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MECH 435: Internal Combustion Engines

Assignment 2 Engine Performance


Due: March 1, 2011
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1. A small truck has a four-cylinder, four-liter CI engine that operates on the air-standard Dual-cycle using
light diesel fuel at an air-fuel ratio of 18. The compression ratio of the engine is 16 and the cylinder bore
is 10.0 cm. At the start of the compression stroke, conditions in the cylinder are 60C and 100 kPa with a
2% exhaust residual. It can be assumed that half of the heat input from combustion is added at constant
volume and half at constant pressure. The heating value for light diesel is 42,500 kJ/kg.
Do a cold air-standard analysis and calculate:
a) temperature and pressure at each state of the cycle
b) Indicated thermal efficiency
c) Exhaust temperature
d) Air temperature in the intake manifold
e) Engine volumetric efficiency
2. A four-cylinder, 2.5-liter, SI engine operates at WOT on a four-stroke air standard Otto cycle at 3000
RPM. The engine has a compression ratio of 8.6, a mechanical efficiency of 86%, and a stroke-to-bore
ratio S/B = 1.025. Fuel is iso-octane with AF = 15, a heating value of 44,300 kJ/kg, and combustion
efficiency of 100%. At the start of the compression stroke, conditions in the cylinder are 100 kPa and
60C. It can be assumed that there is a 4% exhaust residual left over from the previous cycle.
Do a cold air standard analysis and calculate:
a) Pressure and temperature at each state of the cycle
b) Indicated thermal efficiency
c) Indicated mean effective pressure
d) Brake power
e) Torque
f) Brake mean effective pressure
3. A 2.8-litre four-cylinder square engine (bore = stroke) with two intake valves per cylinder is designed to
have a maximum speed of 7500 rpm. Intake temperature is 60 oC. Assume valve lift, l, as a function of
crank angle, , is l = lmax sin The intake stroke duration is 180 CA and lmax = 6.5 mm. Calculate
a) the average intake valve area
b) the diameter of intake valves assuming low lift
4. For a 3.0 litre, four-cylinder, four-stroke engine the cylinder pressure and temperature after combustion
at part throttle is 5000 kPa and 3200K. The compression ratio is 10. The inlet pressure is 50 kPa and the
inlet temperature is 300K. The exhaust pressure is 100 kPa. If the cycle is modelled as an ideal Otto cycle
with k = 1.3, calculate
a) the residual gas fraction
b) the gas temperature at the end of the intake stroke
5. a) Using the four stroke gas Otto cycle applet, plot the effect of inlet throttling from 25 kPa to 100 kPa
on the peak cycle pressure. Assume the following conditions: T1 = 300K, Pex= 100 kPa, r = 9, k = 1.3, qin=
2400 kJ/kggas.
b) Consider a four cylinder, four stroke engine with a 0.1 m bore and an 0.08 m stroke operates with
conditions: T1 = 300K, Pex= 100 kPa, r = 10, k = 1.3, qin= 2500 kJ/kggas. At 2000 rpm, how much indicated
power in kW would it produce for an inlet pressure of 50 kPa? What if it were a two-stroke engine?