequency (GHz)

Figure (8). The Simulated Frequency Responses Of The Real And Imaginary Parts Of The Driving

Point Input Impedance Of The Gyrator In Fig. (6). At Low Signal Frequencies, The Real

Part Impedance Is About 1.14 Ohms; It Remains Below 50 Ohms For Signal Frequencies

Under 1.12 GHz.

4.0. CONCLUSIONS

T. Bakken & J. Choma

12

Gyrator-Based Inductance

shown in Fig. (3c). The fundamental conclusion drawn from this work is that the subject

inductance network is a viable alternative to traditional passive realizations of on chip inductors, particularly when relatively large quality factors are required. But even though the gyrator approach to inductance synthesis comprises a viable engineering design alternative, its performance is far from the idealized behavior postulated in much of the literature. Aside from

the wellknown shortfalls of increased power consumption, increased electrical noise, and

constrained dynamic range, which are not investigated herewith, the gyrator approach embodies noteworthy small signal operating constraints and issues that circuit designers must address.

(1).

(2).

It is essential that the two operational transconductors in Fig. (3b) have sufficiently large

transconductances. From (8), large transconductances imply a large output port capacitance, C, for a desired inductance, Le, thereby reducing the inductance sensitivity to parasitic OTA capacitances.

Inductance values larger than the mid tens of nanohenries are potentially counterproductive because the generated inductance effectively resonates with the parasitic capacitance

of the OTA input port. It is essential that this resonant frequency be placed outside the

passband of the system in which the gyratorbased inductance is embedded.

14

12

10

8

6

4

2

0

0.01

-2

0.03

0.10

0.32

1.00

3.16

10.00

Frequency (GHz)

Figure (9). The Simulated Quality Factor Of The Inductance Produced By The Gyrator Circuit In

Fig. (6). The Peak Quality Factor, Which Occurs At A Signal Frequency Of 173.8

MHz, Is 11.77.

(3). From (11) the effective shunt input resistance, RI, of the circuit effectively sets the circuit

damping factor, while (25) and (24) show that the effective output resistance, RO, controls the maximum attainable quality factor and the frequency at which this maximum Q

is achieved. Very large Q demands that the output port of the OTA closely emulate an

ideal current source over the frequency range of interest. Higher Qs can be obtained with

progressively larger RI, but only at the expense of decreased damping factor. In turn,

damping factors less than 0.707 give rise to diminished stability and an effective inductance that does not remain constant throughout the circuit passband. In general, quality

13

(4).

Gyrator-Based Inductance

factors in the low to mid tens are attainable with transconductors realized in deep submicron CMOS technology.

It is essential that the transconductances, g1 and g2, of the two OTA units in Fig. (3b) satisfy the inequality, g2 g1. Failure to satisfy this constraint can result in instability. If g2

is designed to be larger than g1, an increased damping factor for a given quality factor

results, but the resonant frequency correspondingly decreases.

5.0. REFERENCES

[1].

[2].

[3].

[4].

[5].

[6].

[7].

[8].

[9].

[10].

[11].

[12].

[13].

[14].

[15].

[16].

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1996.

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Active Lowpass Filters with QEnhancement, 1999 Great Lakes Symposium on VLSI, Ann Arbor,

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14

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