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Solar Battery charger for portable devices

application

Filipe Tvora, Analog Designer


Andrea Sarmento Maia, Analog Designer trainee

2012, June

Because Energy is Everywhere

Abstract

This paper highlights the evolution and techniques of harvesting renewable


energy from the sun to power up portable devices, into clean and sustainable way. A
small study of solar cell and how to improve its performance is presented, showing
some practical experiments made at South-America.
Finally, some implementations of solar charger for portable devices are analyzed,
showing drawbacks and benefits for each architecture and a complete integrated
solution is proposed.

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Summary
Abstract ...................................................................................................................... 2
Summary.................................................................................................................... 3
Introduction ................................................................................................................ 4

Renewable Energy, what is the motivation? ................................................. 5

Solar Energy, what is the motivation? ........................................................... 6

Mobile Devices.............................................................................................. 8

About Solar cell .......................................................................................................... 9

Photovoltaic Technologies .......................................................................... 10

Equivalent Circuit ........................................................................................ 12

Boosting solar cell efficiency .................................................................................... 15


How to design efficient solar panel system for portable devices .............................. 18
SiliconReefs solution ............................................................................................... 21

Operating Scenario: Battery-Charging through Photovoltaic cell only......... 22

Conclusions ............................................................................................................. 25
About SiliconReef..26
Reference ................................................................................................................ 26

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Introduction
The emergence of alternative energy sources and new forms of exploration will
rise with the technological evolution and development of societies. In the Eighteenth
Century with rudimentary technology there was renewable energy. At the First
Industrial Revolution, was the discovery of coal associated with the steam machine. In
the Nineteenth Century is the World War I with the discovery of the principles of
thermodynamics, development of transport, discovery of oil and natural gas in the Midtwentieth Century. With World War II, nuclear power appears later computer science,
robotics, which together gives rise to the Third Industrial Revolution in the last decades
of the twentieth century. Currently, renewable are being emerged with sophisticated
technology to a new structure (minerva_uevora_pt).
In 100,000 years, the world has remained stable with a billion people. However,
in the last 200 years, there was an increase of 6 billion people, and the need for energy
has grown unplanned. The impact of the Industrial Revolution and Technology was the
dependence on electronic devices (fantastico_globo_com).

Figure 1: Timeline (estudation_blogspot_com_br).

To solve potential problems with mobile devices, SiliconReef - Brazilian Start Up


that works with energy harvesting since 2009 - initiated a project titled EH01 (Energy
Harvest 01). The goal is to reduce portable devices dependence of power grids. GPS
navigators, smartphones and tablets, among many other applications, may work longer
since the solar radiation is present everywhere.

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Renewable Energy, what is the motivation?

Renewable energy is every form of energy whose utilization rate is lower than its
rate of renewal. The source can be terrestrial (thermal energy), gravitational (tidal
power) and solar (energy stored in solar radiation, the kinetics of winds and waves).
Moreover, the sources of agricultural waste, municipal and industrial renewable energy
are considered.

Figure 2: Wave, Wind, Solar, Mini-hydro, Geothermal and Biomass Energy (portal_energia_com).

With various types of expression, availability of wide geographical range and


varied possibilities for conversion, renewable are quite suitable for distributed or
concentrated generation. The development and thus the usage of technologies for
renewable will benefit areas of difficult access. Therefore, it can be stated that the use
of green energy to replace fossil fuels is a viable and profitable direction. Well, besides
being practically inexhaustible, renewable energy may have low environmental impact
or almost zero, without affecting the heat balance and atmospheric composition of the
planet, as is the case of fossil fuel energy.
The renewable energy sources are appropriate to the strategy of sustainable
development, contribute to improving the global competitiveness of industries; have
positive effects on regional development and employment and, ultimately, end users are
more conscious to consume and preserve the environment. However, the widespread
deployment of renewable confronts the following obstacle: the attitude of general
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resistance to change.
(minerva_uevora_pt).

It

is necessary,

therefore,

a method

of

adjustment

Figure 3: Renewable energy share of global final energy consumption in 2008 (ZEMAN).

Solar Energy, what is the motivation?

The energy sources as hydro, biomass, wind, fossil fuels and energy from the
oceans are indirect forms of solar energy. Solar radiation, which focuses on the land for
another 5 billion years, can be directly converted as a source of thermal or electric
energy. It can also be converted into electrical energy by means of effects on materials,
among which stand out the thermoelectric and photovoltaic. Besides the weather, the
availability of solar radiation depends on the latitude of the place and position in time
(time of day and day of year) (ZEMAN).
Some advantages, therefore, the motivation for using solar energy are as follows
(minerva_uevora_pt):
o It is excellent in remote or difficult access location;
o It is a totally clean and renewable source;
o It is useful for small current loads;

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o Solar panels are increasingly more powerful and cost has been
decreasing. This makes it increasingly more solar energy an economically
viable solution;
o In tropical countries such as Brazil, use of solar energy is feasible in
almost all territory.

Figure 4: Applications of solar energy and world solar energy map (especifico_com_br).

Most of Brazilian regions are located relatively close to the equator so that not
observed large variations in the duration of solar day. The thermoelectric effect is most
commonly found in South and Southeast Brazilian regions, due to climatic
characteristics, as shown in Figure 5, and Photovoltaic (PV), in the North and Northeast,
in isolated communities of the power grid. Importantly, even regions where lower levels
of radiation have great potential for energy recovery (aneel_gov_br).

Figure 5: Daily insolation of Brazil (aneel_gov_br).

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Mobile Devices

Mobility and mobile computing systems are systems that can easily be physically
moved or may be performed while being moved. The small size, limited memory and
processing power, low power consumption and limited connectivity are the main
characteristics of mobile devices.
The reliance on small devices and the ones which makes easier the daily tasks
increases every day. With advances in solar technology, batteries and electronics in
general, have been increasingly possible to develop new devices that require less
energy to operate. Of course all mobile devices (without network connection) could
have, because the power required for solar modules is suitable for battery use.
Furthermore, mini charge regulators that reach the maximum power devices without
causing overload of the batteries.
Portable devices (mobile phones, tablets, notebooks and netbooks) have
become increasingly popular, especially with the proliferation of access to wireless
technology. One of its main characteristics is to rely on battery power for its operations.
Techniques that allow energy savings, therefore, have been researched to meet the
need for immediacy in which the world currently requires.

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About Solar cell


By relying on the PV effect, the conversion of sunlight into electrical energy can
be said to be the conversion of PV. The photovoltaic effect, in general, means a
potential difference generated at the junction of two different materials in response to
the radiation. As a photo is a radical of the Greek word phs which means light and
"Volt" is an abbreviation of the name of Alessandro Volta (1745-1827), pioneer in the
study of electricity, the literal meaning of photovoltaic is "electric light ". However, a
common and popular term to refer to the PV solar energy is the solar electric power
(ZEMAN).

Figure 6: Schematic of converting solar energy into electrical (slide_ocw_tudelft_nl).

The advantages of the PV solar energy are (ZEMAN):


o
o
o
o

Environmentally friendly;
No noise, no moving parts;
No use of fuels and water;
No emissions;

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o
o
o
o

Minimal maintenance requirements;


Long lifetime, up to 30 years;
Electricity is generated wherever there is light, solar or artificial;
PV operates even in cloudy weather conditions.

The semiconductor device that converts solar energy into electricity is called a
solar cell. The amount of energy provided by this device is characterized by an output
voltage and a current. In order to utilize solar energy to practical devices, which require
a particular voltage or current for its operation, a number of solar cells are
interconnected to form a solar panel, also called a PV module (ZEMAN).

Photovoltaic Technologies

The first practical use of solar cells was the generation of electricity on the orbiting
satellite Vanguard 1 in 1958. Since then, solar cells technology has improved
dramatically in efficiency and cost. Today crystalline silicon cells, improved in efficiency
a lot from 6% up to 33%, and it still dominates the market. Thin-film PV technology
raised as a low-cost solution and currently account for 10% to 15% of global production.
The conversion efficiency must be substantially increased in order to progress. The
conversion of sunlight into electricity has currently low efficiency. For calculations based
on thermodynamics, this limit is 93% and a single junction solar cell, such as a silicon
wafer, is 33%. These new concepts are based on PV efficiency improved, since the
performance of the solar cell can be increased by almost three times. Advanced
concepts of conversion of new processes are often referred as a third generation of high
efficiency thin film solar cells. They are currently the subject of basic research (ZEMAN).

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Figure 7: Thin-film silicon, Wafer-based crystalline silicon, Cadmium Telluride, CIGSS and
Polymer PV (ZEMAN) and (csa_com).

Figure 8: Overview of solar cell applications and of several types of solar cells used in different
applications (ZEMAN).

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Equivalent Circuit

Two important quantities to characterize a solar cell are:


o Open circuit voltage (Voc): The voltage between the terminals when no
current is drawn (infinite load resistance);
o Short circuit current (Iph): The current when the terminals are connected to
each other (zero load resistance).
The short circuit current increases with light intensity, as higher intensity mean
more photons, which in turn mean more electrons. Since the short circuit current Iph is
roughly proportional to the area of the solar cell, the short circuit current density, Jph =
Iph/A, is often used to compare solar cells.
When a load is connected to the solar cell, the current decreases and a voltage
develops as charge builds up at the terminals. The resulting current can be viewed as a
superposition of the short circuit current, caused by the absorption of photons, and
a dark current, which is caused by the potential built up over the load and flows in the
opposite direction. As a solar cell contains a PN-junction, just as a diode, it may be
treated as a diode. For an ideal diode, Figure 9, the dark current density is given by

(
Here J0 is a constant, q is the electron charge, V is the voltage between the
terminals, T is temperature and k is Boltzmanns constant.

Figure 9: The equivalent circuit of an ideal solar cell.

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The solar cell can be electrically modeled as a current generator which generates
the current (density) Jph. The dark current flows in the opposite direction and is caused
by a potential between the positive and negative terminals. In addition we would have
two resistances; one in series (Rs) and another in parallel (Rp). The series resistance is
caused by the fact that a solar cell is not a perfect conductor. The parallel resistance is
caused by leakage of current from one terminal to the other due to poor insulation, for
example on the edges of the cell. In an ideal solar cell, you would have Rs = 0 and Rp =
.
When these so called parasitic resistances are included,

Figure 10: The equivalent circuit of a solar cell with series and shunt resistance. Rs is the series
resistance, Rp is the shunt resistance.

In general, the power delivered from a power source is P = IV, i.e. the product of
voltage and current. If we, instead, use the current density J, get the power density: Pd
= JV. The maximum power density occurs somewhere between V = 0 (short circuit) and
V = Voc (open circuit).

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Figure 11: Effect of parasitic resistances on the J-V characteristic of solar cell (ZEMAN).

The four quantities: short circuit current density, open circuit voltage, fill factor
and efficiency are frequently used to characterize the performance of a solar cell. Thus,
curves are independent of the solar cell type.

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Boosting solar cell efficiency


Despite solar cells are used as power supply sources, they have a different behavior
from conventional batteries. While a typical battery acts as a voltage source, solar cell
current versus voltage (IxV) characteristic is different and can be characterized mostly
by two parameters, the open circuit voltage (Voc) and short circuit current (Isc). While
the latter is proportional to incident luminosity intensity and area, the former remains
almost constant, as it was discussed on previous section. Figure 12 exhibits a
characterization curve, made on November 2011 at Recife (Brazil), of a monocrystalline
solar panel with 135 mm x 112 mm x 5mm. The blue curve illustrates the current versus
voltage. Its generation method consist in systematically decrease a pure resistive load,
from the open-circuit condition to short circuit, taking notes of delivered voltage and
current to each load proof. The red curve, delivered power curve, was created by taking
the product of current and voltage for each point of blue curve. Analyzing delivered
power curve, it could be noticed the existence of a power peak (green triangle), called of
Maximum Power Point (MPP).

Figure 12: Solar cell characterization. Measures were made at 11:50 a.m. on sunny day of
November 2011 at Recife city, Brazil, using an 135 mm x 112 mm x 5 mm Monocrystalline solar
cell.

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The particular behavior observed at Figure 12 is related with the luminosity


condition. As it is already expected the more available light we have, more power will be
delivered by solar cells. Figure 13 shows several power curves for different light
conditions. It can be observed that all curves exhibit approximately the same shape,
even for very low light conditions.

Figure 13: Power curves for different luminosity conditions, using a 135 mm x 112 mm x 5
mm Monocrystalline solar cell.

Also, the maximum power point (MPP) voltage is different for different luminosity
intensities. Tracking the MPP of a PV cell is usually an essential part of a PV system.
Several techniques have been developed to extract the maximum available power at
cell terminals. In order to compare each one of them, a common used figure of merit is
applied, called tracking efficiency, which is defined by the ratio between actual power
given by the solar cell using a specific method and true maximum power that the cell
could produce under a given temperature and irradiance condition (Esram, 2007).
Constant voltage (CV) algorithm is based in the fact that, from the observation of
power versus voltage curves, like those in Figure 13, MPP voltage is, in fact, a constant
fraction of solar cells open-circuit voltage. This constant fraction has a value reported
between 0.73 and 0.8 according to (Hohm, 2002) and (Won C-Y, 1994). The method
works initially disconnecting the battery or load from solar cell in order to measure opencircuit voltage. Then, the MPP voltage is calculated based on predefined constant
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factor. After that, the solar cells are configured to operate at the calculated MPP and
wait for next open-circuit reevaluation cycle. Although this method is simple, there is a
reported difficult in find out the best constant factor value, once it can vary with
temperature and luminosity conditions, besides the panel has to be disconnected
periodically to recalibrate the MPP, interrupting the energy harvest during open-circuit
measures (Esram, 2007).
The basic concept behind this method is to periodically perturb the cell operation
voltage and check if the power available was increased. Taking a look at Figure 12, it
can be seen that a voltage increase will increase power, when operating on the left side
of Vmpp, and decrease power when operating on the right side of Vmpp. Hence, if the
measured power increases, the next voltage step will be kept in the same direction until
the MPP is reached, if the measured power decreases the voltage step polarity will be
reversed toward the maximum power point. Perturb and Observe (P&O) oscillates over
MPP with low implementation complexity and is independent of solar cell type or
characteristics (Esram, 2007), and for these reasons it is by far the most used in
commercial applications.

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How to design efficient solar panel system for portable devices


In the past years solar energy has been considered for a much wider range of
consumer application, than calculators. The industry is aiming increasingly at more
power hunger and daily life devices, like mobile phones, tablets and so on. In this
section we will discuss some approach on setting up solar panel system for such
devices showing advantages and drawbacks. The major part of portable devices uses
Li-ion batteries as power supply, and for most of us to be separated from our gadget is
undesirable, even during battery charging process. So, at first, a good solar charger
strategy would be use a solar panel to charge an internal battery to further recharge the
portable device itself. This avoids heating the portable device, more than necessary,
during charge cycles. So the basic components to build up a solar charger system are:
the solar cell, a storage battery and a diode to prevent battery discharge to solar cell, as
depicted on Figure 14.

Figure 14: basic solar charger system.

Although this is a good starting point, a direct connection between solar cell and
battery is not very efficient and there are others drawbacks. For instance: Li-Ion
batteries require voltage and current monitoring to avoid overcharge. So plug a battery
at an unregulated power supply might not be a good idea, due to the risk of damage it
permanently. Besides, at this configuration, cell operation voltage will be defined by the
battery voltage summed to voltage drop across the diode, which will vary during charge
and wont be fixed at the cells maximum power point. This means this system is, in fact,
wasting some amount of available light power.

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A second approach could be done including a battery charger between solar cell
and battery, Figure 15. Now the battery terminals are connect to a regulated and
monitored power supply. This would probably solve overcharge or permanent damage
problems for your portable charger. Yet, such kind of system is still wasting bright sun
light, once it still does not control the solar cell operation voltage. Besides, the addition
of a block into power path will inevitably add losses to overall efficiency. So the battery
charger should be designed to be as efficient as possible.

Figure 15: Solar charger system with battery charger.

In order to overcome the efficiency issue, an extra circuit could be added between
battery charger and solar cell. This circuit is the MPPT system and is usually the key
component, along with the solar cell itself, of a portable solar charger system. There are
several ways to design such systems and the first step is chose what MPPT algorithm it
will implement. As discussed at the last section, each algorithm has advantages and
drawbacks, so the choice according to the systems requirements. For commercial
purposes, P&O (Perturb and Observe Algorithm) have been adopted by more than 90%
of portable solar charger providers.
To implement P&O method, one must measure the solar cell power and step-up
or step-down its operating voltage, according to the measurements results, as
described on previous section. Besides that, the MPPT system output should be
compatible with battery charge conditions. Finally, the system efficiency must be high
enough; otherwise MPPT will be just a waste of extra components and money. The
trade-off between efficiency, output and input voltage control can be satisfied with the
use of an DC/DC converter, regulating the input voltage at MPP, keeping output also
regulated to improve battery charger performance. Figure 16, describe that scenario.

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Figure 16: Improved solar charger system.

Some commercial MPPT systems for portable devices application are already
available, as integrated circuits components, and report efficiency results up to 95%.
Although the high performance reported, this efficiency is related to MPPT system block
alone and doesnt account to the battery charger or another component losses.

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SiliconReef solution
SiliconReefs EH01 is a complete power management solution for a variety of
energy-harvesting applications. It contains two DC/DC converters, a Micro-USB
Charging Port, a full-featured Li-Ion Battery Charger and numerous protection features.
It provides a small, simple solution for obtaining power from three different sources: a
wall adapter, photovoltaic cells and a Li-Ion battery. It also counts with an intelligent
maximum power point tracking system that adjusts the solar cells operating point to
keep them working at their maximum power point under any given lighting condition.
EH01s main advantage over competing solutions is its capability of not only
harvesting energy from a PV cell, but also use an internal intelligent MPPT algorithm to
dynamically adjust the operating point so that maximum power transfer is achieved.
Such a tracking system can yield up to 20% more power than regular converters under
similar conditions. This MPPT controller then constantly monitors input voltage and
current to determine the maximum power point reference voltage, VMPP. The input
switcher will then transfer this energy to the main power line. If this line voltage goes
beyond the 4.3 V threshold or if the line is already being powered by a wall adapter via
the MAX pin (Figure 17), the switcher is automatically disabled. The switcher is a BuckBoost DC/DC converter that uses the PWM technique to reach the highest efficiency.
To improve the efficiency even further, when the absolute difference between input and
output is higher than 200mV, it will work either in a Buck-only mode or a Boost-only
mode. The design also counts with numerous protection circuits, such as:

o Under-Voltage Lock-Out: disables the switcher and connects PV to main


power line when its voltage is under 1.65V.
o Soft-start: limits any in-rush currents;
o Inductor peak-current limit for SW2L2 pin: starts the discharge cycle as soon
as the inductor peak-current has been reached during the charge cycle;
o Reverse current protection: disconnects the PV pin from the main power line
in case of negative current to the MAX pin (in case a wall adapter is
connected);
o Thermal Shut Down to protect against overheating;
o Two Battery Status Pins to monitor the battery progress.

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Operating Scenario: Battery-Charging through Photovoltaic cell only


As an example of typical operation, consider the following situation: no light
hitting the photovoltaic panel, no wall-adapter plugged-in, half-discharged battery
and no load at the output. Initially, since the photovoltaic panel has no available
energy, the input switcher is disabled and the main power line will be held at the
battery voltage (minus a small PMOS threshold voltage drop). When light starts to hit
the PV cell, the input switcher is enabled and starts to transfer energy from the PV
cell to the power line. The soft-start circuits limit any in-rush current spikes. As the
system starts to operate, the MPPT will start to sample input voltage and current to
determine the best operating point. It will then gradually modify the VMPP reference
voltage to match that of the PV cells maximum power point. The switcher will
respond to these changes and regulate the input voltage to the VMPP voltage. Power
line voltage will start to increase and battery charging will take place. Once the
battery is fully charged, it will be disconnected from main power line, allowing this
line to increase at a much faster rate. Once it reaches 4.3 V, the input switcher will
be disabled to prevent overvoltage.

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Figure 17: EH01 typical application.

Computing verification shows that EH01 exhibits a tracking efficiency up to 95%,


for small solar panels. An electric model was created from the characterization of a
commercial solar panel for portable device application, and used at EH01s verification.
Figure 18 shows the panel behavior for two light conditions. In this figure it can be seen
that for high light conditions the panel can delivery up to 792 mW (see M22 marker at
red curve), while only 35 mW can be delivered at low light condition (from dy between
M22 and M23 markers of Figure 18). These two conditions can be experienced as the
passage of clouds covering the sun temporarily at a bright day.
The above scenario was simulated to evaluate the EH01 performance. In Figure
19 it could be seen that solar panel voltage (VPV, red curve) is kept around 5,2 V, which
deliver 737 mW of average power, from 792 mW available (93% tracking efficiency). At
20 ms of simulation, solar panel changes its behavior to reproduce the passage of a
cloud, as shown on Figure 18. Note that, at this new light condition, the MPP voltage is
no longer at 5 V, but around 4 V (see M23 marker at yellow curve of Figure 18). If the
system doesnt update the new operating point to new solar conditions, the solar panel
could just stop to provide energy, and even consumes it, if no protection circuit is
present (see M11 marker at blue curve of Figure 19). EH01 update the panel operating
point in a couple of milliseconds and keeps it around 3.9 V, which deliver almost 34 mW
of power (M6 marker of Figure 19), from 35 mW available (just about 96% tracking
efficiency).
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Figure 18: Solar panel simulation at two different light conditions.

The same cloud issue occurs around 40ms of simulation, when the panel
changes its behavior again, but this time, to reproduce the end of a cloud passage. If no
MPPT system is present the power harvested from the panel would be almost 680 mW,
while the total available power is 792 mW (difference between operating at 4 V and at 5
V over the red curve of Figure 18). Nevertheless, EH01 is able to quickly track the MPP
and set the operating voltage back to around 5.2 V, which in turns harvest almost 740
mW of power from solar panel.

Figure 19: Tracking simulation.

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25

Because Energy is Everywhere

Conclusions
Renewable energy is not a new concept, nevertheless at an exponential growing
population, the development and improvement of them are essential to sustain world
power hunger. In 2050 the population expectation on earth is about 9 billion people,
where approximately 5 billion will use mobile phones. The application of renewable
energy at portable devices starts to plays a significant role at global energy saving. Not
due to the effective amount of energy saved, but as motivator of a more responsible
individual behavior regarding energy consuming.
Improving solar battery charger for portable devices applications is a way to start
to unplug devices, not just portables ones, from the power grid. This scenario invite us
to rethink the concept of electronic devices itself, as well as the energy supply chain. At
the same time it also brings commercial opportunities for electronic and energy sectors
along with. The domain of efficiency in energy harvesting process, especially with solar
cells, gives competitive advantages for industrial companies. Experiments around the
world have been improving solar energy technologies and making possible application
of solar battery charger to portable devices at industrial level. In Brazil, researches
highlight an intelligent maximum power point tracking (MPPT) system to support energy
harvesting on portable devices boosting solar cells efficiency.
With these paradigms in mind, this white paper was developed to provide more
information about solar cells and system and motivate industry to invest on this sector.
Here, it was also present some technical guidance about portable solar system and
commercial initiative examples, of solar charger system for portable devices.

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SiliconReef Consultoria, Pesquisa e Projetos em Tecnologia da Informao S/A
Rua do Apolo, 161, trreo
Bairro do Recife, Recife-PE
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26

Because Energy is Everywhere

About SiliconReef
SiliconReef is a Brazilian company driven by innovation in the microelectronics sector,
which focuses on the development of integrated circuits (ICs) for harvesting alternative
energies. By combining cutting-edge technology and sustainable energy, the companys
mission is to develop efficient products and solutions for harvesting alternative energies.
Over the past seven years, the SiliconReef team has been developing projects for local
industry and the export market. Currently, the company is preparing to launch its first
product in 2013, the microchip Energy Harvesting 01 (EH01).
SiliconReef also offers design and project services for dedicated integrated circuits and
the development of projects based on architectures for rapid prototyping (FPGAs). The
company offers top-quality services in order to meet the needs of a number of
industries, such as automotive parts, utilities, electronics and industrial automation,
amongst others.
SiliconReefs differential in the field of energy efficiency and alternative energy sources
may be translated as greater autonomy for electronic devices, consolidating the
promotion of renewable energy within the semiconductor industry, an indispensable
alternative in a world that will not easily relinquish connectivity.

www.siliconreef.com.br
SiliconReef Consultoria, Pesquisa e Projetos em Tecnologia da Informao S/A
Rua do Apolo, 161, trreo
Bairro do Recife, Recife-PE
CEP: 50030-220

27

Because Energy is Everywhere

Reference
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6f6e.pdf
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ZEMAN, M. (s.d.). Fonte: http://ocw.tudelft.nl/courses/microelectronics/solar-cells/readings/

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SiliconReef Consultoria, Pesquisa e Projetos em Tecnologia da Informao S/A
Rua do Apolo, 161, trreo
Bairro do Recife, Recife-PE
CEP: 50030-220