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Construction by Initiator and Generator

Cantor Set

Koch Curve

Sierpinski Gasket

Christoph Traxler

Cantor Set

A

Koch Curve

A

Sierpinski Gasket

A

Christoph Traxler

scale(1/3) A

scale(1/3) move(2/3) A

scale(1/3, 1) A

scale(1/3, 1) rot(60)

move(1/3, 1) A

scale(1/3, 1) rot(120)

move(2/3, 1) A

scale(1/3, 1) move(2/3, 0) A

scale(1/2, 1/2) A

scale(1/2, 1/2) move(1/2, 0) A

scale(1/2, 1/2) move(1/4, 1/2) A

2

3.1

Iterated Function Systems (IFS)

Formal description for constructing linear

fractals

An IFS consists of a complete metric space

(X,d) and a finite set of contraction mappings

{ f1,...,fn } with contraction factors s1,...,sn

Notation: {X; f1,...,fn }

Classical IFS are of the form: {R2; f1,...,fn }

and {R3; f1,...,fn }

Christoph Traxler

Defined by Hutchinson (1981)

For an IFS {X;f1,...,fn} the Hutchinson

operator W is defined by:

W(A) = f1(A) f2(A) ... fn(A) , i.e.

n

i 1

contraction mapping with respect to the

Hausdorff distance h(d)

Christoph Traxler

3.2

The Hutchinson Operator

The contraction factor s of W is defined by:

s = max{s1,...,sn}

Thus the contraction mapping principle can

be applied to iterations of W in (H(X),h)

W has an unique fixpoint A, the attractor

of the IFS, W(A) = A

All other sets converge to this attractor

A lim An ,

A H (X )

Christoph Traxler

Sequences in H(X)

Sequences {An}, An H(X) of complex sets

A lim An lim h( A , An ) 0

n

A

Christoph Traxler

3.3

Attractor of an IFS

Frequently the attractor of an IFS is a

fractal set

An IFS is a short and compact description

(encoding) for very complex objects

Memory amount for {R2;f1,...,fn} are 6n floating

point values

Christoph Traxler

The Hutchinson operator is used in a

feedback system to decode an IFS

n

An

Christoph Traxler

W ( A) f i ( A)

i 1

3.4

An 1

The IFS Feedback System

A non symmetric image shows the effect of

the transformations fi

A1 of such an image is called blueprint of

the IFS

A0

W

A1

Christoph Traxler

IFS Examples

3 similarity

transformations

with s = 0.5

3 intersecting

similarity

transformations

(Dragon curve)

Christoph Traxler

10

3.5

IFS Examples

Fractal subdivision curve, fractal tiling

Christoph Traxler

11

IFS Examples

Crystal structure

generated

with 4 similarity

transformations

Crystal structure

generated

with 5 similarity

transformations

Christoph Traxler

12

3.6

IFS Examples

obtained with

non uniform scaling & flip

and 4 shearings

13

Christoph Traxler

IFS Examples

Matrix for Barnsleys fern

fi

0.894

0.075

0.183

0.197 -0.226

0.226 0.197

0.4

0.04

3 -0.15

0.283

0.26

0.237

0.575

-0.084

0.0

0.0

0.16

0.5

0.0

0.0

Christoph Traxler

14

3.7

Self Affinity

Objects that are composed of affine copies

of themselves are called self affine

If all fi of an IFS are similarity transformations

then the attractor is self similar, else self

affine

A = f1(A) f2(A) ... fn(A)

Self similarity dimension can only be applied

to self similar IFS attractors and if

f1(A) f2(A) ... fn(A) =

Christoph Traxler

15

Put the structure onto a regular grid with

box size s

Count the number N(s) of non empty boxes

Change s progressively to smaller sizes

and count the corresponding N(s)

Plot the measurements into a

logN(s)-log(1/s) diagram

The slope of the resulting line is the box

counting dimension DB

Christoph Traxler

16

3.8

The Box Counting Dimension

DB = 1.31

Christoph Traxler

17

Applicable to self affine fractals and self

intersecting structures

DB=DS (self similarity dimension) for self

similar fractals

Most used measurements in all the sciences

Easy and fast to calculate

Can be extended to objects that are

embedded in higher dimensional space

Christoph Traxler

18

3.9

Classical Fractals by IFS

The IFS for the Cantor set:

{R;f1,f2} with

f1 = x/3

f2 = x/3+2/3

There are no escaping points if W is used in

the feedback system

Thus there are at least 2 different feedback

systems which have the Cantor set as fix

point

19

Christoph Traxler

Combination of functions define self similar

parts

Functions can be used to extract these parts

A

f1(A)

f2(A)

W2(A)

f1f1(A) f1f2(A)

Christoph Traxler

f2f1(A) f2f2(A)

20

3.10

Classical Fractals by IFS

The IFS for the Sierpinski gasket:

{R2; f1,f2 ,f3 } with

f1 (x,y) = (x/2, y/2);

f2 (x,y) = (x/2+1/2, y/2);

f3 (x,y) = (x/2+1/4, y/2+1/2)

W2(A)

f3(A)

A

f1(A)

f2(A)

Christoph Traxler

21

Variations of an IFS can be easily achieved

by altering the configuration of its

transformations

Christoph Traxler

22

3.11

The IFS Decoding Problem

Given: an IFS {R2; f1 ,f2 ,..., fn}

Problem: efficient visualization of the

attractor by a sufficiently good approximation

The number of iterations depends on the

resolution in pixels and on the initial image

The iteration is terminated if the difference

between 2 successive steps is below pixel

resolution

Christoph Traxler

23

Estimated effort for Barnsleys fern:

The attractor covers 500200 pixels

We use a rectangle to approximate A

Then the number of iterations N solves the

equation: 5000.85N = 1 N 39

Thus the number M of rectangles that have

to be calculated and drawn is

M = 1+4+42 + ...+4N = (4N+1 -1)/3 439

1.261029 >> age of universe

Christoph Traxler

24

3.12

The Stochastic Method

Given: an IFS {R2; f1,f2,...,fn} and an

arbitrary starting point x0

N must be huge to obtain a good result

for(p=x0,i=1; i<N; i++){

j = rand(1,n);

p = f[j](p);

draw p;

}

Christoph Traxler

25

The selection of the transformations with

equal probabilities slows down the

convergence process for IFS for self affine

attractors

Uneven coverage between larger and smaller

self-affine parts of the attractor

Better solution: A probability pi is assigned

to each transformation fi (pi = 1)

Christoph Traxler

26

3.13

Tuning Stochastic Method

Example: Sierpinski gasket

0.04

f30.2

0.1

0.1

f1 0.5

f2 0.3

0.25

Probabilities for fi

Christoph Traxler

0.15

0.06

0.06

0.15

0.09

hit a triangle of W2(S)

27

Different probabilities make no sense for IFS

with strict self similar attractors but for those

with self affine attractors

1000 iterations

Christoph Traxler

10000 iterations

28

3.14

Tuning the Stochastic Method

How the probabilities should be set for a

specific IFS ?

It is a difficult and still unsolved mathematical

problem to determine the best choice for the

probabilities pi

Heuristic: Set pi according to the area that is

covered by the transformation fi

This yields to a better distribution of the

points among the attractor

29

Christoph Traxler

If f is an affine transformation f(x) = Ax+b,

then the area of f(X) = |det A| area of X

Ai is the matrix of fi(x) = Aix+bi, i = 1,2,...,n

Thus

distributed among the area of the attractor

Christoph Traxler

30

3.15

Tuning the Stochastic Method

Effect for Barnsleys fern:

100 000 iterations

Left: with

equal probabilities

Right: tuned method

Christoph Traxler

31

Stochastic algorithm generates deterministic

shapes

Starting point x0 A:

{xn} rapidly converges to A, the first k points

can be far away from A dont draw these

points

Starting point x0 A:

{xn} A, the orbit of xn on the attractor is

chaotic even distribution among the

attractor with high probability

Christoph Traxler

32

3.16

Color Pictures of Attractors

Counting the frequency of hits for each pixel

during iterations

Afterwards each pixel is set to a color

according to the corresponding counter value

Given: A MN pixel raster, which covers the

XY rectangle that contains the

attractor and an array F[M][N]

Christoph Traxler

33

for(p=x0,i=1; i<MAX_ITERATIONS; i++){

j = select(); // according to probabilities

p = f[j](p);

m = (int)((p.x+xoffset)*M/X); // nxm-raster

n = (int)((p.y+yoffset)*N/Y);

F[m][n]++;

}

for(i=0; i<M; i++)

for(j=0; j<N; j++) // using a lookup table

if(F[i][j]!=0)

draw(i,j,colors[F[i][j]%numCol]);

Christoph Traxler

34

3.17

Color Pictures of Attractors

Using the indices of the last n functions to

select a color from a lookup table

Apply the inverse IFS to the corresponding

points of all pixels and use the escape time

from A to calculate colors

To achieve good results it is necessary to

apply transfer functions for color

assignment

Christoph Traxler

35

space around the fern

attractor

A leaf like structure

Christoph Traxler

36

3.18

Color Pictures of Attractors

Color

coding of

the maple

leaf

Christoph Traxler

37

Black forest, - composition of

several IFS attractors

Christoph Traxler

38

3.19

Adaptive Cut Method

Covering of the attractor by sets which have

a diameter < > 0

n sets: A f1(A) f2(A) ... fn(A)

n2 sets: A f1f2(A) f2f1(A) ... fnfn(A)

nm sets after m iterations of the form :

fs1fs2 ... fsm (A)

si {1,2,...,n}

the diameter of all sets is <

39

Christoph Traxler

The most of the final nm covering sets are

much smaller than necessary

Subdividing sets:

A= f1(A) f2(A) ... fn(A)

fk(A) = fkf1(A) fkf2(A) ... fkfn(A)

fkfl(A) = fkflf1(A) fkflf2(A) ... fkflfn(A)

Christoph Traxler

40

3.20

Adaptive Cut Method

In the nth level of subdivision we obtain

subsets of the form:

fs1fs2 ... fs(n-1) f1,

fs1fs2 ... fs(n-1) f2,

fs1fs2 ... fs(n-1) fn,

enough and subdivide the others

41

Christoph Traxler

Example: {R2; f1,f2}

f2

f1

f2f2

f2f1

f2f2f1

f2f2f2

Diameter

Christoph Traxler

42

3.21

Adaptive Cut Method

Approximation of the attractor with

prescribed precision

It is possible to check the distance of {xn}

to A termination criterion (there is no

such criterion for the stochastic method)

Complex shapes can be used to visualize

the attractor

43

Christoph Traxler

9 iterations with the

adaptive cut method

9 iterations of the

Hutchinson operator

Christoph Traxler

44

3.22

The Encoding Problem

Problem: Find an IFS that generates the

desired image

Data base amplification (Smith 84): very

complex objects emerge from a very small

data base

Iteration of the Hutchinson operator is

sensitive

Small changes of a given IFS usually result in

large changes of its attractor

Christoph Traxler

45

Find an IFS that generates a given image I

Find a decomposition of I, so that

I = W(I) = f1(I) f2(I) fn(I)

I is the attractor of the IFS {R2; f1,f2,...,fn}

Thus I must be a self affine image

If I is not self affine, we try to approximate I

by W(A) so that h( I, W(A) ) <

Christoph Traxler

46

3.23

The Encoding Problem

How can the quality of an approximation

be assessed ?

How can we identify suitable

transformations ?

How can the number of necessary

transformations be minimized ?

What is the class of images suitable for this

approach ?

47

Christoph Traxler

Let (X,d) be a complete metric space, I

H(X) and {X; f1,f2,...,fn} an IFS with contraction

factor s, so that

n

h( I , f i ( I )) h( I , W ( I ))

i 1

then:

h( I , W )

Christoph Traxler

1 s

h( I , W )

48

3.24

h( I ,W ( I ))

I H (X )

1 s

The Collage Theorem

h ( I ,W )

h( I ,W ( I ))

1 s

h( I ,W ( I )) h( I ,W ( I )) h(W ( I ),W 2 ( I ))

h(W 2 ( I ),W 3 ( I )) ... h(W ( I ),W ( I ))

h( I ,W ( I )) h( I ,W ( I )) s h( I ,W ( I ))

s 2 h( I ,W ( I )) ... s n h( I ,W ( I )) ...

h( I ,W ( I )) h( I ,W ( I )) (1 s s 2 ...s n ...)

1 / 1 s

Christoph Traxler

49

W(I) = f1(I) f2(I) ... fn(I) is called

collage of I

There are arbitrary many IFS for the

approximation of an image I

Small : good approximation of I by W,

large number of fn necessary

Large : bad approximation, small

number of fn sufficient

Christoph Traxler

50

3.25

The Collage Theorem

Rapid and even convergence to A if

fm(A) fn(A) is small for m n

good collage

Slow and uneven convergence to A if

fm(A) fn(A) is large for m n

bad collage

51

Christoph Traxler

Collages for a leaf

Good collage

Bad collage

Christoph Traxler

52

3.26

The Collage Theorem

Initial image

Polygon

capturing

the outline

Collage

Christoph Traxler

Approximation

of A

53

Collage for Barnsleys

fern

Approximation of A

f1

f2

f4

f3

Collage

Capturing polygon

Christoph Traxler

54

3.27

The Collage Theorem

Answers to the questions:

How can the quality of an approximation

be assessed ?

with h(A,A)

How can we identify suitable

transformations ?

with good collages

Christoph Traxler

55

Answers to the questions:

How can the number of necessary

transformations be minimized ?

h(I,W(I)) has to be minimized among all

admissible choices of W, NP-complete

What is the class of images suitable for this

approach ?

all images with a high degree of self

affinity

Christoph Traxler

56

3.28

Hierarchical IFS (HIFS)

Extension of the IFS concept

Building networks of IFSs

Breaking self affinity

(different phyllotaxis of the

leaves)

57

Christoph Traxler

The IFS network for the non self affine fern:

f1(F)

f1(F)

F

f2(L) f3(L)

f2(L) f3(L)

L

f4(L) f5(L) f6 (L)

Christoph Traxler

Representation as graph

58

3.29

The Hutchinson Operator for HIFS

Defined by:

WH Wij ( B j )

i 1 j 1

operators and B a N-dimensional vector of

images HN(X)

W11 W1M

W

N 1 WNM

B1

B

B

N

59

Christoph Traxler

Example: Matrix for the non self affine fern

f

WH 1

f 2 f3

f 4 f 5 f 6

(A)=A A H(X)

f1(F)

F

f2(L) f3(L)

Constant operator

L

f4(L) f5(L) f6 (L)

Christoph Traxler

60

3.30

The Hutchinson Operator for HIFS

(HN(X),hN) is a complete metric

space with respect to the distance hN:

hN(A,B) = max{h(Ai ,Bi) | i=1...N}

WH: HN HN is a contraction mapping, thus

the contraction mapping principle can be

applied and A HN(X)

Unique attractor: A lim WH ( An )

n

Christoph Traxler

61

A probability P[i,j] is assigned to each W[i,j]

of WH so that

P[i,1] + ... + P[i,M] = 1 for each row i where

P[i,j] = 0 if W[i,j] =

for(P=X0, Q=ZEROVEC, u=1; u<MAX_IT; u++){

for(i=0; i<N; i++){ // working with image vectors

j = select_W(i);

// select W from row i

k = select();

// select one f from w[ij]

Q[i] = W[i][j].f[k](P[i,j]);

}

P = Q; Q = ZEROVEC;

}

Christoph Traxler

62

3.31

Example: The Sierpinski Fern

F

f1(F)

f2(L) f3(L)

L

f4(F)

f5(L) f6(L)

S

f7(L) f8(L) f9(L)

f1

WH

f 2 f3

f4

f5 f6

f 7 f 8 f 9

63

Christoph Traxler

Images are usually not

self affine

Using HIFS

Contrast (si) and

brightness (oi) adjustment

for each iteration

Mask that only selects part of the image to be

copied

x ai

wi y ci

z 0

Christoph Traxler

bi

di

0

64

3.32

0 x ei

0 y f i

si z oi

Fractal Image Compression

Partition image I into ranges

Ri, so that:

Image is fully covered

Blocks do not intersect

Ri

Di with a low RMS error

MSE

Christoph Traxler

1

2

(

p

p

)

ij

ij

pixels i , j

Di

RMS MSE

65

We then get a map of transformations W,

which encodes an approximation of the

image I

Find the appropriate transformations

(optimization problem)

For each Ri find a good choice for domain Di

Find good contrast si and brightness oi

settings (least squares regression)

Pick Di with lowest RMS

Christoph Traxler

66

3.33

Fractal Image Compression

Image segmentation in fixed sized range

blocks

More complex partitioning yields better

quality, but also increases overhead

Quadtree

Christoph Traxler

Kd-Tree

67

Christoph Traxler

68

3.34

Delauney

Fractal Image Compression

Fractal decoded

Christoph Traxler

Original Image

69

Better or similar results than JPEG

Encoding with high complexity

Parallel processing

Fast decoding, slow encoding

Systems Inc.

Used for Microsoft Encarta

Fractal video compression used for early

versions of Real Video codec

Christoph Traxler

70

3.35

IFS in 3D

A 3D-IFS {R3; f1,f2,...,fn} consists of a finite

set of contraction mappings, which are

defined by: f(x) = Ax + b, where A is a 3x3

matrix and b a vector R3

The Hutchinson operator is defined as for R2

The contraction mapping principle holds,

each 3D-IFS has a unique attractor

71

Christoph Traxler

Basic Transformations in R3

Rotation around the

x-axis

0

1

0 cos

0 sin

y-axis

cos

0

sin

z-axis

cos

sin

0

Christoph Traxler

72

3.36

sin

cos

0 sin

1

0

0 cos

sin

cos

0

0

1

Basic Transformations in R3

Shearing along xy

plane

1 0 sx

0 1 sy

0 0 1

Shearing along xz

plane

1 0 sx

0 1 0

0 0 s

z

Shearing along yz

plane

1 0 0

0 1 sy

0 0 s

z

Christoph Traxler

73

fx

0

0

0

fy

0

0

f z

Visualization of a 3D-Attractor

The visualization of A is more complicated

in 3D than for 2D-IFS

Stochastic method in space:

Poduces a cloud of points

Fast preview of the attractor

High quality images (photo realism)

Approximation by simple primitives

Christoph Traxler

74

3.37

Stochastic Method in Space

Spatial random orbit produces a cloud of

points, which are projected onto the screen

Depth cueing is used to increase the 3D

impression, i.e. points closer to the eye are

drawn with a brighter color than points far

away

Christoph Traxler

75

Using a Z-Buffer:

Small spheres are used instead of points

They can be shaded with respect to

different light sources

Correct visibility is achieved by using a

Z-Buffer to render the spheres

The spheres of the orbit can be rendered

successively, - it is not necessary to store

the whole orbit

Christoph Traxler

76

3.38

Stochastic Method in Space

Barnsleys ferns in 3D

Tapered Sierpinsky tetrahedron

Christoph Traxler

77

Problems:

Intersection of a ray with a fractal is

very difficult, - no simple equation

Surface normals are undefined,

because fractals are not differentiable

Fractals aliases at all sampling

resolutions, because they have infinite detail

Christoph Traxler

78

3.39

Ray Tracing of 3D-Attractors

Approach: approximation with small solid

primitives (sphere, cube, tetrahedron, ...)

The projected area of each primitive

should be smaller than a pixel

A huge number of primitives is necessary

to build up a good approximation

Very high memory consumption

Christoph Traxler

79

Object representation of the approximation of

a fractal:

Tree

Christoph Traxler

Directed

Acyclic

Graph

(DAG)

80

3.40

Cyclic graph

Ray Tracing of 3D-Attractors

Object representation of the approximation of

a fractal:

Tree: Internal nodes contain bounding

volumes, leaves contain primitives and

transformations

Dag: Nodes contain

bounding volumes and transformations

Cyclic graph: All nodes contain bounding

volumes and transformations

Bounding volumes are used as primitives

Christoph Traxler

81

Method of J.Hart and deFanti (91):

Using a bounding volume hierarchy

Given: a top level bounding sphere BS, which

encloses the attractor of an 3D-IFS

If BS is intersected by a ray the Hutchinson

operator W is applied to it

Christoph Traxler

82

3.41

Ray Tracing of 3D-Attractors

The new bounding spheres {BS1,...,BSn} are

tested against the ray and W is applied to

those which are intersected

The method continues recursively until the

bounding spheres have a diameter <

Finally these small bounding spheres are

used as primitive objects

Christoph Traxler

83

Ray

Christoph Traxler

84

3.42

Ray Tracing of 3D-Attractors

Termination is guaranteed because W is a

contraction mapping

The new bounding spheres are always

enclosed by its parent bounding sphere,

no chance to miss a part of the attractor

It is faster and simpler to apply the inverse

IFS to the ray and to test different rays

against the top level BS

Christoph Traxler

85

The five non platonic non solids:

Christoph Traxler

86

3.43

Ray Tracing of 3D-Attractors

Christoph Traxler

87

Christoph Traxler

88

3.44

Ray Tracing of 3D-Attractors

Christoph Traxler

89

Christoph Traxler

90

3.45

Ray Tracing of 3D-Attractors

Christoph Traxler

91

Christoph Traxler

92

3.46

Ray Tracing of 3D-Attractors

Antialiasing is achieved by hierarchical

shading

The resulting surface normal is the weighted

sum of the normals at the intersections of the

ray with the ancestry of bounding spheres

that surround the ray-fractal intersection point

Christoph Traxler

93

Different weighting methods possible:

Constant, average of normals

Low pass, dampens normals of smaller

spheres

High pass, dampens normals of larger

spheres

Christoph Traxler

94

3.47

Ray Tracing of 3D-Attractors

Constant

Christoph Traxler

Low pass

High pass

95

Nonlinear functions for linear fractals?

Christoph Traxler

96

3.48

Fractal Flames

Non linear mapping F of the Hutchinson

operator:

n

W ( A) F ( f i ( A))

i 1

For each point calculated by stochastic

method the density of the corresponding pixel

or voxel is increased

Use splines to map density to r, g, b,

Christoph Traxler

97

Fractal Flames

Christoph Traxler

98

3.49

IFS Links

Ray Tracing IFS:

www.youtube.com/watch?v=ztcDsP5gn8w

www.youtube.com/watch?v=lRMqUWe4jAE&feat

ure=relmfu

Artistic fractals:

www.enchgallery.com/fractals/fracthumbs.htm

Flames:

flam3.com/ (link to Electric Sheep)

flickr.com/photos/neonarcade/sets/308937/

www.youtube.com/watch?v=812oA65PixI

Christoph Traxler

99

3.50

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