You are on page 1of 12

BOILER AND AUXILIARIES

1
THERMAL Power Project 2X600MW

2.1

General

2.1.1

General
The boilers will be pulverized fuel fired, assisted circulation type. The
boiler is be designed for SH/RH outlet conditions of 541 oC / 541oC and
capable of meeting the guaranteed performance while supplying steam
for sootblowing, auxiliary steam system and heating of heavy fuel oil
and excess air of 20% and meeting all environmental conditions as
specified elsewhere in this specification. The boiler BMCR capacity is be
2060 t/h steam generation and is meet all other capacity and margin
requirements as specified elsewhere in this specification. Each of
capacity able to operate a turbo-generator set of 600MW, complete with
superheaters, reheaters, economizer, air preheaters, two forced draft
fans, two induced draft fans, two primary air fans and six(6) mills will be
provided. One concrete chimneys will be for two boilers. Supporting
steel structure, soot blowing units, platform, galleries and stair ways,
and all boiler internal steam, vent and drains piping, blow down / drain
vessels, valves, fittings, fuel gas ducts and air ducts, dampers, lagging
and refractory, casing, foundation bolts, boiler elevator etc., all other
parts and works necessary for reliable and efficient operation of the
boiler plant, will be provided with full detailed specifications.. The
primary fuel will be Imported coal and all design and performance
guarantee etc. is be on the basis of imported coal only. LDO is
considered as support/start up fuel.
The design of the Boiler and all the auxiliaries is take into account the
worst figures of the range of coal specified.

2.1.2

Design Condition
Coal analysis data, provided by owner. DEHRAND Power Plant using
imported Coal as the design coal to work as a base load station, on
turnkey basis.
Ultimate analysis

2
THERMAL Power Project 2X600MW

COAL ANALYSIS
Proximate Analysis ( % by weight)

Sl.No.

Design Quantity

Check Quantity

Description

GCV (kcal/kg)

3932

4134

Ash

20.68

2.04

Volatile matter

27.59

33.98

Fixed carbon

28.58

28.16

Moisture

23.16

35.81

Total

100.0

100.0

Grindability (HGl)

50

50

ULTIMATE ANALYSIS OF COAL

Sl.No.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8

2.2

Description
Carbon
Hydrogen
Oxygen
Nitrogen
Sulfur
Ash
Moisture
GCV

Design Quantity, %

Check Quantity, %

42.27
3.06
9.5
0.9
0.44
20.68
23.16
3932 kCal/kg

46.46
3.41
11.11
0.87
0.29
2.04
35.81
4134 kCal/kg

Boiler Whole Arrangement and System Description

3
THERMAL Power Project 2X600MW

2.2.1

Whole Arrangement
The boiler will be of a drum type subcritical controlled circulation unit
with single reheat. It is outdoor-arranged and has a single furnace of
reverse U-form and full pendant structure steel, dry bottom type watercooled, balanced draft furnace and is designed to six mills and
tangential firing burner. Light fuel oil will be used for start-up.
Main superheater steam temperature will be controlled by spray water
attemperation and reheater steam temperature will be controlled by
nozzles tilt.
All the designs will be in accordance with IBR India Boiler
Regulation , ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code and National
Fire Protection Association Code.
Material of the main pressure parts will be selected according to ASTM
or its equivalent standards.

2.2.2

Furnace primary
Type

Water cooled membrane wall


Hopper bottom type

Furnace dimension
Width

18542mm

Depth

17448mm

Height

67000mm

(low water header to roof tube)


Volume

17852m3

Heating surface
Radiant heating surface

9104m2

(Including division panels)


Heat releasing rate(BMCR)
2.2.3
2.2.3.1

Coal Combustion System Description


Tilting tangential firing system
The tangential firing system is based on the concept of a single flame
envelope, both the fuel and air streams for each corner of the furnace
are aimed tangent to the circumference of a circle in the center of the
furnace. The resulting flame pattern forms a large swirl in the furnace.

4
THERMAL Power Project 2X600MW

Fuel and air nozzles tilt in unison to raise or lower the flame in the
furnace to control furnace heat absorption and heat absorption in the
superheater and reheater sections.
2.2.3.2

Windbox assembles
Windbox assembles are installed in each of the four corners. Each
windbox will be divided into several compartments. The compartments
are designed for pulverized coal container, mechanical atomized HFO
burner are located in two-layer compartments. They are of class 2
category as defined in NFPA code 8502. The top compartments are
used to admit overfire air (OFA).

Air and fuel nozzle tilts


The air and fuel streams are vertically adjustable by means of the
movable nozzle tips in each windbox compartment. The oil and auxiliary
air compartment nozzle tips can be tilted upward or downward through a
total angle of approximately 60 degrees (30 degrees up, 30 degrees
down). The coal compartment nozzle tips can be tilted upward or
downward through a total angle of 54 degree (27 degrees up, 27
degrees down) when operated in parallel mode.
Wide range coal nozzle design
The wide range coal nozzle assembly is the advance design for
improving ignition stability throughout a greater load range and can be
made to achieve a low load operation while maintaining a stable coal
flame without the use of support fuels on tangential fired boiler. This
unique design works by inducing both turbulence and recirculation to
the discharging coal/air mixture. As a result, the coal particles ignite and
stability local to the coal nozzle tip discharge.
Each assembly consists of a coal nozzle and the nozzle tip similar in
appearance to the standard coal nozzle/nozzle tip design. The wide
range coal nozzles contain an internal horizontal spliter plate which
separaters the coal/air mixture into fuel-rich and lean streams. This
measures that the proper air to fuel ratios required for combustion are
available over a greater range of pulverizer operation.
The wide range coal nozzle tips differ from the standard design by
incorporating an irregular V shaped bluff body diffuser. The diffuser
produces a lower pressure zone which induces turbulence and causes a
high recirculation pattern to form. The trailing edge of the bluff body is
equipped with a raised surface which shears the coal/air stream,
furnace increasing the fuel eddy formation into a recirculation zone. It is
these features which enhance the formation of the stable ignition point
over a widerange of unit load.

5
THERMAL Power Project 2X600MW

2.2.3.3

Low NOx coal burners


There are two methods for controlling NOx emission in this coal
burners. One of them, as described above, the overfire air (OFA) is the
remaining auxiliary air that is introduced to the furnace through OFA
ports located at the top of the windbox. Another is the offset concentric
firing system (CFS). Both OFA and CFS can be referred to as staging
techniques. OFA is a type of vertical staging for controlling emissions,
while CFS can be thought of as a horizontal staging technique-unique
to tangential firing. The CFS and OFA retard the conversion of fuel
bound nitrogen at different times during the combustion history of coal
particle within the furnace, thereby the low NOx coal burners can control
NOx emissions effectively.

2.2.3.4

LDO gun
The LDO burners are the wide-range mechanical atomizing type,
retractable mechanisms by air operated, will to provided to maintain 35
percent BMCR for blow-down and 15 percent for normal operating
condition. The oil gun is a double barreled gun, the inner barrel supplies
oil to the atomizer and the outer barrel conveys the fuel oil away from
the atomizer.
The minimum turndown ratio is 4:1 without changing the size of the
burner tips. The boiler load can controlled automatically while
maintaining good combustion conditions.
When the atomizer is withdraw completely from the burner, the fuel oil is
to be automatically shutoff. The safety shutoff valve is to be arranged so
that it is not possible to remove the atomizer without first shutoff the
fuel. A quick automatic closing valve, solenoid operated, is to be
provided in the oil supply to each burner arranged to shutoff the supply
of oil to the unit on flame failure, draft failure, low oil pressure or low
drum water level, or any cause of master fuel trip.

2.2.4

Water Circulation System


Using CC+ Circulation system
CC+ means circulation pumps plus internally rifled tubes. It is called
Modified Controlled Circulation, and also is an up-to-date Alstom-CE
techniques. As result of using this type of circulation, the mass flow rate
and fluid flow in water wall tubes are decreased because of the effect of
the internally rifled tubes, and meanwhile the circulation ratio falls from 4
to 2. Consequently this type of circulation is characterized by the
smaller diameters of wall tubes, the less tube weight, the higher
reliability of circulation, the lower investment and lower plant town power
consumption.

6
THERMAL Power Project 2X600MW

Using reasonable heat release rate


The boiler design ensures sufficient weight flow velocity in water wall
tubes under various loading to prevent departure from nucleate boiling
(DNB). A part of tubes with internal spirals are used.
Using membrane type construction
The membrane type construction for water wall is employed to ensure
air tightness of the furnace. The width of the fins fulfils the working
conditions. During variable pressure operation, the water distribution
and heating of the water wall tubes are uniform to ensure even steam
production along the width of the furnace and even water level along the
full length of the drum. Sufficient dynamic head is produced to prevent
stagnation, reverse flow, unstable hydrodynamic values etc. due to
abnormal water circulation.
The design of the furnace employs balanced draft, and provides
adequate sustaining capability of explosion and implosion. The boiler
has an expansion center to permit free expansion of boiler parts. The
thermal expansion of water walls and main headers of other heating
surfaces is indicated by three dimensional indicators.
The boiler roof employs gas-tight, all welded metallic construction,
ensuring the free expansion of various heating surfaces without
cracking and leaking under variable pressure operation.
The junctions of water wall and ash slag hopper employ qualified
sealing construction, ensuring the free expansion of water walls. In the
sealing water through effective washing equipment is provided to
prevent ash accumulation that affects expansion.
Doors and holes are installed to facilitate the operators inspection and
the access of maintenance personnel, and be able to withstand the
thermal radiation without deformation. During operation, these accesses
are shut tight and opening should be avoided. The clearance at the
throat of ash hopper is 1400mm. The hopper slope is 55 degrees, the
water wall tubes near the hopper and its supporting structure can
withstand the impingement of large clinker and sustain the dead weight
of an accumulation of clinkers up to the lowest level of burners during
abnormal conditions.
The boiler employs suspended type construction. The steam/water
pipes, flue gas ducts and steel structure connected with the boiler
proper ensure the free thermal expansion of boiler water walls and the
rear flue gas shaft.
Drum and Its Internals
Drum
7
THERMAL Power Project 2X600MW

Design Pressure

19.95 Mpa

Number of Supply

one

Inside Diameter

1778 mm

Overall Length

28854 mm

Material

(1)

DIWI353

Water Separating System

Turbo Separator, Corrugate Dryer

And Drying Screen


112 pcs
The drum will be of fusion welded construction fabricated form carbon
steel plate, and equipped with two suitable diameter manholes. The
inside surface of the drum will be shop shotblasted leaving smooth,
clean surface. When the boiler is operated within the visible range of
drum gauge glass, standard steam quality and reliable water circulation
is ensured.
Drum Internals
Necessary internals for limiting the solid carryover in the steam leaving
the drum to that specified herein.
Drum Connections
The necessary welding end inlet and outlet connections and nozzles to
accommodated the required valves and accessories provided for
connecting up piping for acid cleaning reverse flushing of superheater,
nitrogen conservation during boiler shutting down, hydrostatic test
,chemical injection, continuous blowdown, sampling of steam and water,
emergency drain, safety valves and vent valves and auxiliary steam.
Drum Supports
The necessary drum supports will be furnished on both sides of the
drum, ample space provided for maintenance persons.
The design and manufacture of the drum conforms to ASME boiler and
pressure vessel code.
Water Quality
CONSTITUENT
PH value

VALUE
6.5 7.6

Colour

Colourless

Temperature

32 degree C

8
THERMAL Power Project 2X600MW

Total Suspended Solids (mg/1)

Less than 100

Total Dissolved Solids (mg/1)

80

Oil & Grease (mg/1)

Less than 2

Potassium (K)

Less than 3

Chlorides as C1 (mg/1)

11-17

Calcium (Ca++)

About 19

Sulphate as SO4

3-5

Sodium as Na (mg/1)

13

Zinc as Zn (mg/1)

0-10

Iron as Fe (mg/1)

1.8-2.2

Bicarbonate as HCO3 (mg/1)

44

Silica, ppm

Total

2.2.5

Methyloranye
Alkalinity
experienced as CaCO3

48

Dissolved CO2

7.2

Dissolved O2

2.00

Turbidity (in Silica Scale)

100 ppm

Oil System
The equipment will include following described LDO system. Fuel Oil is
be received in road tankers and Contractor is provide all plant and
machineries for oil unloading, storage, heating and feeding to boiler, for
power plant requirement. The plant is be suitable for operation over the
entire life and perform as specified with LDO having composition. The
size and number of oil handling equipment is be based on oil as a
supporting fuel. The complete piping, valves and fittings for the
equipment described above will be supplied.

2.2.6

Air preheater

9
THERMAL Power Project 2X600MW

2.2.6.1

General Technical Date


Number of supply

Two(2)

Type

Regenerative

Ljungstrom Trisector Airheater


The rate of air leakage on BMCR is less than 8% and after one year will
be less than 10%.
2.2.7
2.2.7.1

Boiler Structural Steel Work


Structure Steel of Boiler House
We will provide all structural steel required for the steam generator and
all other equipment within the scope of this contract.
Permanent enclosures will be supplied to give protection against the
weather for plant and personnel in areas where considered
necessary e.g. drum, burner, galleries.
Platforms, Walkways and Stairs
All walkways and stairs will be constructed and provided and will be
supported entirely from frames and steelwork provided in this contract,
checkered plating of 5mm thickness will provided in front of each burner.
Two (2)sets of stairs and walkways are to be provided for the boiler on
each side. They are to extend from the basement level to the highest
part of the units. Walkways are also provided along the front and rear of
the unit as necessary.
The seller will average his construction procedure so that the major part
of these walkways and stairs are installed at the same time as the unit
structure in order to provide safe access to the plan equipment during
assembly.

2.2.8
2.2.8.1

Soot Blowing System


The boiler will be accompanied with a complete set of a programmable
automatic sequential steam operated sootblowing equipment for
cleaning the furnace waterwalls, superheaters, reheaters, economizer
and air heater while boiler is on operation.
The sootblowing system will include as follows:
(a)Steam and drain piping system including valves, fitting, supports,
steam pressure reducing valve and thermal drain valve.
(b)A microprocessor based type programmable controller with color
CRT monitor and operator keyboard.

10
THERMAL Power Project 2X600MW

(c)Sootblower

quantity

Wall sootblower

100

Long retractable sootblower

40

AH sootblower

Soot Blower Specification Table


Wall sootblower

Long retractable
soot
blower

sootblower

Number

100

Location

Water wall

SH.RH.ECO.

Rotative angle

360 deg

360 deg

Travel

267mm

9300mm

6000mm

Blowing time

Approx.3min

Approx.4-6min

Approx.23min

Steam

Approx.650kg/
min

Approx.40-

Approx.

1.5-2.0m

1.5-2.5m

cons
ump
tion(
per
blow
er)
Effective

40

AH

2
Regenerative
air
pre
hea
ter
/

80kg/m
in

70k
g/m
in

Approx.2m

blow
ing
radi
us
Motor

0.18kw

1.1kw

0.18kw

2.2.8.2 Temperature Probe

11
THERMAL Power Project 2X600MW

Retractable furnace temperature probe with approximate travel 8 meters


complete with totally enclosed motor, limit switches, position
transmitters and position indicator, remote control switches, local pushbutton station.

12
THERMAL Power Project 2X600MW