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Voltage Control Scheme Using Fuzzy Logic

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Generators in Saudi Arabia

R. A. Shalwala, Student Member, IEEE, and J. A. M. Bleijs, Member, IEEE

for any electrical power network for both distribution and

transmission level is voltage control. Many studies have been

carried out to improve or develop new voltage control techniques

to facilitate safe connection of distributed generation. In Saudi

Arabia, due to environmental, economical and development

perspectives a wide integration of photovoltaic (PV) generation in

distribution network is expected in the near future. This

development in the network may cause voltage regulation

problems due to the interface with the existing conventional

control system. Therefore, a new control system with PVs should

be developed. This paper introduces a new voltage control

scheme for residential area networks in Saudi Arabia based on

Fuzzy Logic concept (FL). The structure of two implementations

of FL controller to regulate the voltage by setting the on-load tap

changing transformer is proposed. In order to confirm the

validity of the proposed methods, simulations are carried out for

a realistic distribution network with real data for load and solar

radiation. Results showing the performance of each

implementation are presented and discussed.

Index Terms-- Distribution System, ETAP, Fuzzy logic

controller, Grid Connected, MATLAB, Photovoltaic Systems,

Saudi Arabia, Solar radiation, Voltage control

I. INTRODUCTION

raditionally, the distribution network of the power system

is a passive network with a radial configuration.

Electricity flows one way from a substation to a large

distribution network. During normal operation or planning

period, a steady-state analysis of voltage regulation, system

losses, protection coordination, power quality, and system

reliability must be performed to ensure proper operation

within appropriate operating voltage range. Each utility has its

own operation and planning criteria depending on distribution

system characteristics and design criteria.

Currently, in Saudi Arabia, the exploitation of solar energy

as an alternative source of electric power is being considered

because of the abundant amount of irradiation and long hours

of sunshine. One way to achieve this is by using GridConnected

Photovoltaic systems (GCPV) on domestic dwellings directly

connected to the distribution network. This means that in the

Arabia under Grant U208. The support of the Saudi Cultural Bureau in

London for sponsoring the fact-finding trip to Saudi Arabia to obtain the

required data is gratefully acknowledged.

R. A. Shalwala is with the Department of Engineering, University of

Leicester, Leicester, UK (e-mail: rs234@leicester.ac.uk).

J. A. M. Bleijs is with the Department of Engineering, University of

Leicester, Leicester, UK (e-mail: jamb1@leicester.ac.uk)

2010 IEEE

generators. According to [1-3] distributed generation has both

advantages and disadvantages for the system.

In this paper two implementations of fuzzy logic technique

have been used to maintain the voltage in a residential area

network with high penetration of PV generators in Saudi

Arabia. The ETAP simulation package has been used for

power flow calculation and the MATLAB software package

has been used to design the fuzzy logic controller.

II. POWER FLOW CALCULATIONS

Generally, distribution utilities deliver electric energy to

their customers within an appropriate voltage range to meet

customer requirements. For a radial configuration the bus

voltage, voltage drop, power flow, and power loss can be

calculated by using a simplified model such as the two-bus

system as shown in Fig. 1 [4].

| |

1/

Bus#1

| |

12

Bus#2

The model consists of a short distance line represented by a

series connection of resistance (R) and inductive reactance

(X). In this case, real and reactive power (

transfer

between bus #1 and bus #2 is described by (1) and (2).

Where:

cos

cos

(1)

sin

sin

(2)

is the voltage angle at bus #2

is the admittance angle

(3)

| |

between theses buses can be calculated in terms of the voltage

at bus #1 by using (4) and (5), respectively.

(4)

(5)

be considered, and to handle calculation in a large system,

power system simulation software is required. In this paper,

the power systems simulation package ETAP is used for

evaluating of steady-state performance under different load

and PV generation conditions.

TABLE I

residential area will be used as a base case in this paper

(Fig.2). The distribution network starts from the Station bus at

110 kV, through a step-down 110/11 kV power transformer at

each primary substation (ISK11, RSF04, and ISK10)

connecting to 3 branches. Each branch includes a number of

secondary substations (labeled as I1, I2,I9, R1,....R7,S1....and

S9), connecting to a customer feeder through another stepdown11/0.38 kV transformer (see detail in Fig. 2).

From Bus

To Bus

Lenghth (m)

Impedance (/km)

ISK11

I1

1875

0.128+j0.1344

I1

I2

15

0.128+j0.1344

I2

I3

327

0.128+j0.1344

I3

I4

153

0.128+j0.1344

I4

I5

513

0.128+j0.1344

I5

I6

396

0.128+j0.1344

I6

I7

132

0.128+j0.1344

I7

I8

648

0.128+j0.1344

I8

I9

255

0.128+j0.1344

Fig. 3 shows the average daily load profile for this area

during each month. This area includes 5000 residential

properties.

Average Daily load for a residential Area

Jan

100.0

90.0

Peak Load

Feb

Mar

Laod (MW)

80.0

Apr

70.0

May

60.0

Jun

50.0

Average Load

Aug

40.0

Sep

30.0

Oct

20.0

10.0

Jul

Nov

Dec

Light Load

0.0

Average

8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24

Time (hour)

Fig. 2. Test residential network with 3 branches

There are 6 load nodes tapped off from each feeder. Each

branch is equipped with on-load tap changing transformer

(LTCT) that has the ability of changing the voltage level of

the branch at the main substation bus in small steps (0.5% of

nominal voltages), adjusted by the automatic voltage

controller (AVC). The main branches can be interconnected

through normally-open circuit breakers in the case of outage

of one of the 110/11 kV transformers.

Since this study is concentrating on the effect of GCPV on

the voltage regulation in the network under normal operation

(no faults), the longest branch which is ISK11 will be the most

sensitive because it will have the largest variations for the

different load and irradiation scenarios. The line parameters of

this branch are shown in Table I.

A.

Load Conditions

Real load data for the selected residential area has been

collected from the Saudi Electricity Company in the Western

Region (SEC-WR) who has also provided details of the

transformers and lines of the network. Based on this

information a detailed model of the distribution network has

been created in ETAP.

(A/C) systems and in general the load reaches its maximum

between noon and 16:00 h in summer. This type of load can

reach 65 per cent of the total load during summer and since

the AC systems are motor-driven, this reduces the power

factor (PF) of the total load to approximately 0.85. The

minimum load is equal to about 30% of summer peak load.

The following conditions of each consumer load in the

network will be considered in this research:

1- Extreme load (based on the maximum capacity of

customer circuit breaker)

2- Peak load (Maximum Summer load)

3- Normal load (Annual Average load)

4- Light load (30% of peak load)

B. PV Generators

PV generators are connected to the grid through powerelectronic inverters. The current generation of PV inverters

operate at unity power factor. So, their behavior during steady

state is similar to that of a Synchronous Generator (SG) with

unity power factor. Therefore, a SG with unity power factor is

used in ETAP to represent the PV generator.

Since in this research Building Integrating photovoltaic

(BIPV) system will be used to address the effect of such

selected buildings must be known. The averaage available roof

area for PV installation on houses in a residenntial area is about

100m . This figure comes from about 29 different designs of

residential houses in Saudi Arabia.

The solar radiation data for this study hhas been obtained

from King Abdul-Aziz City for Science and Technology

(KACST) which has 40 stations around the ccountry recording

the solar radiation every 5 minutes. The montthly average solar

radiation that was recorded at Jeddah meteorology station for

year 2002 is shown in Fig. 4.

Average daily Solar Radiation

Jan

Max Radiation

x PV&0% tap)

Feb

Mar

Apr

Minimum Midday

Radiation

May

Jun

Jul

Aug

No Radiation

Sep

Oct

Nov

8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24

Dec

Time (hour)

Fig 4. Monthly average solar radiation, Jedddah 2002.

between 9:00 to 15:00 throughout the yeaar with minimum

value of 400 W/m^2 and maximum valuee of about 1000

W/m^2.

In this study, concentrating PV modules (CPV) with 40%

efficiency has been assumed. Also, a 90% efficiency of the

inverter is considered in designing the PV ggenerator in order

to increase the penetration level. The output power of the PV

generator which will be delivered to the customer or the

network can be estimated as:

(6)

range of power that can be generated using concentrating PV

system between 9:00 to 15:00 for each single house is

between 14.4 kW to 36 kW. So, the followiing conditions for

PV will be considered in this research:

1- Max PV = 36 kW

2- Minimum midday PV = 14.4 kW

3- No PV

IV. IMPACT OF PV ON PRESENT VOLTAG

GE CONTROL

At each branch of Fig. 2 the voltage leveel is regulated by

the AVR, which estimates the voltage drop oover the branch by

measuring the branch current at the mainn substation end.

However, this method assumes that the poweer is unidirectional

from the main substation bus (where the AVR is located)

flowing to the end of the branch. The preseence of GCPV on

feeders makes the power flow bi-directionaal, and if the PVs

connected to feeders are carrying most or alll the branch load,

then the voltage profile along the feeders deepends mainly on

Voltage % of Nominal

Solar Radiation(W/m^2)

1100

1000

900

800

700

600

500

400

300

200

100

0

This creates an unpredictable and un

ncontrolled situation where

the voltage level of all nodes migh

ht or might not be within

acceptable limits. To illustrate such a problem, consider one of

the worse scenarios at light load and

a maximum PV. In this

case the PVs, connected to feeders along

a

ISK11 in Fig. 2, are

carrying the most of the branch lo

oad. The current flowing

from the LTCT will be very low. The AVR will therefore

assume that the branch load is at thee minimum level; hence it

will adjust its voltage level to 1.0

00 p.u. (0% Tap). Fig. 5

shows the voltage profile of each feeeder in this case.

106

105

104

103

102

101

100

99

98

97

96

95

94

I1

I2

I3

I4

I5

I6

I7

I8

I9

Upper limit

Lower Limit

3

4

5

6

Customer Nodes

Fig. 5.Voltage profile of all feeders co

onnected to ISK11 branch.

It can be concluded that the con

technique cannot properly adjust th

he voltage level of feeders

with various PVs connected to them

m, since it depends mainly

on measuring the branch current att the main substation end,

which is no longer a good indication of the feeder status.

Therefore, a new technique must be developed to facilitate the

L

for safe integration,

coordination between PVs and the LTCT

larger penetration and better voltage control.

A

V. SCENARIOS AND ASSUMPTION

In order to proof that the adjusttment of the LTC only is

sufficient to keep the voltage level along

a

the branch within the

permissible level, the system hass been simulated for all

possible scenarios of load con

nditions, PV status and

combinations. It has been assumed that

t

the PVs are connected

to each node in the system with equal power. Also, the load is

assumed to be same for all houses. However, to make the

scenarios more realistic a further 3 random conditions of the

load feeders are also considered.

The standard deviation for all vo

oltage nodes in the system

from the nominal is used to determine the best possible

position of LTC (-5.0% to +5.0% in

n 0.5% steps). However, in

order to reduce the number of tap ch

hanging operations the best

results are rounded to the nearestt preferred position of (5.0%,-2.5%,0%,+2.5%,+5%). This will

w increase the life time

for the tap changer and reduce the disturbances

d

in the system

due to changing the LTC setting. Table

T

II shows the results

for all scenarios.

The worse cases are shown in Fiig. 6, and Fig. 7, together

with the preferred position of tap chaanger.

The simulations show that both best

b and preferred position

for all scenarios improve the voltag

ge level and keep it within

the allowable limits for all customerss in the branch.

TABLE II

ALNPV

Average

No

98.19

+22.0%

+2.5%

ALAPV

Average

Min

100.12

00.0%

0.0%

ALMPV

Average

Max

102.71

-22.5%

-2.5%

XLNPV

Extreme

No

94.39

+55.0%

+5.0%

XLAPV

Extreme

Min

96.51

+33.5%

+2.5%

XLMPV

Extreme

Max

99.33

+00.5%

0.0%

LLNPV

Light

No

99.56

+00.5%

0.0%

LLAPV

Light

Min

101.43

-11.5%

-2.5%

LLMPV

Light

Max

103.94

-44.0%

-5.0%

NLMPV

No

Max

104.35

-44.5%

-5.0%

PLNPV

Peak

No

96.32

+33.5%

+5.0%

PLAPV

Peak

Min

98.34

+22.0%

+2.5%

PLMPV

Peak

Max

101.04

-11.0%

0.0%

R1LNPN

Random1

No

97.48

+22.5%

+2.5%

R1LAPV

Random1

Min

99.44

+00.5%

0.0%

R1LMPV

Random1

Max

102.07

-22.0%

-2.5%

R2LNPV

Random2

No

96.92

+33.0%

+2.5%

R2LAPV

Random2

Min

98.91

+11.0%

0.0%

R2LMPV

Random2

Max

101.58

-11.5%

-2.5%

R3LNPV

Random3

No

97.33

+22.5%

+2.5%

R3LAPV

Random3

Min

99.31

+00.5%

0.0%

R3LMPV

Random3

101.95

-22.0%

-2.5%

106

105

104

103

102

101

100

99

98

97

96

95

94

Voltage % of Nominal

Max

I1

conventional controllers when theree is no available accurate

model of the system to be controlled

d. By suitable selection of

input-output linguistic variables and a rule base, a broad range

of desirable control outcomes caan be achieved. Possible

features might include user-specified

d overall control 'tightness'

analogous to a control range, closer adherence to set point

conditions if desired, and the ability

y to explicitly set the tradeoff between energy costs and inteerior environment. Fuzzy

logic controllers consist of a set of

o linguistic control rules

based on fuzzy implications and th

he rules of inference. By

providing an algorithm, they conv

vert the linguistic control

strategy based on expert knowledgee into an automatic control

strategy [5]. Just as fuzzy logic caan be described simply as

"computing with words rather than

n numbers" fuzzy control

can be described simply as "control with sentences rather than

equations". Therefore, in contrast to

o mathematical models or

other expert systems, fuzzy logiic controllers allow the

representation of imprecise human

n knowledge in a logical

way, with approximate terms and values,

v

rather than forcing

the use of precise statements and exact

e

values, thus making

them more robust, more compact, an

nd simpler [6].

1st Implementation of FLC

Fig. 8 shows the straight forward application of fuzzy logic

controller based on the numerical solution for the preferred tap

changer position at each scenario. This control system is

simulated in MATLAB software. The

T controller consists of

one input, the average customer vo

oltage, and one output, the

preferred tap changer setting.

R ALL SCENARIOS

Average

Scenario

Load

PV

B

Best

Preferred

V(p.u.)

Centralized

system

+5.0%

+2.5%

Avr V

Fuzzy Logic

Controller

Tap position

0.0%

-2.5%

Average Voltage

+5.0%

I2

I3

I4

I5

I6

I7

I8

I9

o

signals:

Input: Average voltage (AvgV) of alll customers in the branch;

Very High (VH), High (H), Normal (N), Low (L) and Very

Low (VL) as shown in Fig.9.

Upper limit

Lower Limit

Voltage % of Nominal

Customer Nodes

Fig. 6. Voltage profile of XLNPV scenario with prefferred position of tap

106

105

104

103

102

101

100

99

98

97

96

95

94

I1

I2

I3

I4

I5

I6

I7

I8

I9

Upper limit

Lower Limit

3

4

5

6

Customer Nodes

Fig. 7. Voltage profile of LLMPV scenario with preferrred position of tap

gV

V

High (VH), High (H),

Normal (N), Low (L) and Very low (VL) as shown in Fig.10.

TABLE IV

POWER FLOW MEASUREMENTS @ ISK11 FOR

F

SCENARIOS USING ETAP

mentation of FLC

Fig. 10. Output membership function for 1st implem

TABLE III

RULE TABLE FOR 1ST IMPLEMENTATION O

OF FLC

Input: AvgV

VH

H

N

L

VL

Output: TC

VL

L

N

H

VH

calculated and proposed FLC setting for the ttap changer.

5%

4%

3%

2%

1%

0%

-1%

-2%

-3%

-4%

-5%

Numerical

Fuzzy

94

95

96

97

98

Fig. 11. Numerical and Fuzzy Logic settingg for LTC

solutions. The small differences in Fig. 9 aree because the full

range of variation in average voltage is not used in the

numerical calculation (scenarios only). The m

main advantage of

this way of control is that it is independent oof branch and line

parameters and can be applied to various tyypes of networks.

However, it needs the installation of a digital voltmeter at each

customer to send the voltage values to a centrralized system via

a communication network. This makees this solution

prohibitively expensive. Also, if all requiirements for this

method are available, there are many techniqques other than FL

can be used based on look-up tables for thee average voltage

and then set the preferred tap changer possition which may

does not give any advantages of using FLC.

B. 2nd Implementation of FLC

In order to find a better solution than prevviously introduced

for controlling the voltage in the branch without using a

communication network and take advantaage of the FLC

features, the correlation between the local measurements in

the system and the preferred setting have to be established

based on engineering sense. Table IV shows the

measurements of active power (P) and reacttive power (Q) at

ISK11. It is quite clear that there is a poositive correlation

between the load of the branch and the reactiive power flow at

ISK11. So, as the load increases the reactivee power increases

and vice versa. On the other hand therre is a negative

correlation between the PV generation and the active power

flow at ISK11. According to the new relationnships, the system

in Fig. 12 can be set up.

Scenario

P@ISK11(kW)

Q@ISK1

11(kVar)

Preferred tap

ALNPV

805

479

+2.5%

ALAPV

-915

486

0.0%

ALMPV

-3382

638

-2.5%

XLNPV

2444

1549

+5.0%

XLAPV

-670

1480

+2.5%

XLMPV

-1859

1540

0.0%

LLNPV

200

99

0.0%

LLAPV

-1502

130

-2.5%

LLMPV

-3946

315

-5.0%

NLMPV

-4134

208

-5.0%

PLNPV

1619

1004

+5.0%

PLAPV

-127

974

+2.5%

PLMPV

-2624

1082

0.0%

R1LNPN

1122

691

+2.5%

R1LAPV

-609

683

0.0%

R1LMPV

-3088

818

-2.5%

R2LNPV

1327

824

+2.5%

R2LAPV

-411

805

0.0%

R2LMPV

-2899

927

-2.5%

R3LNPV

1168

720

+2.5%

R3LAPV

-565

709

0.0%

R3LMPV

-3046

841

-2.5%

+5.0%

+2.5%

P @ ISK11

Q @ ISK11

Fuzzy Logic

Controller

Tap position

0.0%

-2.5%

+5.0%

where:

1) The membership of input and output

o

signals:

Input1: Reactive power (Q) @ ISK11; extreme and peak

load high Q (HL), average load medium Q (ML) and

light load light Q (LL) as shown in

n Fig.13.

Minimum PV medium P (MinPV)) and maximum Power

light P (MaxPV) as shown in Fig.14.

mentation of FLC

Fig. 14. Input membership function 2 for 2nd implem

Output: Tap changer setting (TC); Very Highh (VH), High (H),

Normal (N), Low (L), Very low (VL) as show

wn in Fig.15.

costs due to hardware cost and the need to widespread

communication infrastructure but itt can be applied to many

networks since it is independent on the

t network parameters.

The second implementation sho

ows a novel technique to

control the LTCT based on the pow

wer flow information at the

transformer itself. The main advantaage of this implementation

is that all measurements are taken lo

ocally and there is no need

for remote communication with other

o

information in the

system. However, the main drawbacck of this method is that it

depends on the network paraameters and the load

characteristics. So, for each network

k the FLC need to be set up

based on analysis of the network load

l

data. In general, the

results are encouraging and warrant further investigation using

the fuzzy logic concept in such problems.

VIII. REFEREN

NCES

[1]

mentation of FLC

[2]

TABLE V

OF FLC

RULE TABLE FOR 2ND IMPLEMENTATION O

PPV

Max PV

No PV

Min PV

QLoad

HL

VH

H

N

ML

H

N

L

LL

N

L

VL

and Q using the proposed FLC.

5.0%

2.5%

0.0%

2010

470

-1070

-2.5%

1400

-4150

1550

950

1250

1100

650

800

350

[4]

[5]

[6]

solar irradiance data, and SEC-WR main office in Jeddah for

providing the utility grid data.

HIES

X. BIOGRAPH

-2610

500

50

200

-5.0%

[3]

Significant Advantages Over Central Station Generation and T&D

o the IEEE Power Engineering

Power Systems Part I, Proceedings of

Society Transmission and Distribution

n Conference, Vol. 1, Jul 21-25

2002, pp. 54-61.

Davis, Murray W., Distributed Resourrce Electric Power Systems Offer

Significant Advantages Over Central Station Generation and T&D

Power Systems Part II, Proceedings of

o the IEEE Power Engineering

Society Transmission and Distribution

n Conference, Vol. 1, Jul 21-25

2002, pp 62-69.

H.B. Puttgen, P.R. MacGregor, F.C. Laambert, Distributed Generation:

Semantic Hype or the Dawn of a New

N

Era?, Power and Energy

Magazine, IEEE Vol. 1, Issue 1, Jan-Feb 2003, pp. 22 29.

N. Jenkins, R. Allan, P. Crossley, D. Kirrschen, and G. Strbac, Embedded

generation: The Institution of Electricall Engineers, London , UK, 1995.

C.C. Lee, "Fuzzy Logic in Control Sy

ystems: Fuzzy Logic Controller,

Parts I & II," IEEE Transactions on Sysstems, Man and Cybernetics, Vol.

20, No. 2, March/April 1990, pp. 404-43

35.

A.I. Dounis, M. Bruant, M. Santamou

uris, G. Guaraccino, P. Michel,

"Comparison of conventional and fuzzy

y control of indoor of indoor air

quality in buildings,", Journal of Intelligent and Fuzzy Systems, 1996,

pp.131-140

IX. ACKNOWLED

DGMENT

Fig. 16. Fuzzy Logic set for LTC based on powerr flow @ ISK11

all scenarios when the values of P and Q value of each

scenario have been used as an input to the this system. The

key benefit of this implementation is that all m

measurements are

taken locally and there is no need for remotee communication.

This makes this solution simple and cheapp compared with

other control technique. In order to optimizee this solution, the

membership for the input has to be tuned byy determining the

preferred position numerically for the poweer flow values in

the transition region.

VII. CONCLUSIONS

Two methods of implementation the oof a fuzzy logic

controller for setting the tap changer positioon in distribution

network were investigated in this paper. It haas been found that

both proposed FLCs have the ability to impprove the voltage

profile of distribution network and keepp it within the

permissible limits.

Raed A. Shalwala

a received the B.S. degree from

King AbdulAziz Un

niversity, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia,

in 2002 and the M.S.

M

degree from University of

Nottingham, Nottin

ngham, U.K., in 2006, both in

electrical engineerin

ng. He is currently pursuing the

Ph.D. degree at Un

niversity of Leicester, Leicester,

U.K.

His research interessts are in power system planning

and operation, ren

newable energy resources and

distribution network

k.

Johannes (Hans) Bleijs

B

received his MSc degree in

Electrical and Electronic

E

Engineering from

Eindhoven Univeersity of Technology, The

Netherlands, in 198

82. In 1983 he joined Imperial

College in London as

a a Research Associate working

on integration off wind turbines with diesel

generators. He wass awarded a PhD degree from

Imperial College in 1990. Since 1991 he has been a

Lecturer in Electricaal Engineering in the Department

of Engineering at th

he University of Leicester, where

he teaches Electrical Machines and Power Systems. His field of research

covers a wide range of subjects in Renewablee Energy Conversion and Energy

Storage, from electrical generators and pow

wer electronics to power systems

and advanced controllers.

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