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Stress Strain Curve Explanation

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subjected to load. In this diagram stresses are plotted along

the vertical axis and as a result of these stresses,

corresponding strains are plotted along the horizontal axis. As

shown below in the stress strain curve.

From the diagram one can see the different mark points on

the curve. It is because, when a ductile material like mild

steel is subjected to tensile test, then it passes various stages

before fracture.

These stages are;

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

Proportional Limit

Elastic Limit

Yield Point

Ultimate Stress Point

Breaking Point

PROPORTIONAL LIMIT

Proportional limit is point on the curve up to which the value

of stress and strain remains proportional. From the diagram

point P is the called the proportional limit point or it can also

be known as limit of proportionality. The stress up to this

point can be also be known as proportional limit stress.

Hooks law of proportionality from diagram can be defined

between point OP. It is so, because OP is a straight line

which shows that Hooks law of stress strain is followed up to

point P.

ELASTIC LIMIT

Elastic limit is the limiting value of stress up to which the

material is perfectly elastic. From the curve, point E is the

elastic limit point. Material will return back to its original

position, If it is unloaded before the crossing of point E. This

is so, because material is perfectly elastic up to point E.

Yield stress is defined as the stress after which material

extension takes place more quickly with no or little increase

associated with this point is known as yield stress.

Ultimate stress point is the maximum strength that material

have to bear stress before breaking. It can also be defined as

the ultimate stress corresponding to the peak point on the

stress strain graph. On the graph point U is the ultimate

stress point. After point Umaterial have very minute or zero

strength to face further stress.

Breaking point or breaking stress is point where strength of

material breaks. The stress associates with this point known

as breaking strength or rupture strength. On the stress strain

curve, point B is the breaking stress point.

The relationship between the stress and strain that a particular material displays

is known as that particular material's stressstrain curve. It is unique for each

material and is found by recording the amount of deformation (strain) at distinct

intervals of tensile or compressive loading (stress). These curves reveal many of

the properties of a material (including data to establish the Modulus of Elasticity,

E).[1]

Stressstrain curves of various materials vary widely, and different tensile tests

conducted on the same material yield different results, depending upon the

temperature of the specimen and the speed of the loading. It is possible,

however, to distinguish some common characteristics among the stressstrain

curves of various groups of materials and, on this basis, to divide materials into

two broad categories; namely, the ductile materials and the brittle materials.[2]

Consider a bar of cross sectional area A being subjected to equal and opposite

forces F pulling at the ends so the bar is under tension. The material is

experiencing a stress defined to be the ratio of the force to the cross sectional

area of the bar:

This stress is called the tensile stress because every part of the object is

subjected to tension. The SI unit of stress is the newton per square meter,

which is called the pascal.

1 pascal = 1 Pa = 1 N/m2

Now consider a force that is applied tangentially to an object. The ratio of the

shearing force to the area A is called the shear stress.

If the object is twisted through an angle q, then the shear strain is:

shear strain = tan q

Finally, the shear modulus MS of a material is defined as the ratio of shear

stress to shear strain at any point in an object made of that material. The

shear modulus is also known as the torsion modulus.

Ductile materials[edit]

1: Ultimate strength

3: Rupture

5: Necking region

Ductile materials, which includes structural steel and many alloys of other metals,

are characterized by their ability to yield at normal temperatures.[3]

Low carbon steel generally exhibits a very linear stressstrain relationship up to a

well defined yield point (Fig.2). The linear portion of the curve is the elastic region

and the slope is the modulus of elasticity or Young's Modulus. After the yield

point, the curve typically decreases slightly because of dislocations escaping

from Cottrell atmospheres. As deformation continues, the stress increases on

account of strain hardening until it reaches the ultimate tensile stress. Until this

point, the cross-sectional area decreases uniformly and randomly because

of Poisson contractions. The actual fracture point is in the same vertical line as

the visual fracture point.

However, beyond this point a neck forms where the local cross-sectional area

becomes significantly smaller than the original. The ratio of the tensile force to

the true cross-sectional area at the narrowest region of the neck is called the true

stress. The ratio of the tensile force to the original cross-sectional area is called

theengineering stress. If the stressstrain curve is plotted in terms of true

stress and true strain the stress will continue to rise until failure. Eventually the

neck becomes unstable and the specimen fractures.

If the specimen is subjected to progressively increasing tensile force it reaches

the ultimate tensile stress and then necking and elongation occur rapidly

untilfracture. If the specimen is subjected to progressively increasing length it is

possible to observe the progressive necking and elongation, and to measure the

decreasing tensile force in the specimen. Civil structures such as bridges are

mostly loaded in a manner that applies progressively increasing forces. Sheetmetal pressing operations subject the work-piece to progressively increasing

deformation. In order to accurately record the behavior of materials between

ultimate tensile stress and fracture, most tensile-testing machines load the

specimen with a progressively increasing length.

Less ductile materials such as medium to high carbon steels do not have a welldefined yield point. There are generally two types of yield point - upper and lower

yield points. For these materials the yield stress is typically determined by the

"offset yield method", by which a line is drawn parallel to the linear elastic portion

of the curve and intersecting the abscissa at some arbitrary value (generally from

0.1% to 0.2%). The intersection of this line and the stressstrain curve is

reported as the yield point. The elastic region is the portion of the curve where

the material will return to its original shape if the load is removed. The plastic

region is the portion where some permanent deformation will occur, even if the

load is removed. Failure point is when the specimen fractures.

Brittle materials[edit]

Brittle materials, which includes cast iron, glass, and stone, are characterized by

the fact that rupture occurs without any noticeable prior change in the rate of

elongation.[4]

Brittle materials such as concrete or carbon fiber do not have a yield point, and

do not strain-harden. Therefore the ultimate strength and breaking strength are

the same. A typical stressstrain curve is shown in Fig.3. Typical brittle materials

like glass do not show any plastic deformation but fail while the deformation

is elastic. One of the characteristics of a brittle failure is that the two broken parts

can be reassembled to produce the same shape as the original component as

there will not be a neck formation like in the case of ductile materials. A typical

stressstrain curve for a brittle material will be linear. For some materials, such

as concrete, tensile strength is negligible compared to the compressive strength

and it is assumed zero for many engineering applications. Glass fibers have

a tensile strengthstronger than steel, but bulk glass usually does not. This is

because of the stress intensity factor associated with defects in the material. As

the size of the sample gets larger, the size of defects also grows. In general, the

tensile strength of a rope is always less than the sum of the tensile strengths of

its individual fibers

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