You are on page 1of 124

SF6 Features

Arc extinguishing and


insulating Medium
Dipl. Ing. Wolfgang Degen
Senior Technical Consultant
High Voltage Substations, SF6
Mobil: +49 171 550 1465

Office Adress: Falkentaler Steig 76a


D-13467 Berlin, Germany
vw.degen@t-online.de
Phone: +49 30 404 35 30

Outlook

Properties of Sulphur Hexafluoride SF6


SF6 and its Environmental Impact
Relevant documents for the use of SF6
EU-Regulations
Use/Applications of SF6
Mixtures and Replacements

Wolfgang Degen
Senior Technical Consultant

Properties of Sulphur Hexafluoride SF6


Physical properties:
colourless, odourless and non-inflammable gas
non-toxic gas
chemically inert
temperature-resistant (up to approx. 500 C)
5 times heavier than air ( 6.08 g/l )
speed of sound: approx. 1/3 compared to air
high compression efficiency
high specific heat and heat transport capability

Excellent physical Characteristics for use in electrical


Equipment
Wolfgang Degen
Senior Technical Consultant

Properties of Sulphur Hexafluoride SF6


Electrical properties:
breakdown voltage: approx. 2.5 times
higher than air
high electron affinity (electron
negativity) of the SF6 molecule
no severe drop of electric strength
even with slight air mixtures
excellent arc quenching capability
(100 times more effective than N2
high speed of stabilization of the
break

Excellent Characteristics for use in electrical Equipment


Wolfgang Degen
Senior Technical Consultant

Use/Applications of SF6 in Electrical


Equipment

SF6-ReUse-Concept
A contribution on the
sustainability of SF6

Wolfgang Degen
Senior Technical Consultant

SF6 and its Environmental Impact


Negative Characteristics of SF6
SF6-gas is a fluorinated greenhouse gas
SF6-gas is one of the six greenhouse gases besides:
carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, HFCs, PFCs which
need to be kept undercontrol according to the Kyoto
Protocol
SF6-gas has the highest global warming potential (22.900)
SF6-gas has a lifetime in the environment of 3.200 years

Due to its negative Environmental Impact SF6 is


increasingly in the focus of Interest
Wolfgang Degen
Senior Technical Consultant

Greenhouse Effect

Courtesy: DOE. 2001.


Wolfgang Degen
Senior Technical Consultant

SF6 and its Environmental Impact


Kyoto Protocoll
(effective as of February 2005)
The Kyoto Protocol was
signed by 136 states = 85 %
of the worlds population
covering 62 % of the total CO2
- emissions.
Objective:
Reduction of global emissions of greenhouse gases by 5.2%
calculated as average on the five-years period of 2008-2012
compared to the emissions of the year 1990.
Wolfgang Degen
Senior Technical Consultant

Kyoto Protocol (December 1997)


Kyoto Conference
Protocol agreement:

Reduction
Increase
of greenhouse gases

6 major greenhouse
gasses included
3 Energy/ human
related CO2, CH4 and
N2O
3 Industrial related
HFCs, PFCs and SF6
empowered 2005-02
after 55 states incl.
Russia signed the
document
Wolfgang Degen
Senior Technical Consultant

Change from 2008 2012 in


comparison to 1990

Kyoto Protocol - Requirements for


each Party
Kyoto Protocol
To have a National system for estimation of emissions,
by source, not later than 1 year prior to the start of the
commencement period 2007
To reduce average emissions of total of all gasses by
5.2% below 1990 levels in period 2008-2012
To report annual inventory of emissions by source &
removal by sinks
To establish stocks for base year 1990 (1995 for SF6)
and estimate changes in stocks for subsequent years

On Behalf of CIGRE WG B3-18

Wolfgang Degen
Senior Technical Consultant

Why is SF6 important?

Growth rate of climate forcing by well-mixed greenhouse gases


(5-year mean, exept 3-year mean for 1999 and 1-year mean for
200) O3 and stratospheric H2O, which were not well measured,
are not included.
From: Hansen et al., PNAS, 2001/EPA Conference 2006

Wolfgang Degen
Senior Technical Consultant

Electrical SF6 and environment


SF6 banked in electric equipment:
Until 1995 5)
Rate of banking in 1995 5)
Estimated rate of banking in 2005

27 000 tons
2 000 tons / y
1 200 tons / y

SF6 banked in 1999


SF6 banked in 2010

~30 000 tons


45 000 tons

5)

M. Maiss, C.A.M. Brenninkmeijer, Atmospheric SF6, trends, sources and prospects,


Env. Sci. & Tech., vol. 32, N. 20, pp. 30773086, 1998

Wolfgang Degen
Senior Technical Consultant

Electrical SF6 and environment


Man-made greenhouse emissions in 1999:
Greenhouse gas

[tons/y] [Gtons eq/y]

CO2

26

60%

CH4, N2O, CFCs, ...

16

40%

0.07
~40

0.16%
100%

FC and SF6
Total emissions
"Electrical" SF6

2200

0.05

0.1%

"Electrical" SF6 in 2010

1000

0.02

0.05%

Emissions of electrical SF6 are negligible!


39th CIGRE Session, Paris, 25th 30th August 2002
Wolfgang Degen
Senior Technical Consultant

Annual Sales of SF6 by End-UseApplication

Source: EPA 2003


Wolfgang Degen
Senior Technical Consultant

Total SF6 Sales by End Use from 1996


to 2003
- 15%

- 33%

appr. 55,000
tons

Source: EPA 2003


Wolfgang Degen
Senior Technical Consultant

SF6 Sales by End Use of 2003

Electric Utilities (24%)


Orig. Equipment Manuf. (54%)
Magnesium Industry (4%)
Electronics Industry (13%)
SF6 Adiabatic Properties (0%)
All Other Uses (5%)

Source: EPA 2003


Wolfgang Degen
Senior Technical Consultant

Use/Applications of SF6

Accelarator

Semi-conductor industry
Wolfgang Degen
Senior Technical Consultant

Medical technology: Radiation unit

AWACS Aircraft

SF6 and its Environmental Impact

04.07.2007

04.07.2007

04.07.2007

Magnesium die-casting for


quantities >850 kg/year.

04.07.2007

Consequences EC:
Open SF6-Applications are prohibited and/or replaced!
Wolfgang Degen
Senior Technical Consultant

SF6 and its Environmental Impact


SF6-Emissions
in the Electrical Application
Handling

Losses during
SF6-Handling
Recommendation
acc. to Cigr:
SF6-Handling-Guide

Leakage

SF6 leaks of Substations


Recommendation acc. to
IEC 62271-303
Leak rate:
HV: 0.5% / year
MV: 0.1% / year

70% to 90 % of the SF6-Emissions are caused by


inadequate gas handling
Wolfgang Degen
Senior Technical Consultant

SF6 Emission Projection in Europe*


Emission Projections 1995-2020 in
the EU-25+3

* Source: Reductions of SF6 emissions from electrical high and


medium voltage equipment in Europe, Ecofys, 2005
Wolfgang Degen
Senior Technical Consultant

Projected Development of SF6 Bank


in Switchgear*
Projected Bank Development
1995-2020 in the EU-25+3

Medium voltage (up to 52 kV


High Voltage (above 52 kV)

Wolfgang Degen
Senior Technical Consultant

*Source: Reductions of SF6 emissions from electrical high and


medium voltage equipment in Europe, Ecofys, 2005

SF6 and Climate Change

Index (base year = 100)

Kyoto Target for the European Community (EU) 1990 2010:


Reduction of all GHG Emissions by 8 % (Burden Sharing)

Greenhouse Gas
Emissions

Source: EEA
Wolfgang Degen
Senior Technical Consultant

Target Path
2010

SF6 and Climate Change


All SF6 in EU-15 contributes < 0,2 % to the total GHG
Emissions
Fraction of SF6 from Electrical Equipment: < 0,05 % (Gross)
Closed Life Cycle Application

Source:
-EEA, 2004
-Ecofys 2005

Wolfgang Degen
Senior Technical Consultant

Kyoto Protocol
SF6 as a Greenhouse Gas
Over a 100-year period, SF6 is 23,900 times more
effective at trapping infrared radiation than an
equivalent amount of carbon dioxide
With an atmospheric lifetime of 800 - 3,200 years, SF6
is also a very stable chemical
Present contribution to global warming is 0.1% (and
estimated at 0.01% in 100 years)
Atmospheric concentration increasing 7-9% per year
(space shuttle measurements) between 1985-94,
showed that this was the largest increase of any
greenhouse or ozone gas
Now development slowed down

Wolfgang Degen
Senior Technical Consultant

Example: SF6 Emission in Japan


Manufacturers & Utilities
Manufacturers
Utilities
SF6 Total Amount on Site

16000
14000

500

12000

400

10000

300

8000
6000

Emission
Reduction

200

4000

100

2000

0
1990

1995

2000

Year
Wolfgang Degen
Senior Technical Consultant

2005

2010

SF6 Total Amount on Site [ton]

Amount of Emission [ton]

600

Conclusions of the Ecofys Study*


There are no viable alternatives to SF6 due to its unique
properties in electrical equipment for transmission and
distribution of electricity available currently. SF6 is
indispensable for sake of a secure electricity supply.
SF6 emissions from electrical equipment contribute
less than 0,05 % to the total European GHG effect
Voluntary actions resulted in emissions reduction of 40%
compared to 1995
LCAs prove that SF6-technology can even relieve the
overall balance of GHG emissions
Renewed increase of emissions caused by increasing
bank can be prevented by consistent continued voluntary
actions by 2020. By exhausting the reductions potentials
emissions even can be further reduced
*Reductions of SF6 emissions from electrical high and medium voltage equipment in Europe,
Ecofys, 2005
Wolfgang Degen
Senior Technical Consultant

Ionization and Excitation


Ionization, the process of removing an electron from
an atom or molecule
Excitation, the condition in which an electron moves to
a higher, unstable energy level. Relaxation results in
the electron returning to a stable energy level,
releasing the excess energy as a photon
Photo ionization
Nuclear particle impact
Electron impact
Thermal ionization
Frictional or mechanical ionization
Chemical
Wolfgang Degen
Senior Technical Consultant

Photo Excitation
Electron raised to higher energy state, they returns to
ground state, emitting a photon
Relaxation time

Wolfgang Degen
Senior Technical Consultant

Electron Impact Ionization


Ionization:
He He+ + e

He+
He

Most important secondary process in breakdown of gases


Electron is accelerated in an electric field until its energy
is equal to, or greater than the ionization potential of the
molecule it strikes
Wolfgang Degen
Senior Technical Consultant

Ions Vs Electrons
Mass of an electron vs. mass of SF6 1 to 125,000
(1500 lbs vs 95,000 tons)

vs.

Wolfgang Degen
Senior Technical Consultant

Free Electrons in a
Non-homogeneous Gap
Free electrons repelled
from negative rod

Created by ionization processes


Exist everywhere
Create radio noise
Impact us in many ways
Wolfgang Degen
Senior Technical Consultant

Mean Free Path


Longest free way
without collision

Wolfgang Degen
Senior Technical Consultant

Accelerated Electron has Collisions

Wolfgang Degen
Senior Technical Consultant

Higher Voltage (or longer path), Photo


Excitation

Wolfgang Degen
Senior Technical Consultant

Electron Avalanche by Impact of


Electric Field

E
+
+
+
+

+
+

+
+

+
+

+
+

Wolfgang Degen
Senior Technical Consultant

+
+

Many Collisions Produce Photons

Wolfgang Degen
Senior Technical Consultant

Critical Field, Lightning Impulse


Process continues until the field strength
cannot accelerate electrons to sufficient
velocities
When the critical field is at about 50% of
the gap distance - flashover

E critical

E
kV/m
Distance
Wolfgang Degen
Senior Technical Consultant

Electrons and Ions, Comparing SF6


and N2
Mass of an electron changes with velocity, at rest =
9 x 10-28 grams
Mass of a hydrogen atom = 1.7 x 10-24 grams
euqals 1888 times the mass of e
Mass of nitrogen molecule = 2.32 x 10-23
Mass of SF6 molecule = 1.16 x 10 -22
SF6 125,000 times the mass of e
SF6 five times the mass of nitrogen
Ionization potential of Nitrogen 15.6 eV
Ionization potential of SF6
15.6 eV
Wolfgang Degen
Senior Technical Consultant

Mean Free Path


Electrons require a certain distance to accelerate to
sufficient velocity to have enough energy to cause
ionization.
The average distance between molecules is a function
of the collision diameter and density (mean free path).
Collision Diameter
N2
16.1 A
SF6
36.5 A
Mean Free Path
N2
6 x 10-8 m
SF6
2.5 x 10-8 m
Wolfgang Degen
Senior Technical Consultant

SF6 Features
Quenching Capacity of SF6

Wolfgang Degen
Senior Technical Consultant

SF6 Features
50 Hz breakdown voltage in
a hogeneous field as a
function of the distance
between electrodes at
various gas pressures (ETZ
Supplement 3 [1966])

Wolfgang Degen
Senior Technical Consultant

Summary, why is SF6 a Good


Insulating Gas?
Molecule is large
due to its affinity towards electrons
Fairly high ionization potential
The breakdown strength of air is dramatically
increased by the addition of small quantities of SF6.
In contrast, air has only a limited influence on the
breakdown strength of sulfur hexafluoride.
The addition of 10 % of air by volume reduces the
breakdown voltage of SF6 by about 3 %, the addition
of 30 % air by about 10 %.

Wolfgang Degen
Senior Technical Consultant

SF6 Replacement

Gas
GasMixtures
Mixtures

First
Firstused
usedin
inCBs
CBsfor
forlow
lowtemperature
temperatureapplications
applications

Gas
Gasmixtures
mixturesnow
nowbeing
beingused
usedon
onGIL
GILapplications
applications

10%
10%or
or20%
20%SF
SF66with
withNitrogen
Nitrogenisistypical
typicalsolution
solution

Switching
Switchingperformance
performancestill
stilllimited
limited

Special
Specialgas
gashandling
handlingfacilities
facilitiesrequired
required
For
Formost
mostapplications
applicationsmixtures
mixturesare
arenot
notattractive
attractivefor
for
GIS
GIS

Wolfgang Degen
Senior Technical Consultant

SF6 Replacements
Relationship between GWP and dielectric strength of
various Gases

Wolfgang Degen
Senior Technical Consultant

Air as Insulation Medium


Increasing the dielectric strength by using air and
composite coating for insulation

Principle

Wolfgang Degen
Senior Technical Consultant

Nitrogen for Insulation instead of SF6 ?


GIS-Dimensions based
on approximated
breakdown voltages
(coax. cylinders, without
additional effects)

N2

100 % SF6
0,5 MPa
400 mm

20 % SF6 / 80 % N2
0,7 MPa
400 mm

?
Wolfgang Degen
Senior Technical Consultant

100 % N2
2,0 MPa
400 mm

20 % SF6 /
80 % N2
0,5 MPa
560 mm

100 % N2
0,5 MPa
1600 mm

Insulation Condition Monitoring


Method
As there are significant market impediments to taking
a substation out of service during the insulation
assessment, the method had to be non-intrusive. This
led to selection of the partial discharge (PD) method
for detection of dielectric problems.
These are based on detection of different signals
produced by PD:
Ultra High Frequency (UHF) voltage signals
Acoustic Emissions
SF6 Chemical decomposition.

Wolfgang Degen
Senior Technical Consultant

SF6 and its Environmental Impact


Electric Industry Germany: Voluntary Commitment on SF6
Essentials
SF6 emissions should be avoided wherever
possible
Personnel dealing with SF6 has to be
informed and trained
Maintenance work is carried out by qualified
personnel only
Monitoring: Operators and manufactures
report on a yearly base on the used SF6 to
the Federal Environmental Agency
Manufacturers of electrical equipment
Comprehensive
commit themselves to taking back
provisions lead
equipment containing SF6 and to reclaim
to further
SF6 themselves or reclaimed the SF6 by a
reduction of
certified company
SF6-emissions
State-of-the-art maintenance equipment has
to be used for SF6-gas handling
Wolfgang Degen
Senior Technical Consultant

SF6 and its Environmental Impact


Electric Industry in Germany reacts with: Voluntary
Comittment on SF6

Targets on
emission rates of
SF6 for
switchgear
systems and
switching
devices:

Wolfgang Degen
Senior Technical Consultant

Relevant documents for the use of SF6


IEC (International Electrotechnical Commission) is the worldwide
leading organisation which defines and publishes international
electro-technical standards. The IEC 60376- standard for new SF6
is the respective basis for national standards.
Specification of technical
grade SF6 for use in
electrical equipment
The standard stipulates
among others:
Properties of SF6
Quality and limiting values
Environmental aspects
General procedure
regarding transport and
storage

Air
CF4
H 2O
Mineral oil
Acidity, in terms of
HF
Hydrolyzable
fluorides terms of HF

< 500 ppm by weight


(0.25 % vol)
< 500 ppm by weight
(1.0 % vol)
< 15 ppm by weight
(0.012 % vol) 40C
< 10 ppm by weight
< 0.3 ppm by weight
< 1 ppm by weight

Important: As soon as the gas is taken from the cylinder in which it has been delivered
in, it is considered to be used gas!
Wolfgang Degen
Senior Technical Consultant

Relevant documents for the use of SF6


International Standard for used SF6
IEC 60480 refers to used SF6
The standard stipulates among
others:
Handling of used SF6
Precautions for maintenance
work
Limiting values for direct
reuse
Environmental aspects
General procedure regarding
transport and
storage
Re-use
IEC 60480: Relevant Standard for Maintenance Staff of Substations
Wolfgang Degen
Senior Technical Consultant

Relevant documents for the use of SF6


Limits according to IEC 60480
Medium voltage
- 23 C dew point

High voltage
- 36 C dew point

Wolfgang Degen
Senior Technical Consultant

Relevant documents for the use of SF6


International recommendation for SF6-Handling
CIGRE Handling Guide
The meaning of the French word CIGRE is
Conseil International des Grands Rseaux
Electriques.
CIGRE is the international committee of the
electrical energy supply and deals with both
technical and environmental aspects worldwide
The Practical SF6 Handling Guide provides
technically detailed recommendations on SF6:
Commissioning
Filling
Gas quality
Gas analysis
Reclaiming
Life cycle
Wolfgang Degen
Senior Technical Consultant

Relevant documents for the use of SF6


New: IEC 62271-303
Use and handling of sulphur
hexafluoride SF6
Replaces the IEC 61634 and
Cigre Guide 276 Part 303
Main content:
SF6 handling during installation, commissioning or recommissioning
SF6 handling during normal service life
SF6 recovering and reclaiming during maintenance
Dismantling of SF6 electric power equipment at the end-of-life
Recovery and reclaiming of SF6 at the end-of-life of sealed pressure
Description of SF6 handling equipment
Portable devices for gas measurement
Wolfgang Degen
Senior Technical Consultant

EU-Regulations
EG directive on Fluor gases 842/2006
Valid for: Fluorinated greenhouse gases
- Fluorcarbon = HFC
(quenching agents, cooling agents)
- Fluorcarbon PFC
- SF6-gas
Aims:
Limitation and reduction of emissions for
fluorinated greenhouse gases, gradual abandoning of
R134a cooling agent for air-conditioned cars
Purview: EU (25 countries) + Norway, Switzerland and Iceland
Effective as of: 14th June 2006, directly valid after publication in
all member countries , no incorporation into national
legislation required
Wolfgang Degen
Senior Technical Consultant

EU-Regulations
Most important articles/content, applicable for high-voltage
switchgear >1kV
Article
no.

Title of the article

3
4
5

Containment
Recovery
Training and Certification

6
7
8
9
10
11
13

Reporting
Labelling
Control of use
Placing on the market
Review
Promotion of alternatives
Penalties

EC Article 95
(Internal EC market)

Minimum
requirements

EC Regulation No. 842/2006 on Certain Fluorinated Greenhouse Gases


Wolfgang Degen
Senior Technical Consultant

EC Article 175
(Minimum requirements
in EC regulation. National
implementation in
member states of EC)

EU-Regulations
EG directive on Fluor gases 842/2006
Art. 4) The gas must be reused and recycled in accordance with the corresponding
regulations during gas recovery. The gas handling must be carried out from
qualified personnel
Art. 5) Any gas work on devices or plants as well as reclaiming and treatment
of gas is to be carried out by trained and authorized personnel only.
Art. 6) Companies producing, importing / exporting more than 1 ton of
greenhouse gases per year must give a report to the EU commission.
Art. 7) On high voltage switchgear (> 1 kV) the utilization of the greenhouse gas
used must be indicated.

Tasks for the implementation of the directive:


Working out of labelling regulations
Minimum requirements for the training and certification of companies and their
personnel
Definition of reporting
Rules on penalties. These penalties must be effective, proportionate and
dissuasive.
Wolfgang Degen
Senior Technical Consultant

EU-Regulations
Labelling of SF6-filled Equipment inside the manual
- Specification in VO Nr 842/2006, Article 7 (1):
Die mitgelieferten Bedienungsanleitungen enthalten
Informationen ber die fluorierten Treibhausgase, einschlielich
ihres Treibhauspotenzials.
- Recommandation in implementation guide of T&D Europe
for the Text inside the manual:
EN

This equipment contains the fluorinated greenhouse gas SF6 covered by the Kyoto Protocol
and with a global warming potential (GWP) 22 200. SF6 shall be recovered and not released
into the atmosphere.
For further information on use and handling of SF6 please refer to IEC 62271-303: Highvoltage switchgear and controlgear Part 303 Use and handling of sulphur hexafluoride (SF6).

DE

Das Betriebsmittel enthlt das vom Kyoto-Protokoll erfasste fluorierte Treibhausgas SF6 mit
einem Treibhauspotenzial (GWP) 22 200. SF6 muss zurckgewonnen werden und darf nicht in
die Atmosphre entlassen werden. Bei dem Umgang und der Handhabung mit SF6 ist IEC
62271-303: High-voltage switchgear and controlgear Part 303 Use and handling of sulphur
hexafluoride (SF6) zu beachten.

Wolfgang Degen
Senior Technical Consultant

EU-Regulations
Labelling art. 7 acc. 1494/2007
Contents of the EU directive on F-gas
- Labelling, article 7 -

Marking of electric switchgear with an additional label


pointing out that SF6 which is contained in the
switchgear must be recycled and not released into the
atmosphere.

On the one hand, reference to the use of SF6 and its environmental influence is
currently made in the documents for switchgear

Operating manual (information on


the global warming potential of SF6)
Wolfgang Degen
Senior Technical Consultant

Gas monitoring diagram (information of SF6


quantity and pressure per gas compartment)

Contents of
Manual

EU-Regulations
Labelling art. 7 acc. 1494/2007
Contents of the EU directive on F-gas
- Labelling, article 7 and on the other hand directly on the GIS operating panel.

Contents of
Operating Panel

According to the directive on F-gas the SF6 switchgear shall be


provided with anoter label in addition to the already existing
labels. The final version still needs to be defined.

Name plate
(with Closed pressure system note and
information on SF6 quantity)
Wolfgang Degen
Senior Technical Consultant

EU-Regulations
Article 5 Training and Certification

fluorinated greenhouse gases must be recovered by specially trained


personnel
Proposal on the training programme made to the European Parliament
by 14th July 2007 at the latest
Introduction: July 2008 provisional certificates
Minimum requirements
Determination of who is authorized to train (companies and personnel
evaluation body)
Determination of who is authorized to certify (certification body)
Acceptance of certification programmes and certificates in other
member states

f Additional Commission Regulation (EC) No. 305/2008


Requirements in detail:
Article 4 Issuance of certificates of personnel
(1) A certification body as referred to in Article 5 shall issue a certificate to
personnel who have passed a theoretical and practical examination organised
by an evaluation body as referred to in Article 6, covering the minimum skills
and knowledge set out in the Annex.

Wolfgang Degen
Senior Technical Consultant

EU-Regulations
f Additional Commission Regulation (EC) No 305/2008
Requirements in detail:
ANNEX
Minimum requirements as to the skills and knowledge to be covered by
the evaluation bodies

No. Minimum Knowledge and Skills

Test Type

Basic knowledge of relevant environmental issues (climate change,


Kyoto Protocol, Global Warming Potential), the relevant provisions of
Regulation (EC) No. 842/2006 and of the relevant Regulations
implementing provisions of Regulation (EC) No. 842/2006.

Physical, chemical and environmental characteristics of SF6

Use of SF6 in electic power equipment (insulation, arcquenching)

SF6 quality, according to the relevant industrial standards4

For instance IEC 60376 and IEC 60480

Wolfgang Degen
Senior Technical Consultant

EU-Regulations
f Additional Commission Regulation (EC) No 305/2008
Requirements in detail:
ANNEX
Minimum requirements as to the skills and knowledge to be covered by
the evaluation bodies
No.

Minimum Knowledge and Skills

Test Type

Understanding of the design of electric power equipment

Checking the SF6 quality

Recovery of SF6 and SF6 mixtures and purification of SF6

Storage and transportation of SF6

Operation of SF6 recovery equipment

10

Operation of tight drilling systems, if necessary

11

Re-use of SF6 and different re-use categories

Wolfgang Degen
Senior Technical Consultant

EU-Regulations
f Additional Commission Regulation (EC) No. 305/2008
Requirements in detail:
ANNEX
Minimum requirements as to the skills and knowledge to be covered by
the evaluation bodies
No.

Minimum Knowledge and Skills

12

Working on open SF6 compartments

13

Neutralising SF6 by-products

14

Monitoring of SF6 and appropriate data recording obligations under


national or Community legislation, or international agreements

Wolfgang Degen
Senior Technical Consultant

Test Type

EU-Regulations
f Additional Commission Regulation (EC) No305/2008

Requirements in detail: Article 4 Issuance of certificates of personnel


The certificate shall contain at least the following:
the name of the certification body,
the full name of the holder,
certificate number,
the date of expiry if any;
the activity which the holder of the certificate is entitled to perform
issuing date and issuer's signature.

Article 8 Conditions for mutual recognition


(1) Mutual recognition of certificates issued
in other Member States shall apply to
certificates issued in accordance with Article 4.
(2) Member States may require holders of
certificates issued in another Member
State to provide a translation of the
certificate in another official Community language.
Wolfgang Degen
Senior Technical Consultant

EU-Regulations
Article 6 Reporting
Additional regulation
no. 1493/2007
Article 6 of the regulation
no. 842/2006 stipulates
that producers, importers
and exporters of
fluorinated greenhouse
gases will have to submit
annual reports on certain
activities, starting as from
2008 (for 2007).
The following form is to be
filled in by producers
who produce, import or
export more than one
tonne of fluorinated
greenhouse gases per
year.
Wolfgang Degen
Senior Technical Consultant

Reporting- document within the EU

SF6-filled Equipment
GIT

AIS

GIS

MTS

Wolfgang Degen
Senior Technical Consultant

Characteristics of SF6-filled
Equipment
1.
2.
3.
4.

Introduced since the mid 60s


Continuous improvement make them still state-of-art
More compact design, in particular GIS and MTS
Reduced space 1/7 of conventional air insulated
substations (AIS)
5. Extended life time (approx. 30-40+ years )
6. Very reliable equipment
7. .
but little Experience when the End of Life Time
is reached !

Wolfgang Degen
Senior Technical Consultant

Lifetime with respect to Faults


Bathtub Diagram
Graph1 08.12.2005 13:24
J.I. Baumbach, Institut fr Spektrochemie und Angewandte Spektroskopie, ISAS, Dortmund

Strea
m
Parti er Deve
al Di
l
scha opment?
rges
?

ischa
rges
Sing
le Pa
rtial D

Putti
ng in
to

oper
ation

Frequency
FaultFault
Frequency

FORECAST

Exchange

Maintenance
Repair

0
Week
Commissioning

Month
10 Years

Year
Years
20 Years 10 30
Years

Time of Operation

Years

Time of Operation

Wolfgang Degen
Senior Technical Consultant

Different Type of Faults in SF6filled Equipment

Insulating parts and Contacts


Wolfgang Degen
Senior Technical Consultant

Statistics of GIS Major Failures in


the World
CIGRE Task Force 23-102(1998)
Three(3) Major Failures cover almost 90% of all GIS Failures

Others
12.3%
Gas Leak
12.4%
Mechanism
Trouble
18.1%

Insulation
Failure
57.3%

Mayor Part of Insulation/Electrical Failures in GIS due to


Discharges
Wolfgang Degen
Senior Technical Consultant

Origin of SF6 Impurities


SF6 SITUATION & USE

SOURCES OF IMPURITIES

POSSIBLE IMPURITIES

DURING HANDLING
AND IN SERVICE

Leaks and incomplete evacuation


Desorption

Air, Oil, H2O

INSULATING
FUNCTION ONLY

Partial Discharges : Corona and


Sparking

HF, SO2, SOF2, SOF4,


SO2F2

IN SWITCHING
EQUIPMENT

Switching arc erosion

H2O, HF, SO2, SOF2,


SOF4, SO2F2,CuF2, SF4,
WO3, CF4, AlF3

Mechanical erosion

Metal dusts, particles

Melting & decomposition of


materials

Air, H2O, HF, SO2, SOF2,


SOF4, SO2F2, SF4, CF4
Metal dusts, particles AlF3,
FeF3 WO3 CuF2,

INTERNAL ARC

SF6 taken from electrical equipment in operation contains


several kinds of impurities. Some of them were already present
in the new gas, as a result of the manufacturing process. The
nature of these impurities and the quantities admissible are
reported in the IEC 60376 and IEC 61634.
Wolfgang Degen
Senior Technical Consultant

Study on the Influence of Decomposition


Products on Epoxy Resin

SF6-filled Chamber
(Institute of High Voltage and Electrical Equipment, Dortmund)

Wolfgang Degen
Senior Technical Consultant

Experimental Setup

Reduction of Surface Stability


due to By-Products
Flushover at non-aged
epoxy resin sample

Sample before and after


Experiment

Wolfgang Degen
Senior Technical Consultant

Flushover at aged
epoxy resin sample

Visible Inclusions of By-Products in


Epoxy Resin Spacer

Wolfgang Degen
Senior Technical Consultant

Important Question for


Maintenance Engineers

Is it possible to diagnose electrical faults by analysing


the SF6 Quality ?

Wolfgang Degen
Senior Technical Consultant

SF6-Decomposition Scheme
possible surface
reactions:

Wolfgang Degen
Senior Technical Consultant

Necessary Precautions with used SF6


Under certain conditions, the SF6 gas used in electrical equipment can
contain decomposition products with potential toxic properties.
Decomposition can occur by two main routes: electrical discharges and
heating.
Electrical discharge decomposition
Any form of electrical sparking in SF6 gas will tend to break the
molecule down into its constituent parts. Following this chemical
breakdown however, the vast majority of the breakdown products
recombine to reform SF6.
The presence of oxygen and water vapour (and metal surfaces), render
other reaction paths possible. Some of these paths lead to the
appearance of small quantities of by-products, which may have toxic
properties.
Thermal decomposition
Above about 500C SF6 gas begins to break down into its constituent
elements. Such temperatures may result, for example, from fires,
heating elements, cigarette smoking etc.
The presence of metallic surfaces can enhance this effect through
catalytic reactions.
Wolfgang Degen
Senior Technical Consultant

CIGR Maximum Tolerable Impurity


Levels for SF6
SF6Percentage

3%

Decomposition
Products

< 2,000 ppmv

Moisture

> -5C td

Maximum tolerable
impurity level in
equipment
Recycling Guide: 23.10 Task Force, Page 20
Wolfgang Degen
Senior Technical Consultant

Maximum Tolerable Impurity Levels for


Re-Use of SF6
Recycling Guide: 23.10 Task Force, Page 20

Wolfgang Degen
Senior Technical Consultant

Calculation of Total By-Products using


SO2/SOF2-Residuals
Recycling Guide: 23.10 Task Force, Apendix 2.2, Page 50

The gases SO2 and SOF2


are particularly suitable..
Their relative abundance is
determined by stoichiometry
of the reactions by which they
are created and is approx.
(SO2+SOF2/HF = 1:2 to 1:4)
Therefore if the sum of
SO2+SOF2 is measured, the
total concentration, incl. HF is
about 3 to 4 times higher
Wolfgang Degen
Senior Technical Consultant

Maximum acceptable Impurity Levels


for Re-Use of SF6
For use in HV equipment incomplete range of pressures
Similar Values to CIGR SF6-Recycling Guide given by
IEC 60480

Literature: Guide for the preparation of customised Practical SF6 Handling Instructions, CIGRE Task Force B3.02.01, August 2005, page 18

Wolfgang Degen
Senior Technical Consultant

Determination of single By-Products


using IR Spectra Analysis)

G.A.S. Laboratory instrumentation, qualified chemist needed!


Wolfgang Degen
Senior Technical Consultant

Todays Situation of Devices to


check the SF6-Quality
SF6 - Percentage
10 Ln/h

Moisture 40 Ln/h

Decomposition
Products > 1 Ln/h
Disadvantages single Devices:
Very time- and SF6-consumption high !
Wolfgang Degen
Senior Technical Consultant

Temperature/Density Distribution of
SF6 in GIS

Temperature boundary conditions


CIGRE A3-105 Paris 2008 Thermal-Network Simulations and Computational Fluid Dynamics for Effective Gas Leakage Detection in
SF6 Switchgear, Lukas GRABER* ETH Zurich Switzerland, Thomas THRONICKER TU Dresden, Germany
Wolfgang Degen
Senior Technical Consultant

Early SF6 Leakage Detection Method


Model

Solar radition
Ambient temp.
Load current

CFD

Thermal
Network

Pmodeled

Pfiltered
Leakage

Alternative: Measurement of
Temperature Distribution

Pmeasured
SF6
GIS or Circuit-Breaker with monitoring

Wolfgang Degen
Senior Technical Consultant

The calculation of the transient gas


temperature distribution is part of
the Computational Fluid Dynamics
(CFD) model.

Early SF6 Leak Detection


Early detection of small gas leakages and accurate
measurement of a yearly leakage rate is not an easy task.
Sensors of necessary precision are available but the signal
shows significant noise caused by sensitivity to mean gas
temperature and to the exact distribution of temperature.
A two-level model filters the signal from such deterministic
disturbances.
Such a model-based filter can reduce the density
fluctuations at the position with highest fluctuation from
originally 4.4 % to 0.7 %. This is expected to reduce the
time to detect a leakage by around the same factor. A
density measurement signal treated in this way also allows
to measure more precisely the yearly leakage rate.

Wolfgang Degen
Senior Technical Consultant

SO2- Determination as stable


Decomposition Product
SO2-Detector tubes

- wide error of measurement


- life time: one measurement
Wolfgang Degen
Senior Technical Consultant

Electro-chemical Sensor
SO2/SOF2

- precise SO2- quantification


- 1 year life time
- used in SF6-BreakerAnalyser

SF6-Breaker-Analyser to test the SF6-Quality


3-in-1 Device:
Decomposition Products via SO2/SOF2-content equivalent
Moisture (C Dew Point / ppmv/ppmw)
SF6-Percentage (%)

Automatic and immediate evaluation of results


acc. to CIGR/IEC or company standards!
Wolfgang Degen
Senior Technical Consultant

Main Advantages
of the SF6-Breaker-Analyser
SF6-Breaker-Analyser fulfils maintenance staff requests !
One gas connection
Easy one-click operation
No consumables
Storage of 150 measurements
on memory
Battery operated (max. 8 hours)
Internal mass flow control
Modular System (operation
with 1,2, or 3 sensors)
Measurement within max. 7 min
Total gas consumption 0.4 Ln/min
and 2.8 Ln per measurement
Wolfgang Degen
Senior Technical Consultant

Quick results on SF6-Quality


and hence GCB Condition

Wolfgang Degen
Senior Technical Consultant

Positive Impacts of SF6-BreakerAnalyser


Detect Electrical faults at early Stage
Change Maintenance Strategy to CBM
Prevent down times
Increase asset Lifetime
Reduce SF66-consumption and maintenance
time
Wolfgang Degen
Senior Technical Consultant

SF6 as a Greenhouse Gas


Over a 100-year period, SF6 is 23,900 times more
effective at trapping infrared radiation than an equivalent
amount of carbon dioxide.
With an atmospheric lifetime of 800 - 3,200 years, SF6 is
also a very stable chemical.
Present contribution to Global Warming is 0.1% (and
estimated at 0.01% in 100 years)
Atmospheric concentration increasing 7-9% per year
(Space Shuttle measurements) between 1985-94,
showed that this was the largest increase of any
greenhouse or ozone gas
Now development slowed down
Wolfgang Degen
Senior Technical Consultant

What to do about the high GWP of


SF6?
No legislation foreseen
Handling Guidelines and Requirements defined
Corporate programs
The ReUse of SF6
Life Cycle Assessment
Government programs
User Agreements
EPA
CAPIEL
Wolfgang Degen
Senior Technical Consultant

The SF6 ReUse Program


Checking the state of gas

New gas

Electrical
apparatus

SF6 servicing unit

good

Incineration

Solvay, GERMANY

Wolfgang Degen
Senior Technical Consultant

SO2 decomposition products


H2O
Air

Oil

Normal Case

Producer
SOLVAY

Special Case

Producer
SOLVAY

Exceptional Case

Principle

SF6 servicing unit

Product Specification and IEC 376


Specification for new SF6

Comparison of Solvay and IEC 376 product specification for new SF6,
analysis of liquid phase
Wolfgang Degen
Senior Technical Consultant

The SF6 ReUse Program


Normal Case
Determine gas quality
Remove SF6 from electrical
enclosure
Filter contaminants
Re-analyze
Re-introduce SF6 into enclosure

Solvay, GERMANY

Wolfgang Degen
Senior Technical Consultant

Dilo SF6 handling chart

The SF6 ReUse Program:


Special Case
Contact a supplier (e.g. Solvay
company) to receive sampling kit
Gas is analyzed to determine suitability
for
reclaiming
Company sends used SF6 back to
Solvay in specially marked cylinders
When a sufficient quantity is obtained,
used gas is to be sent back to Solvay
Fluors production facility in Germany
Used SF6 is fed back into virgin SF6
production stream
Fulfills all requirements of virgin gas
Solvay, GERMANY

Wolfgang Degen
Senior Technical Consultant

GIL 300 kV Tunnel Installation

Systemlength 1 km Palexpo, Swiss, 20% SF6/80% N2


Undergound Part of a GIL / Overhead Line
Wolfgang Degen
Senior Technical Consultant

Life Cycle Assessment


Provides comprehensive consideration of entire power
supply system.
Looks beyond the environmental view limited to the
greenhouse potential of a unit of SF6

Life Cycle Assessment is directed to all


relevant environmental criteria

Wolfgang Degen
Senior Technical Consultant

LCA System study: Energy Supply


without / with SF6-Technology
Object of the life-cycle assessment is the supply of
electric power using different switchgear technologies.
First, switchgear bays for the voltage levels 380 kV,
110 kV and 10/20 kV are studied. Based on this, a
practical urban power supply system is assessed, the
City of Wrzburg, Germany. The functional unit is the
useful electrical energy per year.
The studies are based on conditions in Germany.
The technologies considered reflect the current state of
the art.
The power output in the various scenarios is equal; for
this reason, its generation is ignored.

Wolfgang Degen
Senior Technical Consultant

LCA System study: Energy supply


without / with SF6-Technology
Example: Municipal Energy Supply
City of Wrzburg/Germany
130.000 inhabitants
40 km2 area
load density 0,2 ... 4,3 ... 20 MW/km2
Demand of the first year 400 GWh
lifetime of 30 years
load increase 1,5 % p.a.

Wolfgang Degen
Senior Technical Consultant

LCA System study: Energy Supply


without / with SF6-Technology City of Wrzburg

Alternativ
with GIS
AIS Technology
GIS Technology
four substations on outskirts Three substations in the city
Wolfgang Degen
Senior Technical Consultant

LCA System study: Energy Supply


without / with SF6-Technology

- 21%

- 19%

- 27%

- 29%

- 86%

Primary
Energy

Space
Consumption

Global
Warming
Potential

Acid Rain
Potential

Nutrification
Potential

GIS reduces all potential environmental impacts studied


Wolfgang Degen
Senior Technical Consultant

LCA System study: Energy Supply


without / with SF6-Technology
Conclusions:

Use of SF6 leads to considerable environmental advantages


To achieve any GHG benefits from using GIS will require a
very strict SF6 management maintaining very low emissions
during service and maintenance of the equipment and
recovery and reuse of the gas after decommisioning.
However, the results are not necessarily transferable.
Other scenarios of power generation, extremely low
utilization of the capacity of the power supply system,
extremely high SF6 losses, other switchgear technologies or
power supply systems in rural areas may lead to different
results.

Technical and logistical prerequisites for this effort


already exist.

Wolfgang Degen
Senior Technical Consultant

Responsible handling leads to the


reduction of SF6 Emissions
Correct Disposal
Re-use of SF6
SF6 Analysis
Replacement of Old Equipment
On-site SF6 Leak Repair
Effective quantative Leak Detection
Improved SF6 Handling Practices CIGRE SF6 Handling Guide

Reduction Potential
Wolfgang Degen
Senior Technical Consultant

Responsible use of SF6


Example: SF6-handling in operation
Avoiding
emissions by
using proper
equipment

re-fill switchgear ...


or fill in a transport
container for used
SF6 for re-cycling

check SF6 quality


Wolfgang Degen
Senior Technical Consultant

evacuate with a suction


unit ...

use a mobile re-cycling


equipment

Responsible use of SF6


(Development)

Mobile
Mobile
gascart
gascart
for
forcollecting
collectingof
of
used
usedgas
gas

DILO, Germany

Wolfgang Degen
Senior Technical Consultant

Responsible use of SF6


(Tightness testing)

Testing
Pressure and Gas Tightness
Routine Test with Helium
Wolfgang Degen
Senior Technical Consultant

Responsible use of SF6


(Reuse)

transportable
transportable
SF6
SF6maintenance
maintenance
cart
cart
DILO, Germany

Wolfgang Degen
Senior Technical Consultant

SF6 Handling Service Units

portable SF6
Service - Units
DILO, Germany

Wolfgang Degen
Senior Technical Consultant

Regeneration of used SF6

Separator Station ( SF6 - N2 )


DILO, Germany

Wolfgang Degen
Senior Technical Consultant

Regeneration of used SF6

DILO, Germany

Wolfgang Degen
Senior Technical Consultant

Cleaning Station
( SF6 decomposition products )

remaining SF6 (kg)

SF6 Handling Remaining SF6 Gas depending


on Evacuation-Pressure

When opening a 420kV 3-phase


cicuit-breaker at evacuationpressure of 20 mbar
appr. 1 kg SF6 would escape
Example:
3-phase CB
Volume:appr. 7000l
Nom. Pressure:
6,6 bar abs.
SF6: appr. 300 kg
Density: 43g/l
20
mbar
1 mbar

Wolfgang Degen
Senior Technical Consultant

50
mbar

evacuation-pressure (mbar)

Laboratory Analysis of Used SF6


Because of the
introduction of the SF6
ReUse - Concept, Solvay
Fluor offers their
customers an analysis
service for used SF6
(analysis performed at a
nominal fee). However
used SF6 can not be
specified according to
IEC 376.
The following impurities
in used SF6 can be
detected by Gas
chromatographic analysis
according to IEC 376
Wolfgang Degen
Senior Technical Consultant

Impurity in
used SF6
(LOD)

Limit of detection
in ppm by weight
(precision
+ / - 3 % rel.)

Oxygen (O2)
1
Nitrogen (N2)
1
Carbon Dioxid
(CO2)
1
Tetra Fluoro Methan
(CF4)
1
Thionyl Fluoride(SOF2)
1
Sulphuryl Fluoride
(SO2F2)
1
Fluorinated Hydrocarbons,
e.g. Oxifluorides
10

User Agreements
Generally recognized, that there are no suitable
alternatives for SF6 in the short or medium term
No plans foreseen to legislate phase-out of SF6
Government bodies and agencies have implemented
a number of voluntary programs aimed at reducing
SF6 emissions
-

Wolfgang Degen
Senior Technical Consultant

Europe - CIGRE
USA - EPA

CIGRE Working Group B3-02


Template Agreement
Voluntary Agreement on the use of SF6 and on
Measures for SF6 Emission Reduction in the
(national, regional) Electric Industry

Guiding principle to the agreement is:


avoid emissions of SF6 be wherever possible

Wolfgang Degen
Senior Technical Consultant

United States Environmental


Protection Agency
The EPAs SF6 Emissions Reduction
Partnership for Electric Power Systems
The partnerships primary goal is to
achieve environmental and economic benefits
by reducing SF6 emissions

Wolfgang Degen
Senior Technical Consultant

EPAs Memorandum of Understanding


To become a partner, interested
parties sign a Memorandum of
Understanding (MOU)
MOU is a voluntary agreement
between EPA and industry partners
that outlines the roles and
responsibilities of each party.

MOU commits partners to explore only the


emissions abatement strategies that are both
technically and economically feasible, permitting
individual partners to determine the best strategy
for their particular situation.
Wolfgang Degen
Senior Technical Consultant

Legislation and Prospects


Europe

Draft EU Regulation on F-Gases dated August 2003


in the legislation process. Adoption expected end of
2005/beginning 2006 after 2nd reading of the
European Parliament

No bans, no use restrictions on SF6 switchgear


above 1 kV !
General oibligations on F- Gases (including SF6)
- Prevention/ minimization of emissions
- Recovery: recycling; disposal
- Training / Qualification of staff, handling with SF6
- Reporting by member states
Wolfgang Degen
Senior Technical Consultant

Legislation and Prospects


Conclusion:
There will be definitely no ban on SF6 switchgear !
No special and no uneconomical and unreasonable
burden on manufacturers and users of SF6
switchgear to be expected from the F-gasRegulation !
Voluntary agreements/ commitments and the
exhaustion of the reduction potentials described
Ecofys Study make sure that SF6 technology can
be sustainably used and will be spared from further
legal obligations in the future.
Wolfgang Degen
Senior Technical Consultant

SF6 Handling Standards and Guidelines


IEC Standard 60376 Specification and acceptance of
new sulfur hexafluoride
IEC Standard 62271- 303 Handling of SF6 (former IEC
Standard 60634)
IEC Standard 60480 Guide to the Checking and
Treatment of SF6 taken from electrical Equipment
Use and Handling of Sulfur Hexafluoride in High-voltage
Switchgear and Control Gear IEC/TR2 61634
Handling of SF6 and its Decomposition Products in Gas
Insulated Switchgear (GIS) CIGRE Guide No. 276,
transferred to IEEE
SF6 Recycling Guide CIGRE Guide No. 234
Guide to the Checking of Sulfur Hexafluoride (SF6) taken
from Electrical Installations
Practical Guide to SF6 Handling Practices TR113933
Wolfgang Degen
Senior Technical Consultant

Conclusion

Wolfgang Degen
Senior Technical Consultant

Thank you for your attention.


Vielen Dank fr Ihre Aufmerksamkeit.
Remerciements pour votre attention.
Gracias por su tiempo y atencin

Dipl. Ing. Wolfgang Degen


Senior Technical Consultant
High Voltage Substations, SF6
Mobil: +49 171 550 1465
Wolfgang Degen
Senior Technical Consultant

Office Adress: Falkentaler Steig 76a


D-13467 Berlin, Germany
vw.degen@t-online.de
Phone: +49 30 404 35 30